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1

Chemical control of Simulium ochraceum Walker (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae in an onchocerciasis endemic area of Guatemala.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical control against larvae of Simulium ochraceum, the principal vector of onchocerciasis, was carried out from 1979 to 1984 in a 91.3 km2 area of Guatemala where onchocerciasis is endemic. The control operation was divided chronologically into three phases according to the different tactics employed. Phase 1 (1979-1981), using briquettes of fat and detergent containing 10% temephos, was effective only in perennial streams. Phase 2 (1981-1982), which limited the application target to small streams with discharges of 0.1-1 litre/sec, was not effective. Successful control was achieved by Phase 3 (1982-1984), which consisted of fort-nightly applications of 5% temephos water dispersable powder in fixed doses of 24 g (1.2 g active ingredient) to every 50-100 m stretch of all streams with discharge rates of 0.1-50 l/sec. Vector biting rates were reduced by 97.8% in 1982 to 1983 and 97.6% in 1983-1984. The biting density of S. ochraceum at all five stations was reduced to less than 1.9/man/hour, the proposed critical level for long term transmission of onchocerciasis. The biting density of the S. metallicum/horacioi complex was not apparently affected by this operation. Through analysis of the density of S. ochraceum at various distances from the untreated areas, infiltration of the flies was found to be rare, if the distance was beyond 2 km. Fly-round surveys proved to be practical as a surveillance method for detecting larval breeding in untreated or improperly treated streams. The cost for a nation-wide vector control operation was presented.

Yamagata Y; Ochoa JO; Molina PA; Sato H; Uemoto K; Suzuki T

1987-09-01

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Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%), double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9%) and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7%) for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

2011-01-01

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Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI). The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs) were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the treatment, 97.5% complied by the end of six weeks. No serious side effect was registered during the six week treatment. Conclusion This study indicates that when empowered the community health implementers can successfully deliver doxycycline for six weeks for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The therapeutic coverage and the compliance treatment rate achieved in this study coupled to the known efficacy of doxycycline on O. volvulus, are indicators that the strategy involving the mass administration of doxycycline can be used to control onchocerciasis in those areas of co-endemicity with loiasis where ivermectin may be contraindicated.

Wanji Samuel; Tendongfor Nicholas; Nji Theolbald; Esum Mathias; Che Julious N; Nkwescheu Armand; Alassa Fifen; Kamnang Geremy; Enyong Peter A; Taylor Mark J; Hoerauf Achim; Taylor David W

2009-01-01

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Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. 1. Endemicity of human onchocerciasis in Ningi Local Government Area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The endemicity of human onchocerciasis was assessed in eight rural, at-risk communities in Ningi Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria, between July 1990 and March 1991. Of the 1536 subjects skin-snipped, 334 (21.7%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae. Surprisingly, there was a significant inverse relationship between prevalence and mean microfilarial load (r = -0.608; P < 0.05). Males were more likely to be infected than females (P < 0.01) and cattle rearers (71.0% infected), farmers (49.8%) and fishermen (40.0%) had significantly higher prevalences than students/schoolchildren, housewives or traders (P < 0.001). Pruritus and itchy eyes were recorded in all age groups and appeared in much younger subjects than any other manifestations of the infection. Prevalence and onchocercal blindness were linearly related to intensity of infection. The epidemiological significance of these findings, in terms of a future community-wide programme of long-term chemoprophylaxis with Mectizan, is highlighted.

Anosike JC; Onwuliri CO

1995-02-01

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Amazonian onchocerciasis: parasitological profiles by host-age, sex, and endemicity in southern Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes, for the human onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela, the age profiles of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial (mf) and nodule prevalence, mf intensity, and mf aggregation for the whole examined population (836 Yanomami people) living in 20 villages, and for these communities classified according to endemicity levels (hypoendemic: < or = 20 %; mesoendemic: 21-59 %; hyperendemic: < or = 60 % infected). Mf prevalence and intensity increased with age, particularly in the hyperendemic areas, and there were no marked differences between the sexes. The prevalence of nodules followed the same age pattern. Fifty percent mf prevalence was reached in the 15-19 year age-class when the population was taken as a whole; nearly in the 10 to 14-year-olds for the hyperendemic level, in those aged 20-29 years in mesoendemic areas, and not reached at all in hypoendemic villages. The degree of mf aggregation was measured by the k value of the negative binomial distribution and by the variance to mean ratio (VMR). The relationship between the standard deviation (S.D.) of mf counts and the mean mf density was also explored. These 3 indices (k, VMR, and S.D.) showed a tendency to increase with both mean mf load and host age. Since infection intensity and host age were themselves positively related, it was not possible to draw definite conclusions about age-specific changes of parasite aggregation. There was not a significant decrease of mf intensity after an earlier peak neither was there a shift towards younger ages of the maximum no. of mf/mg reached as the endemicity level increased. These results are discussed in relation to detection of density dependence in the human host, selection of an indicator age-group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) methods, and strategies of ivermectin distribution in the Amazonian focus. It is recommended that, for the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, the indicator group for REA consists of all those aged 15 years and over.

Vivas-Martínez S; Basáñez MG; Botto C; Rojas S; García M; Pacheco M; Curtis CF

2000-11-01

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Amazonian onchocerciasis: parasitological profiles by host-age, sex, and endemicity in southern Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes, for the human onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela, the age profiles of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial (mf) and nodule prevalence, mf intensity, and mf aggregation for the whole examined population (836 Yanomami people) living in 20 villages, and for these communities classified according to endemicity levels (hypoendemic: < or = 20 %; mesoendemic: 21-59 %; hyperendemic: < or = 60 % infected). Mf prevalence and intensity increased with age, particularly in the hyperendemic areas, and there were no marked differences between the sexes. The prevalence of nodules followed the same age pattern. Fifty percent mf prevalence was reached in the 15-19 year age-class when the population was taken as a whole; nearly in the 10 to 14-year-olds for the hyperendemic level, in those aged 20-29 years in mesoendemic areas, and not reached at all in hypoendemic villages. The degree of mf aggregation was measured by the k value of the negative binomial distribution and by the variance to mean ratio (VMR). The relationship between the standard deviation (S.D.) of mf counts and the mean mf density was also explored. These 3 indices (k, VMR, and S.D.) showed a tendency to increase with both mean mf load and host age. Since infection intensity and host age were themselves positively related, it was not possible to draw definite conclusions about age-specific changes of parasite aggregation. There was not a significant decrease of mf intensity after an earlier peak neither was there a shift towards younger ages of the maximum no. of mf/mg reached as the endemicity level increased. These results are discussed in relation to detection of density dependence in the human host, selection of an indicator age-group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) methods, and strategies of ivermectin distribution in the Amazonian focus. It is recommended that, for the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, the indicator group for REA consists of all those aged 15 years and over. PMID:11128803

Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Rojas, S; García, M; Pacheco, M; Curtis, C F

2000-11-01

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Onchocerciasis endemic in the State of Bolivar, Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus were demonstrated by single shoulder-skin biopsy in 42.8% of inhabitants of seven Amerindian villages in an area of approximately 10,000 km2, near the Brasilian Roraima Territory. The highest prevalence was found among the Yanomama Indians of Chajuraña (84.6%, with a mean of 61.3 microfilariae per mg of skin). The six other communities were affected, but with lower prevalence and microfilaria skin densities. The absence of lymphoedema and the few subcutaneous nodules and eye lesions found among the infected individuals suggest a relatively recent introduction of the disease to the region. Mansonella ozzardi infections were also detected in the area.

Godoy GA; Volcan GS; Medrano C; Guevara R

1989-08-01

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[Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

Coelho GE; Vieira JB; Garcia-Zapata MT; Schuertz JC

1998-07-01

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[Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified. PMID:9761614

Coelho, G E; Vieira, J B; Garcia-Zapata, M T; Schuertz, J C

10

[Entomologic study on the transmission of onchocerciasis in a forest-savanna transition area of Cameroon  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An entomological study was conducted in the basin area of middle Sanaga (Cameroon) in order to document the pattern of onchocerciasis transmission in a region where a high prevalence of infection had been recorded in villages located 30 km from the main rivers. The main vector of O. volvulus was found to be S. squamosum s.s. No breeding site was found in the small tributaries of the Sanaga and Mbam Rivers, and the dispersal of S. damnosum s.l. in the area thus appeared to be particularly high. The highest blackfly population densities were recorded during the long rainy season, and a second peak of density occurred along the Mbam River during the short rainy season. A seasonal variation in dispersal patterns was found at three of the four transects studied. The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the area occurred principally between January and May (i.e. at the end of the long dry season and the beginning of the short rainy season). Vector control operations might well reinforce the effect of ivermectin distributions in this onchocerciasis focus.

Barbazan P; Escaffre H; Mbentengam R; Boussinesq M

1998-01-01

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[Entomologic study on the transmission of onchocerciasis in a forest-savanna transition area of Cameroon].  

Science.gov (United States)

An entomological study was conducted in the basin area of middle Sanaga (Cameroon) in order to document the pattern of onchocerciasis transmission in a region where a high prevalence of infection had been recorded in villages located 30 km from the main rivers. The main vector of O. volvulus was found to be S. squamosum s.s. No breeding site was found in the small tributaries of the Sanaga and Mbam Rivers, and the dispersal of S. damnosum s.l. in the area thus appeared to be particularly high. The highest blackfly population densities were recorded during the long rainy season, and a second peak of density occurred along the Mbam River during the short rainy season. A seasonal variation in dispersal patterns was found at three of the four transects studied. The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the area occurred principally between January and May (i.e. at the end of the long dry season and the beginning of the short rainy season). Vector control operations might well reinforce the effect of ivermectin distributions in this onchocerciasis focus. PMID:9642481

Barbazan, P; Escaffre, H; Mbentengam, R; Boussinesq, M

1998-01-01

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Study of the area affected by onchocerciasis in Brazil: survey of local residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An epidemiologic survey encompassing most of Brazil's Federal Territory of Roraima and the northern tip of Amazonas State has been carried out in an effort to define the boundaries and the epidemiologic characteristics of onchocerciasis in Brazil. This article describes results relating to human infections--including discovery of a new focus at Auaris in northern Roraima and analysis of data from tests conducted there and at various other locations. These findings lead the authors to conclude that the three known Brazilian foci represent independent influxes of the disease from neighboring Venezuela, that groups of both Yanomama and Makiritare Indians have been infected, and that various factors (including proximity of these foci and the route for Brazil's Northern Perimeter Highway) indicate the disease could pose a potential danger for other areas of Brazil.

Rassi E; Lacerda N; Guaimaraes JA

1976-01-01

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Upper urothelium carcinomas in Croatian endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endemic nephropathy (EN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease. Strong association between EN and urothelial carcinoma was noted as early as 40-50 ago. The aim of the study was to determine and compare specific mortality and morbidity of renal pelvis and ureter (upper urothelium) carcinoma (UUC) among Croatia as a whole, Brod-Posavina County, and Croatian endemic area. METHODS: Data on UUC mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Indirect standardization was employed on data comparison by calculating standardized mortality ratio and morbidity ratio. RESULTS: Our study results showed the specific mortality rate in the endemic area to be 26.3-fold and 7.3-fold the rate recorded in Croatia and Brod-Posavina County, respectively. The mean standardized mortality ratio obtained by indirect standardization yielded an 8-fold and 32-fold risk of death from UUC in the endemic area vs. Brod-Posavina County and Croatia as a whole, respectively. These data revealed the specific morbidity in the Croatian endemic area and Brod-Posavina County to be 13.95-fold and 3.78-fold the morbidity recorded at the national level, respectively. The standardized morbidity ratio also showed the risk of developing UUC in the Croatian endemic area to be 3.75-fold the risk in Brod-Posavina County and 16.4-fold the risk in Croatia. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that specific mortality and morbidity as well as standardized morbidity ratio and standardized mortality ratio were higher in Croatian endemic area than in Brod-Posavina County and Croatia.

Cvitkovi? A; Ivi?-Hofman I; Juri? D

2013-08-01

14

[Epidemiological status of onchocerciasis in the Congo  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analysis of 25 surveys carried out in the Congo between 1978 and 1987 (covering nine of the ten administrative regions), during which 6,215 subjects were examined, showed that onchocerciasis is endemic in the southern part of the country. Two main foci meeting at the southern exit of Brazzaville (Pool region) were identified. One focus in the Djoué basin. The other is the zone along the Congo river stretching from below Brazzaville south west to the Zaire border. Two secondary foci were noted, one in the region of the Bouenza and the other west of the Mayombe mountains. Surveys carried out in the north of the country and in the west did not reveal any onchocerciasis. However, certain areas of primary forest in these regions were found to be endemic for Mansonella streptocerca. Simulium damnosum s.l. in the sole vector of onchocerciasis. In both the Pool foci, and in the Mayombe focus, prevalences assessed from microfilarial and cyst counts were high but the mean microfilarial densities were relatively low. In certain villages over 90% of the population aged over 14 years may present with microfilariae and nearly 70% may present cysts.

Carme B; Yebakima A; Samba Y; Ndienguela J

1990-09-01

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Geographical patterns of onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela: relationships between environment and infection prevalence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis is a chronic filarial infection transmitted by Simulium flies that has a focal geographical distribution in Latin America. The southern Venezuelan focus has a gradient of endemicity that includes the largest number of hyperendemic communities in the continent, many of them in remote forest and mountainous areas, where it is an important public health problem among the Yanomami indigenous population. The recent introduction of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools and a landscape epidemiology approach for study of vector borne diseases is helping to understand relationships between environment and transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis. Striking differences in the transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis between different river courses were detected. A significant relationship between onchocerciasis and temperature was also demonstrated. The geologic substrate, kind of landscape and vegetation seemed also to influence the transmission of onchocerciasis. In the Venezuelan Amazon, different kinds of landscapes associated with distinctive vector species, show different intensities of transmission of onchocerciasis. In this sense, landscape analysis aided by GIS, may prove to be a useful tool for better identification of the spatial distribution of onchocerciasis risk in the Orinoco basin. PMID:16044683

Botto, C; Escalona, E; Vivas-Martinez, S; Behm, V; Delgado, L; Coronel, P

2005-03-01

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Geographical patterns of onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela: relationships between environment and infection prevalence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocerciasis is a chronic filarial infection transmitted by Simulium flies that has a focal geographical distribution in Latin America. The southern Venezuelan focus has a gradient of endemicity that includes the largest number of hyperendemic communities in the continent, many of them in remote forest and mountainous areas, where it is an important public health problem among the Yanomami indigenous population. The recent introduction of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools and a landscape epidemiology approach for study of vector borne diseases is helping to understand relationships between environment and transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis. Striking differences in the transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis between different river courses were detected. A significant relationship between onchocerciasis and temperature was also demonstrated. The geologic substrate, kind of landscape and vegetation seemed also to influence the transmission of onchocerciasis. In the Venezuelan Amazon, different kinds of landscapes associated with distinctive vector species, show different intensities of transmission of onchocerciasis. In this sense, landscape analysis aided by GIS, may prove to be a useful tool for better identification of the spatial distribution of onchocerciasis risk in the Orinoco basin.

