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Epilepsy in Onchocerciasis Endemic Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Population-Based Surveys  

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Epilepsy is particularly common in tropical areas. One main reason is that many endemic infections have neurological consequences. In addition, the medical, social and demographic burden of epilepsy remains substantial in these countries where it is often seen as a contagious condition and where the aetiology is often undetermined. For several decades, field researchers had reported some overlapping between the geographical distributions of epilepsy and onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease cau...

Pion, Se?bastien D. S.; Kaiser, Christoph; Boutros-toni, Fernand; Cournil, Amandine; Taylor, Melanie M.; Meredith, Stefanie E. O.; Stufe, Ansgar; Bertocchi, Ione; Kipp, Walter; Preux, Pierre-marie; Boussinesq, Michel

2009-01-01

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Report of a Scientific Working Group on Serious Adverse Events following Mectizan® treatment of onchocerciasis in Loa loa endemic areas  

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The occurrence of Serious Adverse Experiences (SAEs) following Mectizan® treatment of onchocerciasis in Loa loa endemic areas has been increasingly reported over the past decade. These SAEs include a severely disabling, and potentially fatal, encephalopathy, which appears to correlate with a high load of L. loa microfilariae (> 30,000 mf/ml).

2004-01-01

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Eye disease in an onchocerciasis-endemic area of the forest-savanna mosaic region of Nigeria.  

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In a forest-saving mosaic zone of south-eastern Nigeria endemic for onchocerciasis, we identified eye disorders in 65.5% of a randomly selected population sample. Onchocerciasis-related eye disease was present in 13.7% of the study sample and constituted 21% of the total number of eye disorders. A total of 78 (33.2%) of 235 subjects with visual impairment had onchocerciasis-related eye lesions, and of 35 who were blind in both eyes, onchocerciasis-induced eye disease was the cause in 28 (80%)...

Umeh, R. E.; Chijioke, C. P.; Okonkwo, P. O.

1996-01-01

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Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

2011-12-01

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Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the treatment, 97.5% complied by the end of six weeks. No serious side effect was registered during the six week treatment. Conclusion This study indicates that when empowered the community health implementers can successfully deliver doxycycline for six weeks for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The therapeutic coverage and the compliance treatment rate achieved in this study coupled to the known efficacy of doxycycline on O. volvulus, are indicators that the strategy involving the mass administration of doxycycline can be used to control onchocerciasis in those areas of co-endemicity with loiasis where ivermectin may be contraindicated.

Wanji Samuel

2009-08-01

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Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. 1. Endemicity of human onchocerciasis in Ningi Local Government Area.  

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The endemicity of human onchocerciasis was assessed in eight rural, at-risk communities in Ningi Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria, between July 1990 and March 1991. Of the 1536 subjects skin-snipped, 334 (21.7%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae. Surprisingly, there was a significant inverse relationship between prevalence and mean microfilarial load (r = -0.608; P < 0.05). Males were more likely to be infected than females (P < 0.01) and cattle rearers (71.0% infected), farmers (49.8%) and fishermen (40.0%) had significantly higher prevalences than students/schoolchildren, housewives or traders (P < 0.001). Pruritus and itchy eyes were recorded in all age groups and appeared in much younger subjects than any other manifestations of the infection. Prevalence and onchocercal blindness were linearly related to intensity of infection. The epidemiological significance of these findings, in terms of a future community-wide programme of long-term chemoprophylaxis with Mectizan, is highlighted. PMID:7741592

Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

1995-02-01

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Mass ivermectin treatment for Onchocerciasis: Lack of evidence for collateral impact on transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas of co-endemicity  

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There has long been interest in determining if mass ivermectin administration for onchocerciasis has 'unknowingly' interrupted lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission where the endemicity of the two diseases' overlaps. We studied 11 communities in central Nigeria entomologically for LF by performing mosquito dissections on Anopheline LF vectors. Six of the communities studied were located within an onchocerciasis treatment zone, and five were located outside of that zone. Communities inside th...

Richards, Fo; Eigege, A.; Pam, D.; Kal, A.; Lenhart, A.; Oneyka, Joa; Jinadu, My; Miri, Es

2005-01-01

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Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species  

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"nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, an...

2009-01-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

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Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

2011-05-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

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Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African ...

2012-01-01

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Impact of Three Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Lymphatic Filariasis in Areas Previously Treated for Onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone  

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Onchocerciasis studies across Sierra Leone between 1974 and 2005 showed that 12 of the 14 health districts (HDs) are endemic for onchocerciasis. Baseline lymphatic filariasis (LF) studies 2005–2008 showed that all 14 HDs of Sierra Leone are LF endemic. Three annual rounds of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole 2008–2010 were conducted in the 12 HDs that are co-endemic for onchocerciasis and LF with good geographic, epidemiological drug (or programme) ...

Koroma, Joseph B.; Sesay, Santigie; Sonnie, Mustapha; Hodges, Mary H.; Sahr, Foday; Zhang, Yaobi; Bockarie, Moses J.

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of depigmentation of the shins: a simple and cheap way to screen for severe endemic onchocerciasis in Africa.  

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The prevalence of skin depigmentation in the pretibial region is closely correlated in the adult Congolese population with conventional indices (microfilarial index, mean microfilarial density, cyst index) for the evaluation of endemic onchocerciasis. Individuals over 15 years of age in endemic villages who had a microfilarial index of 80-90%, had a cystic index of 60-70% and a pretibial depigmentation index about 20% (30-40% for individuals aged > 50 years). Thus, in Africa, this new evaluat...

1993-01-01

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Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual im­pair­ments by qualified medical doctors. Five categories of skin manifestations were observed, namely permanent itching, onchodermatitis, atrophy of skin, leopard skin, and sowda. A total of 1024 individuals were examined. "nResults: The prevalence of the skin manifestations were permanent itching (2.5%, onchoder­ma­titis (3.9%, atrophy of the skin (5.8%, leopard skin (22.1%, and sowda (0.1%. The preva­lence of subcutaneous nodules was 25.3%, but 88.9% among the oldest age group, and mostly found in lower half of body. The majority of cases of visual acuity problems (6.8% overall prev­alence were in the oldest age groups. Among those who were ? 20 years old, the prevalence of visual acuity problems was significantly higher in females than in males (?2-test; P< 0.05. Only two of the examined persons were observed to be blind. "nConclusion: Clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis are perhaps more intense in the area prob­ably because of presence of endemic infections of other filarial species.

EC Uttah

2009-12-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA, and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

Tekle Afework

2012-02-01

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A three-year follow-up of ocular onchocerciasis in an area of vector control*  

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An evaluation of the effects on onchocerciasis of a 3-year period of vector control was undertaken during 1978 in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area in West Africa. The results revealed that the overall prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis showed only a slight decrease at the follow-up in 1978, but that there was significantly less infection among children in the age group 5-14 years as compared with 1975. There was a total incidence of ocular signs of onchocerciasis of 8.6% over the 3 ...

Thylefors, B.; Tønjum, A. M.

1980-01-01

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Ocular manifestations of onchocerciasis in a rain forest area of west Africa.  

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The epidemiology and natural history of onchocerciasis and its ocular complications in rain forest areas are poorly understood. The present study was conducted on a rubber plantation in a hyperendemic area in the rain forest of Liberia, West Africa, where 800 persons were examined. The prevalence of infection was 84% overall 29% had intraocular microfilariae, and 2.4% were blind in one or both eyes. Onchocerciasis was the cause of all binocular blindness and one-third of all visual impairment...

Newland, H. S.; White, A. T.; Greene, B. M.; Murphy, R. P.; Taylor, H. R.

1991-01-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

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Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their c...

Amuyunzu-nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V.

2011-01-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

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Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in th...

Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo; Yolande Flore Longang Tchounkeu; Rahel Akumu Oyugi; Asaph Turinde Kabali; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Cele Manianga; Amazigo, Uche V.

2011-01-01

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Feasibility of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: First Evidence from Studies in Mali and Senegal  

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The control of onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is based on annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment of populations at risk. This has been effective in controlling the disease as a public health problem, but it is not known whether it can also eliminate infection and transmission to the extent that treatment can be safely stopped. Many doubt that this is feasible in Africa. A study was undertaken in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci in Mali and Senegal where treatment has been given...

Diawara, Lamine; Traore?, Mamadou O.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate?, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Sarr, Moussa D.; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe?, Laurent; Toure?e, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

2009-01-01

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Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review  

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Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on oncho...

Laura Moya Alonso

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

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This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the t...

Babalola, Olufemi Emmanuel

2011-01-01

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Case-control Studies on the Relationship between Onchocerciasis and Epilepsy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

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Onchocerciasis is known as a cause of skin and eye disease infecting a great number of people, mainly in rural Africa. In the endemic areas, infection status and severity is essentially determined by the duration and intensity of exposure to the parasite and to host sex. A link between onchocerciasis and epilepsy has been suggested over a long time but the existence of a definite association is still controversial. Based on a comprehensive literature review of case-control studies on this iss...

Kaiser, Christoph; Pion, Se?bastien D. S.; Boussinesq, Michel

2013-01-01

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Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

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Full Text Available The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy

Cristian Lizarazo O

2010-04-01

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[Epidemiological status of onchocerciasis in the Congo].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of 25 surveys carried out in the Congo between 1978 and 1987 (covering nine of the ten administrative regions), during which 6,215 subjects were examined, showed that onchocerciasis is endemic in the southern part of the country. Two main foci meeting at the southern exit of Brazzaville (Pool region) were identified. One focus in the Djoué basin. The other is the zone along the Congo river stretching from below Brazzaville south west to the Zaire border. Two secondary foci were noted, one in the region of the Bouenza and the other west of the Mayombe mountains. Surveys carried out in the north of the country and in the west did not reveal any onchocerciasis. However, certain areas of primary forest in these regions were found to be endemic for Mansonella streptocerca. Simulium damnosum s.l. in the sole vector of onchocerciasis. In both the Pool foci, and in the Mayombe focus, prevalences assessed from microfilarial and cyst counts were high but the mean microfilarial densities were relatively low. In certain villages over 90% of the population aged over 14 years may present with microfilariae and nearly 70% may present cysts. PMID:2241306

Carme, B; Yebakima, A; Samba, Y; Ndienguela, J

1990-09-01

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Human onchocerciasis in the lower Jos Plateau, central Nigeria: the prevalence, geographical distribution and epidemiology in Akwanga and Lafia local government areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus and the resulting clinical disease was carried out for the Nigerian National Onchocerciasis Control Programme between July and August 1989 [corrected]. The survey covered 10.6% of the rural population in 41 savanna villages of central Nigeria. Of the 8451 self-selected individuals examined, 900 (10.6%) had skin microfilariae (Mf). There were differences between villages in both endemicity and intensity of infection, but in general the number of both Mf carriers and cases of clinical onchocerciasis increased with age. The disease in the Mf carriers showed as blindness (0.8%), onchocercal nodules (0.6%), leopard skin (1.6%) and pruritus (2.8%). Of 35 persons with lymphatic complications, 19 had hanging groin, 10 had elephantiasis and six had hydrocoele. Onchocerciasis was mesoendemic in the rocky northern escarpments, and became hypoendemic and sporadic in the southern uplands of sedimentary geological origin. PMID:1304706

Ufomadu, G O; Akpa, A U; Ekejindu, I M

1992-12-01

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Importance of ivermectin to human onchocerciasis: past, present, and the future  

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Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas

Cupp EW

2011-05-01

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Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implications of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

Winnen M.

2002-01-01

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Perception and attitude of people toward onchocerciasis (river blindness in south western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attitudes of rural/semi-urban communities in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State toward onchocerciasis. Materials and Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 500 adults for the study. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to subjects. Data on knowledge of the local name, cause, mode of transmission, manifestation, severity, treatment, and prevention of onchocerciasis were collected and analysed. Statistical analysis included frequency distribution of the responses and a Chi-square test for comparison of variables with the P value for statistical significance set at 0.05. Results: Onchocerciasis was well known by its local name among 458 (91.6% of the respondents. Only seven (1.4% knew that it affects both the eyes and skin. The cause was commonly attributed to impure blood by 114 (22.8%, whereas transmission was thought to be through fomites by 161 (32.2%. Only 12 (2.4% respondents attributed the disease to blackfly bites. The level of education and the association of onchocerciasis with a river were significantly associated (P = 0.001. Subcutaneous nodules were felt to contain water (85.4%, baby worms (3.2%, and fat (0.6%. There was a negative attitude toward sufferers of the disease. Conclusion: Adequate information transfer in simple local dialect by trained personnel to the communities at risk of onchocerciasis is essential for better uptake of all aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme.

Adeoye A

2010-01-01

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Progress in controlling the reinvasion of windborne vectors into the western area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since vector control began in 1975, waves of Simulium sirbanum and S. damnosum s.str., the principal vectors of severe blinding onchocerciasis in the West African savannas, have reinvaded treated rivers inside the original boundaries of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. Larviciding of potential source breeding sites has shown that these 'savanna' species are capable of travelling and carrying Onchocerca infection for at least 500 km northeastwards with the monsoon winds in the early rainy season. Vector control has, therefore, been extended progressively westwards. In 1984 the Programme embarked on a major western extension into Guinea, Sierra Leone, western Mali, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. The transmission resulting from the reinvasion of northern Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso has been reduced by over 95%, but eastern Mali has proved more difficult to protect because of sources in both Guinea and Sierra Leone. Rivers in Sierra Leone were treated for the first time in 1989 and biting and transmission rates in Sierra Leone and Guinea fell by over 90%. Because of treatment problems in some complex rapids and mountainous areas, flies still reinvaded Mali, though biting rates were approximately 70% lower than those recorded before anti-reinvasion treatments started. It was concluded that transmission in eastern Mali has now been reduced to the levels required to control onchocerciasis. PMID:1976266

Baker, R H; Guillet, P; Sékétéli, A; Poudiougo, P; Boakye, D; Wilson, M D; Bissan, Y

1990-06-30

30

Favus In A Non-endemic Area  

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Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

Gupata L K; Bansal N K; Kuldeep C. M; Surana S S; Mehta P; Jasuja K; Sharma A.

2002-01-01

31

Favus In A Non-endemic Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

Gupata L K

2002-01-01

32

Favus in a non-endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture on Sabourauds agar medium grew Trichophyton violaceum.

Gupta L

1997-01-01

33

Favus in a non-endemic area  

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A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan) is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture on Sabourauds agar medium grew Trichophyton violaceum.

Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M; Bansal N

1997-01-01

34

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS  

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Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, espe...

Beatrice Autino; Alice Noris; Rosario Russo; Francesco Castelli

2012-01-01

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Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost-effective. Priority should be given to the development of new tools to support control programmes and to enable eradication of the disease.

Laura Moya Alonso

2009-02-01

36

Prevalence Of Goitre In A Non Endemic Area Of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional, prevalence-based study comprising a community (22.486 and school survey (19.589 in rural Mehsana, North Gujarat (population: 20,37,367 revealed the goiter prevalence as 3.5% and 7.3% respectively. Grading of goiter by Stanbury�s classification showed 90% -93% of swelling as mid (ob. Application of Stanbury�s criteria over the findings of this study proved the area non-endemic. Prevalence was higher in the school than the age at which prevalence increased in the study area, was delayed to 10 years. Similar to endemic areas, prevalence was higher in females than males in all age groups (except pre-school and the sex difference was most marked in 15-44 years. A marker (ratio of grade I to ob goiter grade has also been suggested for long term, intervention-oriented monitoring of non- endemic areas.

Kumar P

1993-01-01

37

The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a west Ugandan focus.  

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Epidemiological surveys indicate that the prevalence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Except for neurocystocercosis due to Taenia solium, little is known about possible underlying causes. This article reports the relationship between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in an Onchocerca volvulus endemic area in West Uganda. Individuals complaining of seizures were identified by means of a population census in 12 villages. Active epilepsy was confirmed in ...

Kaiser, C.; Kipp, W.; Asaba, G.; Mugisa, C.; Kabagambe, G.; Rating, D.; Leichsenring, M.

1996-01-01

38

The distribution of the simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the onchocerciasis control programme area.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chromosomal identification of the Stimulium damnosum complex larvae collected from areas within and outside the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area revealed six species of the complex. Five of these (S. sirbanum, S. damnosum s.s., S. soubrense, S. yahense, S. squamosum) were observed within and south of the OCP area. S. sanctipauli was found exclusively outside the OCP zone. S. sirbanum: Predominated in the Sudan Savanna, spread into the Guinea and transition zones but was almost absent in the forest region. S. damnosum s.s.: Abundant in the Guinea Savanna; was well represented in the Sudan Savanna while smaller populations penetrated the forest region. S. sanctipauli: Identified almost exclusively from the forest zone; a few savanna foci were found on the upper course of the Sassandra R. in the Ivory Coast and on the Volta R. within the coastal savanna strip in Ghana. S. soubrense: Recorded from the forest, transition and Guinea Savanna zones; northern limits were established at the Léraba Bridge on the Upper Volta/Ivory Coast border. S. yahense: Predominantely distributed along creeks and small rivers in the forest region; a few records within the Guinea Savanna were found on the upper reaches of the Sassandra valley. S. squamosum: Observed in small rivers in the forest zone; extensively colonised heavily shaded or forested areas within the Guinea Savanna but in the Sudan Savanna only two records were observed near Bobo-Dioulasso in Upper Volta. PMID:741507

Vajime, C; Quillévéré, D

1978-12-01

39

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km²). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

40

Prevalence Of Goitre In A Non Endemic Area Of Gujarat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-sectional, prevalence-based study comprising a community (22.486) and school survey (19.589) in rural Mehsana, North Gujarat (population: 20,37,367) revealed the goiter prevalence as 3.5% and 7.3% respectively. Grading of goiter by Stanbury�s classification showed 90% -93% of swelling as mid (ob). Application of Stanbury�s criteria over the findings of this study proved the area non-endemic. Prevalence was higher in...

Kumar P

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Mapping of fluoride endemic areas and assessment of fluoride exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to find out the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures to the people on the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study are to estimate the fluoride exposure through drinking water from people of different age group and to elucidate the fluoride endemic areas through mapping. Assessment of fluoride exposure was achieved through the estimation fluoride level in drinking water using fluoride ion selective electrode method. Google earth and isopleth technique were used for mapping of fluoride endemic areas. From the study it was observed that Nilakottai block of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu is highly fluoride endemic. About 88% of the villages in this block have fluoride level more than the prescribed permissible limit in drinking water. Exposure of fluoride among different age groups was calculated in this block, which comprises 32 villages. The maximum estimated exposure doses were 0.19 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.17 mg/kg/day for children and 0.10 mg/kg/day for adults. When compared with adequate intake of minimal safe level exposure dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, a health risk due to fluorosis to the people in Nilakottai block has become evident. From the results, the people in Nilakottai block are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level less than 1 mg/l. It has been recommended to the government authorities to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low fluoride concern for the fluorosis affected villages. PMID:19041118

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva ilango, S

2009-02-15

42

Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection  

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Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with iver...

Vieira Juan; Cooper Philip J; Lovato Raquel; Mancero Tamara; Rivera Jorge; Proaño Roberto; López Andrea A; Guderian Ronald H; Guzmán José

2007-01-01

43

Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis  

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Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to...

Tamarozzi Francesca; Tendongfor Nicholas; Enyong Peter A; Esum Mathias; Faragher Brian; Wanji Samuel; Taylor Mark J

2012-01-01

44

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was admini...

Otubanjo, O. A.; Adeoye, G. O.; Ibidapo, C. A.; Akinsanya, B.; Okeke, P.; Atalabi, T.; Adejai, E. T.; Braide, E.

2008-01-01

45

Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099

Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

2010-09-01

46

Perception and attitude of people toward onchocerciasis (river blindness) in south western Nigeria  

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Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attit...

Adeoye A; Ashaye A; Onakpoya O

2010-01-01

47

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989  

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Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989) conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free o...

1992-01-01

48

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: ocular findings in Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals.  

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Little is known of the epidemiology and clinical picture of ocular onchocerciasis in South America. A survey of onchocercal eye disease was performed in the hyperendemic area of a rain forest focus of onchocerciasis in Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. A total of 785 skin snip positive individuals from black and Chachi Amerindian communities were examined. The blindness rate attributable to onchocerciasis was 0.4%, and 8.2% were visually impaired. Onchocercal ocular lesions were seen in a high ...

Cooper, P. J.; Proan?o, R.; Beltran, C.; Anselmi, M.; Guderian, R. H.

1995-01-01

49

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

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Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-06-01

50

Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais  

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Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

Celina Maria Modena

2006-10-01

51

Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease distribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission. PMID:15486629

Coura, J R; Amaral, R S

2004-01-01

52

Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease d [...] istribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.

JR, Coura; RS, Amaral.

53

Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Results Over the period 1990–2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round. Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. Conclusion The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries.

Proaño Roberto

2007-05-01

54

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelli [...] ng of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A., Al-Tawfiq.

55

High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

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Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness) and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis ...

Alemnji, G. A.; Mbuagbaw, J.; Toukam, K. E.; Ayong, L.; Wembe, E.; Asonganyi, T.

2007-01-01

56

Information for onchocerciasis control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I

Adrian Hopkins

2010-12-01

57

Dermal Changes in Onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin in early onchocerciasis may contain many microfilariae, but little, if any, inflammatory reaction. Later acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis appear associated with an infiltrate of histiocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the dermis...

D. H. Connor E. B. Helwig P. H. Williams D. J. Winslow

1968-01-01

58

Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola Department of Ophthalmological Surgery, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, New Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria Abstract: This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for alternatives to ivermectin. Candidate drugs include moxidectin, a macrofilaricide, doxycycline which targets the Wolbachia endosymbiont, and flubendazole, which shows promise with the newer oral cyclodextrin formulation. Keywords: onchocerciasis, river blindness, ocular, management

Babalola OE

2011-10-01

59

Onchocerciasis: a potential risk factor for glaucoma  

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Background: Onchocerciasis is a microfilarial disease that causes ocular disease and blindness. Previous evidence of an association between onchocerciasis and glaucoma has been mixed. This study aims to further investigate the association between onchocerciasis and glaucoma.

Egbert, P. R.; Jacobson, D. W.; Fiadoyor, S.; Dadzie, P.; Ellingson, K. D.

2005-01-01

60

Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination  

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Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness) control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentia...

Alley William; van Oortmarssen Gerrit J; Boatin Boakye A; Jd, Nagelkerke Nico; Plaisier Anton P; Hf, Remme Jan; Lazdins Janis; Jjm, Borsboom Gerard; Habbema J Dik F

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

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Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine def...

Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Srijantr Pongsant; Teeyapant Punthip; Wongvilairattana Jintana

2010-01-01

62

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

Sauerbrey Mauricio

2011-10-01

63

Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated  

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Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control ...

Katabarwa, Moses N.; Walsh, Frank; Habomugisha, Peace; Lakwo, Thomson L.; Agunyo, Stella; Oguttu, David W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Unoba, Dickson; Byamukama, Edson; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Richards, Frank O.

2012-01-01

64

[Mass treatment of onchocerciasis in 1996].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass treatment of onchocerciasis has changed radically in the last 20 years. With implementation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), use of insecticides to control vector larvae has been effective but has not been extended to all infected areas due to the cost. The consequences of this problem have been lessened thanks to ivermectin, an effective drug that can be administered in a single yearly dose. Although ivermectin does not appear to induce major side-effects, surveillance is necessary after administration in polyparasitized subjects living in zones where loaiasis is present and in hypermicrofilaremic subjects. To assist in the fight against onchocerciasis, ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the Mectizan Foundation by Merck Laboratories. Inexpensive community distribution programs with active participation of the populations at risk have demonstrated their usefulness. The results of mass treatment through the Mectizan Foundation have been excellent. Non-governmental organizations and in particular the Organization for the Prevention of Blindness (OPB) have become increasingly involved in the fight against onchocerciasis. The campaign conducted by the OPB in Mali, Senegal and Guinea illustrate this involvement. The role of non-governmental organizations expanded greatly with the implementation of the APOC programme supported by the World Bank. PMID:10906977

Chovet, M; Carlier, C; Queguiner, P; Mariko, S

1995-01-01

65

First imported coccidioidomycosis in Turkey: A potential health risk for laboratory workers outside endemic areas?  

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Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is endemic in arid climate zones in America, travel-related cases have been reported. We report the first documented case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey, overviewing reported cases in Europe and underlying difficulties of differential diagnosis outside endemic regions. The patient was an otherwise healthy 41-year-old man who travelled endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis was based on direct microscopy of two subsequent subcutaneous biopsy specimens and culture and confirmed molecularly. Laboratory personnel should become aware that BioSafety Level-3 organisms may become more frequent and widespread.

Kantarcioglu, A. Serda; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Aygun, Gokhan; Kiraz, Nuri; Akman, Canan; Apaydin, Hulya; Karaman, Emin; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Gurel, M.S.

2014-01-01

66

Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

2009-06-08

67

TERRITORIAL INVESTIGATION OF DONJA TRNAVA VILLAGE AS ENDEMIC AREA 22 YEARS  

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Full Text Available Endemic nephropathy is a renal disease of unknown aetiology, which occurs endemically and affects individuals from risk families, with latent but progressive natural course and fatal outcome. In earlier territorial investigations, endemic areas were found along the Juzna Morava River: Brestovac, Kutles, Trupale, Gornja i Donja Toponica, Luzane, Nozrina, Moravac and other settlements. The last extensive studies of endemic nephropathy in these villages were conducted in 1981. These investigations showed that 2.7% of inhabitants along the right side of Juzna Morava River, in Donja Trnava village, suffered from endemic nephropathy. In the present study, a total of 291 persons (153 female and 138 male, aged 7 to 77, were investigated. Diagnosis of endemic nephropathy was made according to the natural history, physical examination and urine analysis. Two persons or 0.68 % (one with chronic renal failure, and the other with an end-stage renal disease, on haemodialysis treatments had endemic nephropathy. Eight persons (or 2.75% suffered from other renal diseases. There were no urothelial tumors, which was confirmed in previous studies. Based on these investigations, a total of 39 persons from 29 risk families was selected for further examinations and following-up at the Institute of Nephrology and Haemodialysis in Nis.

Vojin Savi?

2005-12-01

68

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989) conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with [...] those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

Ronald H., Guderian; Anthony J., Shelley.