Botto C; Escalona E; Vivas-Martinez S; Behm V; Delgado L; Coronel P

2005-03-01

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[Epidemiologic evaluation of malaria in endemic areas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For decades malarial control has been implemented to control the impact of the disease on the health of populations living in endemic zones. The use of artemisinine combination therapy, intermittent preventive treatment for children and pregnant women, vector-control methods such as long-lasting insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and indoor remanent insecticide spraying has proven to be effective. These practices have lead to such an extensive reduction of the malaria burden in some endemic areas that the objective of eradication that was unimaginable a few years ago is now back to the forefront. Regardless of the method chosen, careful evaluation and surveillance of its effectiveness in man is necessary. Achieving epidemiologic impact is the main goal of malaria control methods. The main measures for evaluation involve parasitological and clinical aspects of human malaria. The purpose of this article is to review methods used for epidemiologic evaluation of malaria burden.

Rogier C; Henry MC; Trape JF

2009-04-01

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[The Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in the areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni rivers, Territory of Roraima].  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. In fact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajaí mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory--where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis--come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.1., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3796275

Moraes, M A; Shelley, A J; Luna Dias, A P

19

[The Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in the areas of the Mucajai and Catrimani rivers, Territory of Roraima  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. In fact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajaí mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory--where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis--come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.1., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Moraes MA; Shelley AJ; Luna Dias AP

1986-01-01

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS  

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Full Text Available Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

Beatrice Autino; Alice Noris; Rosario Russo; Francesco Castelli

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Tests with three antigens in leprosy-endemic and non-endemic areas*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study comparing the 48-h and 30-day reactions produced by three antigens was made in areas of low and high leprosy endemicity in Venezuela and in areas of Chile, a non-endemic country. The antigens used for the intradermal tests were standard Mitsuda antigen, supernatant from standard Mitsuda anti...

Convit, J.; Pinardi, M. E.; Rojas, F. Arias; Gonzáles, I.; Corey, G.; Arvelo, J. J.; Monzón, H.

22

Favus In A Non-endemic Area  

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Full Text Available Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

Gupata L K; Bansal N K; Kuldeep C M; Surana S S; Mehta P; Jasuja K; Sharma A

2002-01-01

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Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of onchocerciasis as a result of successful control. As a result of these advances, a strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis was developed, based upon mass distribution of ivermectin to afflicted communities for periods lasting long enough to ensure that the parasite population was placed on the road to local elimination. This strategy has been applied for the past decade to the foci in Latin America by a programme overseen by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA). The efforts spearheaded by OEPA have been very successful, eliminating ocular disease caused by O. volvulus, and eliminating and interrupting transmission of the parasite in 8 of the 13 foci in the region. As onchocerciasis approaches elimination in Latin America, several questions still need to be addressed. These include defining an acceptable upper limit for transmission in areas in which transmission is thought to have been suppressed (e.g. what is the maximum value for the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for transmission rates in areas where transmission is no longer detectable), how to develop strategies for conducting surveillance for recrudescence of infection in areas in which transmission is thought to be interrupted and how to address the problem in areas where the mass distribution of ivermectin seems to be unable to completely eliminate the infection.

Rodríguez-Pérez MA; Unnasch TR; Real-Najarro O

2011-01-01

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Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of onchocerciasis as a result of successful control. As a result of these advances, a strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis was developed, based upon mass distribution of ivermectin to afflicted communities for periods lasting long enough to ensure that the parasite population was placed on the road to local elimination. This strategy has been applied for the past decade to the foci in Latin America by a programme overseen by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA). The efforts spearheaded by OEPA have been very successful, eliminating ocular disease caused by O. volvulus, and eliminating and interrupting transmission of the parasite in 8 of the 13 foci in the region. As onchocerciasis approaches elimination in Latin America, several questions still need to be addressed. These include defining an acceptable upper limit for transmission in areas in which transmission is thought to have been suppressed (e.g. what is the maximum value for the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for transmission rates in areas where transmission is no longer detectable), how to develop strategies for conducting surveillance for recrudescence of infection in areas in which transmission is thought to be interrupted and how to address the problem in areas where the mass distribution of ivermectin seems to be unable to completely eliminate the infection. PMID:22137585

Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

2011-01-01

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Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost-effective. Priority should be given to the development of new tools to support control programmes and to enable eradication of the disease.

Laura Moya Alonso

2009-01-01

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Autoimmunity and filariasis. Autoantibodies against cytoplasmic cellular proteins in sera of patients with onchocerciasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a vector-borne tropical disease resulting from infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Disease manifestations include dermatitis, rheumatic complaints, and blindness. Recent findings have suggested an autoimmune etiology for the occurrence of chorioretinopathy, a disease of the eye which together with sclerosing keratoconjunctivitis is responsible for approximately 400,000 onchocerciasis-related cases of blindness. The identification of onchocerciasis as an important cause of tropical rheumatism prompted us to evaluate serologically the presence of systemic autoimmune disease in onchocerciasis patients and local controls from a hyperendemic area in Sierra Leone. In both groups there was a marked autoimmune response against cytoplasmic non-RNA-associated proteins consisting of autoantibodies against five major Ag with respective m.w. of 35, 51, 64, 83, and 110 kDa. These five proteins are novel autoantigens that could be distinguished from calreticulin, the human homologue of the onchocercal Ag RAL-1, and known autoantigens such as the 50-kDa La/SS-B or 52- and 60-kDa Ro/SS-A proteins by immunoblotting and ELISA assays. Furthermore, autoantibody reactivity against calreticulin was significantly higher in O. volvulus-infected individuals than in endemic controls. Autoantibody reactivity against the five major autoantigens, anti-calreticulin reactivity, and antibody reactivity against the 65-kDa arthritis-associated mycobacterial heat shock protein were intercorrelated as parts of an onchocerciasis-associated autoimmune response. The implication of autoimmunity in the disease pathogenesis of onchocerciasis could have important consequences for future research on therapeutical regimens, pathogenetic mechanisms, and serological diagnosis of onchocerciasis.

Meilof JF; Van der Lelij A; Rokeach LA; Hoch SO; Smeenk RJ

1993-11-01

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Autoimmunity and filariasis. Autoantibodies against cytoplasmic cellular proteins in sera of patients with onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a vector-borne tropical disease resulting from infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Disease manifestations include dermatitis, rheumatic complaints, and blindness. Recent findings have suggested an autoimmune etiology for the occurrence of chorioretinopathy, a disease of the eye which together with sclerosing keratoconjunctivitis is responsible for approximately 400,000 onchocerciasis-related cases of blindness. The identification of onchocerciasis as an important cause of tropical rheumatism prompted us to evaluate serologically the presence of systemic autoimmune disease in onchocerciasis patients and local controls from a hyperendemic area in Sierra Leone. In both groups there was a marked autoimmune response against cytoplasmic non-RNA-associated proteins consisting of autoantibodies against five major Ag with respective m.w. of 35, 51, 64, 83, and 110 kDa. These five proteins are novel autoantigens that could be distinguished from calreticulin, the human homologue of the onchocercal Ag RAL-1, and known autoantigens such as the 50-kDa La/SS-B or 52- and 60-kDa Ro/SS-A proteins by immunoblotting and ELISA assays. Furthermore, autoantibody reactivity against calreticulin was significantly higher in O. volvulus-infected individuals than in endemic controls. Autoantibody reactivity against the five major autoantigens, anti-calreticulin reactivity, and antibody reactivity against the 65-kDa arthritis-associated mycobacterial heat shock protein were intercorrelated as parts of an onchocerciasis-associated autoimmune response. The implication of autoimmunity in the disease pathogenesis of onchocerciasis could have important consequences for future research on therapeutical regimens, pathogenetic mechanisms, and serological diagnosis of onchocerciasis. PMID:7901281

Meilof, J F; Van der Lelij, A; Rokeach, L A; Hoch, S O; Smeenk, R J

1993-11-15

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[Onchocerciasis among Yanomami Indians].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that has lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Moraes MA

1991-10-01

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Impact of three rounds of mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis in areas previously treated for onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: 1974-2005 studies across Sierra Leone showed onchocerciasis endemicity in 12 of 14 health districts (HDs) and baseline studies 2005-2008 showed lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemicity in all 14 HDs. Three integrated annual mass drug administration (MDA) were conducted in the 12 co-endemic districts 2008-2010 with good geographic, programme and drug coverage. Midterm assessment was conducted 2011 to determine impact of these MDAs on LF in these districts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mf prevalence and intensity in the 12 districts were determined using the thick blood film method and results compared with baseline data from 2007-2008. Overall mf prevalence fell from 2.6% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.0%) to 0.3% (95% CI: 0.19%-0.47%), a decrease of 88.5% (p?=?0.000); prevalence was 0.0% (100.0% decrease) in four districts: Bo, Moyamba, Kenema and Kono (p?=?0.001, 0.025, 0.085 and 0.000 respectively); and seven districts had reductions in mf prevalence of between 70.0% and 95.0% (p?=?0.000, 0.060, 0.001, 0.014, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.002 for Bombali, Bonthe, Kailahun, Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko and Tonkolili districts respectively). Pujehun had baseline mf prevalence of 0.0%, which was maintained. Only Bombali still had an mf prevalence ?1.0% (1.58%, 95% CI: 0.80%-3.09%)), and this is the district that had the highest baseline mf prevalence: 6.9% (95% CI: 5.3%-8.8%). Overall arithmetic mean mf density after three MDAs was 17.59 mf/ml (95% CI: 15.64 mf/ml-19.55 mf/ml) among mf positive individuals (65.4% decrease from baseline of 50.9 mf/ml (95% CI: 40.25 mf/ml-61.62 mf/ml; p?=?0.001) and 0.05 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.03 mf/ml-0.08 mf/ml) for the entire population examined (96.2% decrease from baseline of 1.32 mf/ml (95% CI: 1.00 mf/ml-1.65 mf/ml; p?=?0.000)). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that mf prevalence decreased to <1.0% in all but one of the 12 districts after three MDAs. Overall mf density reduced by 65.0% among mf-positive individuals, and 95.8% for the entire population.

Koroma JB; Sesay S; Sonnie M; Hodges MH; Sahr F; Zhang Y; Bockarie MJ

2013-06-01

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Favus in a non-endemic area  

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Full Text Available A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan) is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture on Sabourauds agar medium grew Trichophyton violaceum.

Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M; Bansal N

1997-01-01

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Favus in a non-endemic area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan) is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture ...

Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M; Bansal N

32

Eye disease related to onchocerciasis: a clinical study in the Aratha-ú, Yanomami Tribe, Roraima State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of ocular lesions due to onchocerciasis was evaluated among residents of the Yanomami Tribe, in the northern Amazon, Brazil, an endemic area for onchocerciasis. 83 natives were submitted to an ocular examination including an external examination, biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus examination. Clinical, parasitological and serological tests were carried out simultaneously. The population demonstrated a high prevalence of eosinophilia, skin microfilaria (55%) and onchocercal subcutaneous nodules (35%). A high prevalence of probable onchocerciasis related eye lesions was detected. Punctate keratitis (41%) and microfilaria in the anterior chamber (39%) were found as well as other probable onchocercotic lesions-chorioretinitis (7.2%) and anterior uveitis (6.0%). Other anterior eye lesions (corneal leucomas, conjunctival injection, lid nodules) occurred in 51% of the individuals. The anterior eye lesions were more prevalent than the posterior lesions. We did not find an association of glaucoma with onchocerciasis. The prevalence of these suggestive ocular lesions strongly correlates with the cutaneous nodules and eosinophilia, suggesting that skin nodules may be an indication for an eye examination. The present study provides evidence that significant infection and eye disease due to onchocerciasis persists in certain regions of Northern South America. PMID:19595662

Neto, Guilherme Herzog; Jaegger, Karen; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Calvão-Brito, Regina Helena Santos; Vieira, João Batista; Banic, Dalma Maria; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

2009-07-10

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Eye disease related to onchocerciasis: a clinical study in the Aratha-u, Yanomami Tribe, Roraima State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of ocular lesions due to onchocerciasis was evaluated among residents of the Yanomami Tribe, in the northern Amazon, Brazil, an endemic area for onchocerciasis. 83 natives were submitted to an ocular examination including an external examination, biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus examination. Clinical, parasitological and serological tests were carried out simultaneously. The population demonstrated a high prevalence of eosinophilia, skin microfilaria (55%) and onchocercal subcutaneous nodules (35%). A high prevalence of probable onchocerciasis related eye lesions was detected. Punctate keratitis (41%) and microfilaria in the anterior chamber (39%) were found as well as other probable onchocercotic lesions-chorioretinitis (7.2%) and anterior uveitis (6.0%). Other anterior eye lesions (corneal leucomas, conjunctival injection, lid nodules) occurred in 51% of the individuals. The anterior eye lesions were more prevalent than the posterior lesions. We did not find an association of glaucoma with onchocerciasis. The prevalence of these suggestive ocular lesions strongly correlates with the cutaneous nodules and eosinophilia, suggesting that skin nodules may be an indication for an eye examination. The present study provides evidence that significant infection and eye disease due to onchocerciasis persists in certain regions of Northern South America.

Neto GH; Jaegger K; Marchon-Silva V; Calvão-Brito RH; Vieira JB; Banic DM; Maia-Herzog M

2009-11-01

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Prevalence Of Goitre In A Non Endemic Area Of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional, prevalence-based study comprising a community (22.486) and school survey (19.589) in rural Mehsana, North Gujarat (population: 20,37,367) revealed the goiter prevalence as 3.5% and 7.3% respectively. Grading of goiter by Stanbury�s classification showed 90% -93% of swelling as mid (ob). Application of Stanbury�s criteria over the findings of this study proved the area non-endemic. Prevalence was higher in the school than the age at which prevalence increased in the study area, was delayed to 10 years. Similar to endemic areas, prevalence was higher in females than males in all age groups (except pre-school) and the sex difference was most marked in 15-44 years. A marker (ratio of grade I to ob goiter grade) has also been suggested for long term, intervention-oriented monitoring of non- endemic areas.

Kumar P

1993-01-01

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Analysis of the distribution of endemic and rare arthropods in high endemism areas of Algarve-South Portugal  

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The study of several arthropod groups in high endemism areas (HEA) of Algarve, the Southernmost province of Portugal, has revealed endemic species and species not yet recorded for the Portuguese fauna. The list includes 3 species of Isopoda endemic to Algarve, to Portugal or to the Iberian Peninsula...

Gama, Maria Manuela da; Sousa, José Paulo; Ferreira, Cristina Seabra; Barrocas, Helena Maria

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Onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus of southern Venezuela: altitude and blackfly species composition as predictors of endemicity to select communities for ivermectin control programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In preparation for an ivermectin distribution programme, the prevalence and intensity of infection due to Onchocerca volvulus as well as the species composition and abundance of Simulium vectors were investigated in 22 Yanomami communities situated along 2 altitudinal transects in the southern Venezuelan onchocerciasis focus. These transects corresponded to the Ocamo-Putaco and Orinoco-Orinoquito river systems, covering a range of elevation between 50 m and 740 m above sea level (asl). A total of 831 people underwent parasitological examination in this survey and an additional 196 patients from a previous study, at an altitude of 950 m, were included in the analysis. A total of 92,659 man-biting blackflies were collected and identified to morphospecies. S. oyapockense s.l. was the predominant simuliid up to 150 m asl, whereas S. guianense s.l. and S. incrustatum s.l. prevailed above 150 m. Communities located below 150 m were found to range from hypo- to mesoendemic; all villages above 150 m proved to be hyperendemic (> 60% microfilarial prevalence) and mass ivermectin treatment should be implemented. Age above 10-14 years, altitude of the village and biting rate of S. guianense s.l. up to 200 m asl were found to be statistically significant independent predictors of infection by multivariate logistic regression using a spline model. There were no differences in infection status according to sex. Above 200 m, microfilarial rate and density remained approximately constant, prevalence averaging 79% regardless of blackfly abundance. For the implementation of ivermectin-based onchocerciasis control programmes in the Amazonian focus, altitude and species composition of the blackfly population might be adopted as useful indicators aiding selection of the most affected communities. However, below 200 m additional parasitological indicators may also be necessary. As a direct result of this study, regular mass-ivermectin delivery to meso- and hyperendemic communities is now in progress. PMID:10326102

Vivas-Martinez, S; Basáñez, M G; Grillet, M E; Weiss, H; Botto, C; García, M; Villamizar, N J; Chavasse, D C

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Onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus of southern Venezuela: altitude and blackfly species composition as predictors of endemicity to select communities for ivermectin control programmes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In preparation for an ivermectin distribution programme, the prevalence and intensity of infection due to Onchocerca volvulus as well as the species composition and abundance of Simulium vectors were investigated in 22 Yanomami communities situated along 2 altitudinal transects in the southern Venezuelan onchocerciasis focus. These transects corresponded to the Ocamo-Putaco and Orinoco-Orinoquito river systems, covering a range of elevation between 50 m and 740 m above sea level (asl). A total of 831 people underwent parasitological examination in this survey and an additional 196 patients from a previous study, at an altitude of 950 m, were included in the analysis. A total of 92,659 man-biting blackflies were collected and identified to morphospecies. S. oyapockense s.l. was the predominant simuliid up to 150 m asl, whereas S. guianense s.l. and S. incrustatum s.l. prevailed above 150 m. Communities located below 150 m were found to range from hypo- to mesoendemic; all villages above 150 m proved to be hyperendemic (> 60% microfilarial prevalence) and mass ivermectin treatment should be implemented. Age above 10-14 years, altitude of the village and biting rate of S. guianense s.l. up to 200 m asl were found to be statistically significant independent predictors of infection by multivariate logistic regression using a spline model. There were no differences in infection status according to sex. Above 200 m, microfilarial rate and density remained approximately constant, prevalence averaging 79% regardless of blackfly abundance. For the implementation of ivermectin-based onchocerciasis control programmes in the Amazonian focus, altitude and species composition of the blackfly population might be adopted as useful indicators aiding selection of the most affected communities. However, below 200 m additional parasitological indicators may also be necessary. As a direct result of this study, regular mass-ivermectin delivery to meso- and hyperendemic communities is now in progress.

Vivas-Martinez S; Basáñez MG; Grillet ME; Weiss H; Botto C; García M; Villamizar NJ; Chavasse DC

1998-11-01

38

Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas - 1993-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected black flies of the genus Simulium, and is characterized by chronic skin disease, severe itching, and eye lesions that can progress to complete blindness. Currently, among approximately 123 million persons at risk for infection in 38 endemic countries, at least 25.7 million are infected, and 1 million are blinded or have severe visual impairment. Periodic, communitywide mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (Mectizan, Merck) prevents eye and skin disease and might interrupt transmission of the infection, depending on the coverage, duration, and frequency of MDA. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) was launched in response to a 1991 resolution of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) calling for the elimination of onchocerciasis from the Americas. By the end of 2012, transmission of the infection, judged by surveys following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, had been interrupted or eliminated in four of the six endemic countries in the WHO Americas Region. Thus, in 2013, only 4% (23,378) of the 560,911 persons originally at risk in the Americas will be under ivermectin MDA. Active transmission currently is limited to two foci among Yanomami indigenes in adjacent border areas of Venezuela and Brazil. PMID:23698606

2013-05-24

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Results Over the period 1990–2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round). Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. Conclusion The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries.

Vieira Juan; Cooper Philip J; Lovato Raquel; Mancero Tamara; Rivera Jorge; Proaño Roberto; López Andrea A; Guderian Ronald H; Guzmán José

2007-01-01

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Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099

Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

2010-04-09

 
 
 
 
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Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis.

Chacín-Bonilla L

2010-09-01

42

Information for onchocerciasis control  

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Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I

Adrian Hopkins

2010-01-01

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Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and (more) malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Contreras, Carmen Elena; Donato, Marcos de; Rivas, María Ana; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Mora, Robert; Batista, María Eulalia; Marcano, Norka

2011-03-01

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Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Contreras CE; Donato Md; Rivas MA; Rodulfo H; Mora R; Batista ME; Marcano N

2011-03-01

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Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

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Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-01-01

46

Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease distribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.

JR Coura; RS Amaral

2004-01-01

47

Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions.

Li T; Chen X; Yanagida T; Wang H; Long C; Sako Y; Okamoto M; Wu Y; Giraudoux P; Raoul F; Nkouawa A; Nakao M; Craig PS; Ito A

2013-07-01

48

Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz Yanomami villages were selected among sentinel communities of the ivermectin control program, representing hypo- to hyperendemicity conditions of infection. Spatial variation was explored via increasing village altitude on two river systems (A: Ocamo-Putaco and B: Orinoco-Orinoquito). Temporal variation was studied between 1995 and 1999 by sampling the biting population during dry and rainy mouths. Environmental variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons. PMID:11476332

Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

2001-07-01

49

Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz << S. guianense s.l. Wise). Yanomami villages were selected among sentinel communities of the ivermectin control program, representing hypo- to hyperendemicity conditions of infection. Spatial variation was explored via increasing village altitude on two river systems (A: Ocamo-Putaco and B: Orinoco-Orinoquito). Temporal variation was studied between 1995 and 1999 by sampling the biting population during dry and rainy mouths. Environmental variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

Grillet ME; Basáñez MG; Vivas-Martínez S; Villamizar N; Frontado H; Cortez J; Coronel P; Botto C

2001-07-01

50

Revisión epidemiológica de la Oncocercosis en América Latina/ Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La oncocercosis es una enfermedad exclusiva del ser humano, caracterizada por prurito intenso, lesiones dérmicas y daño ocular que puede llegar a la ceguera. Las regiones endémicas están limitadas a zonas con latitud, relieve, temperatura y humedad relativa óptimas para el desarrollo del parásito y el insecto vector. Estas zonas se encuentran en el oeste de África, Yemen y algunos países de América latina. El parásito es transmitido a través de la mordedura de (more) una mosca del género Simulium, que al alimentarse de sangre deposita larvas del parásito. En América se creó el Programa de Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), cuya estrategia es la administración de ivermectina y la nodulectomía para eliminar la oncocercosis como amenaza de salud pública en la región. Abstract in english The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simu (more) lium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (OEPA) was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy.

Rodríguez C, Guadalupe C; Lizarazo O, Cristian

2010-01-01

51

Coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant recipients in an endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by Coccidioides species, which are endemic for the Southwestern United States and parts of Central America and South America. Most infected individuals are asymptomatic or have mild-to-moderate respiratory illness. Coccidioidomycosis is more severe in patients with depressed cellular immunity, such as organ transplant recipients. We retrospectively reviewed charts of 391 liver transplant recipients (mean follow-up, 38.7 months; range, 2-105 months). Before transplantation, 12 patients had a history of coccidioidomycosis and 13 patients had asymptomatic seropositivity. Of these 25 patients, 23 had no active coccidioidomycosis posttransplantation and 2 had reactivated infection. One of 5 patients with indeterminate serology before transplantation died of disseminated coccidioidomycosis shortly after transplantation. De novo coccidioidomycosis developed in 12 patients (3%) who had no evidence of coccidioidomycosis pretransplantation. Of 15 total episodes of posttransplantation coccidioidomycosis, 10 (66%) occurred during the first year. Dissemination was noted in 33% of active coccidioidomycosis after transplantation; two patients (13%) died of coccidioidomycosis. Because most coccidioidal infections occurred in the first posttransplantation year despite targeted antifungal prophylaxis, we recommend a new strategy of universal antifungal prophylaxis for 6-12 months for liver transplant recipients who reside in the endemic area.

Vucicevic D; Carey EJ; Blair JE

2011-01-01

52

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and th (more) e patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.

2006-06-01

53

[Endemic goiter in three census areas of Chile  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the current status of endemic goiter in Chile. 3500 students of basic education from public schools in three censor areas of the country were studied: 1000 in Calam (North), 1000 in Temuco (South) and 1500 in Santiago (Center). Socio-economic level was evaluated according to the Graffar scale. Two trained physicians determined body weight, height and size of the goiter through palpation of the thyroid gland (according to W.H.O. classification). Iodine in urine was determined in 20% of the students. Iodine insalt was determined in samples obtained in the three areas. A goiter prevalence of goiter of 11.4% in males and 12% in females was found, with a higher prevalence in females during puberty. A higher prevalence in the medium-low and low socio-economical levels was observed (12.4% and 14.4% respectively). The level of salt iodination was variable in the three areas (1/3 with concentration > than 100 parts per million (ppm), 1/3 between 60-100 ppm and 1/3 with < 60 ppm of iodine content). According to W.H.O. criteria, Chile has presently a low goiter prevalence, but the salt iodine concentration indicate the importance of a permanent surveillance of iodine nutrition.

Muzzo S; Burgueño M; Carvajal F; Moreno R; Leiva L

1994-06-01

54

Epidemiological studies of onchocerciasis in southern Benin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the prevalence of human onchocerciasis in four geographically different regions of the southern part of Benin in West Africa. In a total of thirteen villages 1596 individuals were examined for clinical and parasitological signs of onchocerciasis. Prevalence of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in skin snips was 29% in region I (lower Oueme river), 64% in region II (Mono river), 56% in region III (upper Oueme river) and 70% in region IV (Okpara river). Based on endemicity criteria of the WHO regions II and IV were found to be hyperendemic, region III mesoendemic and region I hypoendemic for onchocerciasis. The community microfilarial load ranged from 4 mf/mg skin in the hypoendemic region to 10.5 mf/mg skin in the hyperendemic regions. The prevalence of nodules was 21% in region I, 30% in region II, 17% in region III and 41% in region IV. The overall prevalence of chronic onchocercal dermatitis was 12%. Of 689 individuals infected with O. volvulus 388 were treated with a single dose of ivermectin.

Gallin M; Adams A; Kruppa TF; Gbaguidi EA; Massougbodji A; Sadeler BC; Brattig N; Erttmann KD

1993-06-01

55

Universal species-area and endemics-area relationships at continental scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the broad conceptual and applied relevance of how the number of species or endemics changes with area (the species-area and endemics-area relationships (SAR and EAR)), our understanding of universality and pervasiveness of these patterns across taxa and regions has remained limited. The SAR has traditionally been approximated by a power law, but recent theories predict a triphasic SAR in logarithmic space, characterized by steeper increases in species richness at both small and large spatial scales. Here we uncover such universally upward accelerating SARs for amphibians, birds and mammals across the world’s major landmasses. Although apparently taxon-specific and continent-specific, all curves collapse into one universal function after the area is rescaled by using the mean range sizes of taxa within continents. In addition, all EARs approximately follow a power law with a slope close to 1, indicating that for most spatial scales there is roughly proportional species extinction with area loss. These patterns can be predicted by a simulation model based on the random placement of contiguous ranges within a domain. The universality of SARs and EARs after rescaling implies that both total and endemic species richness within an area, and also their rate of change with area, can be estimated by using only the knowledge of mean geographic range size in the region and mean species richness at one spatial scale. PMID:22722856

Storch, David; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter

2012-08-01

56

Universal species-area and endemics-area relationships at continental scales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the broad conceptual and applied relevance of how the number of species or endemics changes with area (the species-area and endemics-area relationships (SAR and EAR)), our understanding of universality and pervasiveness of these patterns across taxa and regions has remained limited. The SAR has traditionally been approximated by a power law, but recent theories predict a triphasic SAR in logarithmic space, characterized by steeper increases in species richness at both small and large spatial scales. Here we uncover such universally upward accelerating SARs for amphibians, birds and mammals across the world’s major landmasses. Although apparently taxon-specific and continent-specific, all curves collapse into one universal function after the area is rescaled by using the mean range sizes of taxa within continents. In addition, all EARs approximately follow a power law with a slope close to 1, indicating that for most spatial scales there is roughly proportional species extinction with area loss. These patterns can be predicted by a simulation model based on the random placement of contiguous ranges within a domain. The universality of SARs and EARs after rescaling implies that both total and endemic species richness within an area, and also their rate of change with area, can be estimated by using only the knowledge of mean geographic range size in the region and mean species richness at one spatial scale.

Storch D; Keil P; Jetz W

2012-08-01

57

[Prevention of transfusion transmitted malaria in endemic area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a real public health problem in Africa; more than 300 million new cases and approximately two million deaths arise every year. In spite of the blood transfusion is a potential way of Plasmodium transmission, there is no consensus for measures to prevent post-transfusion malaria in endemic area. This work aimed at comparing some tools and to discuss various strategies to be implemented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study concerned 3001 blood donors recruited in seven blood transfusion centers in Senegal during two periods: dry season (June-July, 2003) and rainy season (October-November, 2003). We evaluated the efficiency of the selection questionnaire for the blood donors to exclude those who are potentially asymptomatic carriers of the Plasmodium. Every donation was screened for pLDH antigen and antibodies against Plasmodium by Elisa technique (DiaMed, Cressier sur Morat, Suisse), morphological tests was also performed, as well as the screening of HIV, HBs Ag, HCV Ab and syphilis. RESULTS: Median age of blood donors was of 27.7 years. Anti-Plasmodium antibodies prevalence was 65.3% and pLDH antigen was of 0.53%, all positivity was confirmed by microscopy. The prevalence of the other infectious markers was 11.7% for HBs Ag; 0.83% for syphilis; 0.49% for HCV Ab and 0.46% for HIV Ab. The risk factors associated with an asymptomatic carrier of Plasmodium were: the rainy season, irregular character of the blood donations, high frequency of malaria attacks in the past, and absence of treatment during the last episode. CONCLUSION: Plasmodium represents the third risk of blood transmitted infectious agents after hepatitis B virus, syphilis, and before HCV and HIV in Senegal. The medical questionnaire is not useful enough for asymptomatic carriers deferral, and we propose to introduce Plasmodium screening. The screening for Plasmodium pLDH by Elisa technique seems to be the best tool in endemic area and the strategy of systematic screening is the most suited in terms of blood transfusion safety.