69

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989  

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Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989 conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

Ronald H. Guderian

1992-09-01

70

Sibling species distributions of the Simulium damnosum complex in the west African Onchocerciasis Control Programme area during the decade 1984-93, following intensive larviciding since 1974.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the decade from 1984 to 1993, nine species of the Simulium damnosum complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were identified from the area covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. These were S. damnosum s.s., S. dieguerense, S. konkourense, S. leonense, S. sanctipauli, S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, S. squamosum, and S. yahense. Some of these species were found to consist of two chromosomal variant populations. These were S. konkourense 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms, S. sanctipauli sensu stricto and 'Djodji' form, S. soubrense 'Chute Milo' and 'Beffa' forms. The distribution of these twelve cytological taxa was assessed in relation to the two main vegetation zones of West Africa (forest and savanna), topography, river size and other factors. The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement and river water level. The most widely distributed species were S. sirbanum and S. damnosum s.s., associated with savanna areas, recorded from all river basins. Simulium dieguerense was restricted mainly to Western Mali on the Rivers Bafing and Bakoye in the Senegal River basin. Simulium squamosum was identified from rivers draining mountainous areas in both the forest and savanna zones. Simulium yahense was found in small permanent rivers along a wide forested band parallel to the coast and was absent from the plains of Togo and Benin. Members of the S. sanctipauli subcomplex had restricted distributions except for S. sanctipauli s.s., which was widespread in large rivers of the forest zone from Sierra Leone to the Volta Lake in Ghana. Simulium soubrense 'Beffa' form occurred in Togo and Benin, S. soubrense 'Chutes Milo' form in Guinea, both 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms of S. konkourense occurred predominantly in Guinea and S. leonense in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the distribution maps and the importance of the data bank to vector control larvicidal operations are discussed. PMID:9824818

Boakye, D A; Back, C; Fiasorgbor, G K; Sib, A P; Coulibaly, Y

1998-10-01

71

Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil / Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemioló [...] gicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas. Abstract in english In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified. [...

Giovanini Evelim, Coelho; João Batista F., Vieira; Marco Tulio A., García-Zapata; Joana Claudete M., Schuertz.

72

Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

Giovanini Evelim Coelho

1998-07-01

73

Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil / Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemioló [...] gicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas. Abstract in english In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified. [...

Giovanini Evelim, Coelho; João Batista F., Vieira; Marco Tulio A., García-Zapata; Joana Claudete M., Schuertz.

74

Reciprocal changes of serum thyroglobulin and TSH in residents of a moderate endemic goitre area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjects living in iodine deficient areas were reported to have elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations. This finding was interpreted as related to thyroid stimulation. Discrepant results, however, were found when serum Tg concentrations were correlated either with serum TSH or with goitre size. In this study we investigated the relationships between goitre size, serum Tg and serum TSH in 488 unselected adult subjects living in an endemic area of North-Western Tuscany (Garfagnana district). The control group comprised 352 subjects residing in a non-endemic area. In the endemic area a high prevalence of goitre was found (80.1%), thyroid enlargement being slight to moderate in the majority of cases and very large only in six subjects. Serum Tg concentrations increased and serum TSH levels decreased with the size of goitre. Statistical analysis by the chi-square cross correlation test showed that the converse changes of serum Tg and serum TSH in relation to goitre size were highly significant. These findings indicate that the increase of serum Tg occurring in endemic goitrous subjects may be related to factors other than TSH stimulation. Functional autonomy of the thyroid may account for the finding of low serum TSH and elevated serum Tg values in patients with large goitres. The present data do not exclude the possibility that the release of Tg is influenced by TSH stimulation, but indicate that other factors may be responsible for the increased levels of Tg found in endemic goitre. PMID:4053410

Fenzi, G F; Ceccarelli, C; Macchia, E; Monzani, F; Bartalena, L; Giani, C; Ceccarelli, P; Lippi, F; Baschieri, L; Pinchera, A

1985-08-01

75

Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoen­demic Communities  

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Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assess­ing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nige­ria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder) were taken from 1024 individu­als examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population). An individual was considered...

2010-01-01

76

Discovery of an endemic area of Gnathostoma turgidum infection among opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gnathostomosis, caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum, is a serious public health issue in Mexico. Although 2 other Gnathostoma spp., G. turgidum and G. lamothei, have been found in wild animals, their natural life cycle or their relation to human disease remains unclear. While we were conducting an epidemiological survey on Gnathostoma spp. in Sinaloa State, Mexico, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum in common opossums, Didelphis virginiana, located in Tecualilla, Sinaloa. The species identification was carried out by morphological and molecular biological methods. This is the first record of an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in opossums, D. virginiana, in the Americas. PMID:18989999

Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Willms, Kaethe; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Nawa, Yukifumi

2009-06-01

77

Onchocerciasis in expatriates on the Ivory Coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six cases of onchocerciasis were diagnosed in expatriates working on a hydroelectric dam project in Taabo (Ivory Coast) between 1977 and 1978. Taabo is in the forest area of the Bandama River, where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic. The six patients had lived in the area from 20 months to four years. In the early 1970s four of them had worked at the Kossou Dam, a similar project 125 miles up the Bandama River. Diagnoses were confirmed by demonstrating microfilariae in biopsy specimens taken from the skin overlying the iliac crest. A seventh case was diagnosed clinically as tropical filarial pulmonary eosinophilia. The six patients with microfilariae in the skin were treated successfully with diethylcarbamazine (Notezine, Hetrazan) and suramin (Moranyl). The patient with pulmonary involvement responded dramatically to treatment with diethylcarbamazine. The overall effects of onchocerciasis are poorly understood, though it is now one of the major tropical diseases, affecting millions of people living in central and western Africa, Yemen, and Central America. Medical treatment is successful, but few preventive measures are available for the disease; larvicides are subject to resistance, and their effects are transient. PMID:6261401

Mahoney, J L

1981-03-01

78

[Importance and role of spreading larvicides on the soil in river beds for the control program against onchocerciasis in west Africa].  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of blackfly is based on larvicide spraying in rivers where the insects breed and their larval stages are vulnerable. The first technique for large-scale operations, consists of using aircraft in the same way as for mosquito control and crop protection operations. The second technique, which will be discussed in this paper, consists of ground treatment of rivers, either directly with a container or with a spraying pump or by boat spraying insecticide in cross strip. In areas of West Africa where onchocerciasis is still prevalent, ground treatment is done to support aerial operations and to a lesser extent to control nuisance in areas where the endemicity of the disease is low. In onchocerciasis-freed zones, control of blackfly aims only at suppressing the nuisance in order to enhance the socio-economic development in areas at unfair disadvantage. This distinction is important for determining the responsibilities of various groups. Vector control to interrupt the transmission of onchocerciasis is the mandate of OCP while the control of nuisance is the responsibility, depending on the circumstances, of the private sector, the government and/or village communities. In this paper, we have attempted to highlight the objectives of such treatments, the responsibilities of various groups and the prospects in West African countries located in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area. We also present the situation of ground larviciding in countries outside the Programme, in temperate as well as tropical conditions, in order to provide some basis for the development of ground treatment strategies in the OCP area. PMID:7866050

Akpoboua, K L; Hougard, J M; Agoua, H; Sékétéli, A; Quillévéré, D

1994-01-01

79

Thyroid status in chronic liver diseases in an endemic area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine absorptive thyroid function, the levels of T3, T4 and TSH by means of radioimmunoassay and thyroid scanning were determined and performed in 132 patients with chronic liver diseases. All patients lived in a goiterendemic area with higher prevalence of liver diseases. Functional thyroid disorders were revealed in all the patients: hypofunction in 85.6 %, hyperfunction in 14.4 %. Structural and morphological and anatomic thyroid changes were detected in 91.6 %

1989-01-01

80

Dog Bites in Humans and Estimating Human Rabies Mortality in Rabies Endemic Areas of Bhutan  

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Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. We conducted a hospital based questionnaire survey and described the incidence and risk factors for human dog bites in Bhutan. We also estimated the human death rate attributable to rabies in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. Our study shows that dog bites incidents in humans are common in the survey areas. There were significant gender and age differences in bite incidents; males and the children are affected the most. The ma...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.  

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Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

Ebong, Solange Meyin A.; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Gue?gan, Jean-franc?ois; Legall, Philippe

2012-01-01

82

Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon  

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Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

Ebong, Solange Meyin A.; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Gue?gan, Jean-franc?ois; Legall, Philippe

2012-01-01

83

Reproductive performance in sows in relation to Japanese Encephalitis Virus seropositivity in an endemic area  

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Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is considered an important reproductive pathogen in pigs. Most studies of the reproductive impact of JEV have been conducted in areas where the disease occurs in seasonal epidemics. In this study, the associations between seropositivity for JEV, measured with an IgG ELISA, and the number of piglets born alive and stillborn were investigated in a tropical area endemic for JEV in Vietnam. Sixty percent of sows from four farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam were...

2012-01-01

84

Neglected Human Fascioliasis Case in a Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Area, North-Western Iran  

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Full Text Available "nArdabil Province, northwestern Iran, is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis of Mediterranean type from many years ago. This situation might cause to underestimate other important diseases, which occur spo­radically within the same area. In this case, a 6-year-old male patient in this area was treated as in­fected with visceral leishmaniasis initially with seropositive result for visceral leishmaniasis. After­wards, histo­pathological study of crashed material and tissue sections surprisingly revealed numer­ous liver fascio­lid fluke eggs. This case demonstrates that in an area endemic for a given parasito­ses, other im­portant infectious diseases must be considered as well.

Gh Mowlavi

2010-09-01

85

Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas  

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Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

2003-09-01

86

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update  

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Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

Rastogi V

2007-01-01

87

Distribution of trace elements in water, grain and soil for endemic arsenism disease area by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of trace elements in water, grain and soil from Tumotezuoqi of Inner-Mongolia are determined by neutron activation analysis(NAA). The analytical quality is verified by the analysis of some standard reference materials. The result shows that the arsenic concentrations in drinking water of endemic arsenism disease area are much higher than those of the allowance limit (<50 ?g/L). Fe contents are higher than those of the allowance limit (<300 ?g/L), and RE concentrations are about ten times than the elemental composition of freshwater. As and RE contents in wheat and corn of endemic arsenism disease area are higher than those of Beijing wheat. Trace elements in soil of Tumotezuoqi are similar to that in medians of elemental composition of soil

2000-09-01

88

Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. ma [...] nsoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

Marta G, Cavalcanti; Margareth MI, Gonçalves; Magali M, Barreto; Aline Helen da, Silva; Kalil, Madi; José Mauro, Peralta; Ricardo P, Igreja.

89

Clinical Manifestation of Onchocerciasis in Ise - Orun Local Government, Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Survey of Onchocerciasis syndrome in Ise - Orun local Government Area of Ekiti State was carried out. Village in Ise - Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria are at risk of Onchocerciasis parademic of the 4,100 subjects examined, 2008 representing 51.3% of 95% CI 0.49 - 0.53 were found to be suffering from Onchocerciasis infections. The highest infection rate of 50.4% at 95% CI 0.43 - 0.63 was recorded in Temidire and least percentage of 46.7% at 95% CI 0.3 - 0.64 was found in Aba...

Adewole, S. O.; Ayeni, S. K.

2009-01-01

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The Prevalence of Cellular Immunity to Coccidioidomycosis in a Highly Endemic Area  

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Intradermal skin test reactivity to spherulin and coccidioidin and in vitro spherulin-induced lymphocyte transformation were used to assess cellular immunity in healthy subjects and patients with acute, self-limited coccidioidomycosis (cocci). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relative sensitivities of the two assays in assessing cellular immunity to cocci, especially in long-term residents of an endemic area (Tucson) and, based on data from both assays, determine the prevalen...

Hicks, Mary Jane; Hagaman, Roberta M.; Barbee, Robert A.

1986-01-01

91

Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in kala-azar-endemic areas  

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Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar), a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points be...

2007-01-01

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A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area  

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Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-...

Nygård Karin; Schimmer Barbara; Søbstad Øystein; Walde Anna; Tveit Ingvar; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

2006-01-01

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Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso  

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Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4%) contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum). Out of the 369 (28.2%) women with peripheral ...

Oue?draogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Diarra, Amidou; Bougouma, Edith C. Christiane; Ne?bie?, Issa; Konate?, Amadou T.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

2012-01-01

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: acquired immunity and transmission in an endemic area  

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhoea in developing countries. Studies were made, in an endemic area of Bangladesh, of household contacts of patients with diarrhoea associated with E. coli producing heat-stable and heatlabile toxins (ST/LT) or heat-stable toxin (ST) only. It was found that 11% of contacts were infected in the 10-day study period, and that both the rate of infection and the proportion of infected persons with diarrhoea decreased with incre...

Black, Robert E.; Merson, Michael H.; Rowe, Bernard; Taylor, Philip R.; Alim, A. R. M. Abdul; Gross, Roger J.; Sack, David A.

1981-01-01

95

Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama  

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The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Most of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6%) asymptomatic and 17 acute ...

Sousa, Octavio E.; Franklyn Samudio; Corina de Juncá; Calzada, Jose? E.

2006-01-01

96

Antileishmania immunological tests for asymptomatic subjects living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil.  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896

Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio

2011-02-01

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Clinical Manifestation of Onchocerciasis in Ise - Orun Local Government, Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Survey of Onchocerciasis syndrome in Ise - Orun local Government Area of Ekiti State was carried out. Village in Ise - Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria are at risk of Onchocerciasis parademic of the 4,100 subjects examined, 2008 representing 51.3% of 95% CI 0.49 - 0.53 were found to be suffering from Onchocerciasis infections. The highest infection rate of 50.4% at 95% CI 0.43 - 0.63 was recorded in Temidire and least percentage of 46.7% at 95% CI 0.3 - 0.64 was found in Aba Ada. The people of 56 years of age accounted for the highest prevalence of 50.3% at 95% CI 0.49 - 0.59 and least was found in 25 - 35 age cohort representing 43.3% at 95% CI 0.34 - 0.52 of the 2008 subjects infected, 29.1%, 50.9%, 4.5% and 15.5% were observed to be suffering from leopard skin, craw - craw, partial blindness and nodules respectively. The prevalence of Onchocerciasis infection was 48.9% in male, while female has the same 48.9% but with differences in the number of individual infected with onchocerciasis. Also, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 between male and female susceptibility to onchocerciasis infection. The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection varied from village to village.

S.O. Adewole

2009-01-01

98

A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.  

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The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis. PMID:24455464

Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

2014-01-01

99

Vitamin D Toxicity in Adults: A Case Series from an Area with Endemic Hypovitaminosis D  

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Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic to the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Physicians often treat patients with high doses of vitamin D for various ailments and on occasion the prescribed doses far exceed the requirements of the patients. Ten cases of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication are presented with features of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, encephalopathy and renal dysfunction. All the patients had demonstrable hypercalcemia and vitamin D levels were high in nine of the 10 cases. The patients had received high doses of vitamin D and no other cause of hypercalcemia was identified. Treatment of hypercalcemia resulted in clinical recovery in nine cases. We conclude that hypervitaminosis D must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypercalcemia in endemically vitamin D deficient areas. A careful history and appropriate biochemical investigation will unravel the diagnosis in most of the cases.

Parvaiz A. Koul

2011-05-01

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Vitamin d toxicity in adults: a case series from an area with endemic hypovitaminosis d.  

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Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic to the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Physicians often treat patients with high doses of vitamin D for various ailments and on occasion the prescribed doses far exceed the requirements of the patients. Ten cases of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication are presented with features of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, encephalopathy and renal dysfunction. All the patients had demonstrable hypercalcemia and vitamin D levels were high in nine of the 10 cases. The patients had received high doses of vitamin D and no other cause of hypercalcemia was identified. Treatment of hypercalcemia resulted in clinical recovery in nine cases. We conclude that hypervitaminosis D must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypercalcemia in endemically vitamin D deficient areas. A careful history and appropriate biochemical investigation will unravel the diagnosis in most of the cases. PMID:22043417

Koul, Parvaiz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Hilal; Ahmad, Feroze; Jan, Rafi A; Shah, S U; Khan, Umar H

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Ocular onchocerciasis in the Yanomami communities from Brazilian Amazon: effects on intraocular pressure.  

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To determine the influence of onchocercal eye disease on the intraocular pressure of the Yanomami Tribe Aratha-ú of Roraima State, Brazil, considered endemic for onchocerciasis, a total of 86 patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic exam that included external examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus ophthalmoscope examination. A high prevalence of onchocerciasis-related eye lesions was encountered in 68.6% of the patients. Punctate keratitis and microfilariae in the anterior chamber were found in ?28%. The mean of intraocular eye pressure found was 10.47 mm of Hg. PMID:24297812

Herzog-Neto, Guilherme; Jaegger, Karen; Nascimento, Erika S do; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Banic, Dalma M; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

2014-01-01

102

Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae phylogenetic and distribution data  

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Full Text Available The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA. The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

Amanda Ciprandi Pires

2010-10-01

103

Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

2012-01-01

104

Effect of Control Strategies on Prevalence, Incidence and Re-infection of Clonorchiasis in Endemic Areas of China  

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Clonorchiasis is a liver fluke disease prevalent in East Asia, which is transmitted to humans mainly by eating raw freshwater fish. It induces various complications in the liver or bile duct including cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and cirrhosis. Clonorchis sinensis has been known to cause cholangiocarcinoma, and is still a major health problem in endemic areas. People in endemic areas are repeatedly infected with C. sinensis, as they continue to consume raw freshwater fish in sp...

Choi, Min-ho; Park, Sue K.; Li, Zhimin; Ji, Zhuo; Yu, Gui; Feng, Zheng; Xu, Longqi; Cho, Seung-yull; Rim, Han-jong; Lee, Soon-hyung; Hong, Sung-tae

2010-01-01

105

Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

1999-01-01

106

Clinical manifestations of loiasis in an endemic area in the Congo  

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The functional symptomatology of loiasis was studied in 101 Congolese subjects living in a village in a highly endemic area. 27.7 % of them were carriers of #Loa loa$ microfilariae. 5.9 % were infected with #Mansonella perstans$. No subjects were found to have dermal microfilariae. In anamnesis, 51.5 % of them reported episodes of Calabar swellings, 69.3 % history of eyeworm and 10.9 % episodes of subcutaneous migration of worms during the last 12 months. Pruritus and secondary dermal lesions...

Noireau, Franc?ois; Apembet, J. D.; Nzoulani, A.; Carme, B.

1990-01-01

107

How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?  

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Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

2003-09-01

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Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm  

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Full Text Available Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan® has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the process leading up to interruption of transmission as well as the critical period following cessation of mass drug administration to document that there is no recrudescence of transmission. This is called the posttreatment surveillance (PTS period. This report describes the aims, phases, and methodology of PTS as operationalized by the endemic countries and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. Successful completion of the PTS period without signs of recrudescence leads to a country request for certification of elimination by the World Health Organization. As elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas proceeds and emphasis in Africa switches from control to elimination, the PTS guide should prove invaluable to those programs going forward.Keywords: Onchocerca volvulus, onchocerciasis, ivermectin, Mectizan®, recrudescence, surveillance

Program Coordinating Committee

2012-05-01

109

Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

Lazdins Janis

2001-11-01

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Elimination of human onchocerciasis: history of progress and current feasibility using ivermectin (Mectizan(®)) monotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review and analyze approaches over a 65 year period that have proven successful for onchocerciasis control in several different epidemiological settings. These include vector control with the goal of transmission interruption versus the use of mass drug administration using ivermectin (Mectizan(®)) monotherapy. Ivermectin has proven exceedingly effective because it is highly efficacious against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae, the etiological agent of onchocercal skin and ocular disease and the infective stage for the vector. For these reasons, the drug was donated by the Merck Company for regional control programs in Africa and the Americas. Recurrent treatment with ivermectin at semi-annual intervals also impacts adult worms and result in loss of fecundity and increased mortality. Using a strategy of 6-monthly treatments with high coverage rates, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas has interrupted transmission in seven of the thirteen foci in the Americas and is on track to eliminate onchocerciasis in the region by 2015. Treatments given annually or semi-annually for 15-17 years in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci in Mali and Senegal also have resulted in a few infections in the human population with transmission levels below thresholds postulated for elimination. Follow-up evaluations did not detect any recrudescence of infection or transmission, suggesting that onchocerciasis elimination could be feasible with Mectizan(®) treatment in some endemic foci in Africa. PMID:20801094

Cupp, E W; Sauerbrey, M; Richards, F

2011-09-01

111

Towards cross-border natural resource management and economic development : linking communities and institutions in the onchocerciasis-freed zone of Burkina Faso and Ghana  

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The eradication of river blindness, or Onchocerciasis, has opened up substantial areas of land along rivers for more intensive use, facilitating economic development. Many of these so-called Onchocerciasis Freed Zones (OFZ) lie across international borders and interventions in one country could thus affect neighbouring countries. For that reason a coordinated international development approach has been called for. The Socio Economic Development Programme for the Transborder Onchocerciasis Fre...

Waveren, E.; Mariez-currena, V.; Issaka, B. Y.

2008-01-01

112

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

2012-06-01

113

Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

2007-06-01

114

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

115

Newly Established Monoclonal Antibody Diagnostic Assays for Schistosoma mansoni Direct Detection in Areas of Low Endemicity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Current available methods for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni lack sufficient sensitivity, which results in underreporting of infectious in areas of low endemicity. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed three novel diagnostic methodologies for the direct detection of schistosome infection in serum samples. These three new methods were evaluated with positive patients from a low endemicity area in southeast Brazil. The basis of the assay was the production of monoclonal antibodies against the protein backbone of heavily glycosylated Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA). The antibodies were also selected for having no specificity to repeating poly-Lewis x units. Assays based on the detection CCA-protein should not encounter a limitation in sensitivity due to a biological background of this particular epitope. Three diagnostic methodologies were developed and validated, (i) Immunomagnetic Separation based on improved incubation steps of non-diluted serum, (ii) Direct Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and (iii) Fluorescent Microscopy Analysis as a qualitative assay. The two quantitative assays presented high sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively) and specificity (100%), equivalent to the analysis of 3 stool samples and 16 slides by Kato-Katz, showing promising results on the determination of cure. Conclusions/Significance The Immunomagnetic Separation technique showed excellent correlation with parasite burden by Cohen coefficient. The qualitative method detected 47 positive individuals out of 50 with the analysis of 3 slides. This easy-to-do method was capable of discriminating positive from negative cases, even for patients with low parasite burden.

Grenfell, Rafaella Fortini Queiroz; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Taboada, Diana; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Davis, Ruth; Harn, Donald A.

2014-01-01

116

Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

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Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola Department of Ophthalmological Surgery, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, New Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria Abstract: This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control ...

Oe, Babalola

2011-01-01

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The future of onchocerciasis control in Africa  

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The complex issues related to onchocerciasis control that must be addressed over the next decade were identified. Onchocerciasis control in Africa since 1974 has been one of the most successful health and development activities in terms of public health achievement, partnership development, sustained donor support, and social and economic development. The group reviewed The landscape of international health has changed much since the inception of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Contr...

Hodgkin, C.; Molyneux, D. H.; Abiose, A.; Philippon, B.; Reich, M. R.; Remme, J. H.; Thylefors, B.; Traore, M.; Grepin, K.

2007-01-01

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Canine Filarial Infections in a Human Brugia malayi Endemic Area of India  

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A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of “local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body” was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out.

Ravindran, Reghu; Varghese, Sincy; Nair, Suresh N.; Balan, Vimalkumar M.; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Ashruf, Riyas M.; Kumar, Swaroop S.; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K.; Nair, Archana S.; Malayil, Aparna; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Juliet, Sanis; Kopparambil, Devada; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Kunjupillai, Regu; Kakada, Showkath Ali M.

2014-01-01

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Canine Filarial Infections in a Human Brugia malayi Endemic Area of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of "local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body" was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out. PMID:24971339

Ravindran, Reghu; Varghese, Sincy; Nair, Suresh N; Balan, Vimalkumar M; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Ashruf, Riyas M; Kumar, Swaroop S; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K; Nair, Archana S; Malayil, Aparna; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Juliet, Sanis; Kopparambil, Devada; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Kunjupillai, Regu; Kakada, Showkath Ali M

2014-01-01

120

Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its implementation to compliment existing control strategies for onchocerciasis, where needed.

Tamarozzi Francesca

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Using the genetics of Echinococcus multilocularis to trace the history of expansion from an endemic area.  

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Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, is the most serious parasitic disease for humans in Europe, with a sylvatic life cycle generally between small rodents and red foxes. General expansion of the range of E. multilocularis has been observed across Europe over the last 15years. In France, a westward spread of the known endemic areas of the parasite was described recently. For genotyping, the microsatellite EmsB was used to trace expansion in five French areas. A total of 22 EmsB profiles were identified, with five similar to those previously described in other parts of Europe. An imbalance of genetic diversity was observed between the five areas which also revealed their interconnection with the presence of common profiles, notably the two main profiles both present in all regions except one in the North. These two findings are similar to those described at the European level, highlighting transmission of the parasite by a mainland-island system. A spatio-temporal scenario of the expansion of E. multilocularis can be proposed with spread from the French historical focus in eastern France to the Lorraine, the Champagne-Ardenne and finally the North, while simultaneously another expansion has occurred from the historical focus into the West. The colonization by the parasite into the West and North areas from the historical focus was probably due to the migration of foxes several decades ago. Recent detection of the parasite in new endemic "départements" may be due to more active research rather than a recent spread of the parasite. Regarding the numerous data obtained by the different EmsB analyses, principally across Europe, centralization of all the profiles described in a public databank appears necessary in order to obtain a precise understanding of transmission of the parasite from one country to another. PMID:24468327

Umhang, G; Knapp, J; Hormaz, V; Raoul, F; Boué, F

2014-03-01

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Spatial analysis for identification of priority areas for surveillance and control in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.  

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Spatial analysis of epidemiological data may be used to assist in the implementation of surveillance and control measures against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. This ecological study aimed to identify priority areas for surveillance and control of VL in São Luís, the capital of the state of Maranhão in northeast Brazil, a highly endemic area for the disease. We evaluated the spatial structure of the incidence rates of human VL and of the mean number of human and canine cases occurring between 2005 and 2007 in 355 neighborhoods (aggregated into 203 geographical analytical units) within the municipality. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was explored using global and local Moran's I statistics. A local indicator of spatial autocorrelation was used to generate maps for the identification of VL clusters. The global Moran's I index revealed a weak, but statistically significant spatial autocorrelation for human VL incidence rates (I=0.138). A total of 43 geographical analytical units, encompassing 121 neighborhoods, were identified as priority areas for implementing surveillance and control actions. For the purpose of defining an action plan for the delivery of these measures, those 16 geographical analytical units (encompassing 54 neighborhoods) identified as clusters with high incidence rates of human VL should receive the highest priority. An additional nine geographical analytical units (comprising 28 neighborhoods) showed non-significant clustering of high rates of human, and might be considered as the next priority for VL management. Finally, a further 18 geographical analytical units (covering 39 neighborhoods) had records of coexisting human and canine VL cases during the study period, and these should receive priority attention when resources become available. Spatial data analysis is a valuable tool for defining priority areas for VL surveillance in high transmission areas contributing to a more effective management of financial and technical resources, increasing the sustainability and efficiency of control efforts. PMID:24342506

Barbosa, David Soeiro; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

2014-03-01

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Asymptomatic infection with visceral leishmaniasis in a disease-endemic area in bihar, India.  