Diop S; Ndiaye M; Seck M; Chevalier B; Jambou R; Sarr A; Dièye TN; Touré AO; Thiam D; Diakhaté L

2009-11-01

58

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela), onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

Gustavsen K; Hopkins A; Sauerbrey M

2011-01-01

59

Use of Geographic Information Systems in the development of prediction models for onchocerciasis control in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A risk assessment model was developed for onchocerciasis distribution and its control in Ethiopia using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. GIS data analysis was done to generate 3 separate risk models using selected environmental features of (1) earth observing satellite data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) prepared from AVHRR sensor data of the Global land 1-km project for the years 1992 and 1995, (2) FAO agroclimatic databases from the Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region of East Africa, and (3) a climate-based forecast index based on the growing degree days (GDD) and water budget concepts. Parasitological data used for the analysis were published and unpublished reports of onchocerciasis surveillance made between 1969 and 2000 in various parts of the country. Analysis of queries based on 1992 and 1995 annual wet and dry season data of the Global land 1-km project resulted in a predictive value of 95.1%, 94.0% and 96.3%, respectively, using data values extracted from buffers centered on sites above 5% prevalence. The model based on CPSZ data predicted an endemic area that best fit the distribution of sites over 5% prevalence; the query was based on CPSZ values of average altitude (442-2134 m), annual mean temperature (18-28 degrees C), annual rainfall (822-1980 mm), annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938 mm), rain minus potential evapotranspiration (-124 - 792 mm), average NDVI x 100 (2000-5000) and average terrain percent slope (9-34). The climate-based model based on GDD and water-budget predicted high risk to severe risk areas in the western and southwestern parts of the country. All three of the models predicted suitable areas for the transmission of onchocerciasis outside known endemic areas, suggesting the need for ground-based validation and potential application to current community-directed treatment programs with ivermectin (CDTI) for control of onchocerciasis in Ethiopia.

Gebre-Michael T; Malone JB; McNally K

2005-03-01

60

Sibling species distributions of the Simulium damnosum complex in the west African Onchocerciasis Control Programme area during the decade 1984-93, following intensive larviciding since 1974.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the decade from 1984 to 1993, nine species of the Simulium damnosum complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were identified from the area covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. These were S. damnosum s.s., S. dieguerense, S. konkourense, S. leonense, S. sanctipauli, S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, S. squamosum, and S. yahense. Some of these species were found to consist of two chromosomal variant populations. These were S. konkourense 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms, S. sanctipauli sensu stricto and 'Djodji' form, S. soubrense 'Chute Milo' and 'Beffa' forms. The distribution of these twelve cytological taxa was assessed in relation to the two main vegetation zones of West Africa (forest and savanna), topography, river size and other factors. The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement and river water level. The most widely distributed species were S. sirbanum and S. damnosum s.s., associated with savanna areas, recorded from all river basins. Simulium dieguerense was restricted mainly to Western Mali on the Rivers Bafing and Bakoye in the Senegal River basin. Simulium squamosum was identified from rivers draining mountainous areas in both the forest and savanna zones. Simulium yahense was found in small permanent rivers along a wide forested band parallel to the coast and was absent from the plains of Togo and Benin. Members of the S. sanctipauli subcomplex had restricted distributions except for S. sanctipauli s.s., which was widespread in large rivers of the forest zone from Sierra Leone to the Volta Lake in Ghana. Simulium soubrense 'Beffa' form occurred in Togo and Benin, S. soubrense 'Chutes Milo' form in Guinea, both 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms of S. konkourense occurred predominantly in Guinea and S. leonense in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the distribution maps and the importance of the data bank to vector control larvicidal operations are discussed.

Boakye DA; Back C; Fiasorgbor GK; Sib AP; Coulibaly Y

1998-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for alternatives to ivermectin. Candidate drugs include moxidectin, a macrofilaricide, doxycycline which targets the Wolbachia endosymbiont, and flubendazole, which shows promise with the newer oral cyclodextrin formulation.

Babalola, Olufemi Emmanuel

2011-01-01

62

[Human diphyllobothriosis. A case in non-endemic area of Argentina].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

Cargnelutti DE; Salomón MC

2012-01-01

63

Areas of endemism in the Espinhaco Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Espinhaço Range, a mountain chain located in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, contains one of the richest floras in Brazil, with a high frequency of endemic species. Since 2005 it is designated as UNESCO biosphere reserve and is situated at the joint border of two global hotspots for biodiversity conservation. Endemic species with congruent occurrence patterns were identified in order to establish areas of higher endemism within the Espinhaço Range. Taxonomic reviews were analyzed in order to identify endemic taxa and a dataset was elaborated containing 1765 records from 178 endemic species of vascular plants, representing 17 families and including the geographic coordinates for each record. Two maps were produced showing species richness and collection effort in 15? quadrats. The congruent occurrences were identified and a third map was provided, delimiting 10 candidate areas of endemism for a “parsimony analysis of endemicity” (PAE). One most parsimonious cladogram is then retrieved, evidencing three major clades corresponding to the northern, central and southern portions of the Espinhaço, in addition to four subclades included into the central clade. We finally identified six major areas of endemism. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation between species richness and collector effort, revealing which areas are in need of further field inventories.

Echternacht Livia; Trovó Marcelo; Oliveira CaetanoT; Pirani JoséRubens

2011-09-01

64

Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil/ Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas. Abstract in english In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Vieira, João Batista F.; García-Zapata, Marco Tulio A.; Schuertz, Joana Claudete M.

1998-07-01

65

Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

Giovanini Evelim Coelho; João Batista F. Vieira; Marco Tulio A. García-Zapata; Joana Claudete M. Schuertz

1998-01-01

66

APOC's strategy of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and its potential for providing additional health services to the poorest populations. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since its inauguration in 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has made significant progress towards achieving its main objective: to establish sustainable community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in onchocerciasis-endemic areas outside of the remit of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). In the year 2000, the programme, in partnership with governments, non-governmental organizations and the endemic communities themselves, succeeded in treating 20,298,138 individuals in 49,654 communities in 63 projects in 14 countries. Besides the distribution of ivermectin, the programme has strengthened primary healthcare (PHC) through capacity-building, mobilization of resources and empowerment of communities. The community-directed-treatment approach is a model that can be adopted in developing other community-based health programmes. The approach has also made it possible to bring to the poor some measure of intervention in some other healthcare programmes, such as those for malaria control, eye care, maternal and child health, nutrition and immunization. CDTI presents, at all stages of its implementation, a unique window of opportunity for promoting the functional integration of healthcare activities. For this to be done successfully and in a co-ordinated manner, adequate funding of CDTI within PHC is as important as an effective sensitization of the relevant policy-makers, healthworkers and communities on the value of integration (accompanied by appropriate training at all levels). Evaluation of the experiences in integration of health services, particularly at community level, is crucial to the success of the integration.

Homeida M; Braide E; Elhassan E; Amazigo UV; Liese B; Benton B; Noma M; Etya'alé D; Dadzie KY; Kale OO; Sékétéli A

2002-03-01

67

Time series analysis of onchocerciasis data from Mexico: a trend towards elimination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Latin America, there are 13 geographically isolated endemic foci distributed among Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Ecuador. The communities of the three endemic foci found within Mexico have been receiving ivermectin treatment since 1989. In this study, we predicted the trend of occurrence of cases in Mexico by applying time series analysis to monthly onchocerciasis data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health between 1988 and 2011 using the software R. RESULTS: A total of 15,584 cases were reported in Mexico from 1988 to 2011. The data of onchocerciasis cases are mainly from the main endemic foci of Chiapas and Oaxaca. The last case in Oaxaca was reported in 1998, but new cases were reported in the Chiapas foci up to 2011. Time series analysis performed for the foci in Mexico showed a decreasing trend of the disease over time. The best-fitted models with the smallest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) were Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, which were used to predict the tendency of onchocerciasis cases for two years ahead. According to the ARIMA models predictions, the cases in very low number (below 1) are expected for the disease between 2012 and 2013 in Chiapas, the last endemic region in Mexico. CONCLUSION: The endemic regions of Mexico evolved from high onchocerciasis-endemic states to the interruption of transmission due to the strategies followed by the MSH, based on treatment with ivermectin. The extremely low level of expected cases as predicted by ARIMA models for the next two years suggest that the onchocerciasis is being eliminated in Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first study utilizing time series for predicting case dynamics of onchocerciasis, which could be used as a benchmark during monitoring and post-treatment surveillance.

Lara-Ramírez EE; Rodríguez-Pérez MA; Pérez-Rodríguez MA; Adeleke MA; Orozco-Algarra ME; Arrendondo-Jiménez JI; Guo X

2013-01-01

68

Onchocerciasis in expatriates on the Ivory Coast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six cases of onchocerciasis were diagnosed in expatriates working on a hydroelectric dam project in Taabo (Ivory Coast) between 1977 and 1978. Taabo is in the forest area of the Bandama River, where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic. The six patients had lived in the area from 20 months to four years. In the early 1970s four of them had worked at the Kossou Dam, a similar project 125 miles up the Bandama River. Diagnoses were confirmed by demonstrating microfilariae in biopsy specimens taken from the skin overlying the iliac crest. A seventh case was diagnosed clinically as tropical filarial pulmonary eosinophilia. The six patients with microfilariae in the skin were treated successfully with diethylcarbamazine (Notezine, Hetrazan) and suramin (Moranyl). The patient with pulmonary involvement responded dramatically to treatment with diethylcarbamazine. The overall effects of onchocerciasis are poorly understood, though it is now one of the major tropical diseases, affecting millions of people living in central and western Africa, Yemen, and Central America. Medical treatment is successful, but few preventive measures are available for the disease; larvicides are subject to resistance, and their effects are transient.

Mahoney JL

1981-03-01

69

Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

2010-01-01

70

Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte dynamics in areas of different malaria endemicity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify and compare factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in three regions of differing malaria endemicity. Methods Retrospective data from Thailand, The Gambia and Tanzania were used. The data came from large prospective field-based clinical trials, which investigated gametocyte carriage after different anti-malarial drug treatments. Results Gametocytaemia was detected during the observation period in 12% of patients (931 out of 7548) in Thailand, 34% (683 out of 2020) in The Gambia, and 31% (430 out of 1400) in Tanzania (p Conclusion This study confirms the independent association of gametocytaemia with anaemia, and the significantly lower prevalence and duration of gametocyte carriage following treatment with an artemisinin derivative. The large differences in gametocyte carriage rates between regions with different levels of malaria transmission suggest that drug interventions to prevent transmission will have different effects in different places.

Stepniewska Kasia; Price Ric N; Sutherland Colin J; Drakeley Chris J; von Seidlein Lorenz; Nosten Francois; White Nicholas J

2008-01-01

71

TERRITORIAL INVESTIGATION OF DONJA TRNAVA VILLAGE AS ENDEMIC AREA 22 YEARS  

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Full Text Available Endemic nephropathy is a renal disease of unknown aetiology, which occurs endemically and affects individuals from risk families, with latent but progressive natural course and fatal outcome. In earlier territorial investigations, endemic areas were found along the Juzna Morava River: Brestovac, Kutles, Trupale, Gornja i Donja Toponica, Luzane, Nozrina, Moravac and other settlements. The last extensive studies of endemic nephropathy in these villages were conducted in 1981. These investigations showed that 2.7% of inhabitants along the right side of Juzna Morava River, in Donja Trnava village, suffered from endemic nephropathy. In the present study, a total of 291 persons (153 female and 138 male), aged 7 to 77, were investigated. Diagnosis of endemic nephropathy was made according to the natural history, physical examination and urine analysis. Two persons or 0.68 % (one with chronic renal failure, and the other with an end-stage renal disease, on haemodialysis treatments) had endemic nephropathy. Eight persons (or 2.75%) suffered from other renal diseases. There were no urothelial tumors, which was confirmed in previous studies. Based on these investigations, a total of 39 persons from 29 risk families was selected for further examinations and following-up at the Institute of Nephrology and Haemodialysis in Nis.

Radomir Rai?evi?; Predrag Vuksanovi?; Sveto Suša; Rade ?ukuranovi?; Vojin Savi?; Branka Miti?

2005-01-01

72

Asymptomatic Leishmania infantum infections in humans living in endemic and non-endemic areas of Croatia, 2007 to 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of asymptomatic leishmaniasis in the general population of Croatia has not been studied to date. To assess the prevalence of Leishmania infantum specific IgG antibodies among immunocompetent residents of Croatia, sera from 2,035 persons (eastern coast of Adriatic Sea, n=1,186; Adriatic islands, n=653; mainland, n=196), were tested by an enzyme immunoassay. A total of 231 (11.4%) persons had anti-Leishmania antibodies. Multivariate analysis revealed that seropositivity was associated with geographic location and age. Residents of coastal areas and islands were significantly more seropositive than mainland residents (odds ratios (OR) 20.37 to 28.51). Moderate to high anti-Leishmania seroprevalence was found throughout the eastern Adriatic coast and islands (4.0% to 22.2%) including the sites previously considered non-endemic. A highly endemic focus was identified in central coastal Dalmatia (seroprevalence 22.2%; OR: 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-2.22). Regarding age, children aged 0-9 years were the most vulnerable group for asymptomatic Leishmania infection (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.16-4.14).

Šiško-Kraljevi? K; Jeron?i? A; Mohar B; Punda-Poli? V

2013-01-01

73

Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantific...

Magalhães Ricardo J; Langa Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo José; Clements Archie CA; Nery Susana

74

Immunodiagnostic Methods: What Is Their Role in Areas of Low Endemicity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide Schistosomiasis mansoni continues to be a serious public health problem. Over the past decades, control programmes have made remarkable progress in reducing S. mansoni infections to a relatively low level in Brazil and African countries. Endemic regions are currently circumscribed in certain core areas where reinfection and repeated chemotherapy are frequent and, consequently, are related to residents with low parasite load. At present, diagnosis is predominately a key step for final disease control although low endemicity area residents are hardly detected by most of the available assays. In this paper, we review the current status and efforts made aiming at the improvement of diagnostic tools for S. mansoni in low endemicity infections. The establishment of diagnostic assays—simple, affordable, sensitive, and specific for field diagnosis of S. mansoni—is essential and should be given high priority.

Grenfell, Rafaella Fortini Queiroz; Silva-Moraes, Vanessa; Taboada, Diana; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; de Castro, Ana Karine Sarvel; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

2012-01-01

75

Contemporary environmental correlates of endemic bird areas derived from meteorological satellite sensors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present-day distribution of centres of endemism is the result of an interplay between historical biogeography and contemporary environmental conditions. The relative importance of these two factors has never been established, however, for want of information on both the distributions themselves and the continental-scale measurement of environmental variables. Recently published maps of avian endemism in Africa, and the increasing availability of continental-scale surrogates of climatic conditions derived from Earth-orbiting satellites, has allowed this problem to be addressed directly. In this paper, temporal-Fourier-processed surrogate meteorological data derived from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites and from the geostationary Meteosat satellites are used within a discriminant analytical framework to describe and predict areas of bird endemism in East Africa. The technique predicts endemic bird areas (EBAs) with an accuracy of 89% (mean 85%, range 70 to 89%). Contemporary environmental conditions, ultimately determined by climate, therefore appear to account for a substantial fraction of the observed variation in the distribution of EBAs. On the basis of these results, several hypotheses proposed to explain the distribution of centres of avian endemism are reviewed.