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A prospective study was carried out in a cohort of 355 persons in a leishmaniasis-endemic village of the Patna District in Bihar, India, to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic persons and rate of progression to symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. At baseline screening, 50 persons were positive for leishmaniasis by any of the three tests (rK39 strip test, direct agglutination test, and polymerase chain reaction) used. Point prevalence of asymptomatic VL was 110 per 1,000 persons and the rate of progression to symptomatic cases was 17.85 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate ratio of progression to symptomatic case was 3.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-15.01, P = 0.09) among case-contacts of VL compared with neighbors. High prevalence of asymptomatic persons and clinical VL cases and high density of Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies can lead to transmission of VL in VL-endemic areas. PMID:20810810

Topno, Roshan K; Das, Vidya N R; Ranjan, Alok; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmender; Kumar, Nawin; Siddiqui, Niyamat A; Singh, Vijay P; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Narendra; Bimal, Sanjeev; Kumar, Annadurai Jeya; Meena, Chetram; Kumar, Ranjeet; Das, Pradeep

2010-09-01

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Associations between clinical disease, circulating antibodies and C1q-binding immune complexes in human onchocerciasis.  

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Onchocerciasis is a disease where often there are high levels of serum antibodies and high parasitic loads. The role of immune complexes in the development of the disease is investigated here by studying non-specific and Onchocerca volvulus specific immune complex levels, as well as the antibody concentrations, in the sera of 372 people living in either Southern (199) or Northern (173) Sudan; sera from Sudanese individuals (31) and Caucasians (21) living outside the onchocerciasis endemic area were also tested. The levels of non-specific immune complexes (NS-IC) in these sera were measured by a solid phase radio-immunoassay and those of O. volvulus-specific immune complexes (OV-IC) by an assay measuring antibody-excess complexes using C1q-coated plates. The concentrations of O. volvulus IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Immune complex and antibody levels of the serum donors were compared with regard to their clinical status due to onchocerciasis. These clinical changes were classified according to onchocercal lesions related to either the active destruction of microfilariae (acute changes), or the long term tissue alterations (chronic changes). Data was analysed using the Odds Ratio method. A negative association between microfilarial load and immune complex level was found, with the higher levels of OV-IC present in patients with the lower levels of dermal microfilariae (i.e., less than 10 mf/mg). Significant associations between immune complex levels and the severity of onchocercal disease were also found. Levels of OV-IC specific immune complexes were higher in infected individuals carrying dermal onchocercal lesions than in those without such clinical changes; there was no apparent relationship between these levels and the presence of ocular lesions. OV-IC levels varied considerably within each age group and from age to age. A weak positive association was detected between microfilarial load and parasite-specific IgG antibody concentration in the sera. On average younger individuals (less than 25 years) had the higher antibody levels with a gradual reduction in mean concentrations with age. The significance of these serological findings in terms of the pathogenesis of onchocerciasis is discussed. PMID:3498141

Sisley, B M; Mackenzie, C D; Steward, M W; Williams, J F; O'Day, J; Luty, A J; Braga, M; el Sheikh, H

1987-07-01

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Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area  

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Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemic...

Magalhães Ricardo J; Langa Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo José; Ca, Clements Archie; Nery Susana

2012-01-01

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High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis of Onchocerciasis, HIV as well as estimate serum antibody levels. Of a total of 162 subjects recruited, 54 were diagnosed positive for Onchocerciasis by skin snip, giving a prevalence of 33.3% (54/162. Also, the prevalence of HIV among these subjects was 12.9% (21/162. This infection was 17.8% among women (13/73 and 8.9% among men (8/89. Six of the 54 subjects positive for Onchocerciasis were also positive for HIV giving a prevalence of co-infection of 11.1% (6/54. Mean serum antibody levels of Onch+ve/HIV+ve, Onch+ve/HIV-ve and Onch-ve/HIV+ve subjects, were significantly higher (p< 0.001, Student=s t-test when compared to that of Onch-ve/HIV-ve subjects. The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV. It further shows significantly high antibody levels, reflecting raised humoral immune responses with co-infected subjects showing the highest response. Hence the integration of HIV/AIDS care and prevention activities into currently ongoing treatment program for Onchocerciasis will save time and scarce resources in Africa with tremendous public health impact.

G.A. Alemnji

2007-01-01

127

[Contribution of the PCR assay to the diagnosis of Mansonella ozzardi in endemic areas of Argentina].  

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Mansonella ozzardi is a tissue-dwelling parasitic nematode, the causative agent of mansonelliasis in almost all Latin American countries. It has been described along the Argentine Yungas region. The microscopic diagnosis can yield false-negative test results at low microfilaremia levels. The aim of this study was to optimize the molecular diagnostic technique and compare it with the Knott's method and standard blood smear procedures (thin blood films and thick smears) in 92 blood samples of individuals from an endemic area. The PCR technique followed by the sequencing of the amplified product yielded 100 % sensitivity compared to the Knott's test, which is considered a reference method. Seven more cases of this parasitosis could only be identified with the molecular technique. PMID:22997768

Degese, María F; Cabrera, Marta G; Krivokapich, Silvio J; Irazu, Lucia E; Rodríguez, Marcelo A; Guarnera, Eduardo A

2012-01-01

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Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama  

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Full Text Available The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Most of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6% asymptomatic and 17 acute (65.4% including 5 (19.2% fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

Octavio E Sousa

2006-06-01

129

Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution  

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Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proano, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

2014-01-01

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Onchocerciasis distribution and severity in five West African countries.  

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The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa recently extended its operation to Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the western part of Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. To estimate the number of people infected and blinded by the disease and to determine its distribution and severity in the extension area, 215 villages were selected, using a stratified random sampling procedure, and surveyed. All the relevant entomological information available at the time was used in the sampling procedure and in the selection of 92 non-representative villages that were surveyed to confirm the findings. In addition, the populations of 608 villages were examined to map out in detail the distribution of onchocerciasis in the areas at a high risk of onchocercal blindness. The study estimated that 1,475,367 people were infected and 23,728 were blinded from onchocerciasis out of a rural population of 4,464,183. The northern and western part of the study area and the lower Niger basin presented a low or no risk of onchocercal blindness. The upper Niger basin, the south-central part of Sierra Leone, and three small foci in the Gambia, Bakoye, and lower Niger river basins were areas with a high risk of onchocercal blindness. The other parts of the study area presented a medium risk of onchocercal blindness. By detecting the communities at risk of onchocercal disease this study permits the selection of populations for disease control based on mass distribution of ivermectin, a microfilaricide. PMID:1786617

De Sole, G; Baker, R; Dadzie, K Y; Giese, J; Guillet, P; Keita, F M; Remme, J

1991-01-01

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Onchocerciasis distribution and severity in five West African countries.  

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The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa recently extended its operation to Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the western part of Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. To estimate the number of people infected and blinded by the disease and to determine its distribution and severity in the extension area, 215 villages were selected, using a stratified random sampling procedure, and surveyed. All the relevant entomological information available at the time was used in the sampling procedure and in t...

Sole, G.; Baker, R.; Dadzie, K. Y.; Giese, J.; Guillet, P.; Keita, F. M.; Remme, J.

1991-01-01

132

Mycotoxicological investigations on maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of Mseleni joint disease in Kwazulu.  

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Samples of home-grown maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of Mseleni joint disease (MJD) during four seasons (1980-1983) were examined mycologically. The mycoflora of these dietary staples included Fusarium poae and F. oxysporum, which have been implicated in the aetiology of Kashin-Beck or Urov disease, another osteo-arthrosis endemic in Siberia and China. Two other species of Fusarium, i.e. F. moniliforme and F. equiseti, implicated in syndromes of abnormal bone development in animals, were also present. The predominant fungus associated with maize kernels was F. moniliforme; two other fungi relatively frequently isolated from Mseleni maize, i.e. F. compactum and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, have not previously been reported in maize in southern Africa. The predominant fungi associated with groundnut kernels were Penicillium spp., L. theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and F. oxysporum. The incidence of certain fungi, particularly F. compactum, F. oxysporum and L. theobromae, appeared to be higher in dietary staples from households affected by MJD than from non-affected ones. The numbers of samples examined were, however, small and these findings need to be confirmed. Cultures of 120/322 isolates of fungi from Mseleni dietary staples proved toxic to ducklings, the most toxic species being F. compactum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum and Phomopsis sp. The characteristic pathological changes of MJD have, however, not been induced in experimental animals with cultures of any of these fungi. A diet containing maize and groundnuts from households affected by MJD also failed to induce the characteristic osteo-arthritic changes of MJD in rats. The dietary staples used in this experiment were, however, collected during seasons of abnormally low rainfall at Mseleni.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3961620

Marasas, W F; Van Rensburg, S J

1986-03-15

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent a [...] ntibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

Cerino, DA; Veloso, J; Perles, TF; Zanzarini, PD; Lonardoni, MVC; Silveira, TGV.

134

Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.  

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A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality. PMID:24291677

Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

2014-03-01

135

Clusters of cytokines determine malaria severity in Plasmodium falciparum - Infected patients from endemic areas of central India  

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We investigated the role of interferon (IFN)- gamma , interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha , and transforming growth factor (TGF)- beta in clinically well-defined groups of Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients manifesting mild malaria (MM), severe noncerebral malaria (SM), or cerebral malaria (CM) and in control subjects from Gondia, a malaria-endemic site in India, as well as in healthy subjects from non-malaria-endemic areas. ...

Prakash, D.; Fesel, C.; Jain, R.; Cazenave, P. A.; Mishra, G. C.; Pied, S.

2006-01-01

136

Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.  

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The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 ?g g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 ?g g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 ?g g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 ?g g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 ?g g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 ?g g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 ?g g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 ?g g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 ?g g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 ?g g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils. PMID:22638723

Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

2013-02-01

137

Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1?×?1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed. PMID:23942550

Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C

2013-09-01

138

Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

2009-06-08

139

Cytological diagnosis of microfilariae in filariasis endemic areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh  

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Full Text Available Background: Filariasis is a major health problem in tropical countries including India. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays an important role in prompt recognition of disease. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in diagnosis of filariasis at all possible sites. Materials and Methods : Total 250 cases of superficial swellings at various sites were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Results: Out of 250 cases, 24 cases of filariasis were detected which include breast lumps (8 cases, lymph nodes (6 cases, scrotal swellings (4 cases, thyroid swellings (3 cases, soft tissue swellings (2 cases and ascitic fluid (1 case. Eosinophilia was present in 8 out of 24 cases with a percentage ranging from 12-24%. Significant adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was present in 3 out of 24 cases. Conclusions: In endemic areas, it should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of a superficial swelling. Careful screening of FNAC smears help in detecting microfilaria even in asymptomatic patients and thus plays a significant role in recognition of the disease and institution of specific treatment.

Mitra Shaila

2009-01-01

140

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Genotyping of Babesia bigemina from cattle from a non-endemic area (Switzerland).  

Science.gov (United States)

In August 2002, bovine anaplasmosis and concurrent infections with Mycoplasma sp. and piroplasms were reported in a cattle herd in an alpine region of Switzerland. The piroplasms were identified by PCR/sequencing of part of the 18S rRNA gene as Babesia bigemina and Theileria of the buffeli/sergenti/orientalis-complex, which have never been diagnosed in Switzerland before. The B. bigemina isolate was genetically characterised at two loci and compared with isolates from Italy, Spain, Turkey, Kenya and Mexico. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the rRNA genes revealed high polymorphism not only among the isolates but even within the isolates, and the presence of two types of the ITS2 in every isolate was confirmed. A dendrogram based on ITS2 sequences showed that the Swiss isolate was most closely related to a Spanish isolate but no sequences of the isolate from Switzerland were identical to any of the other isolates. The isolate from Italy was not positioned in the same cluster as the Swiss and the Spanish isolate. This had been anticipated as the nearest known endemic area of B. bigemina in Central Italy. Sequence analysis of the rhoptry-associated protein-1c gene (rap1c) confirmed the similarity of the Swiss and Spanish isolate. Hence, our molecular analyses of the Swiss B. bigemina isolate did not unequivocally track its geographical origin and the way of introduction remains obscure. PMID:17208377

Hilpertshauser, H; Deplazes, P; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mathis, A

2007-04-10

142

[IgM-ELISA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in low endemic areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

An immunoenzymatic method for the detection of IgM antibodies (IgM-ELISA) against a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen, soluble in trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble fraction), was evaluated for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples on filter paper were collected from a population living in the municipality of Pedro de Toledo, São Paulo State, and submitted to IgM-ELISA. The results were compared to those obtained by the IgM-immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) and the Kato-Katz parasitological method. Positive rates of 36.8%, 33.5%, and 1.6% were obtained respectively by the IgM-ELISA, IgM-IFT, and Kato-Katz methods. The geometric mean obtained by the parasitological method was 40.9 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The nearly perfect agreement observed between the two serological tests (Kappa index of 0,89) indicates good diagnostic performance by the evaluated test. IgM-ELISA is a potentially useful method for diagnosis of schistosomiasis in individuals with low worm burden. PMID:12700805

de Oliveira, Edward José; Kanamura, Hermínia Yoshio; Dias, Luiz Cândido de Souza; Soares, Lanny Cristina Burlandy; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Ciaravolho, Ricardo Mário de Carvalho

2003-01-01

143

Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area.  

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The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138

Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A

2007-07-01

144

Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in [...] non-immunosuppressed individuals. Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 and 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

Rivian Christina Lopes, Faiolla; Mariana Correa, Coelho; Rodrigo de Carvalho, Santana; Roberto, Martinez.

145

Clinical Features of Patients Featuring Cataracts in A Myopia-Endemic Area of Taiwan  

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Full Text Available Background: To determine the etiology and morphological features of cataracts in amyopia-endemic area of Taiwan.Methods: This retrospective case-controlled study comprised 332 patients (440 eyeswho underwent cataract-extraction surgery, 163 patients (220 eyes constitutingthe presenile cataract study group, and 169 patients (220 eyes constitutingthe senile cataract control group. Each group was divided into idiopathic,diabetic, and highly myopic subgroups. Age, gender, ocular and systemiccomorbidities, and the types of cataract featured were recorded and analyzed.For the statistical analysis, 2 test was used.Results: The mean ages of study subjects were 45.5 7.6 years for the presenile and68.7 8.0 years for the senile cataract groups. We also observed a greaternumber of cataracts in highly myopic eyes of the presenile group (17.27%compared to the senile group (0.90% ( p < 0.0001. The distribution ofcataract types for the 3 presenile cataract subgroups revealed that nuclearsclerosis contributed most to presenile cataracts in highly myopic patients ( p= 0.001, and correspondingly, the posterior subcapsular opacity contributedmost in the idiopathic and diabetic cataract subgroups ( p = 0.001.Conclusions:We observed a greater number of cataracts from highly myopic eyes in thepresenile group than in the senile group in southern Taiwan, a myopiaendemicarea. Nuclear sclerosis contributed most to the presenile cataracts inthe highly myopic subgroup.

Chien-Kuang Tsai

2006-08-01

146

Morphology and Histology Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Oil Palm Roots in Ganoderma boninense Endemic Area  

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Full Text Available Endophytic fungi defined as fungi that colonize internal plant tissues without causing visible damage to their host plant. As they are internal colonisers, therefore more able to compete within the vascular systems with capacity to arrest the spread of pathogens such as Ganoderma boninense causal agent of Basal Stem Rot (BSR disease in oil palm. Endophytic microbes acted against plant pathogen by antibiosis mechanism, nutrient and space competition, and induce plant pathogen resistance by producing metabolites. The objective of the present study was to identify endophytic fungi from oil palm roots in G. boninense endemic area Padang Halaban Estate, North Sumatera, based on morphological and histological character. At each site, five random palms were sampled. Seventy five endophytic fungi had been isolated and selected from BSR symptomless palm root. Identification of fungal endophytes were carried out by observing the reproductive structures (sexual and asexual under a light-field microscope with camera attachment. Seventy five isolates were classified to eight genera, consisting of Trichoderma (20, Fusarium (10, Aspergillus (5, Penicillium (5, Gliocladium (4, Phoma (4, Alternaria (4, and Curvularia (3. Twenty others were unidentified due to sterile mycelia.

ELIZABETH CAROLINE SITUMORANG

2014-05-01

147

The significance of guinea worm infection in the immunological diagnosis of onchocerciasis and bancroftian filariasis  

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Infections with Dracunculus medinensis frequently occur in the same geographical area as infections with Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti. This study analysed the significance of D. medinensis infections for the specificity and sensitivity of available tests for antibody-based diagnosis of onchocerciasis (using individual recombinant clones OV-10, OV-11 and OV-16, and the OV-7/OV-10/OV-16 tri-cocktail, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and for circulating antigen-based diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis (using the TropBio and the ICT card tests). Some immunological cross-reactivity was observed with all tests. When using individual recombinant O.volvulus antigens, the highest assay indices were obtained for clone OV-10, and the lowest for clone OV-16. Testing the serum responses against the tri-cocktail of recombinant antigens did not notably improve the assay indices. Two of 40 serum samples from individuals with patent dracunculiasis gave a false positive response in the ICT test and oneof these was also positive in the TropBio test. Possible implications of applying these diagnostic assays in areas endemic for dracunculiasis are discussed.

Bloch, P; Simonsen, Paul Erik

1998-01-01

148

Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

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Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors ...

Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Me?lika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

2011-01-01

149

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

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Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in...

Anayansi Valderrama; Mara Garcia Tavares; José Dilermando Andrade Filho

2011-01-01

150

Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani

2011-12-01

151

Mite vectors (Acari: Trombiculidae) of scrub typhus in a new endemic area in northern Kyoto, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1983 and 1999, 27 human cases of scrub typhus (two fatal) occurred in the Nodagawa River basin of northern Kyoto, Japan, an area where no cases had been previously reported. Antibody screening of infected patients' sera showed that nine of 15 patients had high titers against the Gilliam type of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi). To determine the vector mite transmitting the disease, we studied rodent and chigger populations in and near a rice field alongside the Nodagawa River between 1996 and 1999. The most common rodent species was Microtus montebelli (Milne-Edwards), representing 73.3% (33/45) of the population. The mite index (average number of mites per infested host) was highest (190.8) in Leptotrombidium pallidum Nagayo, Mitamura & Tamiya parasitizing on M. montebelli, followed by Leptotrombidium intermedium (Nagayo, Mitamura & Tamiya) (174.9) on the same host species. Orientia tsutsugamushi was isolated from 60.5% (23/38) of rodents and from 71.2% (37/52) of pools of engorged L. pallidum. The Gilliam type of O. tsutsugamushi was most prevalent in rodents, and in engorged L. pallidum and it was the only type recovered from 10 isolates inoculated into L 929 cells for indirect immunofluorescence examination. Orientia tsutsugamushi infected 14.3% (181/1263) and 14.8% (306/2066) of engorged and unfed L. pallidum larvae, respectively, and was also detected in 0.055% (2/3634) of unfed L. intermedium, although previous studies suggest that this mite rarely bites humans. These results show that L. pallidum is the primary vector species of scrub typhus in this new endemic area in Japan. PMID:14989353

Takahashi, Mamoru; Misumi, Hitoko; Urakami, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Satoko; Furui, Sataro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Furuya, Yumiko; Misumi, Motohiro; Matsumoto, Isao

2004-01-01

152

O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima / The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da per [...] iferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela. Abstract in english A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located [...] at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

Mário Augusto Pinto de, Moraes; Anthony J., Shelley; Antonio Paulino A. Luna, Dias.

153

O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima  

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Full Text Available Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima, mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da periferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente, caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros, abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela.A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi, since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

Mário Augusto Pinto de Moraes

1986-03-01

154

Clinical trials of amodiaquine in onchocerciasis  

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Twenty onchocerciasis patients from the rain-forest zone of Western Nigeria were treated with amodiaquine in total dosages ranging from 22 to 68 mg/kg of body weight given over 2-9 days. There was no activity against either the microfilariae or adult forms of Onchocerca volvulus. It is concluded that the drug, which was poorly tolerated by 12 patients, is ineffective against human onchocerciasis.

Kale, Oladele O.

1982-01-01

155

Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in a malaria-endemic area in Hainan, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria incidence in China's Hainan province has dropped significantly, since Malaria Programme of China Global Fund Round 1 was launched. To lay a foundation for further studies to evaluate the efficacy of Malaria Programme and to help with public health planning and resource allocation in the future, the temporal and spatial variations of malaria epidemic are analysed and areas and seasons with a higher risk are identified at a fine geographic scale within a malaria endemic county in Hainan. Methods Malaria cases among the residents in each of 37 villages within hyper-endemic areas of Wanning county in southeast Hainan from 2005 to 2009 were geo-coded at village level based on residence once the patients were diagnosed. Based on data so obtained, purely temporal, purely spatial and space-time scan statistics and geographic information systems (GIS were employed to identify clusters of time, space and space-time with elevated proportions of malaria cases. Results Purely temporal scan statistics suggested clusters in 2005,2006 and 2007 and no cluster in 2008 and 2009. Purely spatial clustering analyses pinpointed the most likely cluster as including three villages in 2005 and 2006 respectively, sixteen villages in 2007, nine villages in 2008, and five villages in 2009, and the south area of Nanqiao town as the most likely to have a significantly high occurrence of malaria. The space-time clustering analysis found the most likely cluster as including three villages in the south of Nanqiao town with a time frame from January 2005 to May 2007. Conclusions Even in a small traditional malaria endemic area, malaria incidence has a significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the finer spatial and temporal scales. The scan statistics enable the description of this spatiotemporal heterogeneity, helping with clarifying the epidemiology of malaria and prioritizing the resource assignment and investigation of malaria on a finer geographical scale in endemic areas.

Wang Yong

2011-04-01

156

Effects of the application of trichinellosis control program in an endemic area in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals, caused by a parasite from the Trichinellidae family and Trichinella genus. Humans get infected by consuming infected and inadequately thermally treated meat from domestic or wild animals containing cocooned infective larvae of T. spiralis. Aside from health problems caused by trichinellosis as a zoonosis, there is no doubt that it represents a serious economic problem for swine meat producers. The research in this paper has been performed in Serbia, in a region which is located at the confluence of two large rivers, and it is the geographical location which makes it an endemic area for the presence of T. spiralis. Epidemiological data pertains to the period of 1995-2003, but also to the period 2003-2009, when the implementation of the program for control and eradication of trichinellosis was complete. The diagnostic testing of cadavers of slaughtered swine for the presence of T. spiralis in the period of 1995-2003 included 41.04% of the slaughtered swine, out of which 0.4281% were positive, and the amount of economic loss was 95301000 dinars or about one million EUR. The infection was confirmed in 432 patients during the research period. The preparation of the program for the control and eradication of trichinellosis has been made in accordance with applicable laws and technological standards, with a clear determination of input and output using a cost-benefit analysis. The effects of its application show a reduction in the number of swine which are positive for the presence of T. spiralis by a factor of three times (p<0.01, and the present net value (PNV and the benefit/cost ratio (B/C show economic and epidemiological justification.

Teši? M.

2011-01-01

157

TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT IN ENDEMIC AREA OF VILLAGE BRESTOVAC  

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Full Text Available During the twenty- five-year period the incidence of urothelial tumors was followed in the endemic village Brestovac. Thirty patients (3 of which with confirmed endemic nephropathy and 15 persons with suspected nephropathy were investigated. Our retrograde study showed that there is a relationship between endemic nephropathy and urothelial cancer, and this association persisted with marked tendency to rise. Tumors were more common among males, aged from 50 to 70 years, with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, papillary or trancellular forms, predominantly. Clinical feature showed classic triad of hematuria, flank pain and, rarely, flank mass, accompanied with non-specific symptomatology. Normal renal function was observed in 25 patients, but chronic renal failure was proven in five. Ten patients were treated by surgery, while 20 patients were treated by conservative therapy. There are no marked risk factors.

Rade Cukuranovic

2006-04-01

158

Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control  

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This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’) of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6%) respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of responden...

Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Abdi Kumera

2010-01-01

159

A Bayesian approach to study the space time variation of leprosy in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India  

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Abstract Background In leprosy endemic areas, patients are usually spatially clustered and not randomly distributed. Classical statistical techniques fail to address the problem of spatial clustering in the regression model. Bayesian method is one which allows itself to incorporate spatial dependence in the model. However little is explored in the field of leprosy. The Bayesian approach may improve our understanding about the variation of the disease prevalence of leprosy ove...

Joshua Vasna; Gupte Mohan D; Bhagavandas M

2008-01-01

160

Epidemiology of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Endemic Area of the Republic of Korea, 1995-1998  

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We conducted an epidemiologic study to understand temporal and spatial patterns of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We estimated the incidence among civilians in endemic areas through the active surveillance system during the major epidemic periods, from September to December, between 1996 and 1998. We also estimated the prevalence among Korean military personnel from 1995 to 1998. In addition, we assessed seroprevalence, subclinical infection rate,...

Song, Joon Young; Chun, Byung Chul; Kim, Soon Duck; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Sang-hoon; Sohn, Jang Wook; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo; Park, Seung Chul; Kim, Min Ja

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

A retrospective study on malignant neoplasms of bladder, lung and liver in blackfoot disease endemic area in Taiwan.  

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A total of 69 bladder cancer, 76 lung cancer and 59 liver cancer deceased cases and 368 alive community controls group-matched on age and sex were studied to evaluate the association between high-arsenic artesian well water and cancers in the endemic area of blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease related to continuous arsenic exposure. According to a standardized structured questionnaire, information on risk factors was obtained through proxy interview of the cases and ...

Chen, C. J.; Chuang, Y. C.; You, S. L.; Lin, T. M.; Wu, H. Y.

1986-01-01

162

High Rate of Strongyloidosis Infection, Out of Endemic Area, in Patients with Eosinophilia and without Risk of Exogenous Reinfections  

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Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infections are usually asymptomatic and underestimated. We used direct fresh stool examination, Ritchie's method, and agar plate culture for diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and previous residence in endemic areas. The frequency of strongyloidosis detected among these patients was high: 21 of 42 were positive. Among them, 10 were positive only by agar plate culture. After ivermectin treatment, patients resulted negative for parasitological tests and re...

Repetto, Silvia A.; Dura?n, Pablo A.; Lasala, Mari?a B.; Gonza?lez-cappa, Stella M.

2010-01-01

163

Safety of Universal Provision of Iron through Home Fortification of Complementary Foods in Malaria-Endemic Areas12  

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Home fortification of complementary foods with iron and other micronutrients is a low-cost strategy for filling nutrient gaps in the diets of infants and young children, but there has been uncertainty about the safety of universal provision of iron via home fortification in malaria-endemic areas. Based on the current understanding of the potential mechanisms of adverse effects of iron, the risk can probably be minimized by using the lowest possible efficacious dose of iron, preferably deliver...

Dewey, Kathryn G.; Baldiviez, Lacey M.

2012-01-01

164

Satellite data transmission and hydrological forecasting in the fight against Onchocerciasis in west Africa  

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Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is an endemic disease which causes great hardship in west Africa. Within the World Health Organization's Onchocerciasis Control Program (WHO/OCP), reliable data on the discharge of the watercourses have been obtained by using remote satellite transmission. These data are necessary to calculate how much insecticide should be introduced into the rivers. A description of the equipment and its use is followed by an initial report covering the functioning of the equipment, its efficiency and the economies attained. The improvement in the resulting treatment and the reduction in the running costs of the programme are discussed. Software for forecasting the discharge over different time intervals was developed by ORSTOM at the request of the OCP. The different functions of this software (PERLES) are described. In conclusion, the advantages of remote transmission techniques for operational hydrology in general are discussed (flood warning systems, hydrological networks, etc.).

Servat, Eric; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Bader, Jean-Claude; Boyer, Jean-Francois

1990-09-01

165

Autoimmune reactivity against precursor form of desmoglein 1 in healthy Tunisians in the area of endemic pemphigus foliaceus  

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Background Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), the pemphigus foliaceus (PF) antigen, is produced as a precursor (preDsg1) and is transported to the cell surface as the mature form (matDsg1). Recent studies show that B cells from North American individuals without pemphigus can potentially produce anti-preDsg1 IgG antibodies, but ELISA screening of large numbers of normal people in North America and Japan hardly ever shows circulating antibodies against preDsg1 or matDsg1. In contrast, in Tunisia, where PF is endemic, anti-Dsg1 IgGs are frequently detected in healthy individuals. Objective To characterize these anti-Dsg1 antibodies from normal individuals in Tunisia. Methods Sera from 16 healthy individuals and 9 PF patients in the endemic PF area in Tunisia, and sera from Japanese non-endemic PF patients were analyzed by immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting using recombinant proteins of preDsg1, matDsg1, and domain-swapped Dsg1/Dsg2 molecules. Results Sera from normal Tunisian individuals reacted to preDsg1 alone (8/16) or more strongly to preDsg1 than to matDsg1 (7/16), while those from all Tunisian PF patients and Japanese non-endemic PF patients reacted similarly to preDsg1 and matDsg1, or preferentially to matDsg1. The epitopes recognized by anti-Dsg1 IgGs from normal Tunisian individuals were more frequently found in the C-terminal extracellular domains (EC3 to EC5), while those in Tunisian endemic PF patients were more widely distributed throughout the extracellular domains, suggesting IgGs against EC1 and EC2 developed during disease progression. Conclusions These findings indicate that IgG autoantibodies against Dsg1 are mostly raised against preDsg1 and/or C-terminal domains of Dsg1 in healthy Tunisians in the endemic area of PF.

Toumi, Amina; Saleh, Marwah Adly; Yamagami, Jun; Abida, Olfa; Kallel, Maryem; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Makni, Sondes; Turki, Hamida; Hachiya, Takahisa; Kuroda, Keiko; Stanley, John R.; Masmoudi, Hatem; Amagai, Masayuki

2013-01-01

166

Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Antibodies in a Low-Endemicity Area Using Indirect Immunofluorescence and Circumoval Precipitin Test.  

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Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin test (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's test). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303

Carvalho do Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Alvarado-Mora, Monica Viviana; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lúcia; Pinho, João Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar

2014-06-01

167

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this s [...] pecies has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando.

168

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

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Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Anayansi Valderrama

2011-12-01

169

THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF INTEGRATED MALARIA TRANSMISSION CONTROL ON ENTOMOLOGIC INOCULATION RATE IN HIGHLY ENDEMIC AREAS  

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We have used a relatively simple but accurate model for predicting the impact of integrated transmission control on the malaria entomologic inoculation rate (EIR) at four endemic sites from across sub-Saharan Africa and the southwest Pacific. The simulated campaign incorporated modestly effective vaccine coverage, bed net use, and larval control. The results indicate that such campaigns would reduce EIRs at all four sites by 30- to 50-fold. Even without the vaccine, 15- to 25-fold reductions ...

Killeen, Gerry F.; Mckenzie, F. Ellis; Foy, Brian D.; Schieffelin, Catherine; Billingsley, Peter F.; Beier, John C.

2000-01-01

170

Kashin-Beck Disease: evaluation of mineral intake in young Tibetan children from endemic areas  

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Kashin-Beck disease is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy. This disease principally occurs in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. Although many studies have already been conducted and many others are still underway, its ethiology remains unknown. A multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed: selenium deficiency, high concentration of organic matters in drinking water (fulvic acids) and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals....

2010-01-01

171

Asymptomatic Infection with Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Disease-Endemic Area in Bihar, India  

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A prospective study was carried out in a cohort of 355 persons in a leishmaniasis-endemic village of the Patna District in Bihar, India, to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic persons and rate of progression to symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. At baseline screening, 50 persons were positive for leishmaniasis by any of the three tests (rK39 strip test, direct agglutination test, and polymerase chain reaction) used. Point prevalence of asymptomatic VL was 110 per 1,000 person...

Topno, Roshan K.; Das, Vidya N. R.; Ranjan, Alok; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmender; Kumar, Nawin; Siddiqui, Niyamat A.; Singh, Vijay P.; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Narendra; Bimal, Sanjeev; Kumar, Annadurai Jeya; Meena, Chetram; Kumar, Ranjeet; Das, Pradeep

2010-01-01

172

Leishmania chagasi infection in cats with dermatologic lesions from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniosis in Brazil.  

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Although dogs are considered the main domestic reservoirs for Visceral Leishmaniosis (VL), which is caused in the Americas by Leishmania chagasi, infected cats have also been recently found in endemic areas of several countries and became a public health concern. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cats with dermatologic lesions from an endemic area of VL and the natural infection of L. chagasi. A total of 55 cats were selected between April 2008 and November 2009 from two major animal shelters of Araçatuba, Southeastern Brazil. All cats underwent general and dermatologic examinations, followed by direct parasitological examination of lymphoid organs, immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT). In addition, detection of amastigotes was performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in skin lesions of all cats. VL was diagnosed in 27/55 (49.1%) cats with dermatological problems. Amastigotes were found in lymphoid organs of 10/27 (37.0%) cats; serology of 14/27 (51.9%), 6/27 (22.2%) and 5/27 (18.5%) cats was positive for ELISA, IFAT and both, respectively. The IHC identified 9/27 (33.3%) cats; 5/27 (18.5%) were positive only for IHC and therefore increased the overall sensitivity. Specific FIV antibodies were found in 6/55 (10.9%) cats, of which 5/6 (83.3%) had leishmaniosis. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, dermatological lesions in cats from endemic areas was highly associated to visceral leishmaniosis, and therefore skin IHC and differential diagnosis of LV should be always conducted in dermatological patients in such areas. PMID:21282011

Vides, Juliana Peloi; Schwardt, Tatianna Frate; Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Marinho, Márcia; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Leutenegger, Christian; Marcondes, Mary

2011-05-31

173

Prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and related vascular diseases in southwestern arseniasis-endemic and nonendemic areas in Taiwan.  

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There is evidence indicating that ingestion of arsenic may predispose the development of diabetes mellitus in arsenic-endemic areas in Taiwan. However, the prevalence of diabetes and related vascular diseases in the entire southwestern arseniasis-endemic and nonendemic areas remains to be elucidated. We used the National Health Insurance Database for 1999-2000 to derive the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes and related vascular diseases by age and sex among residents in southwester...

Wang, Shu-li; Chiou, Jeng-min; Chen, Chien-jen; Tseng, Chin-hsiao; Chou, Wei-ling; Wang, Cheng-chung; Wu, Trong-neng; Chang, Louis W.

2003-01-01

174

Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.

Lemos Elba R.S. de

1997-01-01

175

Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species  

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Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals? 1.5 m height and ? 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of the studied population preferred fruit trees while 5% wereinterested in some medicinal plants. Preference of this nature indicates that in the future, the plantdiversity in these home gardens is likely to decline considerably. This might even lead to theextinction of rare, endemic plant species. Therefore, people in northern flank encouraged toincorporate multipurpose endemic plants and plants with less IVI values in their home gardens inorder to maintain high diversity and to conserve endemic and relatively rare plants while gainingsubstantial income through their home gardens.Keywords: Northern Flank, Home gardens, Conservation, Woody-perennials, Endemic species

D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

2013-04-01

176

IgM-immunofluorescence test as a diagnostic tool for epidemiologic studies of Schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic areas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schistosomiasis in the rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil). In each survey, blood samples from about 600 schoolchildren were collected on filter paper and submitted to IgM-IFT. When the blood samples were classified for the IgM antibody levels, according to the intensity of fluorescent reaction observed at fluorescence microscopy, and correlated to the egg counts in the Kato-Katz positive patients, no association was observed. This observation might suggest that the intensity of fluorescence observed in the IgM-IFT, as an indicator of IgM antibody levels, could not be an useful seroepidemiological marker for classifying areas of low endemicity according to degrees of infection. PMID:12118276

Kanamura, Herminia Yohko; Silva, Rita Maria da; Chiodelli, Silvia Gabriel; Glasser, Carmen Moreno; Dias, Luiz Candido de Souza

2002-06-01

177

IgM-Immunofluorescence Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas  

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Full Text Available The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic areas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schistosomiasis in the rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil. In each survey, blood samples from about 600 schoolchildren were collected on filter paper and submitted to IgM-IFT. When the blood samples were classified for the IgM antibody levels, according to the intensity of fluorescent reaction observed at fluorescence microscopy, and correlated to the egg counts in the Kato-Katz positive patients, no association was observed. This observation might suggest that the intensity of fluorescence observed in the IgM-IFT, as an indicator of IgM antibody levels, could not be an useful seroepidemiological marker for classifying areas of low endemicity according to degrees of infection.

Herminia Yohko Kanamura

2002-06-01

178

Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach.  

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OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged > or =15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the...

Carabin, He?le?ne; Escalona, Marisela; Marshall, Clare; Vivas-marti?nez, Sarai; Botto, Carlos; Joseph, Lawrence; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria

2003-01-01

179

The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

Marc Daniel Grynpas

2011-12-01

180

Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoen­demic Communities  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assess­ing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nige­ria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder were taken from 1024 individu­als examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population. An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Win­dows package was used for entering and analysis of data.Results: Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females. The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip than females (14 mf/skin snip (p < 0.01. A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.90; p < 0.01, and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities.Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

EC Uttah

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

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Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF. This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espírito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi, Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA Oliveira

2008-03-01

182

High prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania spp. infection among liver transplant recipients and donors from an endemic area of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral leishmaniasis is an uncommon disease in transplant recipients; however, if left untreated, the mortality can be high. If an organ donor or recipient is known to be an asymptomatic Leishmania spp. carrier,monitoring is advised. This study proposes to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania spp.infection in liver transplant donors and recipients from an endemic area. A total of 50 liver recipients and 17 liver donors were evaluated by direct parasite search, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), anti-Leishmania rK39 rapid test and Leishmania spp.DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Leishmania spp. amastigotes were not observed in liver or spleen tissues. Of the 67 serum samples, IFAT was reactive in 1.5% and indeterminate for 17.9%, and the anti-Leishmania rK39 rapid test was negative for all samples. The PCR test was positive for 7.5%, 8.9%, and 5.9% of blood, liver and spleen samples, respectively(accounting for 23.5% of the donors and 8% of the recipients). Leishmania infantum-specific PCR confirmed all positive samples. In conclusion, a high prevalence of asymptomatic L. infantum was observed in donors and recipients from an endemic area, and PCR was the most sensitive method for screening these individuals. PMID:24369026

Clemente, W T; Rabello, A; Faria, L C; Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Gomes, L I; da Silva, T A M; Nunes, R V P; Iodith, J B; Protil, K Z; Fernandes, H R; Cortes, J R G; Lima, S S S; Lima, A S; Romanelli, R M C

2014-01-01

183

IgM-Immunofluorescence Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic a [...] reas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schistosomiasis in the rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil). In each survey, blood samples from about 600 schoolchildren were collected on filter paper and submitted to IgM-IFT. When the blood samples were classified for the IgM antibody levels, according to the intensity of fluorescent reaction observed at fluorescence microscopy, and correlated to the egg counts in the Kato-Katz positive patients, no association was observed. This observation might suggest that the intensity of fluorescence observed in the IgM-IFT, as an indicator of IgM antibody levels, could not be an useful seroepidemiological marker for classifying areas of low endemicity according to degrees of infection.

Herminia Yohko, Kanamura; Rita Maria da, Silva; Silvia Gabriel, Chiodelli; Carmen Moreno, Glasser; Luiz Candido de Souza, Dias.

184

Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?  

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Full Text Available The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar. These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha and Mandrozo (15,145 ha in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles, 54 amphibians, 104 birds, 23 smallmammals, 17 lemurs and one fish. Of these 243 species, 30 are threatened taxa comprising two Critically Endangered (CR, 11 Endangered (EN and 17 Vulnerable (VU species. The long term ecological viability of these sites has been shown by population stability of the two Critically Endangered flagship species, the Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides in Manambolomaty and Mandrozo and the recently rediscovered Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata in Bemanevika. Other threatened species and high biological diversity also justifies their inclusion into Madagascar’s SAPM.

Achille P. Raselimanana

2010-06-01

185

Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern an...

Phompradit Papichaya; Kuesap Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul Wanna; Rueangweerayut Ronnatrai; Hongkaew Yaowaluck; Yamnuan Rujira; Na-Bangchang Kesara

2011-01-01

186

Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

2014-01-01

187

Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the distinctness of the respective parasites. The endemicity of snail lineages at the regional level supports the concept of endemic schistosomiasis areas and calls for future geospatial analyses for a better understanding of respective boundaries. Finally, local snail dispersal mainly occurs along waterways and can be best described by using cost distance, thus potentially enabling a more precise modelling of snail, and therefore, parasite dispersal.

Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

2011-10-01

188

Spectrum of skin lesions of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and serves as a potential reservoir for Leishmania parasite. The study was aimed to evaluate the spectrum of skin lesions of PKDL in kala-azar endemic areas in Bangladesh. This cross sectional study was carried out to observe the characteristics of skin lesions among 250 PKDL cases. The suspected PKDL patients in highly endemic villages of Fulbaria Upazilla of Mymensingh district.were subjected to a dipstick test (rK39) for kala azar. The median time interval between diagnosing kala-azar and PKDL was 23 month (m-21, r- 0-60 months). The most common skin lesions were multiple symmetrical hypopigmented macules with irregular margins in 179(71.6%) cases followed by erythematous facial induration in 74(29.6%), papular in 33(13.2%), nodular in 28(11.2%) cases, combination of macules, papules, nodules and plaques in 88(35.2%) cases, annular in 7(2.8%) cases and Papillomatous mucosal growth in 2(0.8%) cases. Sites of involvement were mostly in face (92.4%), Trunk (84.8%), extremities (33.2%), oral mucosa and tongue (0.8%) and Genitalia (1.2%). Suspicion of PKDL on the basis of skin lesions will lead to early diagnosis and prompt treatment will impart an important role in prevention and eradication of Leishmaniasis in Bangladesh. PMID:22828555

Sultana, A; Zakaria, S M; Bhuiyan, S I; Habib, A; Dey, S K; Rahman, M; Basher, A

2012-07-01

189

Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of Sao TomE, West Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of the rainforests on the island of Sao TomE for biodiversity is well known. However, the area only recently received full legal protection as a National Park and currently few resources are available to enforce that legislation. With rapid economic development forecast for the island, active conservation efforts are essential. Here we study the distribution and density of the island's endemic bird species, including nine that are Globally Threatened, within the National Park. Sites, covering the full range of primary forest types, were surveyed using distance sampling methods. No introduced species were observed. The highest number of species, including eight Globally Threatened species, were found in lowland rainforest, although many were infrequently encountered. Higher altitude sites were less diverse, but supported some of the common endemic species at extremely high densities. The least diverse assemblage, with generally lower species population densities, occurred at the most accessible mid-altitude forest site. Distance from settlements was a key explanatory variable for the presence of all Globally Threatened species, indicating that human habitation has negative effects on the suitability of nearby forest habitats. This suggests that, as infrastructure improvements proceed, populations of endangered species will come under growing pressure. Integrating the needs of biodiversity conservation and development represents a major challenge for many biodiverse countries and on Sao TomE, as elsewhere, may best be achieved by preserving the still intact functioning forest ecosystem.

Dallimer, Martin; King, T.

2009-01-01

190

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances...

Gustavsen, Ken; Hopkins, Adrian; Sauerbrey, Mauricio

2011-01-01

191

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival...

Gustavsen Ken; Hopkins Adrian; Sauerbrey Mauricio

2011-01-01

192

Primary motives for demand of ivermectin drug in mass distribution programmes to control onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is a disease with a spectrum of manifestations suffered by different infected people. Based on individual perceptions and manifestations presented, demand for the drug Ivermectin was due to different motives and priorities during mass distribution programmes. Subjects and Method: This study presents findings from a sample of 594 persons out of a total of 35,763 treated individuals who voluntarily demanded Ivermectin treatment during a community-based Ivermectin distribution exercise. The distribution, which took place in 2008, was mass distribution of the microfilaricide to control onchocerciasis in endemic communities of Ezinihitte in the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. The subjects who were selected by quota sampling procedure on the basis of community and gender, were asked to rank-order six plausible reasons for seeking treatment in terms of their order of importance in motivating them to demand Ivermectin. Results: “To gain treatment and prevention of Skin Problems” and “Desire to be De-wormed” ranked first and second respectively. “To gain promotion of general wellbeing” and “To improve state of vision and prevent blindness” ranked third and fourth respectively. In the fifth and sixth rank-order positions were “To prevent hanging groin” and “to prevent/relieve enlargement of the scrotum or clitoris” in that order. A test of hypothesis to determine if there was significant agreement among treated persons on the rank order of importance of their reasons for demanding Ivermectin gave a Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance of W = 0.62, p <.001. Conclusion: The findings are interpreted within the framework of the major postulations of the health belief model with consideration to perceptions of severity of the conditions and belief that submitting to treatment will abate the perceived risk of the conditions. The role of endemicity of specific manifestations of onchocerciasis in lay assessment of risk of this disease is also discussed.

Okwuoma Abanobi

2011-02-01

193

Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City  

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Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

Tri Ramadhani

2010-12-01

194

Reposição de cães em área endêmica para leishmaniose visceral Dog replacement in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou estimar a reposição de cães em área endêmica para leishmaniose visceral, onde a eutanásia de animais soropositivos é indicada como medida de controle, e avaliar os motivos que levaram a aquisição ou não de novos animais. Houve a reposição em 44,5% dos casos, principalmente devido à necessidade de companhia ou guarda. O principal motivo para a não-reposição foi o temor da leishmaniose visceral.This study aimed to estimate the dog replacement rate in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, in which slaughter of seropositive animals was indicated as a control measure, and to evaluate the reasons why new animals were or were not acquired. The animals were replaced in 44.5% of the cases, and this was done mainly because of the need for a companion or guard dog. The main reason for not replacing the dog was fear of visceral leishmaniasis.

Andréa Maria Andrade

2007-10-01

195

Genetic epidemiology of fecal egg excretion during Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There is considerable variation in the level of fecal egg excretion during Schistosoma mansoni infections. Within a single endemic area, the distribution of egg counts is typically overdispersed, with the majority of eggs excreted coming from a minority of residents. The purpose of this study was to [...] quantify the influence of genetic factors on patterns of fecal egg excretion in a rural study sample in Brazil. Individual fecal egg excretions, expressed in eggs per gram of feces, were determined by the Kato-Katz method on stool samples collected on three different days. Detailed genealogic information was gathered at the time of sampling, which allowed assignment of 461 individuals to 14 pedigrees containing between 3 and 422 individuals. Using a maximum likelihood variance decomposition approach, we performed quantitative genetic analyses to determine if genetic factors could partially account for the observed pattern of fecal egg excretion. The quantitative genetic analysis indicated that between 21-37% of the variation in S. mansoni egg counts was attributable to additive genetic factors and that shared environment, as assessed by common household, accounted for a further 12-21% of the observed variation. A maximum likelihood heritability (h²) estimate of 0.44 ± 0.14 (mean ± SE) was found for the 9,604 second- and higher-degree pairwise relationships in the study sample, which is consistent with the upper limit (37%) of the genetic factor determined in the variance decomposition analysis. These analyses point to the significant influence of additive host genes on the pattern of S. mansoni fecal egg excretion in this endemic area.

J, Bethony; A, Gazzinelli; A, Lopes; W, Pereira; LF, Alves-Oliveira; S, Willams-Blangero; J, Blangero; PT, LoVerde; R, Corrêa-Oliveira.

196

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

2012-08-01

197

Serology of typhoid fever in an area of endemicity and its relevance to diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of > or =0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P < or = 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available. PMID:11230418

House, D; Wain, J; Ho, V A; Diep, T S; Chinh, N T; Bay, P V; Vinh, H; Duc, M; Parry, C M; Dougan, G; White, N J; Hien, T T; Farrar, J J

2001-03-01

198

Serology of Typhoid Fever in an Area of Endemicity and Its Relevance to Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of ?0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P ? 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available.

House, Deborah; Wain, John; Ho, Vo A.; Diep, To S.; Chinh, Nguyen T.; Bay, Phan V.; Vinh, Ha; Duc, Minh; Parry, Christopher M.; Dougan, Gordon; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.

2001-01-01

199

Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

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Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identif...

Mohammad Shafiul Alam; Hirotomo Kato; Mizuho Fukushige; Yukiko Wagatsuma; Makoto Itoh

2012-01-01

200

Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Sand Fly Saliva in Humans from a Leishmaniasis-Endemic Area of Mali Is TH1-Mediated and Persists to Midlife  

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Immunity to sand fly saliva in rodents induces a TH1 delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response conferring protection against leishmaniasis. The relevance of DTH to sand fly bites in humans living in a leishmaniasis-endemic area remains unknown. Here, we describe the duration and nature of DTH to sand fly saliva in humans from an endemic area of Mali. DTH was assessed at 24, 48, 72, and 96?hours post bite in volunteers exposed to colony-bred sand flies. Dermal biopsies were obtained 48?...

Oliveira, Fabiano; Traore?, Bourama; Gomes, Regis; Faye, Ousmane; Gilmore, Dana C.; Keita, Somita; Traore?, Pierre; Teixeira, Clarissa; Coulibaly, Cheick A.; Samake, Sibiry; Meneses, Claudio; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Fay, Michael P.; Anderson, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the endemic area of Montes Claros Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Montes Claros City is located in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniosis in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With the implementation of a program for the control of visceral leishmaniosis in 1994, a sectional study was carried out to evaluate the infection by viscerotropic Leishmania in the population of dogs from Montes Claros, basically using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Blood samples were collected on filter paper from 33,937 dogs, representing 96.1% of the canine local population. The prevalence for visceral leishmaniosis was found to be 9.7% in the municipality, being 9.9% in the urban area and 8.8% in the rural area. The annual incidence showed to be 64.3/1000 dogs. Prevalence of infection was not correlated with dogs age. The most affected breeds were: Boxer (24.6%) and Cocker (26.9%); Mongrel dogs had a prevalence of 7.8%. Short-hair animals had a prevalence of 11.9%, while long-furred animals had a prevalence of 8.9%. The isoenzymatic profile indicated that Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi was the visceral leishmaniosis etiological agent in Montes Claros City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main geographical areas for the parasite transmission were identified, and control measures were immediately started. The role of the dog as a reservoir for L. chagasi was confirmed. It was demonstrated that short-furred animals are at a higher risk of acquiring visceral leishmaniosis than the long-furred dogs. PMID:12531292

França-Silva, João C; da Costa, Roberto T; Siqueira, Ari M; Machado-Coelho, George L L; da Costa, Carlos A; Mayrink, Wilson; Vieira, Edva P; Costa, Jaime S; Genaro, Odair; Nascimento, Evaldo

2003-02-13

202

Effect of Environmental Disturbance on the Population of Sandflies and Leishmania Transmission in an Endemic Area of Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

The exploitation of new wilderness areas with crops is increasing and traditional crop substitution has been modified by new more productive crops. The results show the anthropogenic disturbance effect on the sandflies population and Leishmania transmission in endemic areas of Venezuela. Three agroecosystems with variable degrees of ecological disturbance, forest (conserved), cacao (fragmented), and orangery (disturbed), were selected. Four methods to sandfly capture were used; the specimens were identified and infected with Leishmania. Diversity, population structure, ANOVA, Tukey test, and simple correlation analysis were carried out. Shannon traps were able to capture 94.7% of the total sandflies, while CDC light traps, Sticky traps, and direct suction just captured 2.2%, 1.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. The results showed the effect of ecological disturbance degree on the composition of sandflies and population structure, revealing a dominance level increased but decreased on the diversity and richness of sandflies species in the greatest ecological disturbance area in relation to areas with less organic disturbance. Environments more disturbed cause adaptability of certain species such as Lutzomyia gomezi and Lutzomyia walkeri. These changes on the composition of sandflies population and structure emerging species could cause increasing of leishmaniasis transmission.

Nieves, Elsa; Oraa, Luzmary; Rondon, Yorfer; Sanchez, Mireya; Sanchez, Yetsenia; Rojas, Masyelly; Rondon, Maritza; Rujano, Maria; Gonzalez, Nestor; Cazorla, Dalmiro

2014-01-01

203

The predicted and observed decline in onchocerciasis infection during 14 years of successful control of Simulium spp. in west Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 55 villages from the well-protected central area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), skin snip surveys have been carried out at regular intervals since the programme started, and the latest round of surveys was undertaken after 12-14 years of successful vector control. The observed trends in the prevalence and intensity of onchocerciasis infection in cohorts of adults were compared with the trends predicted using a host-parasite model. After 12-14 years of control...