Johnson DDP; Hay SI; Rogers DJ

1998-06-01

76

Investigations on a Swiss area highly endemic for Echinococcus multilocularis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anecdotal information suggested that a focus of hyperendemicity may be present in a small area of the Canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. Therefore, the prevalence of E. multilocularis was assessed both in the fox and the rodent population over a two-season-period. A high prevalence ranging between 47% and 56% was consistently determined in the fox population. An Arvicola terrestris population was infected at 39% in the first season of investigation and at 11% in the following season. A subsequent seroepidemiological survey in the population of inhabitants surrounding the area provided no indication of seroconversion and thus no indication of infection for humans. However, a longer-term survey will be needed to assess more precisely the risk of disease occurrence among these inhabitants.

Gottstein B; Saucy F; Wyss C; Siegenthaler M; Jacquier P; Schmitt M; Brossard M; Demierre G

1996-06-01

77

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update  

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We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients ...

Rastogi V; Nirwan P

78

Distribution of trace elements in water, grain and soil for endemic arsenism disease area by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The concentrations of trace elements in water, grain and soil from Tumotezuoqi of Inner-Mongolia are determined by neutron activation analysis(NAA). The analytical quality is verified by the analysis of some standard reference materials. The result shows that the arsenic concentrations in drinking water of endemic arsenism disease area are much higher than those of the allowance limit (

2000-01-01

79

Management options for solitary thyroid nodules in an endemic goitrous area.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analysis of management of 546 cases of solitary thyroid nodules in an endemic area is presented. None of the evaluating procedures could effectively isolate benign from malignant disease. Of 508 cases considered clinically to be benign, 42 harboured malignancy on histological examination whereas ...

Sarda, A. K.; Gupta, A.; Jain, P. K.; Prasad, S.

80

Iodine determination in water samples from endemic goitrous areas using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A rapid and simple method for the determination of iodine from water is described which is based on preconcentration of iodine with 0.1M solution of 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine in benzene or carbon tetrachloride from 1-2M HNO3 followed by neutron irradiation and gamma-ray activity measurements. A clinical survey of endemic goitrous area was also made to find a possible correlation between endemic goiter and iodine deficiency in water. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Surveillance of endemic diseases in urban areas: the interface between census tract maps and morbidity data].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article we discuss the methodological issues associated with the creation of a surveillance system for endemic diseases in urban areas based on analysis of populations at risk and on spatially referenced epidemiological indicators. We comment on the system's basic requirements, selection criteria for socioeconomic variables, and methodological steps to combine these variables so as to construct a census-based deprivation index. We also present the ways we solved some operational problems related to generation of digitized census tracts maps and linkage of morbidity data from different sources. This approach, spatial organization into account in surveillance of endemic diseases, exemplified here by tuberculosis and leprosy, allows for the interaction of several official data sets from census and health services in order to geographically discriminate inner-city risk strata. Criteria for constructing these risk strata were considered a useful tool for health planning and management activities for the control of endemic diseases in cities.

Ximenes RA; Martelli CM; Souza WV; Lapa TM; Albuquerque Md; Andrade AL; Morais Neto OL; Silva SA; Lima ML; Portugal JL

1999-01-01

82

Integration of control measures for malaria vectors in endemic areas of Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various vector control measures were applied in different endemic areas in two provinces, Saraburi and Chanthaburi, with comparison among different control measures. Application of IGR (insect growth regurator, pyriproxyfen) was introduced at Wat Tam Pra Pothisat, Tab-Kwang District, Saraburi Province. Some integration measures were performed at villages 6 and 8, Patavee, Makham District, Chanthaburi Province. In Tab-Kwang District with low malaria endemicity at the study site predators were not able to be released due to rapid velocity of running water. IGR could effectively control malaria compared to the basin released predators. Another endemic areas villagers 6 and 8, Patavee, Makham, Chanthaburi Province was chosen. Highly endemic multidrug resistant malaria has been prevalent for many years in this area. Integration of Kanda's trapping system, application of IGR, use of both residual spraying and impregnated bed-net methods with etofenprox successfully interrupted malaria infection. The application of these methods as an integrated control system could be adjusted to environmental conditions. The results of this study suggest rapid effective vector control. PMID:8525404

Kanda, T; Bunnag, D; Deesin, V; Deesin, T; Leemingsawat, S; Komalamisra, N; Thimasarn, K; Sucharit, S

1995-03-01

83

Integration of control measures for malaria vectors in endemic areas of Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various vector control measures were applied in different endemic areas in two provinces, Saraburi and Chanthaburi, with comparison among different control measures. Application of IGR (insect growth regurator, pyriproxyfen) was introduced at Wat Tam Pra Pothisat, Tab-Kwang District, Saraburi Province. Some integration measures were performed at villages 6 and 8, Patavee, Makham District, Chanthaburi Province. In Tab-Kwang District with low malaria endemicity at the study site predators were not able to be released due to rapid velocity of running water. IGR could effectively control malaria compared to the basin released predators. Another endemic areas villagers 6 and 8, Patavee, Makham, Chanthaburi Province was chosen. Highly endemic multidrug resistant malaria has been prevalent for many years in this area. Integration of Kanda's trapping system, application of IGR, use of both residual spraying and impregnated bed-net methods with etofenprox successfully interrupted malaria infection. The application of these methods as an integrated control system could be adjusted to environmental conditions. The results of this study suggest rapid effective vector control.

Kanda T; Bunnag D; Deesin V; Deesin T; Leemingsawat S; Komalamisra N; Thimasarn K; Sucharit S

1995-03-01

84

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2331 males and 2469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0-52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol.

Otubanjo OA; Adeoye GO; Ibidapo CA; Akinsanya B; Okeke P; Atalabi T; Adejai ET; Braide E

2008-12-01

85

Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis in a non-endemic area: a review of cases and diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) have increased in Spain in recent years, due firstly to the migration from endemic regions and secondly to travelers returning from these regions. In non-endemic areas, diagnosis of both diseases is hampered by the lack of experience, long silent periods, and the resemblance to other diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. METHODS: A total of 39 cases of imported histoplasmosis and 6 cases of PCM diagnosed in the Spanish Mycology Reference Laboratory since 2006 were analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis was performed using classical methods and also a specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for each microorganism. RESULTS: We had 9 cases of probable histoplasmosis in travelers and 30 cases in immigrants, 29 of whom were defined as proven. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cases were either immigrants or people who had lived for a long period of time in endemic regions, all of whom were classified as proven cases. Cultures showed a good sensitivity in detecting Histoplasma capsulatum in immigrants with proven histoplasmosis (73%); however, growth was very slow. The fungus was never recovered in traveler patients. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was isolated in a culture only in one case of the proven PCM. Serological methods were not very reliable in immunocompromised patients with histoplasmosis (40%). A PCR-based technique for histoplasmosis detected 55.5% of the cases in travelers (probable cases) and 89% of the cases in immigrants (proven). The PCR method for PCM detected 100% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: These kinds of mycoses are increasingly frequent in non-endemic areas, and newer and faster techniques should be used to reach an early diagnosis. The RT-PCR techniques developed appear to be sensitive, specific, and fast and could be helpful to detect those mycoses. However, it is also essential that physicians perform differential diagnosis in individuals coming from endemic areas.

Buitrago MJ; Bernal-Martínez L; Castelli MV; Rodríguez-Tudela JL; Cuenca-Estrella M

2011-01-01

86

Onchocerciasis--a potential revolution in its treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocerciasis is a major blinding disease affecting at least 28 million people in Africa and Latin America. Although a large-scale vector control program has been highly successful in limiting transmission of infection in West Africa, there has not been a satisfactory form of treatment available for those already infected or those living in other areas. Despite the fact that two drugs, diethylcarbamazine and suramin, are active against the filarial parasite that causes onchocerciasis, their use is severely limited by their toxicity and the reaction they induce. A newly developed drug, ivermectin, appears to offer a major revolution in the treatment of onchocerciasis. In a series of clinical trials, ivermectin has been shown to be an extremely effective microfilaricide which induces only minimal side effects. Ivermectin is given as a single oral dose which can be repeated on an annual basis. In view of its safety and efficacy and its ease of administration, it seems likely that ivermectin will be suitable for use in mass chemotherapy programs against onchocerciasis.

Taylor HR

1987-12-01

87

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05). The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

2012-01-01

88

Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

1988-01-01

89

High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

2009-07-15

90

Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A glycophospholipid (GPL) antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant has been tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown field samples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay (LIA) was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negative samples from Surat) were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positive field samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97%) in falciparum positive samples from laboratory and unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani) by LIA method using GPL antigen. From the results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detect almost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

Roy A; Biswas S; Mya MM; Saxena RK; Roy KB

2003-09-01

91

Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL) antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA) was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat) were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97%) in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani) by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

2003-01-01

92

Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. mansoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

Cavalcanti MG; Gonçalves MM; Barreto MM; Silva AH; Madi K; Peralta JM; Igreja RP

2011-03-01

93

Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1991-2000, Leishmania species were isolated and characterized by isoenzyme and molecular analysis from rodents caught in various parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, parasites were observed by direct microscopy in smears from 18.6% of 566 specimens. L. major was isolated from 4 species: Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica and Mer. hurrianae. L. turanica was isolated from R. opimus for the first time in this country. In endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, parasites were observed in liver and spleen from 13.7% of 504 rodents. Two species were positive on culture; promastigotes isolated from Mer. persicus were characterized as L. donovani zymodeme LON50 and from Mesocricetus auratus as L. infantum LON49. PMID:16335651

Mohebali, M; Javadian, E; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Akhavan, A A; Hajjaran, H; Abaei, M R

94

Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1991-2000, Leishmania species were isolated and characterized by isoenzyme and molecular analysis from rodents caught in various parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, parasites were observed by direct microscopy in smears from 18.6% of 566 specimens. L. major was isolated from 4 species: Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica and Mer. hurrianae. L. turanica was isolated from R. opimus for the first time in this country. In endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, parasites were observed in liver and spleen from 13.7% of 504 rodents. Two species were positive on culture; promastigotes isolated from Mer. persicus were characterized as L. donovani zymodeme LON50 and from Mesocricetus auratus as L. infantum LON49.

Mohebali M; Javadian E; Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR; Akhavan AA; Hajjaran H; Abaei MR

2004-07-01

95

[Endemic features and control strategies of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province, P. R. China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the epidemic status and current endemic features of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake area and analyzes the achievements and weakness of various control measures. It also summarizes the characteristics of epidemic situation in the Dongting Lake region, which indicates the long-term and the arduous work in the future for the control of schistosomiasis. In strategy, comprehensive measures should be implemented and routine prevention control work should be remained combing with the control of transmission sources.

Yi P; Peng ZZ; Li XS; Luo ZH; Cai KP; Li YY; Ren GH

2012-04-01

96

[Endemic features and control strategies of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province, P. R. China].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the epidemic status and current endemic features of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake area and analyzes the achievements and weakness of various control measures. It also summarizes the characteristics of epidemic situation in the Dongting Lake region, which indicates the long-term and the arduous work in the future for the control of schistosomiasis. In strategy, comprehensive measures should be implemented and routine prevention control work should be remained combing with the control of transmission sources. PMID:22799151

Yi, Ping; Peng, Zai-Zhi; Li, Xiao-Song; Luo, Zhi-Hong; Cai, Kai-Ping; Li, Yi-Yi; Ren, Guang-Hui

2012-04-01

97

[Immunity against tick-borne encephalitis in healthy residents of endemic areas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specific IgG antibodies against Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus (anti-TBEV) at levels exceeding 60 VIEU/ml were detected in almost 14% of forestry workers and in 1.5% of other healthy persons, residents of the endemic area. Mean levels of anti-TBEV were similar in comparable subgroups of men and women, or subgroups of urban and rural residents, however, increased levels of these antibodies were found in elderly persons.

Bobrowska E; Bobrowski M; Grzeszczuk A; Prokpowicz D

1995-01-01

98

[Study on malaria vectors in malaria endemic areas of Tibet autonomous region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The malaria situation in Tibet has been in an active status and the malaria incidence reached the second in China in 2010. Malaria vector prevention and control is one of the important methods for malaria control, while the malaria vectors are still unknown in Tibet. The author summarized the past researches on malaria vectors in Tibet, so as to provide the evidence for improving malaria control investigation in malaria endemic areas of Tibet, with hopes to provide useful vector message for other researcher.

Wu S; Huang F; Zhou SS; Tang LH

2012-12-01

99

Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

2009-01-01

100

Vitamin D Toxicity in Adults: A Case Series from an Area with Endemic Hypovitaminosis D  

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Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic to the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Physicians often treat patients with high doses of vitamin D for various ailments and on occasion the prescribed doses far exceed the requirements of the patients. Ten cases of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication are presented with features of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, encephalopathy and renal dysfunction. All the patients had demonstrable hypercalcemia and vitamin D levels were high in nine of the 10 cases. The patients had received high doses of vitamin D and no other cause of hypercalcemia was identified. Treatment of hypercalcemia resulted in clinical recovery in nine cases. We conclude that hypervitaminosis D must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypercalcemia in endemically vitamin D deficient areas. A careful history and appropriate biochemical investigation will unravel the diagnosis in most of the cases.

Parvaiz A. Koul; Sheikh Hilal Ahmad; Feroze Ahmad; Rafi A. Jan; S.U. Shah; Umar H. Khan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA) strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014) and load (p = 0.012) were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its implementation to compliment existing control strategies for onchocerciasis, where needed.

Tamarozzi Francesca; Tendongfor Nicholas; Enyong Peter A; Esum Mathias; Faragher Brian; Wanji Samuel; Taylor Mark J

2012-01-01

102

Features of Brazilian spotted fever in two different endemic areas in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) caused by Rickettsia rickettsii is the most important rickettsiosis and the only reportable tick-borne disease in Brazil. In Brazil, the hard tick Amblyomma cajennense is the most important BSF vector; however, in São Paulo State, A. aureolatum was also recognized as a vector species in remaining Atlantic forest areas near the metropolitan area of São Paulo city. We analyzed clinical and epidemiological features of BSF cases from two distinct areas where A. cajennense (Area 1) and A. aureolatum (Area 2) are the incriminated vectors. The clinical features demonstrate the same severity pattern of BSF in both endemic areas. Differences in seasonality, patient characteristics (median age and gender), and epidemiological risk factors (animals host contact and vegetation characteristics) were observed and possibly could be attributed to the characteristics of each vector and their typical biological cycle (hosts and environment).

Angerami RN; Câmara M; Pacola MR; Rezende RC; Duarte RM; Nascimento EM; Colombo S; Santos FC; Leite RM; Katz G; Silva LJ

2012-12-01

103

Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data  

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Full Text Available The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

Amanda Ciprandi Pires; Luciane Marinoni

2010-01-01

104

High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness) and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis of Onchocerciasis, HIV as well as estimate serum antibody levels. Of a total of 162 subjects recruited, 54 were diagnosed positive for Onchocerciasis by skin snip, giving a prevalence of 33.3% (54/162). Also, the prevalence of HIV among these subjects was 12.9% (21/162). This infection was 17.8% among women (13/73) and 8.9% among men (8/89). Six of the 54 subjects positive for Onchocerciasis were also positive for HIV giving a prevalence of co-infection of 11.1% (6/54). Mean serum antibody levels of Onch+ve/HIV+ve, Onch+ve/HIV-ve and Onch-ve/HIV+ve subjects, were significantly higher (p< 0.001, Student=s t-test) when compared to that of Onch-ve/HIV-ve subjects. The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV. It further shows significantly high antibody levels, reflecting raised humoral immune responses with co-infected subjects showing the highest response. Hence the integration of HIV/AIDS care and prevention activities into currently ongoing treatment program for Onchocerciasis will save time and scarce resources in Africa with tremendous public health impact.

G.A. Alemnji; J. Mbuagbaw; K.E. Toukam; L. Ayong; E. Wembe; T. Asonganyi

2007-01-01

105

Parasitological indicators of onchocerciasis relevant to ivermectin control programmes in the Amazonian focus of Southern Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the previous paper it was concluded that those aged > or = 15 years of both sexes could comprise the indicator group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus. This paper explores relationships between community microfilarial (mf) prevalence, intensity, and nodule prevalence in 20 Yanomami communities, that would allow identification of REA methods in the region. The mean nodule ratio (prevalence of nodules/prevalence of mf) was 0.54 when onchocercomata in the indicator group were considered. The Spearman correlation coefficient between mf and nodule prevalence was 0.686 (P = 0.001). Palpation of nodules had 92 % specificity and 32 % sensitivity when compared to skin-snipping for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis. The predictive value positive increased from 75 % to 81 % when the indicator group was used. A microfilarial prevalence > 75 % in this group would be indicative of hyperendemic status in the village, between 30 and 75 % of mesoendemicity, and < 30 % of hypoendemicity. For the assessment of infection intensity, biopsies may be taken from the iliac crest for all endemicity levels. Five of the hyperendemic villages surveyed in this work had a community microfilarial load (CMFL) greater than 10 mf/skin snip; the remaining 5 had a CMFL between 5 and 9. These levels of infection merit high priority ivermectin treatment. In Latin America, communities at both moderate and severe risk are included in mass chemotherapy programmes (i.e. when mf prevalence is over 20 %). Roughly, a nodule prevalence in the indicator group > 10 % would suggest a community mf prevalence > 20 % with a sensitivity of 85 % and a specificity of 71 %. A multiple linear regression model of the arc-sine transformed mf prevalence in the village (all ages) on nodule prevalence in those aged > or = 15 years and altitude of the village explained 72 % of the variance. The model combining nodule and altitudinal information had a sensitivity of 92 % and a specificity of 71 % in comparison to an estimated mf prevalence of 21 % or more. It is suggested that the usefulness of the REA methods proposed be assessed in other areas of the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus.

Vivas-Martínez S; Basáñez MG; Botto C; Villegas L; García M; Curtis CF

2000-11-01

106

Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

2012-01-01

107

Histological and molecular biology diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a patient without history of travel to endemic areas: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: in endemic areas, neurocysticercosis appears mainly as a single, large, spherical and non-enhancing intracranial cyst. Case presentation: an atypical case of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in a French Caucasian, without history of travel to endemic areas, was confirmed by histology and molecular speciation. Imaging was atypical, showing several hook-bearing scolices visible in the cyst, while the serology employed was non-contributary. Conclusions: NCC should be considered when multiple taeniid scolices are observed within the same cystic lesion.

L'Ollivier C; González LM; Gárate T; Martin L; Martha B; Duong M; Huerre M; Cuisenier B; Harrison LJ; Dalle F; Bonnin A

2012-11-01

108

Genital schistosomiasis leading to ectopic pregnancy and subfertility: a case for parasitic evaluation of gynaecologic patients in schistosomiasis endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female genital schistosomiasis is a significant risk factor for ectopic pregnancy and infertility in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. A case of one previous ectopic pregnancy and subsequent obstruction of the contralateral tube in a secondary subfertility patient with chronic genital schistosomiasis is presented, emphasizing the need for a detailed history and parasitic evaluation of patients presenting with ectopic pregnancy or subfertility in areas where the disease is endemic.

Owusu-Bempah A; Odoi AT; Dassah ET

2013-01-01

109

Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA) isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA) was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

De la Fe Christian; Amores Joaquín; Tardy Florence; Sagne Eveline; Nouvel Laurent-Xavier; Citti Christine

2012-01-01

110

Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

1999-01-01

111

A case report of Brugian filariasis outside an endemic area in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year-old boy living outside the endemic area of lymphatic filariasis in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, developed a high fever. To investigate the cause of his presenting symptoms, blood was collected and microfilariae were detected and identified as Brugia malayi using thick blood smear staining. The sources of the infection were investigated. Microfilariae from two domestic cats residing in the boy's village were detected and identified as B. pahangi using a high-resolution melting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The possible sources of this cryptic infection are discussed. PMID:23067513

Yokmek, S; Warunyuwong, W; Rojanapanus, S; Jiraamornimit, C; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

2012-10-16

112

A case report of Brugian filariasis outside an endemic area in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2-year-old boy living outside the endemic area of lymphatic filariasis in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, developed a high fever. To investigate the cause of his presenting symptoms, blood was collected and microfilariae were detected and identified as Brugia malayi using thick blood smear staining. The sources of the infection were investigated. Microfilariae from two domestic cats residing in the boy's village were detected and identified as B. pahangi using a high-resolution melting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The possible sources of this cryptic infection are discussed.

Yokmek S; Warunyuwong W; Rojanapanus S; Jiraamornimit C; Boitano JJ; Wongkamchai S

2012-10-01

113

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 ?g per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 ?g for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 ?g/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 ?g/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 ?g/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the community level in Thailand.

Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Srijantr Pongsant; Teeyapant Punthip; Wongvilairattana Jintana

2010-01-01

114

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 ?g per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 ?g for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 ?g/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 ?g/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 ?g/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the community level in Thailand.

2010-01-01

115

[Study on malaria vectors in malaria endemic areas of Tibet autonomous region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The malaria situation in Tibet has been in an active status and the malaria incidence reached the second in China in 2010. Malaria vector prevention and control is one of the important methods for malaria control, while the malaria vectors are still unknown in Tibet. The author summarized the past researches on malaria vectors in Tibet, so as to provide the evidence for improving malaria control investigation in malaria endemic areas of Tibet, with hopes to provide useful vector message for other researcher. PMID:23593850

Wu, Song; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Tang, Lin-Hua

2012-12-01

116

Protective immunity in bancroftian filariasis. Selective recognition of a 43-kD larval stage antigen by infection-free individuals in an endemic area.  

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There is little information about naturally occurring protective immunity in individuals living in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, though an immunologically hyperresponsive, uninfected group of "endemic normal" individuals that may be immune has been previously recognized. To analyze the nat...

Freedman, D O; Nutman, T B; Ottesen, E A

117

How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?  

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Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

2003-01-01

118

A Comparison of Two Brazilian Populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) from Endemic and Non-endemic Areas to Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be an efficient insect host of Wuchereria bancrofti. In Brazil Cx. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed throughout the country and is often abundant in and around human habitations. In contrast, Bancroftian filariasis is limited to three foci in Brazil. Experiments were undertaken to compare the vector capacities of Cx. quinquefasciatus originating from Maceió (Alagoas), one of the endemic areas of W. bancrofti infection in Brazil, an (more) d Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), a non endemic area. Laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were dissected 20 days after blood feeding on microfilaraemic patients. Survival rates and the number of infective larvae that developed did not differ in female mosquitoes of different origins. Thus both populations of Culex were susceptible to infection with W. bancrofti

Brito, Ana C; Williams, Paul; Fontes, Gilberto; Rocha, Eliana MM

1997-01-01

119

American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR result (more) s and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

Cerino, DA; Veloso, J; Perles, TF; Zanzarini, PD; Lonardoni, MVC; Silveira, TGV

2010-01-01

120

American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

DA Cerino; J Veloso; TF Perles; PD Zanzarini; MVC Lonardoni; TGV Silveira

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Changes in sonographic findings after treatment of patients with clonorchiasis in a heavy endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We measured changes in sonographic findings of patients with clonorchiasis after a treatment in a highly endemic area. A total of 347 residents showed positive stool results for Clonorchis sinensis eggs in a village in northeastern China, and were treated with praziquantel. Of them, 132 patients underwent abdominal sonography both before and 1 year after treatment, and the changes in sonographic findings of 83 cured subjects were compared. Diffuse dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts (DDIHD) was found in 82 patients (98.2%) before and 80 (96.4%) after treatment, which was improved in 3, aggravated in 1, and unchanged in 79 patients. Increased periductal echogenicity (IPDE) was observed in 42 patients (50.6%) before and 45 (54.2%) after treatment, which was improved in 5, aggravated in 8, and unchanged in 70 patients. Floating echogenic foci in the gallbladder (FEFGB) was detected in 32 patients (38.6%) before and 17 (20.5%) after treatment, which was improved in 20, aggravated in 5, and unchanged in 58 patients. Improvement of FEFGB only was statistically significantly (P = 0.004). The present results confirm that DDIHD and IPDE persist but FEFGB decreases significantly at 1 year after treatment. In a heavy endemic area, the sonographic finding of FEFGB may suggest active clonorchiasis 1 year after treatment.

Choi D; Jeon YH; Lee GC; Choi MH; Hong ST

2009-03-01

122

Changes in sonographic findings after treatment of patients with clonorchiasis in a heavy endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured changes in sonographic findings of patients with clonorchiasis after a treatment in a highly endemic area. A total of 347 residents showed positive stool results for Clonorchis sinensis eggs in a village in northeastern China, and were treated with praziquantel. Of them, 132 patients underwent abdominal sonography both before and 1 year after treatment, and the changes in sonographic findings of 83 cured subjects were compared. Diffuse dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts (DDIHD) was found in 82 patients (98.2%) before and 80 (96.4%) after treatment, which was improved in 3, aggravated in 1, and unchanged in 79 patients. Increased periductal echogenicity (IPDE) was observed in 42 patients (50.6%) before and 45 (54.2%) after treatment, which was improved in 5, aggravated in 8, and unchanged in 70 patients. Floating echogenic foci in the gallbladder (FEFGB) was detected in 32 patients (38.6%) before and 17 (20.5%) after treatment, which was improved in 20, aggravated in 5, and unchanged in 58 patients. Improvement of FEFGB only was statistically significantly (P = 0.004). The present results confirm that DDIHD and IPDE persist but FEFGB decreases significantly at 1 year after treatment. In a heavy endemic area, the sonographic finding of FEFGB may suggest active clonorchiasis 1 year after treatment. PMID:19290087

Choi, Dongil; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Geun-Chan; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

2009-03-12

123

Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

2007-01-01

124

Imaging of parathyroid adenomas with (99)mTc-Sestamibi in an endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) has been introduced into parathyroid imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MIBI scan in an endemic goiter area. 25 patients with primary and 9 with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) underwent a MIBI scan one day prior to surgical exploration of the neck. Cervicothoracic planar scintigraphy was performed 5, 15 and 120 min after i.v. injection of 444 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The MIBI scan correctly detected 20 of 25 adenomas in 25 patients with pHPT. In only 6 of 9 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia a focal uptake was found. The cause of one false-positive result in the control group was an increased MIBI uptake by a follicular adenoma of the thyroid. Parathyroid scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestamibi as a single radiopharmaceutical is as sensitive in detecting and localizing parathyroid adenomas as the Tl/Tc-scintigraphy. Due to a high prevalence of thyroid adenomas in an endemic goiter area a higher rate of falsely positive results may be expected. (orig.)

1994-01-01

125

Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma ticks from an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in an area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is considered endemic. For this purpose, 400 adults of A. cajenennse and 200 adults of A. dubitatum, plus 2,000 larvae and 2,000 nymphs of Amblyomma spp. were collected from horses and from the vegetation. The ticks were tested for rickettsial infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols targeting portions of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Only two free?living A. cajennense adult ticks, and four pools of free-living Amblyomma spp. nymphs were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products from the two A. cajennense adult ticks were shown to be identical to corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. DNA sequences of gltA-PCR products of the four nymph pools of Amblyomma spp. revealed a new genotype, which was shown to be closest (99.4%) to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia tamurae. Our findings of two R. rickettsii-infected A. cajennense ticks corroborate the endemic status of the study area, where human cases of BSF were reported recently. In addition, we report for the first time a new Rickettsia genotype in Brazil.

Guedes E; Leite RC; Pacheco RC; Silveira I; Labruna MB

2011-10-01

126

Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhao, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

Felipe IM; Aquino DM; Kuppinger O; Santos MD; Rangel ME; Barbosa DS; Barral A; Werneck GL; Caldas Ade J

2011-03-01

127

Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area) and Bela Fama (urban area), both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identif (more) y risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

Amorim, Márcia N; Rabello, Ana; Contreras, Rabindranah Loyola; Katz, Naftale

1997-09-01

128

Risk of canine and human exposure to Dirofilaria immitis infected mosquitoes in endemic areas of Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of infections by Dirofilaria immitis in canine and human populations depends on several factors linked to both the definitive and intermediate hosts. Little data are available on the risk of human and dog exposure to D. immitis in endemic areas. Data collected on dog- and human-bait traps in endemic areas of north-eastern Italy were used to estimate the likelihood of a receptive host coming into contact with an infected vector. METHODS: From 1997 to 1999, mosquitoes were collected from three sampling sites of north-eastern Italy on D. immitis microfilaraemic dogs and on human baits. The bite/night/host rates were determined based on the number of feeding and probing mosquitoes on dogs and humans, respectively. The survival/mortality rates of different species of mosquitoes following the blood meal, and the rate of natural Dirofilaria infection in unfed specimens were estimated. The risk of exposure of dogs and humans to infected mosquito species was determined by combining the bite/host/night and the mosquito infection rates. RESULTS: A total of 1,165 mosquitoes were collected on human (n=815) and dog (n=350) baits with varying species composition (i.e., Culex pipiens, 87.3% and Ochlerotatus caspius, 11.6%). Overall, dogs were more attractive to Cx pipiens than humans (feeding rate 70.2% vs probing rate 25.9%). The highest bite/night/host rate was 84.0 for dogs and 26.5 for humans. Cx pipiens displayed a mortality rate of 76.3% within 13 days and Oc. caspius of 100% within two days following the infective blood meal. In addition, D. immitis DNA was detected in unfed Cx pipiens (infection rate of 0.26%-2.07%). The infection rate adjusted for mosquito mortality was 0.38%. Based on data collected, the contact between an infected mosquito and a host can occur as often as every four nights for D. immitis infected-mosquitoes in dogs and within two weeks for humans. CONCLUSIONS: Cx pipiens was confirmed as the most efficient natural vector of D. immitis in the studied area. In endemic areas, the risk of transmission can be very high for dogs and relevant for humans. Despite the increased awareness of veterinarians and owners on canine dirofilarioses, dogs from rural areas still maintain the natural life cycle of Dirofilaria spp., therefore acting as a source of infection to humans through vector bites.