Remme, J.; Sole, G.; Oortmarssen, G. J.

1990-01-01

204

Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in particular the range of spatial autocorrelation, reflect differences in the mode of transmission of cholera and dysentery. Our risk maps for cholera and dysentery incidences should help identifying putative factors of increased disease incidence, leading to more effective prevention and remedial actions in endemic areas.

Haq M Zahirul

2006-10-01

205

Changes in stigma and discrimination of onchocerciasis in Africa.  

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Forms of onchocerciasis-related stigmatisation, following over 10 years of implementation of community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), were documented through a survey conducted between September and November 2009 to look at perceived changes in stigma over the past 7-10 years. We documented people's perceptions towards stigma before and after the introduction of CDTI from 1600 structured interviews with households selected from the community treatment registers; in-depth interviews with 57 community leaders, community directed distributors and health personnel; 33 focus group discussions with male and female community members in different age groups (18-24, 25-54 and ?55 years) and 13 case studies. People with onchocercal skin disease (OSD) with rough skin, swellings and rashes were the most stigmatised. People still fear sexual intimacy with infected persons. In the past, people with OSD were considered unclean and stigmatised because of fear of OSD transmission and embarrassment. People who had lived in the community less than 5 years tended to stigmatise OSD patients more than those people who had lived in the community for longer than 5 years. The youth stigmatised the most. Although stigmatisation persists, avoidance of people with OSD decreased from 32.7% to 4.3%. It is notable that treatment availability has improved relationships between healthy people and those with OSD symptoms in endemic communities and this can be attributed to CDTI. Health education should be emphasised in the communities during distribution. PMID:22513165

Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Wanji, Samuel; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Manianga, Célé; Amazigo, Uche V; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary

2012-06-01

206

An immunomics approach to schistosome antigen discovery: antibody signatures of naturally resistant and chronically infected individuals from endemic areas.  

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Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an immunomics approach to the discovery of schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. We selected mostly surface-derived proteins, produced them using an in vitro rapid translation system and then printed them to generate the first protein microarray for a multi-cellular pathogen. Using well-established Brazilian cohorts of putatively resistant (PR) and chronically infected (CI) individuals stratified by the intensity of their S. mansoni infection, we probed arrays for IgG subclass and IgE responses to these antigens to detect antibody signatures that were reflective of protective vs. non-protective immune responses. Moreover, probing for IgE responses allowed us to identify antigens that might induce potentially deleterious hypersensitivity responses if used as subunit vaccines in endemic populations. Using multi-dimensional cluster analysis we showed that PR individuals mounted a distinct and robust IgG1 response to a small set of newly discovered and well-characterized surface (tegument) antigens in contrast to CI individuals who mounted strong IgE and IgG4 responses to many antigens. Herein, we show the utility of a vaccinomics approach that profiles antibody responses of resistant individuals in a high-throughput multiplex approach for the identification of several potentially protective and safe schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. PMID:24675823

Gaze, Soraya; Driguez, Patrick; Pearson, Mark S; Mendes, Tiago; Doolan, Denise L; Trieu, Angela; McManus, Donald P; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Nakajima, Rie; Jasinskas, Al; Hung, Chris; Liang, Li; Pablo, Jozelyn; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Felgner, Philip L; Loukas, Alex

2014-03-01

207

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%, edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%, erupciones cutáneas (3% y debilidad (2%; dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC.

O.A Otubanjo

2008-12-01

208

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con [...] reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC). Abstract in english Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa [...] loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

Otubanjo, O.A; Adeoye, G.O; Ibidapo, C.A; Akinsanya, B; Okeke, P; Atalabi, T; Adejai, E.T; Braide, E.

209

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years, primary school period (7-12 years and secondary school period (13-14 years. Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14. The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5 but differed by gender (P < 0.001. The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1 The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2 HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3 Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4 We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

Bahri Cakabay

2010-01-01

210

Recent developments in the treatment of onchocerciasis*  

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The treatment of onchocerciasis using diethylcarbamazine and suramin sodium, which can kill different stages of the parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, remains unsatisfactory. Recent studies have more clearly defined the serious limitations of the existing forms of treatment. However, two new classes of compounds, the benzimidazoles and avermectins, offer exciting new leads in the search for a safe and effective treatment that could be used on a large scale.

Taylor, Hugh R.

1984-01-01

211

Identification of a new Borrelia species among small mammals in areas of northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic.  

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The role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where Lyme disease is endemic in northern Spain. A low rate of infestation by Ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato to I. ricinus larvae that fed on them. In contrast, questing ticks collected at the same time and in the same areas were found to carry a highly variable B. burgdorferi sensu lato repertoire (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia afzelii). Interestingly, the only isolate obtained from small mammals (R57, isolated from a bank vole) grouped by phylogenetic analyses with other Borrelia species but in a separate clade from the Lyme disease and relapsing fever organisms, suggesting that it is a new species. This new agent was widely distributed among small mammals, with infection rates of 8.5 to 12% by PCR. Moreover, a high seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi sensu lato was found in the animal sera, suggesting cross-reactivity between B. burgdorferi sensu lato and R57. Although small mammals do not seem to play an important role as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the study area, they seem to be implicated in the maintenance of spirochetes similar to R57. PMID:15746336

Gil, Horacio; Barral, Marta; Escudero, Raquel; García-Pérez, Ana L; Anda, Pedro

2005-03-01

212

Oncocercose entre os índios Yanomámi Onchocerciasis among Yanomámi Indians  

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Full Text Available Apresentam-se os dados até agora obtidos sobre o foco brasileiro de oncocercose. Esse foco, localizado no extremo norte do país, envolve principalmente indígenas do grupo Yanomámi, antigos habitantes do local. Em algumas aldeias, a infecção é encontrada em cerca de 80% dos adultos. Aspectos interessantes, como a origem do foco, as características da doença nos indígenas e os principais vetores de Onchocerca volvulus, são abordados. Por fim, é feita uma análise a respeito do comportamento da endemia e da possível disseminação da doença para outras regiões do Brasil - em áreas de garimpo. Sugerem-se medidas de controle, entre elas o uso de larvicidas, método que poderia ser adotado em lugares restritos - com população já estabilizada -, dentro da zona onde mais forte é a prevalência.The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that has lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Mário A. P. Moraes

1991-12-01

213

Oncocercose entre os índios Yanomámi / Onchocerciasis among Yanomámi Indians  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apresentam-se os dados até agora obtidos sobre o foco brasileiro de oncocercose. Esse foco, localizado no extremo norte do país, envolve principalmente indígenas do grupo Yanomámi, antigos habitantes do local. Em algumas aldeias, a infecção é encontrada em cerca de 80% dos adultos. Aspectos interess [...] antes, como a origem do foco, as características da doença nos indígenas e os principais vetores de Onchocerca volvulus, são abordados. Por fim, é feita uma análise a respeito do comportamento da endemia e da possível disseminação da doença para outras regiões do Brasil - em áreas de garimpo. Sugerem-se medidas de controle, entre elas o uso de larvicidas, método que poderia ser adotado em lugares restritos - com população já estabilizada -, dentro da zona onde mais forte é a prevalência. Abstract in english The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that ha [...] s lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Mário A. P., Moraes.

214

Oncocercose entre os índios Yanomámi / Onchocerciasis among Yanomámi Indians  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apresentam-se os dados até agora obtidos sobre o foco brasileiro de oncocercose. Esse foco, localizado no extremo norte do país, envolve principalmente indígenas do grupo Yanomámi, antigos habitantes do local. Em algumas aldeias, a infecção é encontrada em cerca de 80% dos adultos. Aspectos interess [...] antes, como a origem do foco, as características da doença nos indígenas e os principais vetores de Onchocerca volvulus, são abordados. Por fim, é feita uma análise a respeito do comportamento da endemia e da possível disseminação da doença para outras regiões do Brasil - em áreas de garimpo. Sugerem-se medidas de controle, entre elas o uso de larvicidas, método que poderia ser adotado em lugares restritos - com população já estabilizada -, dentro da zona onde mais forte é a prevalência. Abstract in english The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that ha [...] s lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Mário A. P., Moraes.

215

Geological sources of fluoride and acceptable intake of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, southern Iran.  

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The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible source(s) of fluoride in the Dashtestan area, Bushehr Province, southern Iran. In response to reports on the high incidence of dental fluorosis, 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for fluoride. The results indicate that dissolved fluoride in the study area is above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An additional 35 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The results of these analyses show that the most likely source for fluoride in the groundwater is from clay minerals (chlorite) and micas (muscovite, sericite, and biotite) in the soils and rocks in the area. We also note that due to the high average temperatures all year round and excessive water consumption in the area, the optimum fluoride dose level should be lower than that recommended by the WHO. PMID:22426705

Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid; Jacks, Gunnar; Ketabdari, Mohammad Reza

2012-10-01

216

Epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica em área de baixa endemicidade / Epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Discutem se padrões epidemiológicos da esquistossomos mansônica em áreas brasileiras de baixa endemicidade que possuem prevalência inferior a 10%, menos de 96 ovos por grama de fezes (epg) e onde os infectados são assintomáticos. Apresentam-se dados do município de Pedro de Toledo (Vale do Ribeira, [...] SP) área de baixa endemicidade cujos resultados foram obtidos de amostragem aleatória devida à agregação de Schistosoma mansoni. Sugere-se substituição de métodos parasitológicos por técnicas sorológicas com maiores sensibilidade e especificidade. O principal fator de risco é o lazer. A infecção predomina nos grupos etários de 10-14, 15-19 e 20-24. A intensidade de infecção foi baixa, com 58,5 epg (média geométrica). Há boa correlação (rs = 0,745) entre intensidade de infecção e prevalência. Os mais altos índices de potencial de contaminação ocorreram nas idades de 5 a 20 anos (57,6%). Os casos autóctones mantêm íntimo contato com Biomphalaria tenagophila, com infecção inferior a 2%. Os padrões de prevalência, de incidência e de intensidade de infecção são semelhantes aos de áreas de moderada e alta endemicidade. Questões sócio-culturais merecem estudo para visão global da epidemiologia. Abstract in english We discuss the epidemiological patterns of schistosomiasis mansoni in areas with low transmission in Brazil. We define as areas of low endemicity those where the prevalence is less than 10%, the number Schistosoma mansoni eggs per gram of feces (epg) is less than 96, and carriers are asymptomatic. D [...] ata are from the county of Pedro de Toledo in the Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State) and were collected randomly according to the aggregate pattern of S. mansoni within the hosts. We suggest the replacement of parasitological methods by more sensitive and specific serological techniques. The main risk factor for infection is type of leisure activity. Infection is more frequent in the 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24-year age brackets. Geometric mean epg is 58.5. Intensity of infections correlates well (rs = 0.745) with prevalence. The highest index of potential contamination is in the 5-20-year age bracket (57.6%). Autochthonous cases show close association with Biomphalaria tenagophila, which has a low infection rate (2%). Prevalence, incidence, and intensity of infection patterns are similar to those of moderate and high endemic areas. Social and cultural aspects must be studied in order to obtain a global epidemiological view of schistosomiasis.

Luis Candido de S., Dias; Carmem M., Glasser; Oswaldo, Marçal Jr.; Patrícia Ivana P., Bonesso.

1994-07-26

217

Epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica em área de baixa endemicidade / Epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Discutem se padrões epidemiológicos da esquistossomos mansônica em áreas brasileiras de baixa endemicidade que possuem prevalência inferior a 10%, menos de 96 ovos por grama de fezes (epg) e onde os infectados são assintomáticos. Apresentam-se dados do município de Pedro de Toledo (Vale do Ribeira, [...] SP) área de baixa endemicidade cujos resultados foram obtidos de amostragem aleatória devida à agregação de Schistosoma mansoni. Sugere-se substituição de métodos parasitológicos por técnicas sorológicas com maiores sensibilidade e especificidade. O principal fator de risco é o lazer. A infecção predomina nos grupos etários de 10-14, 15-19 e 20-24. A intensidade de infecção foi baixa, com 58,5 epg (média geométrica). Há boa correlação (rs = 0,745) entre intensidade de infecção e prevalência. Os mais altos índices de potencial de contaminação ocorreram nas idades de 5 a 20 anos (57,6%). Os casos autóctones mantêm íntimo contato com Biomphalaria tenagophila, com infecção inferior a 2%. Os padrões de prevalência, de incidência e de intensidade de infecção são semelhantes aos de áreas de moderada e alta endemicidade. Questões sócio-culturais merecem estudo para visão global da epidemiologia. Abstract in english We discuss the epidemiological patterns of schistosomiasis mansoni in areas with low transmission in Brazil. We define as areas of low endemicity those where the prevalence is less than 10%, the number Schistosoma mansoni eggs per gram of feces (epg) is less than 96, and carriers are asymptomatic. D [...] ata are from the county of Pedro de Toledo in the Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State) and were collected randomly according to the aggregate pattern of S. mansoni within the hosts. We suggest the replacement of parasitological methods by more sensitive and specific serological techniques. The main risk factor for infection is type of leisure activity. Infection is more frequent in the 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24-year age brackets. Geometric mean epg is 58.5. Intensity of infections correlates well (rs = 0.745) with prevalence. The highest index of potential contamination is in the 5-20-year age bracket (57.6%). Autochthonous cases show close association with Biomphalaria tenagophila, which has a low infection rate (2%). Prevalence, incidence, and intensity of infection patterns are similar to those of moderate and high endemic areas. Social and cultural aspects must be studied in order to obtain a global epidemiological view of schistosomiasis.

Luis Candido de S., Dias; Carmem M., Glasser; Oswaldo, Marçal Jr.; Patrícia Ivana P., Bonesso.

1994-07-26

218

Epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica em área de baixa endemicidade Epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemic area  

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Full Text Available Discutem se padrões epidemiológicos da esquistossomos mansônica em áreas brasileiras de baixa endemicidade que possuem prevalência inferior a 10%, menos de 96 ovos por grama de fezes (epg e onde os infectados são assintomáticos. Apresentam-se dados do município de Pedro de Toledo (Vale do Ribeira, SP área de baixa endemicidade cujos resultados foram obtidos de amostragem aleatória devida à agregação de Schistosoma mansoni. Sugere-se substituição de métodos parasitológicos por técnicas sorológicas com maiores sensibilidade e especificidade. O principal fator de risco é o lazer. A infecção predomina nos grupos etários de 10-14, 15-19 e 20-24. A intensidade de infecção foi baixa, com 58,5 epg (média geométrica. Há boa correlação (rs = 0,745 entre intensidade de infecção e prevalência. Os mais altos índices de potencial de contaminação ocorreram nas idades de 5 a 20 anos (57,6%. Os casos autóctones mantêm íntimo contato com Biomphalaria tenagophila, com infecção inferior a 2%. Os padrões de prevalência, de incidência e de intensidade de infecção são semelhantes aos de áreas de moderada e alta endemicidade. Questões sócio-culturais merecem estudo para visão global da epidemiologia.We discuss the epidemiological patterns of schistosomiasis mansoni in areas with low transmission in Brazil. We define as areas of low endemicity those where the prevalence is less than 10%, the number Schistosoma mansoni eggs per gram of feces (epg is less than 96, and carriers are asymptomatic. Data are from the county of Pedro de Toledo in the Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State and were collected randomly according to the aggregate pattern of S. mansoni within the hosts. We suggest the replacement of parasitological methods by more sensitive and specific serological techniques. The main risk factor for infection is type of leisure activity. Infection is more frequent in the 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24-year age brackets. Geometric mean epg is 58.5. Intensity of infections correlates well (rs = 0.745 with prevalence. The highest index of potential contamination is in the 5-20-year age bracket (57.6%. Autochthonous cases show close association with Biomphalaria tenagophila, which has a low infection rate (2%. Prevalence, incidence, and intensity of infection patterns are similar to those of moderate and high endemic areas. Social and cultural aspects must be studied in order to obtain a global epidemiological view of schistosomiasis.

Luis Candido de S. Dias

219

Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela / Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las már [...] genes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the [...] proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. and the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

Alexis, Fernández; Jaime, Ramírez-Pérez; Harland, Shuler; Noris, Rodríguez.

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Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were ...

Ahmad Rohani; Nwm, Ali Wan; Nor Zurainee M; Ismail Zamree; Hadi Azahari A; Ibrahim Mohd N; Lim Lee H

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Knowledge of Malaria and Implications for Control in an Endemic Urban Area of North Central Nigeria  

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In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the peoples knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the peoples knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, ...

Olayemi, I. K.; Omalu, I. C. J.; Abolarinwa, S. O.; Mustapha, O. M.; Ayanwale, V. A.; Mohammed, A. Z.; Bello, I. M.; Chukwuemeka, V. I.

2012-01-01

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Characterization of the antibody response to the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in people living in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

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Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates. PMID:21540371

Marzouki, Soumaya; Ben Ahmed, Mélika; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ben Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Ben Salah, Afif; Louzir, Hechmi

2011-05-01

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Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

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Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Vanessa Wolff Machado

2013-04-01

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Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distributio [...] n of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Everton Falcão de, Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e, Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Antonio Conceição, Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo, Gamarra; Alisson André, Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira.

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The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou  

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Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

2004-07-01

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Monitoring of African swine fever in the wild boar population of the most recent endemic area of Spain.  

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Wild boars are natural hosts for African swine fever (ASF). The ASF virus (ASFV) can persist for long periods in the environment, such as in ticks and contaminated products, which may be sources of infection for wild boar populations. African swine fever was eradicated in domestic pig populations in Spain in 1995, after 35?years of significant effort. To determine whether ASFV can persist in wild boar hosts after it has been eradicated from domestic pigs and to study the role of wild boar in helping ASFV persist in the environment, we checked for the presence of ASFV in wild boars in Doñana National Park, one of the largest natural habitats of wild boar in Spain and one of the last areas where ASF was endemic prior its eradication. Samples from 158 animals collected between 2006 and 2010 were analysed using serological and nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). None of the samples was found to be positive. These results confirm the absence of disease in wildlife in what was once one of the areas most affected by ASF in Spain, and they suggest that wild boars play a limited role in ASFV persistence. These results confirm that ASFV cannot persist in isolated wild boar populations for long periods of time without the interaction of other factors such as re-infection by contact with domestic pigs or by feeding on contaminated swill. PMID:22248024

Mur, L; Boadella, M; Martínez-López, B; Gallardo, C; Gortazar, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

2012-12-01

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Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region  

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Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

2012-01-01

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Epidemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.  

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The study was carried out in the central part of the Islamic Republic of Iran over a 12-month period in 1991-92 in Borkhar, a rural district lying north of Isfahan city. The objective was to determine the ecology of natural reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis for possible future field trials of leishmania vaccine. The main reservoir host in this area is Rhombomys opimus, the great gerbil, followed by Meriones libycus, the Libyan jird, and Hemiechinus auritis, the long-eared hedgehog. Of the 179 ...

Yaghoobi-ershadi, M. R.; Javadian, E.

1996-01-01

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Absence of Leishmania infantum in cave bats in an endemic area in Spain.  

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Though dogs have been historically considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the role of wildlife in its epidemiology is attracting increasing attention. Rodents, wild carnivores and, recently, hares (Lepus spp.) have been proposed as sylvatic reservoirs for this parasite. Bats have never been tested for L. infantum infection in Europe. Nevertheless, bats have a widespread distribution, they live in abundant colonies, and some species inhabit caves, where constant temperatures and humidity provide ideal habitat for the sand fly vector. We tested blood samples from 35 Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii), abundant cave bats in NE Spain, which is an enzootic area of leishmaniasis. A PCR-amplifying fragment of the high copy of Leishmania donovani group kDNA minicircles was used. None of the analyzed samples were positive (maximum possible prevalence?=?8.20 %). Though the susceptibility of this bat to parasitization by L. infantum cannot be ruled out, our survey indicates that this species may not be a relevant sylvatic reservoir of L. infantum in the Mediterranean area. Nevertheless, even if the prevalence of infection in bats is low, such an abundant taxonomic group would still provide a significant maintenance population for the parasite. PMID:24623348

Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Cabezón, Oscar; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

2014-05-01

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Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be optimized, based on endemic areas with supporting data on G6PD variants. Larger sample size from different malaria endemic is required to obtain accurate genetic mapping of G6PD variants in Burmese and Thai population residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand.

Phompradit Papichaya

2011-12-01

231

Seasonal abundance and host-feeding patterns of anopheline vectors in malaria endemic area of iran.  

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Seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. The objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern Iran. This study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices) in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern Iran. Mosquito vectors were collected from indoor as well as outdoor shelters and the blood meals were examined by ELISA test. Over all 7654 female Anopheles spp. were captured, the most common species were Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. d'thali. The overall human blood index was 37.50%, 19.83%, 16.4%, and 30.1% for An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, and An. d'thali, respectively. In addition, An. fluviatilis fed on human blood during the entire year but the feeding behavior of An. stephensi and An. culicifacies varied according to seasons. Overall, the abundance of the female mosquito positive to human blood was 4.25% per human shelter versus 17.5% per animal shelter. This result indicates that the vectors had tendency to rest in animal shelters after feeding on human. Therefore, vector control measure should be planned based on such as feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of these vectors in the area. PMID:21559055

Basseri, Hamidreza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Ranjbar Khakha, Mansoor; Pakarai, Abaas; Abdolghafar, Hassanzehi

2010-01-01

232

Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

233

Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

Rawlani Sudhir

2010-01-01

234

Utility of the detection of Plasmodium parasites for the diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In populations where the prevalence of infection with Plasmodium parasites is high, blood tests that identify Plasmodium parasites in patients with fever may lead to false positive diagnosis of malaria-disease. We characterised the diminishing value of the parasite detection test as a function of the prevalence of infection. Methods We computed the ability of the parasite detection test to identify malaria at various levels of prevalence (0% to 90%, assuming plausible estimates of sensitivity (95% and 85% and specificity (99% and 95% for the detection of parasites. In each situation, we computed likelihood ratios of malaria (or absence of malaria for positive and negative parasite detection tests. Likelihood ratios were classified as clinically useful (? 10, intermediate (5–10, or unhelpful ( Results Likelihood ratios of positive tests were strongly related to the prevalence of infection in the general population: a positive test was unhelpful when the prevalence was 20% or more, and useful only when prevalence was 5% or less. The sensitivity and specificity of the test had little influence on these results. Likelihood ratios of negative tests were clinically useful when prevalence was 70% or less, but only for high levels of sensitivity (95%. If sensitivity was low (85%, the negative test was at best of intermediate utility, and was unhelpful if the prevalence of asymptomatic infection exceeded 30%. Conclusion Identification of Plasmodium parasites supports a diagnosis of malaria only in areas where the prevalence of Plasmodium infection is low. Wherever this prevalence exceeds about 20%, a positive test is clinically unhelpful.

Szeless Thomas

2006-05-01

235

Endemic goitre prevalence in Ifedapo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of efforts aimed at providing an adequate data base for the control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in Nigeria, we undertook an extensive goitre survey of Ifedapo Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, which lies within the goitre-belt of South-western Nigeria. Primary school pupils aged between six and twelve years were the subjects of the survey. From each of ten health districts of the LGA, one primary school was included in the survey. For each school, the entire school population was assessed for goitre by palpation and goitre graded according to WHO/ICCIDD criteria. The survey included 3599 pupils (1889 males and 1710 females). The total goitre rate (TGR) for the LGA was 23.4% while the visible goitre rate (VGR) was 6.4%. The highest goitre rate was recorded in District I (Sango, Saki) TGR = 39.5%; VGR = 17.3%), while the lowest rate was seen in District 4 (Wasengare) TGR = 5.2%; VGR = 0.7%). Females had higher goitre rates than males (TGR: 25.7% vs 21.3%; VGR: 7.5% vs 5.5%). Most of the goitres were Grades IA (36.7%) or IB (35.7%). Goitre grades 2 and 3 accounted for only 27.3% and 0.2%, respectively. These results show that there is a mild to moderate IDD problem in Ifedapo LGA. The implications of this finding, in view of the known deleterious consequences of IDD, are discussed and the need for correction highlighted. PMID:10456136

Ojule, A C; Abbiyesuku, F M; Osotimehin, B O

1998-01-01

236

Knowledge of Malaria and Implications for Control in an Endemic Urban Area of North Central Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the peoples knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the peoples knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, the frequency at which they experience episodes of the disease. The results revealed that 80.95% of the respondents correctly associated malaria with clinical symptoms of the disease, while the remaining 19.05% attributed non-malaria conditions, especially, stomach pain (4.50%, influenza (2.74%, diarrhea (2.36%, etc., to the disease. About 97% of the respondents had experienced malaria, with 49.16% of them having an episode in the three months preceding this survey. Though, all the respondents claimed to know the cause of malaria, only 89.47% correctly mentioned mosquito bites while, the remaining 10.53% gave spurious answers including, changes in weather conditions (3.09%, onset of teething in infants (2.75%, dirty environment (1.66%, etc. Almost all the respondents (96.53% knew an appropriate method of preventing malaria, with the use of mosquito coils/aerosols (33.69% and bed nets (27.30% been the most preferred options. The epidemiological implications of these results were highlighted and discussed and it was concluded that the findings will serve as an impetus for re-designing anti-malaria behavioural change communication messages.

V.I. Chukwuemeka

2012-01-01

237

Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control  

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Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’ of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6% respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of respondents and the measures they take to prevent malaria (?2 = 58.7; df = 16; p < 0.001. The findings clearly suggest that the majority of the respondents had adequate knowledge and enviable health seeking behaviour. However, still a sizable faction had misconception and undesirable health seeking behaviour. It’s a major barrier to implement effective malaria control strategies in the resource- limited settings particularly in country like Ethiopia. In this context, appropriate communication strategies apparently inevitable. Therefore, appropriate communication strategies should be designed to promote the knowledge and health seeking behaviour of vulnerable section of the society in this vicinity.

Abdi Kumera

2010-06-01

238

Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

2009-09-15

239

Natural selection maintains a stable polymorphism at the circumsporozoite protein locus of Plasmodium falciparum in a low endemic area  

Science.gov (United States)

Circumsporozoite protein gene sequences of Plasmodium falciparum were collected in 1996–1997 and in 2006–2007 from a single endemic area in Thailand. Repeat units were more similar within the same haplotype than between haplotypes, supporting the hypothesis that repeat arrays evolve by a process of concerted evolution. There was evidence that natural selection has favored amino acid changes in the Th2R and Th3R T-cell epitope regions. One haplotype in these epitopes, designated *5/*1, occurred in approximately 70% of sequences in both collection periods. The most common other haplotypes differed from *5/*1 by at least two amino acid replacements; and divergence in the epitopes was correlated with divergence in the repeats. These patterns are most consistent with balancing selection driven by interactions with the immune system of the vertebrate host, probably involving both T-cell recognition of the Th2R and Th3R epitopes and antibody responses to the repeats.

Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Hughes, Austin L.

2014-01-01

240

Ultrasonography assessment of hepatobiliary abnormalities in 3,359 subjects with Opisthorchis viverrini infection in endemic areas of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional study on hepatobiliary abnormalities in opisthorchiasis was performed in 8,936 males and females aged from 20 to 60 years from 90 villages of Khon Kaen province, Northeast Thailand. All were stool-examined for Opisthorchis viverrini infection by standard quantitative formalin/ethyl acetate concentration technique. Of these, 3,359 participants with stool egg positive were underwent ultrasonography of the upper abdomen. The hepatobiliary abnormalities detected by ultrasound are described here. This study found a significantly higher frequency of advanced periductal fibrosis in persons with chronic opisthorchiasis (23.6%), particularly in males. Risks of the fibrosis included intensity of infection, and age younger than 30 years. Height of left lobe of the liver, cross-section of the gallbladder dimensions post fatty meal, sludge, and, interestingly, intrahepatic duct stones were significantly associated with the advanced periductal fibrosis. Eleven suspected cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cases were observed. This study emphasizes the current status of high O. viverrini infection rate and the existence of hepatobiliary abnormalities including suspected CCA in opisthorchiasis endemic areas of Thailand.

Mairiang, Eimorn; Laha, Thewarach; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p <0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p <0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.

Johansen, M V; Simonsen, Paul Erik

1994-01-01

242

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

Cláudio Casanova

2005-11-01

243

Clinical epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Pokot endemic area of Uganda and Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 2000 and 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières diagnosed and treated 4,831 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Pokot region straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya. A retrospective analysis of routinely collected clinical data showed no marked seasonal or annual fluctuations. Males between 5 and 14 years of age were the most affected group. Marked splenomegaly and anemia were striking features. An rK39 antigen-based rapid diagnostic test was evaluated and found sufficiently accurate to replace the direct agglutination test and spleen aspiration as the first-line diagnostic procedure. The case-fatality rate with sodium stibogluconate as first-line treatment was low. The VL relapses were rare and often diagnosed more than 6 months post-treatment. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis was rare but likely to be underdiagnosed. The epidemiological and clinical features of VL in the Pokot area differed markedly from VL in Sudan, the main endemic focus in Africa. PMID:24218406

Mueller, Yolanda K; Kolaczinski, Jan H; Koech, Timothy; Lokwang, Peter; Riongoita, Mark; Velilla, Elena; Brooker, Simon J; Chappuis, François

2014-01-01

244

Ultrasonography assessment of hepatobiliary abnormalities in 3359 subjects with Opisthorchis viverrini infection in endemic areas of Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional study on hepatobiliary abnormalities in opisthorchiasis was performed in 8936 males and females aged from 20 to 60 years from 90 villages of Khon Kaen province, Northeast Thailand. All were stool-examined for Opisthorchis viverrini infection by standard quantitative formalin/ethyl acetate concentration technique. Of these, 3359 participants with stool egg positive underwent ultrasonography of the upper abdomen. The hepatobiliary abnormalities detected by ultrasound are described here. This study found a significantly higher frequency of advanced periductal fibrosis in persons with chronic opisthorchiasis (23.6%), particularly in males. Risks of the fibrosis included intensity of infection, and age younger than 30 years. Height of left lobe of the liver, cross-section of the gallbladder dimensions post fatty meal, sludge, and, interestingly, intrahepatic duct stones were significantly associated with the advanced periductal fibrosis. Eleven suspected cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cases were observed. This study emphasizes the current status of high O. viverrini infection rate and the existence of hepatobiliary abnormalities including suspected CCA in opisthorchiasis endemic areas of Thailand. PMID:21771664

Mairiang, Eimorn; Laha, Thewarach; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

2012-03-01

245

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases we [...] re present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Machado, Vanessa Wolff; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; Santos, João Barberino.

246

Human onchocerciasis in Brazil: an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human onchocerciasis was recently discovered in Brazil among Yanomámi Indians living along the border region with Venezuela in the States of Amazonas and Roraima. The article reports on the history of the disease's discovery, its distribution, and incrimination of vector simuliid species. The literature that has been generated on the parasite, its vectors, and control of the disease is critically analyzed as well as the organization of epidemiological surveys and the control program developed by the Brazilian government and an international agency. Suggestions for future work are made.

Shelley Anthony J.

2002-01-01

247

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo

2013-03-01

248

Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors. PMID:22246369

Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

2012-07-01

249

Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses. PMID:21138380

de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

2011-03-01

250

Lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer in the arseniasis-endemic area of Northeastern Taiwan  

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Arsenic in drinking water has been shown to increase the risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer. However, the lifetime risk of developing urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by exposure to arsenic in drinking water has not been reported. This study aimed to assess the lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by arsenic exposure from drinking water and cigarette smoking habit for residents living in the arseniasis-endemic area in Northeastern Taiwan. We recruited 8086 residents in 1991-1994 and monitored them for their newly developed types of cancers, identified by computerized linkage with the national cancer registry profile. There were 37 newly diagnosed urothelial carcinoma cases and 223 new lung cancer cases during the follow-up period (until 2007). The lifetime (35-85 years old) cumulative risk of developing urothelial carcinoma from an arsenic concentration in the drinking water of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer, showing the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.48 (1.27-4.82) and 3.44 (2.00-5.90) after adjusting for the arsenic concentration in drinking water. After adjusting for cigarette smoking, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing urothelial carcinoma caused by the arsenic concentration in drinking water of lung cancer. Synergistic effects on the development of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer existed between the arsenic exposure level and cigarette smoking. It is suggested that people who have had a high exposure to arsenic in drinking water should stop smoking cigarettes to lower their lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer.

Yang, Tse-Yen; Hsu, Ling-I.; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen

2013-11-01

251

T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor [...] resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10) production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma) and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10). The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10) and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma), leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

Rita C, Bittar; Ricardo S, Nogueira; Ricardo, Vieira-Gonçalves; Vanessa, Pinho-Ribeiro; Marise S, Mattos; Manoel Paes, Oliveira-Neto; Sergio G, Coutinho; Alda M, Da-Cruz.

252

A high resolution melting real time PCR for mapping of filaria infection in domestic cats living in brugian filariosis-endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present here a real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for determining the prevalence and distribution of filarial species in domestic cats residing in brugian filariosis endemic areas of Narathiwat province, Thailand. Filarial species can be clearly distinguished in a single well using a single pair of primers. Blood samples were taken from a total of 2039 domestic cats living in endemic areas. Microfilariae were detected in 5.7% of the sample, while the overall prevalence of filaria infection by HRM analysis was 6.6%. The filariae species found in the infected cats were Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens as well as Acanthocheilonema (Dipetalonema) reconditum. This is the first report of A. reconditum infection from Thailand. The study also observed an overlapping of the distribution areas of animal and human filariae. From a public health perspective, the distribution and prevalence of these nematodes warrant an appropriate drug-based prophylaxis to be administered to cats in the endemic areas to reduce the number of diseased carriers. Furthermore, this molecular approach is more sensitive than microfilariae detection, enables species identification and greatly facilitates the collection of epidemiological data. Thus, the present study may help to bridge human-animal interface by coordinating research outcomes with the control of zoonoses that is vitally important for human and veterinary public health. PMID:24462253

Wongkamchai, Sirichit; Nochote, Hathai; Foongladda, Suporn; Dekumyoy, Paron; Thammapalo, Suvit; Boitano, John J; Choochote, Wej

2014-03-17

253

A 13-year follow-up of treatment and snail control in an area endemic for Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil: incidence of infection and reinfection.  

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The incidences of Schistosoma mansoni infection and reinfection were investigated in an endemic area of Brazil (Peri-Peri, State of Minas Gerais) where chemotherapy and snail control had been used for 13 years (1974-87). Two cohorts were followed: the first consisted of 584 individuals with no evidence of infection at entry (infection cohort), and the second comprised 296 individuals who were treated and did not eliminate eggs 8-12 months afterwards (reinfection cohort). The incidence of infe...

Lima E Costa, M. F.; Rocha, R. S.; Coura Filho, P.; Katz, N.

1993-01-01

254

A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA) AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni  

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The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT) on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil) wi...

1998-01-01

255

Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil  

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The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positiv...

2012-01-01

256

Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India  

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Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector s...

Nanda Nutan; Bhatt Rajendra M; Sharma Shri N; Rana Pallab K; Kar Narayani P; Sharma Akash; Adak Tridibes

2012-01-01

257

Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty Filariose bancroftiana em uma área endêmica do Brasil: diferenças entre os sexos durante a puberdade  

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Gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. A survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of Olinda, Brazil. All residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. People aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. Data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. The risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. Among those...

Cynthia Braga; Inês Dourado; Ricardo Ximenes; Janaína Miranda; Neal Alexander

2005-01-01

258

Impact Review of the Onchocerciasis Control Program, Ouagadougou, August 1985.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year, Agency for International Development (AID) supported Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) initiated in 1974 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Banks, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the United Nations Development Pro...

J. Kelly C. J. Shiff H. C. Goodman L. Dash A. B. Brown

1986-01-01

259

Some Observations on the Ocular Pathology of Onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

One blind eye was enucleated surgically from each of three African patients who had onchocerciasis. Histopathologic study revealed severe chronic sclerokeratitis and nongranulomatous uveitis with secondary glaucoma in each of these eyes. Microfilariae wer...

E. V. Paul L. E. Zimmerman

1970-01-01

260

Delayed-type hypersensitivity to sand fly saliva in humans from a leishmaniasis-endemic area of Mali is Th1-mediated and persists to midlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunity to sand fly saliva in rodents induces a T(H)1 delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response conferring protection against leishmaniasis. The relevance of DTH to sand fly bites in humans living in a leishmaniasis-endemic area remains unknown. Here, we describe the duration and nature of DTH to sand fly saliva in humans from an endemic area of Mali. DTH was assessed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post bite in volunteers exposed to colony-bred sand flies. Dermal biopsies were obtained 48 hours post bite; cytokines were quantified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with sand fly saliva in vitro. A DTH response to bites was observed in 75% of individuals aged 1-15 years, decreasing gradually to 48% by age 45, and dropping to 21% thereafter. Dermal biopsies were dominated by T lymphocytes and macrophages. Abundant expression of IFN-? and absence of T(H)2 cytokines establishes the T(H)1 nature of this DTH response. PBMCs from 98% of individuals responded to sand fly saliva. Of these, 23% were polarized to a T(H)1 and 25% to a T(H)2 response. We demonstrate the durability and T(H)1 nature of DTH to sand fly bites in humans living in a cutaneous leishmaniasis-endemic area. A systemic T(H)2 response may explain why some individuals remain susceptible to disease. PMID:22992802

Oliveira, Fabiano; Traoré, Bourama; Gomes, Regis; Faye, Ousmane; Gilmore, Dana C; Keita, Somita; Traoré, Pierre; Teixeira, Clarissa; Coulibaly, Cheick A; Samake, Sibiry; Meneses, Claudio; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Fairhurst, Rick M; Fay, Michael P; Anderson, Jennifer M; Doumbia, Seydou; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cohort study of the seasonal effect on nasal carriage and the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in an endemic area in the general population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy continues to be a significant health problem in certain pockets in developing countries. Better understanding of the transmission and source of the infection would help to decipher the transmission link, leading to control of the spread of the disease. The nose is considered to be a portal of entry, suggesting an aerial route for transmission through droplet infection. The evidence suggests that many individuals from endemic countries carry Mycobacterium leprae in their nasal cavities without having obvious symptoms of leprosy. The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of M. leprae on the nasal mucosa in the general population from a leprosy-endemic pocket. M. leprae detection was carried out using PCR targeting RLEP. Four hundred subjects from an area highly endemic for leprosy were included in the study and followed up during three different seasons--winter, summer, and monsoon--for evidence of nasal exposure to M. leprae. PCR positivity for M. leprae was observed in 29%, 21% and 31% of the samples collected in winter, summer and the monsoon season, respectively. Twenty-six individuals from the cohort showed amplification for M. leprae for all seasons. Our results are consistent with reports in the literature showing widespread exposure to M. leprae in the endemic community. The results also suggest possible association of the environmental conditions (climate) with the transmission pattern and levels of exposure to M. leprae. However, the present study indicated that the population from highly endemic pockets will have exposure to M. leprae irrespective of season. PMID:23331372

Lavania, M; Turankar, R P; Karri, S; Chaitanya, V S; Sengupta, U; Jadhav, R S

2013-10-01

262

Socioeconomic consequences of blinding onchocerciasis in west Africa.  

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Onchocerciasis or river blindness, a major cause of irreversible blindness among adults, has been the focus of international disease control efforts for over 20 years in West Africa. This paper employs the international classification of impairment, disability and handicap (ICIDH) to interpret results from a field study to assess the socioeconomic consequences of onchocerciasis in Guinea in 1987. In a sample of 136 blind, 94 visually impaired and 89 well-sighted persons, decreasing visual acu...

Evans, T. G.

1995-01-01

263

Metabolomics-Based Discovery of Diagnostic Biomarkers for Onchocerciasis  

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Onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, afflicts millions of people, causing such debilitating symptoms as blindness and acute dermatitis. There are no accurate, sensitive means of diagnosing O. volvulus infection. Clinical diagnostics are desperately needed in order to achieve the goals of controlling and eliminating onchocerciasis and neglected tropical diseases in general. In this study, a metabolomics approach is introduced for the discovery of small molecule ...

Denery, Judith R.; Nunes, Ashlee A. K.; Hixon, Mark S.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Janda, Kim D.

2010-01-01

264

Onchocerciasis Control: Vision for the Future from a Ghanian perspective  

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Since 1987 onchocerciasis control has relied on the donation of ivermectin (Mectizan®, Merck & Co., Inc.) through the Mectizan Donation Programme. Recently, concern has been raised over the appearance of suboptimal responses to ivermectin in Ghana – highlighting the potential threat of the development of resistance to ivermectin. This report summarises a meeting held in Ghana to set the research agenda for future onchocerciasis control. The aim of this workshop was to define the research p...

Taylor, Mark J.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria; Biritwum, Nana; Boakye, Daniel; Boatin, Boakye; Bockarie, Moses; Churcher, Thomas S.; Debrah, Alex; Edwards, Geoffrey; Hoerauf, Achim; Mand, Sabine; Matthews, Graham; Osei-atweneboana, Mike; Prichard, Roger K.

2009-01-01

265

Final report of the Conference on the eradicability of Onchocerciasis  

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Sixty-four experts from a variety of disciplines attended a Conference on the Eradicability of Onchocerciasis at The Carter Center, in Atlanta GA, held January 22-24, 2002. The Conference, which was organized by The Carter Center and the World Health Organization, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, addressed the question: "Is onchocerciasis (River Blindness) eradicable with current knowledge and tools?" Former US President Jimmy Carter attended part of the final pl...

Dadzie, Yankum; Neira, Maria; Hopkins, Donald

2003-01-01

266

Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis  

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The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia) and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores). In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples fr...

Héctor Rubinstein; Blanca Marticorena; Diana Masih; Noemi Borletto; Raul Vega; Haydee Varengo; Ricardo Negroni

1989-01-01

267

Evaluation of rK-39 strip test using urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by demonstration of parasites in tissue smears obtained from bone marrow, spleen or lymph nodes is risky, painful, and difficult. The rK-39 strip test is widely used for the diagnosis of VL using blood/serum samples in endemic countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rK-39 strip test using urine sample as a non-invasive means for the diagnosis of VL. The rk-39 strip test was performed using urine from 100 suspected VL cases along with 25 disease control (malarial febrile cases and 50 healthy control (from endemic and non-endemic areas. All the VL suspected cases were positive with the rK-39 strip test using serum. The sensitivity and specificity of the rK-39 strip test using urine samples was 95% and 93.3%, respectively, compared to serum based rK-39 test. The findings suggest that the urine based rK-39 test could be a practical and efficient tool for the diagnosis of VL patients in rural areas, particularly where resources are limited.

Haque Rashidul

2010-11-01

268

Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In order to bridge the gap between possession and use of bednets, concerted efforts are required to change behaviour by providing accurate information, most particularly by convincing people that mosquitoes are the only source of malaria, whilst recognising that there are other diseases with similar symptoms, caused in other ways. The medical message must underline the seriousness of malaria and the presence of the malaria vector in the dry season as well as the wet, in order to encourage the use of bednets whenever transmission can occur. Communities would benefit from impregnated bednets and other vector control measures being better adapted to their homes, thus reducing the inconvenience of their use.

Doannio Julien

2009-07-01

269

Hepatitis E Virus Infection among Animals and Humans in Xinjiang, China: Possibility of Swine to Human Transmission of Sporadic Hepatitis E in an Endemic Area  

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Hepatitis E is a worldwide public health problem, especially in areas with poor sanitation. This study examines the potential hepatitis E virus (HEV) animal reservoirs and the current status of HEV infection among animals and humans in an endemic area of Xinjiang, China. One thousand five hundred twenty-one serum samples from 12 different animal species and 296 sera from humans were detected for anti-HEV with an in-house enzyme immunoassay, and partial HEV RNA was amplified with a reverse tra...

2010-01-01

270

[Treatment of human onchocerciasis with ivermectin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty immigrants from Mali and West Senegal were treated in Paris. Onchocerciasis was diagnosed by six skin snips using a Holth punch. Ivermectine was given in a single oral dose: ten patients were given 50 mcg/kg, three were given 75 mcg/kg and seven received 100 mcg/kg. No patients had ocular symptoms. The results were as follows: Pruritus disappeared rapidly in 9 out of 11 patients who itched before treatment. The microfilarial load decreased rapidly, especially in cases treated with 75 mcg/kg and 100 mcg/kg as all patients tested on day 60 were negative. Clinical signs of the Mazzotti reaction and ocular reactions were not observed following the treatment. Pruritus was briefly aggravated in only two patients. No cardiovascular, hematological, hepatic or renal toxicity was noted. PMID:6689518

Coulaud, J P; Larivière, M; Gervais, M C; Gaxotte, P; Aziz, A; Deluol, A M; Cenac, J

1983-11-01

271

Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina  

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The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1,100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest), located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion i...

Navarro, Fernando R.; FABIANA CUEZZO; Goloboff, Pablo A.; CLAUDIA SZUMIK; MERCEDES LIZARRALDE DE GROSSO; Gabriela Quintana, M.

2009-01-01

272

Risk factors for Leishmania chagasi infection in an endemic area in Raposa, State of Maranhão, Brazil Fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania chagasi em uma área endêmica em Raposa, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil  

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INTRODUCTION: Infection with Leishmania chagasi is the most common clinical presentation for visceral leishmaniaisis in endemic areas. The municipality of Raposa is an endemic area in State of Maranhão, Brazil, and have had registration cases of visceral leishmaniasis disease. For this reason, a cross- sectional study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for infection with L. chagasi detected by Montenegro skin test. METHODS: The sample comprised 96% of the inhabitants of the villages ...

Charlene Barreto Ponte; Natália Coelho Souza; Maria Neuza Cavalcante; Aldina Maria Prado Barral; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de Aquino; Arlene de Jesus Mendes Caldas

2011-01-01

273

[PREVALENCE OF HBsAg AND anti-HBs CARRIERS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WHO RESIDE IN DIFFERENT ENDEMIC AREAS LOCATED IN CENTRAL-SOUTHERN DEPARTAMENTS OF PERU  

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The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Departments of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemical area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 9,38% (HbsAG+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn wouId prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years were evaluated. The prevalence found in this Hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,8% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo D az de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36,16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76,2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HbsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the costbenefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection. PMID:12196812

Vasquez, S.; Cabezas, C.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Suarez, M.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.

1999-01-01

274

Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan  

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Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-04-15

275

Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer

2013-04-01

276

A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.O potencial diagnóstico dos anticorpos IgM e IgA contra antígenos do tubo digestivo do Schistosoma mansoni, detectados através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta utilizando-se cortes parafinados de vermes adultos, foi avaliado, comparativamente aos resultados do exame parasitológico de fezes, para fins epidemiológicos em áreas de baixa endemicidade para a esquistossomose. Amostras de sangue em papel de filtro foram coletadas de escolares, residindo em duas localidades diferentes dentro do município de Itariri (São Paulo, Brasil, com características epidemio-lógicas distintas em relação à esquistossomose. Os dados parasitológicos e sorológicos foram comparados aos obtidos com um outro grupo de escolares, residentes em uma área não endêmica para esquistossomose. Os resultados demonstraram a falta de sensibilidade do método parasitológico para detecção de indivíduos com baixa carga parasitária e indicam a potencialidade do método sorológico como importante instrumento a ser incorporado aos programas de controle e de vigilância da esquistossomose, para verificação da real situação da esquistossomose em áreas de baixa endemicidade.

Herminia Yohko KANAMURA

1998-03-01

277

PCR and direct agglutination as Leishmania infection markers among healthy Nepalese subjects living in areas endemic for kala-azar  

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OBJECTIVE: To compare a PCR assay and direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of potential markers of Leishmania infection in 231 healthy subjects living in a kala-azar endemic focus of Nepal. METHODS: The sample was composed of 184 (80%) persons without any known history of KA and not living in the same house as known kala-azar cases (HNK), 24 (10%) Healthy Household Contacts (HHC) and 23 (10%) past kala-azar cases which had been successfully treated (HPK). RESULTS: PCR and DAT pos...

Bhattarai, N. R.; Auwera, G.; Khanal, B.; Doncker, S.; Rijal, S.; Das, M. L.; Uranw, S.; Ostyn, B.; Praet, N.; Speybroeck, N.; Picado, A.; Davies, C.; Boelaert, M.; Dujardin, J. C.

2009-01-01

278

Ocular findings in a double-blind study of ivermectin versus diethylcarbamazine versus placebo in the treatment of onchocerciasis.  

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The effect of ivermectin, a new microfilaricide, was assessed in a double blind trial against diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) and placebo. Fifty-nine adult males with moderate to heavy infection with Onchocerca volvulus and with eye involvement were recruited from an area under Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) vector control in Northern Ghana. They were randomly assigned to an eight-day treatment with ivermectin as a single dose of 12 mg on day 1 followed by placebo for the remaining s...

Dadzie, K. Y.; Bird, A. C.; Awadzi, K.; Schulz-key, H.; Gilles, H. M.; Aziz, M. A.

1987-01-01

279

Preliminary pharmaceutical development of antimalarial-antibiotic cotherapy as a pre-referral paediatric treatment of fever in malaria endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemether (AM) plus azithromycin (AZ) rectal co-formulations were studied to provide pre-referral treatment for children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic areas. The target profile required that such product should be cheap, easy to administer by non-medically qualified persons, rapidly effective against both malaria and bacterial infections. Analytical and pharmacotechnical development, followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation, were conducted for various AMAZ coformulations. Of the formulations tested, stability was highest for dry solid forms and bioavailability for hard gelatin capsules; AM release from AMAZ rectodispersible tablet was suboptimal due to a modification of its micro-crystalline structure. PMID:24726300

Gaubert, Alexandra; Kauss, Tina; Marchivie, Mathieu; Ba, Boubakar B; Lembege, Martine; Fawaz, Fawaz; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; Lindegardh, Niklas; Fabre, Jean-Louis; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero L; Millet, Pascal; Gaudin, Karen

2014-07-01

280

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with STh and STp Genotypes Is Associated with Diarrhea Both in Children in Areas of Endemicity and in Travelers?  

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea among children in developing countries and in travelers to areas of ETEC endemicity. ETEC strains isolated from humans may produce a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and two types of the heat-stable enterotoxin STa, called STh and STp, encoded by the estA gene. Two commonly used assay methods for the detection of STa, the infant mouse assay or different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are unable to distinguish between t...

Bo?lin, Ingrid?; Wiklund, Gudrun; Qadri, Firdausi; Torres, Olga; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Savarino, Stephen; Svennerholm, Ann-mari

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. PMID:22285010

Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

2012-06-01

282

Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae, and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86% villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.

Carabin Hélène

2003-01-01

283

Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeti [...] ng a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp), ompA (457-bp), and ompB (720-bp). The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks).The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

Guedes, Elizângela; Leite, Romário C; Prata, Márcia CA; Pacheco, Richard C; Walker, David H; Labruna, Marcelo B.

284

High frequency of asymptomatic Leishmania spp. infection among HIV-infected patients living in endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims at estimating the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-infected patients through the use of non-invasive tests. The study was conducted in three Infectious Diseases Services in two large Brazilian cities, both endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis. Three hundred and eighty-one asymptomatic patients were enrolled whose ages ranged from 19 to 58 years old; 63.5% were men; mean TCD4+ was 380 cells/?l; and mean viral load was 153800 copies/ml. All individuals were tested for Leishmania infection through: ELISA using crude Leishmania infantum (ELISA), ELISA using the recombinant K39 antigen (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR targeted to kDNA region. The tests' positivity were: 10.8% (ELISA), 3.9% (IFAT), 0.8% (rK39), 6.3% PCR and 20.2% (overall, at least one positive test), with no statistical correlation between positivity and clinical and laboratorial variables. Concordance among tests was low (Kappa <0.20). Prevalence of Leishmania asymptomatic infection was high in this population, reinforcing the need for attention in the evaluation of HIV patients from endemic areas. New efforts are needed to develop more specific and sensitive tests to diagnose Leishmania asymptomatic infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) seems to have a protective role against disease progression in co-infected individuals. PMID:22348817

Orsini, Marcela; Canela, João R; Disch, J; Maciel, F; Greco, Dirceu; Toledo, Antonio; Rabello, Ana

2012-05-01

285

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic ar [...] eas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

Rosana, Gentile; Sócrates F, Costa-Neto; Margareth ML, Gonçalves; Simone T, Bonecker; Fabiano A, Fernandes; Juberlan S, Garcia; Magali G M, Barreto; Marisa S, Soares; Paulo S, D' Andrea; José M, Peralta; Luis, Rey.

286

A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated. Results: Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384); that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384) and 17% (67/384) of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384) of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384) false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384) error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384) undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance.

Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ji-Lei; Njuabe, Metoh Theresia; Li, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2014-01-01

287

[Genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by mitochondrial gene ND4 analysis in eleven endemic areas for dengue in Peru].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish the genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by the analysis of the MT-ND4 gene, in eleven endemic regions for dengue in Peru, 51 samples of Ae. Aegypti were tested. The genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 336 base-pairs of MT ND4, the analysis of intra-specific phylogeny was conducted with the Network Ver. 4.6.10 program; and the phylogenetic analysis, with the Neighbor Joining distance method. The presence of five haplotypes of Ae. Aegypti grouped in two lineages was identified: the first one includes haplotypes 1, 3 and 5, and the second one comprises haplotypes 2 and 4. The geographic distribution of each of the haplotypes found is also shown. It is concluded that this variability is caused by the active migration of this vector and the human activity-mediated passive migration. PMID:23949510

Yáñez, Pamela; Mamani, Enrique; Valle, Jorge; García, María Paquita; León, Walter; Villaseca, Pablo; Torres, Dina; Cabezas, César

2013-04-01

288

[Genetic variants of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus circulating in endemic areas of the southern Tajikistan in 2009].  

Science.gov (United States)

506 Hyalomma anatolicum ticks were collected and assayed in two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic regions of Tajikistan. Antigen and RNA of CCHF virus were detected in 3.4% of tick pools from Rudaki district using ELISA and RT-PCR tests. As of Tursunzade district, viral antigen was identified in 9.0% of samples and viral RNA was identified in 8.1% of samples. The multiple alignment of the obtained nucleotide sequences of CCHF virus genome S-segment 287-nt region (996-1282) and multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of the samples, carried out to compare with CCHF virus strains from the GenBank database, as well as phylogenetic analysis, enabled us to conclude that Asia 1 and Asia 2 genotypes of CCHF virus are circulating in Tajikistan. It is important to note that the genotype Asia 1 virus was detected for the first time in Tajikistan. PMID:24364143

Petrova, I D; Kononova, Iu V; Chausov, E V; Shestopalov, A M; Tishkova, F Kh

2013-01-01

289

Assessment and simulation of the implementation of brucellosis control programme in an endemic area of the Middle East.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in Middle Eastern countries. In this study we assessed the extent of the application of planned official brucellosis control programmes in Kafr El Sheikh governorate, Egypt and we used a stochastic simulation model to assess the probable impact of changes to the official control strategy on the dynamics of small-ruminant brucellosis. Our results show that infected herds. Simulation results revealed the inability of the applied control measures to reduce the prevalence of small-ruminant brucellosis. Given our assumptions, the intensity with which infected animals are removed under the actual levels of implementation of test-and-slaughter programmes would permit brucellosis to remain endemic at a level >8% of the sheep and goat population. PMID:19288957

Hegazy, Y M; Ridler, A L; Guitian, F J

2009-10-01

290

Evaluation of allelic forms of the erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Brazilian endemic area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175 (EBA-175 is an antigen considered to be one of the leading malaria vaccine candidates. EBA-175 mediates sialic acid-dependent binding to glycophorin A on the erythrocytes playing a crucial role during invasion of the P. falciparum in the host cell. Dimorphic allele segments, termed C-fragment and F-fragment, have been found in high endemicity malaria areas and associations between the dimorphism and severe malaria have been described. In this study, the genetic dimorphism of EBA-175 was evaluated in P. falciparum field isolates from Brazilian malaria endemic area. Methods The study was carried out in rural villages situated near Porto Velho, Rondonia State in the Brazilian Amazon in three time points between 1993 and 2008. The allelic dimorphism of the EBA-175 was analysed by Nested PCR. Results The classical allelic dimorphism of the EBA-175 was identified in the studied area. Overall, C-fragment was amplified in a higher frequency than F-fragment. The same was observed in the three time points where C-fragment was observed in a higher frequency than F-fragment. Single infections (one fragment amplified were more frequent than mixed infection (two fragments amplified. Conclusions These findings confirm the dimorphism of EBA175, since only the two types of fragments were amplified, C-fragment and F-fragment. Also, the results show the remarkable predominance of CAMP allele in the studied area. The comparative analysis in three time points indicates that the allelic dimorphism of the EBA-175 is stable over time.

de Oliveira-Ferreira Joseli

2011-05-01

291

Rickettsioses emergentes e reemergentes numa região endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Emerging and reemerging rickettsiosis in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O trabalho descreve um inquérito sorológico para rickettsioses em escolares e cães de Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 1998. Trezentos e trinta e um escolares pertenciam a uma área endêmica e 142 a uma área não endêmica do município. Trinta e nove (10,1% soros foram reativos à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI para Rickettsia rickettsiino título de 1:64, sendo que dentre esses reativos, 35 eram de estudantes de escolas de área endêmica. Dentre os 73 cães analisados quanto à presença de anticorpos anti R. rickettsii, anti Ehrlichia chaffeensise anti Ehrlichia canisà RIFI no título de 1:64, 3 (4,11%, 11 (15,07% e 13 (17,81% desses animais foram reativos respectivamente aos antígenos testados. Conclui-se que, a sororeatividade para R. rickettsiiem indivíduos sadios sem história prévia de febre maculosa brasileira, uma doença marcante por sua alta letalidade, e a presença de sororeatividade para Ehrlichiacom potencial patogênico para o homem em cães, nos leva a indagar sobre a transmissão ao homem de outras espécies da família Rickettsiae na área estudada.This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the county. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clinical symptoms of Brazilian spotted fever prior to the serological survey. Some 35 children in the endemic area were reactive to Rickettsia rickettsiiby indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA with a titer of 1:64, corresponding to 10.6%. Sera from 73 dogs were tested, showing seroreactivity (IFA 1:64 to Rickettsia rickettsi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canisin 3 (4.11%, 11 (15.07%, and 13 (17.81%, respectively. The results in schoolchildren and the presence of canine seroreactivity to Ehrlichiaspecies that are potentially pathogenic to humans suggests the risk of transmission of other Rickettsiaein the study area.

Márcio A. M. Galvão

2002-12-01

292

Rickettsioses emergentes e reemergentes numa região endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil / Emerging and reemerging rickettsiosis in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho descreve um inquérito sorológico para rickettsioses em escolares e cães de Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 1998. Trezentos e trinta e um escolares pertenciam a uma área endêmica e 142 a uma área não endêmica do município. Trinta e nove (10,1%) soros foram reativos à Reação de Imun [...] ofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) para Rickettsia rickettsiino título de 1:64, sendo que dentre esses reativos, 35 eram de estudantes de escolas de área endêmica. Dentre os 73 cães analisados quanto à presença de anticorpos anti R. rickettsii, anti Ehrlichia chaffeensise anti Ehrlichia canisà RIFI no título de 1:64, 3 (4,11%), 11 (15,07%) e 13 (17,81%) desses animais foram reativos respectivamente aos antígenos testados. Conclui-se que, a sororeatividade para R. rickettsiiem indivíduos sadios sem história prévia de febre maculosa brasileira, uma doença marcante por sua alta letalidade, e a presença de sororeatividade para Ehrlichiacom potencial patogênico para o homem em cães, nos leva a indagar sobre a transmissão ao homem de outras espécies da família Rickettsiae na área estudada. Abstract in english This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the co [...] unty. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clinical symptoms of Brazilian spotted fever prior to the serological survey. Some 35 children in the endemic area were reactive to Rickettsia rickettsiiby indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) with a titer of 1:64, corresponding to 10.6%. Sera from 73 dogs were tested, showing seroreactivity (IFA 1:64) to Rickettsia rickettsi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canisin 3 (4.11%), 11 (15.07%), and 13 (17.81%), respectively. The results in schoolchildren and the presence of canine seroreactivity to Ehrlichiaspecies that are potentially pathogenic to humans suggests the risk of transmission of other Rickettsiaein the study area.

Márcio A. M., Galvão; Joel A., Lamounier; Elido, Bonomo; Margarete S., Tropia; Eliane G., Rezende; Simone B., Calic; Chequer B., Chamone; Mirtes C., Machado; Márcia E. A., Otoni; Romário C., Leite; Camila, Caram; Cláudio L., Mafra; David H., Walker.

293

Rickettsioses emergentes e reemergentes numa região endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil / Emerging and reemerging rickettsiosis in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho descreve um inquérito sorológico para rickettsioses em escolares e cães de Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 1998. Trezentos e trinta e um escolares pertenciam a uma área endêmica e 142 a uma área não endêmica do município. Trinta e nove (10,1%) soros foram reativos à Reação de Imun [...] ofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) para Rickettsia rickettsiino título de 1:64, sendo que dentre esses reativos, 35 eram de estudantes de escolas de área endêmica. Dentre os 73 cães analisados quanto à presença de anticorpos anti R. rickettsii, anti Ehrlichia chaffeensise anti Ehrlichia canisà RIFI no título de 1:64, 3 (4,11%), 11 (15,07%) e 13 (17,81%) desses animais foram reativos respectivamente aos antígenos testados. Conclui-se que, a sororeatividade para R. rickettsiiem indivíduos sadios sem história prévia de febre maculosa brasileira, uma doença marcante por sua alta letalidade, e a presença de sororeatividade para Ehrlichiacom potencial patogênico para o homem em cães, nos leva a indagar sobre a transmissão ao homem de outras espécies da família Rickettsiae na área estudada. Abstract in english This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the co [...] unty. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clinical symptoms of Brazilian spotted fever prior to the serological survey. Some 35 children in the endemic area were reactive to Rickettsia rickettsiiby indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) with a titer of 1:64, corresponding to 10.6%. Sera from 73 dogs were tested, showing seroreactivity (IFA 1:64) to Rickettsia rickettsi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canisin 3 (4.11%), 11 (15.07%), and 13 (17.81%), respectively. The results in schoolchildren and the presence of canine seroreactivity to Ehrlichiaspecies that are potentially pathogenic to humans suggests the risk of transmission of other Rickettsiaein the study area.

Márcio A. M., Galvão; Joel A., Lamounier; Elido, Bonomo; Margarete S., Tropia; Eliane G., Rezende; Simone B., Calic; Chequer B., Chamone; Mirtes C., Machado; Márcia E. A., Otoni; Romário C., Leite; Camila, Caram; Cláudio L., Mafra; David H., Walker.

294

Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood m [...] eal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

Carla, Maia; Lidia, Dionisio; Maria Odete, Afonso; Luis, Neto; Jose Manuel, Cristovao; Lenea, Campino.

295

Comparison between omentoplasty and partial cystectomy and drainage (PCD) techenques in surgical management of hydatid cysts liver in endemic area (Yemen).  

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Hydatisosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is more or less endemic in all sheep raising countries. This study evaluated omentoplasty versus partial cystectomy with drainage in surgical management of hydatid cysts of the liver in endemic area (Yemen). A total of 60 patients with hydatid cyst in the liver was divided into two groups; G1 (32 patients) treated with omentoplasty and G2 (28 patients) treated with partial cystectomy with drainage (PCD). The results showed that the wound sepsis was seen in 6.25%, of Gland in 14.2% of G2, biliary leakage occurred in 3.5% of G2, intra-abdominal abscess formation occurred in 3.5% of G2, atelectasis was in 3.1% of G1 and in 3.5% of G2. The total morbidity was 12.5% in G1 and 32.1% in G2. There was a significant difference between the two groups as regard to the mean post-operative hospital stay, (6.5 days in G1 versus 15.6 days in G2). PMID:24961020

Borham, Marwan Mansour

2014-04-01

296

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

297

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

2014-05-27

298

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

Castellucci, Léa Cristina; Almeida, Lucas Frederico de; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-06-01

299

Comparative Evaluation of 11 Commercialized Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Detecting Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies in Serum Banks in Areas of Endemicity and Nonendemicity.  

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Chagas disease is one of the main public health issues in Latin America. Increasingly during the past few decades, Trypanosoma cruzi infection has been detected in North America, Europe, and the Western Pacific, mainly as a result of population movement. The limited availability of rapid serological diagnostic tests hinders rapid diagnosis and early treatment in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity. In collaboration with 11 national reference laboratories (NRLs) from different geographical areas, we evaluated the performances of commercialized serological rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for T. cruzi infection. Eleven commercialized T. cruzi infection RDTs were evaluated on a total of 474 samples extensively tested with at least three different techniques for Chagas disease, maintained at controlled low temperatures, and stored in the serum banks of the 11 NRLs. We measured the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of each RDT and provided an additional questionnaire to evaluate its ease of use. The selected RDTs in this study were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Out of the 11 RDTs, we found 8 of them to be useful, with the cassette format favored over the strip. We did not observe significant differences in RDT performances in the different regions. Overall, the performance results were lower than those disclosed by the manufacturers. The results of this evaluation validate the possibility of using RDTs to diagnose Chagas disease, thereby decreasing the time to treatment at a primary health care facility for patients who are willing to be treated. Further studies should be conducted in the laboratory and in the field to confirm these data, expressly to evaluate reproducibility in resource-limited settings, or using whole blood in clinical settings in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity. PMID:24808239

Sánchez-Camargo, Claudia L; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Wilkins, Patricia P; Nieto, Javier; Leiby, David A; Paris, Luc; Scollo, Karenina; Flórez, Carolina; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Calvo, Nidia; Tadokoro, Kenji; Saez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Martin, Miguel; Flevaud, Laurence

2014-07-01

300

A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA) AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O potencial diagnóstico dos anticorpos IgM e IgA contra antígenos do tubo digestivo do Schistosoma mansoni, detectados através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta utilizando-se cortes parafinados de vermes adultos, foi avaliado, comparativamente aos resultados do exame parasitológico de fezes, [...] para fins epidemiológicos em áreas de baixa endemicidade para a esquistossomose. Amostras de sangue em papel de filtro foram coletadas de escolares, residindo em duas localidades diferentes dentro do município de Itariri (São Paulo, Brasil), com características epidemio-lógicas distintas em relação à esquistossomose. Os dados parasitológicos e sorológicos foram comparados aos obtidos com um outro grupo de escolares, residentes em uma área não endêmica para esquistossomose. Os resultados demonstraram a falta de sensibilidade do método parasitológico para detecção de indivíduos com baixa carga parasitária e indicam a potencialidade do método sorológico como importante instrumento a ser incorporado aos programas de controle e de vigilância da esquistossomose, para verificação da real situação da esquistossomose em áreas de baixa endemicidade. Abstract in english The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT) on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemi [...] c areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil) with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

Herminia Yohko, KANAMURA; Luiz Cândido de Souza, DIAS; Rita Maria da, SILVA; Carmen Moreno, GLASSER; Rosa Maria de Jesus, PATUCCI; Sylvia Amaral Gurgel, VELLOSA; José Leopoldo Ferreira, ANTUNES.

 
 
 
 
301

Comparison of microscopy, nested-PCR, and Real-Time-PCR assays using high-throughput screening of pooled samples for diagnosis of malaria in asymptomatic carriers from areas of endemicity in Myanmar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymptomatic infection is an important obstacle for controlling disease in countries where malaria is endemic. Because asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infections, they can have high levels of gametocytes and constitute a reservoir available for new infection. We employed a sample pooling/PCR-based molecular detection strategy for screening malaria infection in residents from areas of Myanmar where malaria is endemic. Blood samples (n = 1,552) were collected from residents in three areas of malaria endemicity (Kayin State, Bago, and Tanintharyi regions) of Myanmar. Two nested PCR and real-time PCR assays showed that asymptomatic infection was detected in about 1.0% to 9.4% of residents from the surveyed areas. The sensitivities of the two nested PCR and real-time PCR techniques were higher than that of microscopy examination (sensitivity, 100% versus 26.4%; kappa values, 0.2 to 0.5). Among the three regions, parasite-positive samples were highly detected in subjects from the Bago and Tanintharyi regions. Active surveillance of residents from regions of intense malaria transmission would reduce the risk of morbidity and mitigate transmission to the population in these areas of endemicity. Our data demonstrate that PCR-based molecular techniques are more efficient than microscopy for nationwide surveillance of malaria in countries where malaria is endemic. PMID:24648557

Wang, Bo; Han, Soe-Soe; Cho, Cho; Han, Jin-Hee; Cheng, Yang; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Soe, Myat Thu; Oo, Htet Wai; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-Taek

2014-06-01

302

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of malaria infections in an area of endemicity in Thailand.  

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The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, developed by our group for diagnosis of four human malaria parasites, was evaluated on a large scale at a remote clinic in Thailand where malaria is endemic. A total of 899 febrile patients were analyzed in this study. LAMP was first evaluated in 219 patients, and the result was compared to those of two histidine-rich protein (HRP)-2 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy as a gold standard. LAMP DNA extraction was conducted by a simple boiling method, and the test results were assessed visually. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 95.7%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for LAMP and 98.6%, 98%, 95.8%, and 99.3%, respectively, for RDTs. Since RDT-positive results were based on one out of two RDTs, the sensitivity of RDTs was slightly higher than that of LAMP. However, LAMP tended to be more specific than RDTs. LAMP next was evaluated in 680 patients, and the result was compared to that of microscopy as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of LAMP were 88.9%, 96.9%, 92.2%, 95.5%, and 94.6%, respectively. Nested PCR was used to confirm the discrepant results. Malaria LAMP in a remote clinic in Thailand achieved an acceptable result, indicating that LAMP malaria diagnosis is feasible in a field setting with limited technical resources. Additionally, the rapid boiling method for extracting DNA from dried blood spots proved to be simple, fast, and suitable for use in the field. PMID:24574279

Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Han, Eun-Taek; Bantuchai, Sirasate; Buates, Sureemas

2014-05-01

303

Rickettsia in synanthropic and domestic animals and their hosts from two areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

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The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Barcelos, Rafael M; Gomes, Gabriel G; Montandon, Carlos E; Pena, Dárlen C H; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B; Bouyer, Donald H; Freitas, Renata N; Walker, David H; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvao, Márcio A M

2010-12-01

304

Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, U.S.A.  

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Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004-2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage. PMID:24274334

El Khoury, Marc Y; Camargo, Jose F; White, Jennifer L; Backenson, Bryon P; Dupuis, Alan P; Escuyer, Kay L; Kramer, Laura; St George, Kirsten; Chatterjee, Debarati; Prusinski, Melissa; Wormser, Gary P; Wong, Susan J

2013-12-01

305

Rabies and bats in a rabies-endemic area of southern Africa: application of two commercial test kits for antigen and antibody detection.  

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In southern Africa, isolates of rabies-related viruses (i.e. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus) have been made from insectivorous and frugivorous bats. As no recent formal bat virus survey has been reported in southern Africa, a survey of bats in rabies-endemic areas was undertaken. Five hundred and forty-seven bats (13 species) were collected from 21 localities in the Orange Free State, Lesotho and the northern Cape Province. None of the 190 bat sera tested using the "Trousse Platelia Rage" ELISA kit (Diagnostic Pasteur), had antibodies to rabies virus glycoprotein G. Rabies virus nucleocapsid antigen was also sought for in the brains of 530 bats (13 species) by means of the "Rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis" (RREID) test (Diagnostics Pasteur). No positive results were obtained. These results show that bats are unlikely to play an important role as hosts of rabies in these parts of Africa, although a low rate of infection cannot be excluded. PMID:7970582

Oelofsen, M J; Smith, M S

1993-09-01

306

Specific Antibody Responses to Three Schistosome-Related Carbohydrate Structures in Recently Exposed Immigrants and Established Residents in an Area of Schistosoma mansoni Endemicity  

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By the use of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and IgM antibodies against three schistosome-derived carbohydrate structures, FLDN (Fuc?1-3GalNAc?1-4GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1), LDN-DF [GalNAc?1-4(Fuc?1-2Fuc?1-3)GlcNAc?1], and LDNF [GalNAc?1-4(Fuc?1-3)GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1], were measured in 184 previously unexposed Kenyan immigrants who moved into the Masongaleni area, where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic. They were sampled within their first year of exposure...

2003-01-01

307

Uso do paradigma de risco para a esquistossomose em áreas endêmicas no Brasil The use of risk factor determination for schistosomiasis in endemic areas in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Neste estudo são confrontados os resultados do uso do paradigma de risco na infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em áreas endêmicas no Brasil. Foi observada associação da infecção pelo S. mansoni com algumas condições gerais: ausência de água potável intradomiciliar, baixa renda individual, analfabetismo e residência atual ou anterior em área endêmica por mais de cinco anos. Além dessas condições ocorreu associação com alguns hábitos (fatores de risco exercer atividades agrícolas e domésticas em águas a céu aberto, nadar e pescar. A análise das condições gerais que podem estar determinando os fatores de risco, apontou o fornecimento de água potável intradomiciliar e o acesso ao tratamento como medidas abrangentes que muitas vezes podem ser adotadas, visando à prevenção e/ou controle da morbidade da endemia. É questionada a eficácia do uso do paradigma de risco na indicação de medidas de controle dessa endemia.This study shows the results of risk factor determination for infection with Schistosoma mansoni in endemic areas in Brazil. An association was observed between infection with S. mansoni and a number of general conditions: absence of drinking water in the home, low individual income, illiteracy, and residence in an endemic area for more than five years. In addition to these conditions there was also association with a number of habits (risk factors: agricultural and domestic activities in open water supplies, swimming, and fishing. Analysis of the general conditions that may determine these risk factors indicated that provision of drinking water in the home and access to treatment are basic measures that could be adopted in many cases in order to prevent or control the morbidity of the disease. The efficacy of the use of risk factor determination for indication of control measures for this disease is questioned.

Pedro Coura-Filho

1994-12-01

308

Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

Nadle Joelle

2003-03-01

309

Evaluation of the acquired immune responses to Plasmodium vivax VIR variant antigens in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas of Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The naturally-acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax variant antigens (VIR was evaluated in individuals exposed to malaria and living in different endemic areas for malaria in the north of Brazil. Methods Seven recombinant proteins representing four vir subfamilies (A, B, C, and E obtained from a single patient from the Amazon Region were expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. The different recombinant proteins were compared by ELISA with regard to the recognition by IgM, IgG, and IgG subclass of antibodies from 200 individuals with patent infection. Results The frequency of individuals that presented antibodies anti-VIR (IgM plus IgG during the infection was 49%. The frequencies of individuals that presented IgM or IgG antibodies anti-VIR were 29.6% or 26.0%, respectively. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against recombinant VIR proteins was significantly lower than the prevalence of antibodies against the recombinant proteins representing two surface antigens of merozoites of P. vivax: AMA-1 and MSP119 (57.0% and 90.5%, respectively. The cellular immune response to VIR antigens was evaluated by in vitro proliferative assays in mononuclear cells of the individuals recently exposed to P. vivax. No significant proliferative response to these antigens was observed when comparing malaria-exposed to non-exposed individuals. Conclusion This study provides evidence that there is a low frequency of individuals responding to each VIR antigens in endemic areas of Brazil. This fact may explain the host susceptibility to new episodes of the disease.

Soares Irene S

2006-10-01

310

Low density parasitaemia, red blood cell polymorphisms and Plasmodium falciparum specific immune responses in a low endemic area in northern Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low density Plasmodium falciparum infections, below the microscopic detection limit, may play an important role in maintaining malaria transmission in low endemic areas as well as contribute to the maintenance of acquired immunity. Little is known about factors influencing the occurrence of sub-microscopic parasitaemia or the relation with immune responses. We investigated possible associations between the occurrence of sub-microscopic P. falciparum parasite carriage and antibody responses to the asexual stage antigens, G6PD deficiency and ?+-thalassaemia in 464 subjects from a low endemic area in northern Tanzania. Methods We used samples collected from two cross sectional surveys conducted during dry and wet season in 2005. Submicroscopic parasitaemia was detected by using quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA. Genotyping for G6PD and ?+-thalassaemia were performed by high throughput PCR; the prevalence and level of total IgG antibodies against MSP-1, MSP-2 and AMA-1 were determined by ELISA. Results Compared to parasite free individuals, individuals carrying sub-microscopic densities of P. falciparum parasites had significantly higher median antibody levels to MSP-1 (p = 0.042 and MSP-2 (p = 0.034 but not to AMA-1 (p = 0.14 while no clear relation between sub-microscopic parasite carriage and G6PD deficiency or ?+-thalassaemia was observed. Conclusion Our data suggest a role for sub-microscopic parasite densities in eliciting or maintaining humoral immune responses without evidence for a modulating effect of G6PD deficiency or ?+-thalassaemia.

Sauerwein Robert

2009-05-01

311

Clinical picture and outcome of Serious Adverse Events in the treatment of Onchocerciasis  

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Ivermectin (Mectizan®) is the only drug currently recommended for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Serious adverse events rarely occur during treatment, except in subjects heavily infected with Loa Loa. This review of drug-related serious adverse events in the treatment of onchocerciasis therefore revisited the pre-Mectizan® reference drugs, DEC and suramin, and other candidate drugs studied extensively for the treatment of human onchocerciasis. The benzimidazole carbamate deriv...

Awadzi, Kwablah

2003-01-01

312

Eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem: the beginning of the end  

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Onchocerciasis is one of the diseases targeted by Vision 2020. It is the world’s second leading infectious cause of blindness, responsible for at least one million blind or severely visually disabled people. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in sub-Saharan Africa will be closed down in 2002, after 27 years of operation. This is the clearest indication that the prospects of eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem may be achieved by the end of this decade. The programme...

Etya’ale?, D.

2002-01-01

313

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species h...

Dorval, Maria Elizabeth C.; Geucira Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da Rocha; Tulia Peixoto Alves; Murilo Andrade Alves; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha

2009-01-01

314

Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas  

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Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo.In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

Gerusa Dreyer

2006-08-01

315

Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança / Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancr [...] oftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas) e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo. Abstract in english In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for ban [...] croftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

Dreyer, Gerusa; Norões, Joaquim; Mattos, Denise.

316

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

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Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

317

Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandf [...] lies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%), which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25%) and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

Davi Marcos Souza de, Oliveira; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Edna Aoba Yassui, Ishikawa; Adelson Alcimar Almeida de, Sousa; Edilene Oliveira da, Silva; Ivoneide Maria da, Silva.