Capelli G; Frangipane di Regalbono A; Simonato G; Cassini R; Cazzin S; Cancrini G; Otranto D; Pietrobelli M

2013-01-01

129

Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

Marlow MA; da Silva Mattos M; Makowiecky ME; Eger I; Rossetto AL; Grisard EC; Steindel M

2013-01-01

130

[Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Parana, Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

Silveira TG; Teodoro U; Lonardoni MV; Guilherme AL; Toledo MJ; Ramos M; Arraes SM; Bertolini DA; Spinoza RP; Barbosa OC

1996-04-01

131

[Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:10904316

Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

1996-04-01

132

Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon  

Science.gov (United States)

Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

Ebong, Solange Meyin A.; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guegan, Jean-Francois; Legall, Philippe

2012-01-01

133

Malaria incidence among kidney-transplanted recipients in an endemic malaria area, Sudan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is endemic all over Sudan. The population are at risk of malaria infection to variable degrees. Kidney-transplanted patients on maintenance immunosuppressive therapy are known to be prone to infection, but there is not enough data in the medical literature as to whether they are more susceptible to malaria infection in endemic areas. This study was conducted in the Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases and Surgery to assess the effect of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation on malaria incidence. A total of 110 individuals were enrolled: 55 were renal-transplanted patients with end-stage renal disease who received kidney transplantation at least one year earlier and were on maintenance immunosuppressive medications. The other 55 individuals were the compatible healthy group. Thorough follow-up was exercised for both groups for one year (January-December 2009). Following the World Health Organization criteria for malaria diagnosis, a total of 51 malarial attacks were reported in both the groups, 25 in the transplanted group and 26 in the controls. The incidence difference between both groups was statistically insignificant [0.76 (± 1.170) and 1.09 (± 1.917) P = 0.282 among transplanted group and control group, respectively]. Providing routine malaria prophylaxis is not required for renal transplant recipients on maintenance immunosuppressive. PMID:22982935

Elsharif, Mohamed E; Malik, Elfatih M; Imam, Mohamed E; Omran, Mustafa O; Elsharif, Elham G

2012-09-01

134

Malaria incidence among kidney-transplanted recipients in an endemic malaria area, Sudan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is endemic all over Sudan. The population are at risk of malaria infection to variable degrees. Kidney-transplanted patients on maintenance immunosuppressive therapy are known to be prone to infection, but there is not enough data in the medical literature as to whether they are more susceptible to malaria infection in endemic areas. This study was conducted in the Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases and Surgery to assess the effect of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation on malaria incidence. A total of 110 individuals were enrolled: 55 were renal-transplanted patients with end-stage renal disease who received kidney transplantation at least one year earlier and were on maintenance immunosuppressive medications. The other 55 individuals were the compatible healthy group. Thorough follow-up was exercised for both groups for one year (January-December 2009). Following the World Health Organization criteria for malaria diagnosis, a total of 51 malarial attacks were reported in both the groups, 25 in the transplanted group and 26 in the controls. The incidence difference between both groups was statistically insignificant [0.76 (± 1.170) and 1.09 (± 1.917) P = 0.282 among transplanted group and control group, respectively]. Providing routine malaria prophylaxis is not required for renal transplant recipients on maintenance immunosuppressive.

Elsharif ME; Malik EM; Imam ME; Omran MO; Elsharif EG

2012-09-01

135

Field epidemiological studies on malaria in a low endemic area in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field epidemiological studies were conducted to examine factors affecting endemicity in an area with a low prevalence of malaria. Two annual cross sectional surveys were done to estimate parasite prevalence rates at two periods in time, to determine the distribution of the parasitemic population and to describe the serological status of the population. A longitudinal study of a sample of infected people was used to measure reinfection rates and antibody dynamics. A 2 year passive case detection was done to estimate the number and distribution of people with symptomatic infections. Malaria was found in all age groups, with marked clustering of cases. Active and passive case detection and serological surveys all gave a similar pattern of malaria distribution: generally low prevalence with small foci of relatively high endemicity. The infection frequencies were generally similar in all age groups, measured by both active and passive case detection. There was a high frequency of P. falciparum gametocytemic infections in the asymptomatic cases found through active case detection. Twenty to 39 year old males had the highest frequency of infection by active case detection, and 10-19 year old males by passive case detection. These two groups were also more likely to be gametocyte positive than their female counterparts, suggesting that in this community, this portion of the population acts as the main reservoir of infection. PMID:9088437

Belizario, V Y; Saul, A; Bustos, M D; Lansang, M A; Pasay, C J; Gatton, M; Salazar, N P

1997-03-01

136

Field epidemiological studies on malaria in a low endemic area in the Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field epidemiological studies were conducted to examine factors affecting endemicity in an area with a low prevalence of malaria. Two annual cross sectional surveys were done to estimate parasite prevalence rates at two periods in time, to determine the distribution of the parasitemic population and to describe the serological status of the population. A longitudinal study of a sample of infected people was used to measure reinfection rates and antibody dynamics. A 2 year passive case detection was done to estimate the number and distribution of people with symptomatic infections. Malaria was found in all age groups, with marked clustering of cases. Active and passive case detection and serological surveys all gave a similar pattern of malaria distribution: generally low prevalence with small foci of relatively high endemicity. The infection frequencies were generally similar in all age groups, measured by both active and passive case detection. There was a high frequency of P. falciparum gametocytemic infections in the asymptomatic cases found through active case detection. Twenty to 39 year old males had the highest frequency of infection by active case detection, and 10-19 year old males by passive case detection. These two groups were also more likely to be gametocyte positive than their female counterparts, suggesting that in this community, this portion of the population acts as the main reservoir of infection.

Belizario VY; Saul A; Bustos MD; Lansang MA; Pasay CJ; Gatton M; Salazar NP

1997-03-01

137

O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima/ The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da periferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérit (more) o, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela. Abstract in english A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the village (more) s inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

Moraes, Mário Augusto Pinto de; Shelley, Anthony J.; Dias, Antonio Paulino A. Luna

1986-03-01

138

O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima  

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Full Text Available Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da periferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela.A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

Mário Augusto Pinto de Moraes; Anthony J. Shelley; Antonio Paulino A. Luna Dias

1986-01-01

139

First evidence of spatial clustering of lymphatic filariasis in an Aedes polynesiensis endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Successful elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) requires accurate identification of residual foci of transmission and stringent surveillance strategies to combat potential resurgence. This is challenging in areas where the day-biting Aedes polynesiensis is endemic, such as Samoa, since in previous studies no geographical clustering of infection has been demonstrated. Another challenge for this low prevalence phase is the choice of diagnostic assay as testing for circulating filarial antigen (CFA) or microfilariae (Mf) alone may not have adequate sensitivity. This could be solved by using the commercially available filariasis Cellabs enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) to measure antibody. In the current study five Samoan villages were chosen based on previous epidemiological assessments to represent a range of infection prevalences. CFA, Mf, and antibody levels in children ? 10 years had been recorded and results linked to household of residence and/or primary school of attendance. To ascertain the location of exposure, two scenarios based on potential foci of transmission around communities and schools were explored. Both scenarios revealed significant spatial clusters of households with infected individuals and a relationship to antibody positive children when they were included in the spatial analysis. Fasitoo-Tai had the highest LF prevalence and largest geographical spatial clusters for both scenarios. In Falefa, spatial clusters were detected only for the primary school scenario. In Tafua, which spanned an area of 19.5 km(2), no spatial clusters were detected. Lastly, in Siufaga, the village with the lowest LF prevalence, significant clustering of infected individuals was observed and, for the primary school scenario, this was geographically related to exposure. These promising findings are the first published evidence of spatial clustering of LF in a day-biting Ae. polynesiensis endemic area.

Joseph H; Moloney J; Maiava F; McClintock S; Lammie P; Melrose W

2011-09-01

140

Dog culling and replacement in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measures employed to control visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil have focused on vector control by residual insecticide spraying and diagnosis of infection with elimination of positive dogs. We describe dog culling and replacement in a Brazilian endemic area (the Alvorada District, Araçatuba, SP) in order to better understand dog population dynamics when elimination of the dog reservoir is adopted as the main control measure. From August 2002 to July 2004, 60.9% of the estimated dog population for the area was culled with a mean age of 34 months old. The presence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies was recorded for only 26.7% of the euthanized canines. Replacement was observed in 38.8% of the cases, some of them by 2 or more dogs and in a mean time of 4 months. Dogs were replaced mostly by puppies of both sexes with a mean age of 6.8 months. From August 2002 to April 2005 we were able to follow-up 116 of these dogs, during a mean time of 8.7 months. Canine visceral leishmaniasis seropositivity by ELISA was observed in 42.2% of the followed dogs, 30.6% of which were already positive at the first evaluation. By the end of the follow-up period 37% of the dogs were submitted to euthanasia, with a mean age of 18.3 months. In the studied CVL endemic area of Brazil, euthanasia and the subsequent replacement ratio were high, increasing the dog population turnover and leading to a younger population that might be more susceptible to a variety of other infectious diseases in addition to CVL. Dog culling as a control strategy for VL should be reassessed. PMID:18314275

Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix de; Paula, Henrique Borges de; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Andrade, Andréa Maria de; Dias, Francisca Elda Ferreira; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento

2008-01-17

 
 
 
 
141

Dog culling and replacement in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measures employed to control visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil have focused on vector control by residual insecticide spraying and diagnosis of infection with elimination of positive dogs. We describe dog culling and replacement in a Brazilian endemic area (the Alvorada District, Araçatuba, SP) in order to better understand dog population dynamics when elimination of the dog reservoir is adopted as the main control measure. From August 2002 to July 2004, 60.9% of the estimated dog population for the area was culled with a mean age of 34 months old. The presence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies was recorded for only 26.7% of the euthanized canines. Replacement was observed in 38.8% of the cases, some of them by 2 or more dogs and in a mean time of 4 months. Dogs were replaced mostly by puppies of both sexes with a mean age of 6.8 months. From August 2002 to April 2005 we were able to follow-up 116 of these dogs, during a mean time of 8.7 months. Canine visceral leishmaniasis seropositivity by ELISA was observed in 42.2% of the followed dogs, 30.6% of which were already positive at the first evaluation. By the end of the follow-up period 37% of the dogs were submitted to euthanasia, with a mean age of 18.3 months. In the studied CVL endemic area of Brazil, euthanasia and the subsequent replacement ratio were high, increasing the dog population turnover and leading to a younger population that might be more susceptible to a variety of other infectious diseases in addition to CVL. Dog culling as a control strategy for VL should be reassessed.

Nunes CM; Lima VM; Paula HB; Perri SH; Andrade AM; Dias FE; Burattini MN

2008-05-01

142

Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA in individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Sudan, Indonesia and The Gambia to study antibody responses to these peptides in donors living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to the peptides increased with malaria endemicity, although there were no differences in reactivities to the GLURP peptide between non-exposed donors and donors living in areas of low malaria endemicity. IgG reactivities to the GLURP peptide in Sudanese adults were high one month after treatment in all adults tested, while IgG reactivities to the ABRA peptide were infrequent. IgM responses to the peptides tested were shortlived in most patients. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM reactivities but not IgG antibody reactivities against the ABRA peptide were higher in those with mild malaria than in those with severe malaria. The peptides may be useful in future epidemiological studies, especially in areas of low malaria endemicity.

Jakobsen, P.H.; Theander, T.G.

1996-01-01

143

A series of case reports of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis, mostly in non-endemic hilly areas of Nepal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The government of Nepal has committed to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. The expansion of VL into new areas would constitute a major obstacle to achieving this goal. We report a series of autochthonous VL cases from areas currently considered non-endemic, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal.

Pun SB; Pandey K; Shah R

2013-02-01

144

Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama  

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Full Text Available The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Most of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6%) asymptomatic and 17 acute (65.4%) including 5 (19.2%) fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

Octavio E Sousa; Franklyn Samudio; Corina de Juncá; José E Calzada

2006-01-01

145

Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty  

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Full Text Available Gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. A survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of Olinda, Brazil. All residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. People aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. Data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. The risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. Among those aged 9 to 16 years, the analysis of gender and filariasis by age showed that boys from 15 to 16 years had a higher risk of infection than girls. No association was found between menarche and filariasis in girls. The data suggest that variations between gender in filariasis could result, at least in part, from an increase in susceptibility of men. This epidemiologic feature needs to be considered while formulating elimination plans.

Braga Cynthia; Dourado Inês; Ximenes Ricardo; Miranda Janaína; Alexander Neal

2005-01-01

146

Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools. METHODS: Epidemiological, parasitological and serological data were collected from 2,667 individuals in three settlements of Bellavista district, in May 2010. Parasite infection was detected using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-119 (PvMSP119) and to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein (PfGLURP) were detected by ELISA. Risk factors for exposure to malaria (seropositivity) were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Age-specific antibody prevalence of both P. falciparum and P. vivax were analysed using a previously published catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood for generating seroconversion rates (SCR). RESULTS: The overall parasite prevalence by microscopy and PCR were extremely low: 0.3 and 0.9%, respectively for P. vivax, and 0 and 0.04%, respectively for P. falciparum, while seroprevalence was much higher, 13.6% for P. vivax and 9.8% for P. falciparum. Settlement, age and occupation as moto-taxi driver during previous year were significantly associated with P. falciparum exposure, while age and distance to the water drain were associated with P. vivax exposure. Likelihood ratio tests supported age seroprevalence curves with two SCR rather for both P. vivax and P. falciparum indicating significant changes in the MTI over time. The SCR for PfGLURP was 19-fold lower after 2002 as compared to before (lamda1 = 0.022 versus lamda2 = 0.431), and the SCR for PvMSP119 was four-fold higher after 2006 as compared to before (lamda1 = 0.024 versus lamda2 = 0.006) . CONCLUSION: Combining molecular and serological tools considerably enhanced the capacity of detecting current and past exposure to malaria infections and related risks factors in this very low endemicity area. This allowed for an improved characterization of the current human reservoir of infections, largely hidden and heterogeneous, as well as providing insights into recent changes in species specific MTIs. This approach will be of key importance for evaluating and monitoring future malaria elimination strategies.