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Primera descripción del hábitat acuático de Simulium guianense s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) en el área endémica de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela / First description of the Simulium guianense s.l. larval habitat in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis, southern Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Simulium guianense sensu lato es el vector de Onchocerca volvulus en el foco amazónico de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela. En esta nota presentamos la primera identificación geográfica, caracterización ecológica y descripción del paisaje del hábitat acuático de las formas pre-adultas de este compl [...] ejo de especies, en el área de transmisión de esta parasitosis. Las larvas y pupas de esta especie fueron muestreadas sobre plantas Podostemaceas presentes en un raudal de aguas claras (pH= 7, conductividad = 158 umhos/cm, y caudal = 0.12 m³/s) del río Orinoquito, en el área de la Reserva de Biosfera del Alto Orinoco-Casiquiare. El paisaje del área de muestreo correspondió a un bosque húmedo ombrófilo macrotérmico y el raudal del río estudiado fluye sobre una planicie aluvial de sustrato de arena y gravas de cuarzo. El presente hallazgo contribuirá con la estratificación epidemiológica de la endemia y orientará las medidas de eliminación de la oncocercosis al sur de Venezuela. Abstract in english Simulium guianense sensu lato is the main vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, southern Venezuela. Here, we present the first report of the pre-adult aquatic habitat spatial distribution as well as the landscape and the habitat ecological characterization of this spec [...] ies complex within the endemic area. Larvae and pupae were collected on submerged aquatic plants (Podosteamaceas) located in a waterfall (pH = 7, conductivity = 158 umhos/cm, discharge = 0.12 m3/s) of the Orinoquito river, in the Upper Orinoco-Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve. These results will help with the epidemiological stratification and control program of the onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela.

Nestor, Villamizar; José, Cortez; Oscar, Noya Alarcón; Marisela, Escalona; Carlos, Botto; María Eugenia, Grillet.

319

Peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Brazil.  

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The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-12-01

320

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

Carlos Frederico Loiola

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

322

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a definição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95% foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81, hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46, contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48 e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98.A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The case definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI, were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81, housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46, contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48, and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98 were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda D'Amaral

2005-12-01

323

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil / Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares) entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a def [...] inição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR) não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95%) foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81), hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46), contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48) e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98). Abstract in english A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs) was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The ca [...] se definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR), with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81), housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46), contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48), and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98) were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda, D' Amaral; Maria Regina Alves, Cardoso; Norma Helen, Medina; Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm, Cunha; Eliseu Alves, Waldman.

324

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil / Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares) entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a def [...] inição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR) não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95%) foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81), hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46), contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48) e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98). Abstract in english A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs) was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The ca [...] se definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR), with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81), housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46), contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48), and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98) were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda, D' Amaral; Maria Regina Alves, Cardoso; Norma Helen, Medina; Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm, Cunha; Eliseu Alves, Waldman.

325

A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental intermediate hosts such as humans. The disease, human alveolar echinococcosis, is fatal in untreated patients and results in reduced survival rates in continuously treated patients. Finland, Ireland, Malta, UK and mainland Norway consider themselves free from Em. The first case of Em was reported in Sweden in 2011.These countries therefore require dogs, cats and ferrets to be treated with an appropriate drug to prevent accidental introductions. Ireland, UK and Malta requires dogs to be treated 24-48 hours before entry, while Sweden and Finland allow treatment up to 10 and 30 days respectively prior to entry. Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel to be administrated 10 and 30 days prior to entering Sweden and Finland respectively. Because the drug is only effective 24 hours after oral intake, these strategies leaves 9 and 29 days for the dogs to be reinfected in endemic areas. The lifespan of the worms is only 90 days and the maximum prevalence is therefore reached after 90 days exposure. A reinfection period of e.g. 9 days will thus allow for 10% of the maximum prevalence to be reached in the period between treatment and crossing the border. In the worst case the Swedish and the Finnish strategies only reduce the probability of importing an infected dog with 90% and 68 % respectively. EFSA therefore recommended that pet animals are treated with a single dose of Praziquantel 24 to 48 hours prior to departure. The EFSA risk assessment model defines risk as the probability of introducing a dog with an Em infection. However, I suggest Em may not be so contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern is establishing the parasite ina free area rather than the risk of importing an infected dog, I propose risk should be defined as the number of eggs excreted in a non-endemic area. Furthermore I suggest that the probability of establishing the parasite in a free area is linearly proportional to the number of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing or still in the immature stage or whether the worm are young or old and thus likely to have a long or short remaining lifespan. I here present an alternative deterministic mathematical model which calculates the average number of eggs excreted in a free country by a dog exposed in an endemic area. The model quantifies the risk as the cumulative number of eggs excreted by a dog in the free country. In order to calculate the number of eggs excrete

Bødker, Rene

326

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C Dorval

2009-08-01

327

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand f [...] lies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C, Dorval; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha.

328

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased. PMID:19820827

Dorval, Maria Elizabeth C; Cristaldo, Geucira; Rocha, Hilda Carlos da; Alves, Tulia Peixoto; Alves, Murilo Andrade; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da

2009-08-01

329

Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province  

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Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate wit...

2011-01-01

330

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

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This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - ...

Flávio França; Lago, Ednaldo L.; Marsden, Philip D.

1996-01-01

331

The High Burden of Cholera in Children: Comparison of Incidence from Endemic Areas in Asia and Africa  

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Cholera is an often forgotten disease affecting the world's forgotten people. When a large cholera outbreak occurs, the disease appears briefly on the radar of public attention. Some unfortunate populations around the world suffer recurrent episodes of cholera but their plight goes unnoticed. We established cholera surveillance in impoverished areas in Jakarta (Indonesia), Kolkata (India), and Beira (Mozambique) where the disease is known to occur regularly. The cholera burden was calculated ...

Deen, Jacqueline L.; Von Seidlein, Lorenz; Sur, Dipika; Agtini, Magdarina; Lucas, Marcelino E. S.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Clemens, John D.

2008-01-01

332

Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection  

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Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females) ...

Ayoola Ayobanji; Aderoju Aderemi; Gadour Mohammed Osman; Al-Hazmi Mohammed; Hamza Mirghani; Ene Dan; Hafeez Magdy; Anderson David; Riddell Michelle

2001-01-01

333

The identification of sandfly species, from an area of Argentina with endemic leishmaniasis, by the PCR-based analysis of the gene coding for 18S ribosomal RNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The area around Río Blanco, in the Orán department in the north of the Argentinian province of Salta, is endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis. In an attempt to facilitate the identification of the Lutzomyia species in this area, sequences of the gene coding for the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of sandflies caught in a Shannon trap were explored, by a combination of PCR and analysis of restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP). The products from the PCR, which employed two primers developed specifically for this study (Lu.18S 1S and Lu.18S AR), were cloned into a commercial vector (pGEM-T Easy) so that their nucleotide sequences could be investigated. In the RFLP analysis, the products of single and double digestion with the AfaI and HapII restriction enzymes were separated by electrophoresis in 3% or 4% agarose. Taken together with the results of a morphological investigation of the flies, the resultant DNA fragment patterns were sufficient to identify most of the sandflies caught as Lu. neivai. Although two other species, Lu. cortelezzii and Lu. sallesi, were collected, they were relatively rare and only identified morphologically. A single digestion of the 18S-rRNA gene sequences with AfaI or HapII appeared sufficient and useful for the identification of Lu. neivai from the north of Salta province, and for several other Lutzomyia species. PMID:17362599

Barroso, P A; Marco, J D; Kato, H; Tarama, R; Rueda, P; Cajal, S P; Basombrío, M A; Korenaga, M; Taranto, N J; Hashiguchi, Y

2007-04-01

334

A comparative study on IgG-ELISA, IgM-IFT and Kato-Katz methods for epidemiological purposes in a low endemic area for schistosomiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The high sensitivity and the possibility of automation of the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA) has indicated this technique as one of the most useful serological test for epidemiological studies. In the present study, an ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies against adult worm antigens (IgG [...] -ELISA) was investigated for epidemiological purposes, in a rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil). Blood on filter paper (1,180 samples) from about 650 schoolchildren were submitted to ELISA and the data compared to the results of the parasitological method of Kato-Katz and also to the IgM-IFT (immunofluorescence test for IgM antibodies to gut associated antigens). The prevalence rates respectively of 8.5%, 43.0%, and 56.2% by the Kato-Katz, IgG-ELISA, and IgM-IFT methods suggest the poor sensitivity of the parasitological method for detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in individuals with low worm burden, situation commonly observed in low endemic areas. These results can partially explain the poor degree of agreement between the IgG-ELISA and the Kato-Katz, as suggested by the Kappa index of 0.170. Otherwise, the Kappa index of 0.675 showed substantial agreement between the two serological tests. Some discrepancy of results between the two serological techniques must be better investigated.

Rita Maria da, Silva; Herminia Y, Kanamura; Eide D, Camargo; Silvia G, Chiodelli; Paulo M, Nakamura; Cybele, Gargioni; Sylvia AG, Vellosa; José LF, Antunes.

335

A comparative study on IgG-ELISA, IgM-IFT and Kato-Katz methods for epidemiological purposes in a low endemic area for schistosomiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high sensitivity and the possibility of automation of the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA has indicated this technique as one of the most useful serological test for epidemiological studies. In the present study, an ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies against adult worm antigens (IgG-ELISA was investigated for epidemiological purposes, in a rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil. Blood on filter paper (1,180 samples from about 650 schoolchildren were submitted to ELISA and the data compared to the results of the parasitological method of Kato-Katz and also to the IgM-IFT (immunofluorescence test for IgM antibodies to gut associated antigens. The prevalence rates respectively of 8.5%, 43.0%, and 56.2% by the Kato-Katz, IgG-ELISA, and IgM-IFT methods suggest the poor sensitivity of the parasitological method for detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in individuals with low worm burden, situation commonly observed in low endemic areas. These results can partially explain the poor degree of agreement between the IgG-ELISA and the Kato-Katz, as suggested by the Kappa index of 0.170. Otherwise, the Kappa index of 0.675 showed substantial agreement between the two serological tests. Some discrepancy of results between the two serological techniques must be better investigated.

Silva Rita Maria da

1998-01-01

336

Genotypic identification of murine typhus Rickettsia in rats and their fleas in an endemic area of Greece by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-nine cases of murine typhus were diagnosed in recent years in residents of several communities around the city of Chalkis, the capital of the Prefecture of Evia. (Euboea) Evia is an island connected to central mainland Greece by a bridge. To investigate the endemicity of murine typhus in this area, 226 fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) and blood samples were collected from 53 rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in this area. The polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect and identify Rickettsia typhi, the etiologic agent murine typhus, in the rat blood samples (buffy coat cells) as well as in their fleas. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay was performed to detect antibodies against R. typhi in rat serum samples. The presence of R. typhi in both fleas and rat blood samples was demonstrated. The frequency of infection for X. cheopis was 4%, while 18% of the rats had buffy coat cells infected, and 92% of the rat sera tested by IFA were positive for anti-R. typhi antibodies. The present work is the first successful application of PCR-RFLP in a field study of naturally infected rats and their fleas in Europe. PMID:8615457

Tselentis, Y; Psaroulaki, A; Maniatis, J; Spyridaki, I; Babalis, T

1996-04-01

337

Serosurveillance to monitor onchocerciasis elimination: the Ugandan experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uganda is the only African country whose onchocerciasis elimination program uses a two-pronged approach of vector control and mass drug distribution. The Ugandan program relies heavily upon the use of serosurveys of children to monitor progress toward elimination. The program has tested over 39,000 individuals from 11 foci for Onchocerca volvulus exposure, using the Ov16 ELISA test. The data show that the Ov16 ELISA is a useful operational tool to monitor onchocerciasis transmission interruption in Africa at the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold of < 0.1% in children. The Ugandan experience has also resulted in a re-examination of the statistical methods used to estimate the boundary of the upper 95% confidence interval for the WHO prevalence threshold when all samples tested are negative. This has resulted in the development of Bayesian and hypergeometric statistical methods that reduce the number of individuals who must be tested to meet the WHO criterion. PMID:24343885

Oguttu, David; Byamukama, Edson; Katholi, Charles R; Habomugisha, Peace; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank O; Unnasch, Thomas R

2014-02-01

338

Onchocerciasis Control: Vision for the Future from a Ghanian perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Since 1987 onchocerciasis control has relied on the donation of ivermectin (Mectizan®, Merck & Co., Inc. through the Mectizan Donation Programme. Recently, concern has been raised over the appearance of suboptimal responses to ivermectin in Ghana – highlighting the potential threat of the development of resistance to ivermectin. This report summarises a meeting held in Ghana to set the research agenda for future onchocerciasis control. The aim of this workshop was to define the research priorities for alternative drug and treatment regimes and control strategies to treat populations with existing evidence of suboptimal responsiveness and define research priorities for future control strategies in the event of the development of widespread ivermectin resistance.

Mand Sabine

2009-01-01

339

Immunologic aspects of the pathogenesis of human onchocerciasis  

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Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a parasitic disease that affects more than 20 million people globally. The induction of pathology is directly related to the presence and destruction of the microfilarial stages (mf) of this filarial nematode. The disease presents clinically with a wide spectrum of dermal and ocular manifestations, the basis of the variation is believed to involve the immune system. The clinical presentations of infected hosts relate to the intensity of the reactions aga...

Ali, Magdi Mahmoud

2006-01-01

340

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores. In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8% and cryptococcin (31.9% in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. immitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores. En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%.

Héctor Rubinstein

1989-02-01

342

Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93 entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT. Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001 y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

2000-06-01

343

Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

F Ahmadipour

2011-05-01

344

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

Flávio França

1996-06-01

345

[Ecology of Culex pipiens fatigans larvae in an area of high endemicity of Bancroftian filariasis (author's transl)].  

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Culex pipiens fatigans in the main vector of bancroftian filariasis in the Mayotte island (Comores) where it imposes an important health problem. The breeding-sites of C. p. fatigans are either man-made (latrines, cesspools, various containers), or natural (polluted water of estuaries of some rivers). The man-made breeding-sites are not similarly distributed in the different localities of the island. Their distribution varies according to the customs of the inhabitants, size and site of the community. They are mainly represented by latrines, where Anjouan ethnic group is predominent; by cesspools in localities inhabited by Sakalava (a Malagasian ethnic group) and by other latrines and cesspools in mahoraises (inhabitants of Mayotte) and cosmopolitan localities. In rural areas, the percentage of habitations with cesspools usually increases with the size of the villages. The various breeding-sites are primarily productive when they are built on a ground with poor permeability. The importance of the present information is further discussed with relation to the population dynamics of C.p. fatigans and to the measures which may be useful for a control program of this mosquito. PMID:1096384

Subra, R; Hebrard, G

1975-03-01

346

Malaria outbreaks in a non-endemic area of Brazil, 2005 Surtos de malária em área não endêmica do Brasil, 2005  

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Full Text Available In March 2005, a resident of the municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, without any history of traveling to endemic areas for malaria, was diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection and local mosquito-borne transmission was suspected. The epidemiological investigation identified another 10 cases with local transmission and all of them were related to the imported malaria case that was detected in this region. The potential exposure site was the banks of the river Tejuco, an area frequented by mineral prospectors. Some of these prospectors were known to have come from states with malaria transmission. In the autochthonous cases, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were diagnosed. Entomological investigation identified Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus triannulatus and Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus parvus. After the first outbreak, another three autochthonous cases were notified in municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, in the same year. The occurrence of these outbreaks highlights the importance of surveillance systems in areas that are nonendemic for malaria.Em março de 2005, um morador do município de Monte Alegre de Minas, Estado de Minas Gerais, sem histórico de viagem para área endêmica de malária foi diagnosticado com infecção por Plasmodium vivax e a transmissão vetorial no local foi suspeitada. A investigação epidemiológica identificou outros 10 casos com transmissão local e todos relacionados ao caso de malária importada detectado na região. A área de potencial exposição foi às margens do rio Tejuco, local freqüentado por garimpeiros, muitos sabidamente, oriundos de estados com transmissão de malária. Nos casos autóctones, Plasmodium vivax e Plasmodium falciparum foram diagnosticados. A investigação entomológica identificou Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus triannulatus e Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus parvus. Após o primeiro surto, outros três casos autóctones foram notificados no município de Monte Alegre de Minas no mesmo ano. A ocorrência desses surtos alerta sobre a importância de sistemas de vigilância em áreas não endêmicas para a malária.

Jean Ezequiel Limongi

2008-06-01

347

Reduction in dengue cases observed during mass control of Aedes (Stegomyia) in street catch basins in an endemic urban area in Colombia.  

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Dengue incidence continues to increase globally and, in the absence of an efficacious vaccine, prevention strategies are limited to vector control. It has been suggested that targeting the most productive breeding sites instead of all water-holding containers could be a cost-effective vector control strategy. We sought to identify and continuously control the most productive Aedes (Stegomyia) breeding site in an endemic urban area in Colombia and followed the subsequent incidence of dengue. In the urban area of Guadalajara de Buga, southwestern Colombia, potential breeding sites inside and outside houses were first characterized, and local personnel trained to assess their productivity based on the pupae/person index. Simultaneously, training and monitoring were implemented to improve the dengue case surveillance system. Entomological data and insecticide resistance studies were used to define the targeted intervention. Then, a quasi-experimental design was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of the positivity index of the targeted and non- targeted breeding sites, and the impact on dengue cases. Street catch basins (storm drains) were the potential breeding site most frequently found containing Aedes immature stages in the baseline (58.3% of 108). Due to the high resistance to temephos (0% mortality after 24h), the intervention consisted of monthly application of pyriproxyfen in all the street catch basins (n=4800). A significant decrease in catch basins positivity for Aedes larvae was observed after each monthly treatment (p<0.001). Over the intervention period, a reduction in the dengue incidence in Buga was observed (rate ratio 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.30, p<0.0001) after adjusting for autocorrelation and controlling with a neighboring town, Palmira, This study highlights the importance of street catch basins as Aedes breeding sites and suggests that their targeted control could help to decrease dengue transmission in such areas. PMID:24388794

Ocampo, Clara B; Mina, Neila Julieth; Carabalí, Mabel; Alexander, Neal; Osorio, Lyda

2014-04-01

348

The use of milbemycin oxime in a prophylactic anthelmintic programme to protect puppies, raised in an endemic area, against infection with Spirocerca lupi.  

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Spirocerca lupi is primarily a parasite of dogs and other carnivores. Clinical signs of infection are regurgitation, vomiting, weight loss, coughing and dyspnoea. Sudden death can also occur due to a ruptured aortic aneurysm. In this study, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was identified as an area with a high prevalence of S. lupi. A subsequent investigation, to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime as a prophylactic agent for canine spirocercosis, involved 58 puppies that were raised in this area in accordance with local husbandry procedures. Approximately half of the puppies served as untreated controls. Puppies in the treatment group received milbemycin oxime (minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg body weight) when they were between 2 and 6 weeks old. They then received five further treatments at approximately 28-day intervals. The treatment was orally administered in tablet form. After the sixth treatment, puppies from both the treated and control groups were euthanized and post-mortem examinations were performed. Twenty-four out of 27 dogs in the untreated control group had become infected by S. lupi. In comparison, only 19 out of 31 dogs in the treatment group had evidence of spirocercosis as demonstrated by aortic nodules. The prophylactic regimen reduced the severity of aortic lesions and prevented 86.5% of S. lupi from becoming established in the thoracic aorta. It also prevented 89.4% of S. lupi from becoming established in the oesophagus and significantly reduced the number of oesophageal nodules. Milbemycin oxime markedly reduced the level and severity of S. lupi infection in treated puppies raised in an endemic area of South Africa. It deserves further evaluation as a potential prophylactic treatment for spirocercosis. PMID:20869809

Kok, D J; Williams, E J; Schenker, R; Archer, N J; Horak, I G

2010-12-15

349

The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment isparticularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge aboutantimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use ofantimalarials and improve adherence to the government’s malaria drug policy. Results of a study onthe knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka,mostly in malarious areas are presented.Methods: Data on awareness of government’s malaria drug policy, practice of issuing antimalarials,knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs were collected from the drug vendors using pretestedquestionnaire in vernacular language. Data were statistically analysed using Stata 8.2. Chisquaretest was carried out for individual explanatory variables and a logistic regression model wasapplied taking all response variables as binary outcome.Results: Vendors’ knowledge on antimalarials was poor with 58% of the vendors being unaware ofthe government malaria drug policy in the country. Also, the advice provided to customers buyingantimalarials was limited. However, the majority of the private vendors emphasised that they wereaware of the importance of case confirmation before treatment as stressed in the national policy.Although, the vendors did not have a high awareness of national drug policies they were only foundselling chloroquine and primaquine as recommended by the Ministry of Health.Interpretation & conclusion: In recent years Sri Lanka, as a whole, has experienced very littlemalaria. The reduction in demand for antimalarials due to low incidence levels may have influencedthe knowledge and awareness on antimalarials and government drug policies. However, since lowlevels of malaria do not guarantee that epidemics will not occur, attempts to educate private drugvendors as a part of an organised control programmes are of major importance.

R.S. Rajakaruna, M. Weerasinghe, M. Alifrangis, P.H. Amerasinghe & F. Konradsen

2006-06-01

350

"SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IRRITABILITY LEVELS OF MAIN MALARIA VECTORS TO SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS IN THE ENDEMIC AREAS OF IRAN"  

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Full Text Available The rational use of insecticides largely depends on a broad knowledge of the susceptibility and irritability levels of malaria vectors to currently used insecticides especially pyrethroids. In this study the susceptibility and irritability levels of Anopheles stephensi and An.culicifacies to DDT 4%,malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.025%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%, cyfluthrin 0.1% and permethrin 0.25% were determined. Susceptibility and irritability tests on adult mosquitoes were carried out according to WHO methods. The results showed that An.stephensi was resistant to DDT 4% and mortality rates to this insecticide in Gavdary and Abtar areas were 64.2%±3.9 and 61.8%±4.36, respectively. An.stephensi was assumed susceptible to other insecticides. An.culicifacies was found susceptible to all the tested insecticides. The irritability tests carried out with pyrethroids exhibited that permethrin 0.25% had the highest irritancy effect against both species. Lambdacyhalothrin 0.1% and deltamethrin 0.025% had the least irritancy effect against An.stephensi and An.culicifacies, respectively. Average numbers of take offs/females/minute of An.stephensi to permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin were 6.64±1.04, 3.11±0.67, 2.73±0.61 and 2.57±0.67, respectively. These figures for An.culicifacies were 2.24±0.37, 1.44±0.38, 1.59±0.35 and 1.46±0.5, respectively. Irritancy effect of pyrethroids should come in consideration while they are used for control of malaria vectors.

H. Vatandosst N. Borhani

2004-09-01

351

Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older children.

Conway David J

2010-06-01

352

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has [...] been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-? may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco-Junior, Cesare; Totino, Paulo Renato Rivas; Perce-Da-Silva, Daiana De Souza; Silva, Luciene Aquino; Riccio, Evelyn Kety Pratt; Ennes-Vidal, Vítor; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele Costa; Perales, Jonas; Rocha, Surza Lucia Gonçalves Da; Dias-Da-Silva, Fabrício; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli De; Theisen, Michael; Carvalho, Leonardo José De Moura; Banic, Dalma Maria.

353

Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

354

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

355

The impact of repeated treatment with praziquantel of schistosomiasis in children under six years of age living in an endemic area for Schistosoma haematobium infection  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Praziquantel was given every eight weeks for two years to children aged under six years of age, living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Infection with S. haematobium and haematuria were examined in urine and antibody profiles (IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) against S. haematobi [...] um adult worm and egg antigens were determined from sera collected before each treatment. Chemotherapy reduced infection prevalence and mean intensity from 51.8% and 110 eggs per 10 ml urine, respectively, before starting re-treatment programme to very low levels thereafter. Praziquantel is not accumulated after periodic administration in children. Immunoglobulin levels change during the course of treatment with a shift towards 'protective' mechanisms. The significant changes noted in some individuals were the drop in 'blocking' IgG2 and IgG4 whereas the 'protecting' IgA and IgG1 levels increased. The antibody profiles in the rest of the children remained generally unchanged throughout the study and no haematuria was observed after the second treatment. The removal of worms before production of large number of eggs, prevented the children from developing morbidity.

T, Mduluza; PD, Ndhlovu; TM, Madziwa; N, Midzi; R, Zinyama; CMR, Turner; SK, Chandiwana; N, Nyazema; P, Hagan.

356

Importance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the dynamics of transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Porteirinha Municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae), the primary vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), and the canine form of the disease, was carried out in Porteirinha. The city is situated in the northern part of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais and is an endemic area of AVL. Systematic phlebotomine captures were performed in seven districts with previously reported cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, during 2 years (January 2000--December 2001). A total of 2328 specimens of L. longipalpis were captured. The association between the local climate variables and the population density of L. longipalpis was evaluated and rainfall was determined to be a major factor, with increased populations during the rainy season (October--March). At the same time period, blood samples from every dog domiciled in the same seven districts, in total 14,077 animals, were analyzed for infection by viscerotropic Leishmania using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Accumulated incidence rates of canine VL per district varied from 3.40 to 14.34 for the 2-year period. A positive correlation between the population density of L. longipalpis and the canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Porteirinha was observed. PMID:15975718

França-Silva, João C; Barata, Ricardo A; Costa, Roberto T da; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; Machado-Coelho, George L L; Vieira, Edvá P; Prata, Aluisio; Mayrink, Wilson; Nascimento, Evaldo; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; da Silva, Jaime C; Dias, Edelberto S

2005-08-10

357

Viral hepatitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients in an endemic area for hepatitis B and C infection: the Taiwan experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and their associations in 64 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients (30 males and 34 females) were evaluated. A comparison was also made with 526 normal controls (266 males and 260 females). Forty-seven (75%) CAPD patients were anti-HBc positive, with no significant difference to the control group (81.9%). This probably reflects acquisition of HBV infection by CAPD patients before initiation of chronic dialysis therapy in a region hyperendemic for HBV. On the contrary, 11 (17.2%) CAPD patients were anti-HCV positive and 8 (15.2%) were seropositive for both anti-HBc and anti-HCV-much greater prevalence rates compared to those of the control group. The prevalence of anti-HCV correlated with the history and numbers of blood transfusion, and the length of time on previous hemodialysis. A similar correlation occurred in patients with both anti-HBc(+) and anti-HCV(+). In conclusion, in an HBV endemic area such as Taiwan, the prevalence of coexisting HBV and HCV infection in CAPD patients depends on the latter. PMID:9262846

Hung, K Y; Shyu, R S; Huang, C H; Tsai, T J; Chen, W Y

1997-01-01

358

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibodyresponse induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-a may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco, Cesare

2011-01-01

359

Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season. PMID:24581349

de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

2013-12-01

360

The effect of removing potentially infectious dogs on the numbers of canine Leishmania infantum infections in an endemic area with high transmission rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B; Ferreira, Adelson L; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-06-01