Rosas-Aguirre A; Llanos-Cuentas A; Speybroeck N; Cook J; Contreras-Mancilla J; Soto V; Gamboa D; Pozo E; Ponce OJ; Pereira MO; Soares IS; Theisen M; D Alessandro U; Erhart A

2013-09-01

147

Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

2000-01-01

148

[Value of sonography in assessing nodular changes of the thyroid in an endemic goiter area  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an area of endemic goiter 304 patients with an increased thyroid gland were examined by palpation, sonographically and partly scintigraphically. The average age was 37 (12-78) years, the average age of the patients with nodular changes of the thyroid gland 38-44 years. Patients with a diffuse struma were significantly younger with an average age of 33 years. A false-positive enlargement of the thyroid gland established by palpation occurred in 16.1% (n = 49/304). In the sonographic examination 148 out of 304 patients revealed a diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland without provable nodular change. However, in about one third already more or less clearly characterized regressive changes could be observed. In 156 of the 304 patients 109 times solitary nodes and 47 times multinodular changes were established sonographically. In more than one third of all nodular goiters or one fifth of all patients examined a cyst was demonstrated sonographically. Two thirds of the sonographically established nodular changes were, however, solid. In 53 of all 304 examined patients could sonographically be established additional, unexpected nodes which had escaped the palpation and partly also the scintigraphic investigation. In 14% the node suspected by palpation could not be ascertained sonographically. According to the echo structure echo-poor and echo-equal solid nodes dominated. The frequency of carcinomata of the solid nodes was 6.7%. Apart from 4 echo-poorly and 2 complexly structured nodes a carcinoma of the thyroid gland demonstrated itself sonographically to the same echo. Finally conclusions are drawn for the diagnostics of the thyroid gland in the endemic area of goiter.

Bauch K; Schubert M; Fuchs KF; Döge H; Möckel G; Spörl HD; Dempe A

1986-10-01

149

Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 ?g g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 ?g g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 ?g g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 ?g g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 ?g g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 ?g g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 ?g g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 ?g g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 ?g g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 ?g g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils.

Saini P; Khan S; Baunthiyal M; Sharma V

2013-02-01

150

Excessive iodine intake, water chemicals and endemic goitre in a Sudanese coastal area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between intakes of iodine and water chemicals and the thyroid gland status of schoolchildren living in the coastal city of Port Sudan. DESIGN: In our previous nationwide study on goitre, it was observed that the prevalence of goitre was high in Port Sudan city despite high urinary iodine excretion. A cross-sectional study including schoolchildren aged 6–12 years was designed. Measurements determined the prevalence of goitre, urinary iodine concentration and thiocyanate secretion in casual urine samples, serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin, as well as the levels of Cl–, F–, Ca21, Mg21 and total hardness of drinking water. SUBJECTS: Schoolchildren (n 654) aged 6–12 years. SETTING: Port Sudan city is located at the western bank of the Red Sea. The city is surrounded by a mountainous area known as the Red Sea Hills. It is the main sea port in the Sudan, inhabited by ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of goitre in Port Sudan was 34?86% while the median urinary iodine concentration was 46?4mg/dl. Out of thirty-one pupils from Port Sudan, twenty-four (77?42 %) were found to have urinary iodine concentration greater than 30mg/dl and twelve (38?71 %) had different degrees of biochemical hypothyroidism. Excessive concentrations of Cl–, Ca21, Mg21 and water hardness (369?2, 116?48, 60?21 and 539?0mg/l, respectively) were detected in drinking water samples collected from Port Sudan that exceeded levels permitted by the WHO. CONCLUSIONS: The coastal city of Port Sudan is a goitre-endemic area. In contrast to other Sudanese cities in which endemic goitre is related to iodine deficiency, goitre in Port Sudan is associated with iodine excess. Water chemicals seemed to have no effects on thyroid status.

Medani AM; Elnour AA; Saeed AM

2013-09-01

151

[African programme for onchocerciasis control (APOC): entomological aspects of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium neavei in the Basin of Sankuru (Eastern Kasai, Democratic Republic of Congo)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As part of a study to evaluate the long-term impact of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), baseline entomological data on the transmission of onchocerciasis in the forest zone of the Eastern Kasai Province were collected from July 1998 to January 1999. Species of the Simulium neavei complex were the only vectors found in the site during the study. Nuisance activity was low with a mean biting rate of only 32.5 bites/man/day. The mean parturity rate was 29.4%, the mean rate of infected females was 14.5% and the mean number of infective Onchocerca larvae per 1000 parous flies was 659. These findings clearly show that the S. neavei population at the study site has high vector capability and constitutes a large microfilarial reservoir. The entomological features found in the study area are consistent with a hyper-endemic zone.

Traoré S; Enyong P; Mandiangu ML; Kayembé D; Noma M; Sékétéli A

2007-02-01

152

Study of the incidence and etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in an endemic goiter area after treatment with iodine enriched salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed in a severe endemic goiter area, Chengde district including 7 counties, after treatment with Iodine enriched salt, and Beijing city as a control area. From May 1985 to Sep. 1991, 26570 newborns in Beijing city and 16227 in Chengde were screened. The incidence of primary hypothyroidism in Beijing city was 1/8800 and that in Chengde 1/8100. Of all the 5 Ch detected, 3 from Beijing city and 2 from Chengde, were thyroid dysgenesis. Not a single case of endemic goiter cretinism (including both myxedematous and neurological cretinism) was found in our study. We conclude that Iodine deficiency is the only cause of endemic cretinism and this problem can be solved by Iodine enriched salt treatment.

1992-01-01

153

Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs), pyrethrum spray (PS), and human bait (HB) from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh) during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. Results In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71%) was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67%) and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%). All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094), 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784), whereas, six by PS (n = 549) and four species by HB (n = 29). Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (?2 test, P Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI) of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%), followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64%) and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%). Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63) and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24) showed strong relative preferences (Bi) for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others). Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was accessible. The remaining 12 species preferred bovines as hosts. Conclusions The observed high anthropophilic nature of An. baimai, An. minimus s.l., and An. annularis revealed these species to be important malaria vectors in hilly areas of Bangladesh. Higher values of HBI in outdoor-resting mosquitoes indicated that indoor collection alone is not adequate for evaluating malaria transmission in the area.

Bashar Kabirul; Tuno Nobuko; Ahmed Touhid; Howlader Abdul

2012-01-01

154

Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. METHODS: Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs), pyrethrum spray (PS), and human bait (HB) from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh) during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. RESULTS: In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71%) was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67%) and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%). All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094), 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784), whereas, six by PS (n = 549) and four species by HB (n = 29). Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (?(2) test, P < 0.001). Host blood meals were successfully detected from 1318 (53.66%) Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI) of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%), followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64%) and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%). Anopheles baimai (B(i) = 0.63) and An. minimus s.l. (B(i) = 0.24) showed strong relative preferences (B(i)) for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others). Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was accessible. The remaining 12 species preferred bovines as hosts. CONCLUSIONS: The observed high anthropophilic nature of An. baimai, An. minimus s.l., and An. annularis revealed these species to be important malaria vectors in hilly areas of Bangladesh. Higher values of HBI in outdoor-resting mosquitoes indicated that indoor collection alone is not adequate for evaluating malaria transmission in the area.

Bashar K; Tuno N; Ahmed TU; Howlader AJ

2012-01-01

155

Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Anti-malarial drugs can make a significant contribution to the control of malaria in endemic areas when used for prevention as well as for treatment. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in preventing deaths and morbidity from malaria, but it is difficult to sustain for prolonged periods, may interfere with the development of naturally acquired immunity and will facilitate the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains if applied to a whole community. However, chemoprophylaxis targeted to groups at high risk, such as pregnant women, or to periods of the year when the risk from malaria is greatest, can be an effective and cost effective malaria control tool and has fewer drawbacks. Intermittent preventive treatment, which involves administration of anti-malarials at fixed time points, usually when a subject is already in contact with the health services, for example attendance at an antenatal or vaccination clinic, is less demanding of resources than chemoprophylaxis and is now recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women and infants resident in areas with medium or high levels of malaria transmission. Intermittent preventive treatment in older children, probably equivalent to targeted chemoprophylaxis, is also highly effective but requires the establishment of a specific delivery system. Recent studies have shown that community volunteers can effectively fill this role. Mass drug administration probably has little role to play in control of mortality and morbidity from malaria but may have an important role in the final stages of an elimination campaign.

Greenwood Brian

2010-01-01

156

Impact of the long term supply of iodized salt to the endemic goitre area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was designed to assess the impact of the supplementation levels of iodine in salt supplied since the last 12 years to Gilgit and Hunza, an endemic goitre area of Pakistan. The overall prevalence of visible goitre is reduced from 61.36% to 4.68%. Results of urinary excretion of iodine (UEI) indicate severe to mild iodine deficiency among 70.41% of the randomly surveyed households. Severely deficient are 3%, moderate 29.54% and mild 37.87%, criteria of UEI being less than 2.0 micrograms/dl, 2-5 micrograms/dl and 5-10 micrograms/dl respectively. Levels of iodine supplementation in 267 iodized salt samples at production (n = 128) and consumption (n = 139) points are compared with a mean +/- SD are 70.86 +/- 29.73 ppm and 37.24 +/- 20.47 ppm respectively, representing 566.8 +/- 237.8 micrograms and 297.9 +/- 163.7 micrograms of iodine per 8.0 gram of salt. It is suggested to replace common salt with iodized salt in the goitre area to ensure the use by all households and quality control measures for iodination of salt should strictly be adhered so that uniform and consistent supply of iodine be ensured. The magnitude of contributory factors other than iodine deficiency, i.e., environmental and hereditary should be monitored and considered when levels of iodine supplementation are adjusted. PMID:1369614

Ali, A; Khan, M M; Malik, Z U; Charania, B A; Bhojani, F A; Baig, S M

1992-06-01

157

Impact of the long term supply of iodized salt to the endemic goitre area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was designed to assess the impact of the supplementation levels of iodine in salt supplied since the last 12 years to Gilgit and Hunza, an endemic goitre area of Pakistan. The overall prevalence of visible goitre is reduced from 61.36% to 4.68%. Results of urinary excretion of iodine (UEI) indicate severe to mild iodine deficiency among 70.41% of the randomly surveyed households. Severely deficient are 3%, moderate 29.54% and mild 37.87%, criteria of UEI being less than 2.0 micrograms/dl, 2-5 micrograms/dl and 5-10 micrograms/dl respectively. Levels of iodine supplementation in 267 iodized salt samples at production (n = 128) and consumption (n = 139) points are compared with a mean +/- SD are 70.86 +/- 29.73 ppm and 37.24 +/- 20.47 ppm respectively, representing 566.8 +/- 237.8 micrograms and 297.9 +/- 163.7 micrograms of iodine per 8.0 gram of salt. It is suggested to replace common salt with iodized salt in the goitre area to ensure the use by all households and quality control measures for iodination of salt should strictly be adhered so that uniform and consistent supply of iodine be ensured. The magnitude of contributory factors other than iodine deficiency, i.e., environmental and hereditary should be monitored and considered when levels of iodine supplementation are adjusted.

Ali A; Khan MM; Malik ZU; Charania BA; Bhojani FA; Baig SM

1992-06-01

158

Serologic markers for detecting malaria in areas of low endemicity, Somalia, 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Areas in which malaria is not highly endemic are suitable for malaria elimination, but assessing transmission is difficult because of lack of sensitivity of commonly used methods. We evaluated serologic markers for detecting variation in malaria exposure in Somalia. Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax was not detected by microscopy in cross-sectional surveys of samples from persons during the dry (0/1,178) and wet (0/1,128) seasons. Antibody responses against P. falciparum or P. vivax were detected in 17.9% (179/1,001) and 19.3% (202/1,044) of persons tested. Reactivity against P. falciparum was significantly different between 3 villages (p<0.001); clusters of seroreactivity were present. Distance to the nearest seasonal river was negatively associated with P. falciparum (p = 0.028) and P. vivax seroreactivity (p = 0.016). Serologic markers are a promising tool for detecting spatial variation in malaria exposure and evaluating malaria control efforts in areas where transmission has decreased to levels below the detection limit of microscopy.

Bousema T; Youssef RM; Cook J; Cox J; Alegana VA; Amran J; Noor AM; Snow RW; Drakeley C

2010-03-01

159

Serologic markers for detecting malaria in areas of low endemicity, Somalia, 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

Areas in which malaria is not highly endemic are suitable for malaria elimination, but assessing transmission is difficult because of lack of sensitivity of commonly used methods. We evaluated serologic markers for detecting variation in malaria exposure in Somalia. Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax was not detected by microscopy in cross-sectional surveys of samples from persons during the dry (0/1,178) and wet (0/1,128) seasons. Antibody responses against P. falciparum or P. vivax were detected in 17.9% (179/1,001) and 19.3% (202/1,044) of persons tested. Reactivity against P. falciparum was significantly different between 3 villages (p<0.001); clusters of seroreactivity were present. Distance to the nearest seasonal river was negatively associated with P. falciparum (p = 0.028) and P. vivax seroreactivity (p = 0.016). Serologic markers are a promising tool for detecting spatial variation in malaria exposure and evaluating malaria control efforts in areas where transmission has decreased to levels below the detection limit of microscopy. PMID:20202412

Bousema, Teun; Youssef, Randa M; Cook, Jackie; Cox, Jonathan; Alegana, Victor A; Amran, Jamal; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Drakeley, Chris

2010-03-01

160

[Evaluation of PANBIO rapid immunochromatographic cassette for dengue diagnosis in a Colombian endemic area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Traditional tests for dengue diagnosis are not useful during the first days of disease onset, because they require time and complex techniques or because they have low sensitivity. Objective. The reliability and precision was determined for the rapid test in cassette (PANBIO) for dengue diagnosis in acute and convalescent serum samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunochromatographic test was evaluated in samples from patients older than 5 years with acute febrile syndrome. The patients came from the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga during April and August of 2003. Acute and convalescent serum came from 67 dengue cases, diagnosed by viral isolation or IgM paired tests (modified MAC-ELISA), and from 33 patients with acute febrile syndrome (not dengue) that served as controls. RESULTS: Reliability was good (kappa=0.84). In the convalescent serum, the test showed sensitivity of 76.1%, specificity of 75.8%, positive predictive value of 86.4% and negative predictive value of 61.0%, positive likelihood ratio 3.14 and negative likelihood ratio 0.32. In the acute phase, the values were 52.2%, 84.8%, 87.5%, 46.7%, 3.45 and 0.56, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid immunochromatographic test for dengue diagnosis shows good reproducibility and specificity, with an acceptable sensitivity. Therefore, this rapid test is recommended as diagnostic tool in endemic areas.

Martínez-Vega RA; Díaz-Quijano FA; Coronel-Ruiz C; Yebrail Gómez S; Villar-Centeno LA

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of the virulence of Trypanosoma congolense strains isolated from cattle in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The virulence of 31 genetically different Trypanosoma congolense strains belonging to the Savannah subgroup and isolated from cattle at 11 sites in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia was compared. Virulence testing, done in OF1 mice, revealed three virulence categories. Strains were co...

Masumu, Justin; Marcotty, Tanguy; Geysen, Dirk; Geerts, Stanny; Vercruysse, J.; Dorny, P.; Van den Bossche, Peter

162

Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s). Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra,...

Rawlani Sudhir; Rawlani Shobha; Rawlani Shivlal

163

Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

2012-12-01

164

Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas. PMID:22109861

Machado da Silva, Alba Valéria; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

2011-11-01

165

Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 ?g g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 ?g g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 ?g g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 ?g g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 ?g g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 ?g g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 ?g g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 ?g g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 ?g g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 ?g g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils. PMID:22638723

Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

2012-05-26

166

Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

2013-09-01

167

Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1?×?1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

Martínez-Freiría F; Argaz H; Fahd S; Brito JC

2013-09-01

168

Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

2009-01-01

169

Biogeography of the lizard genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): distribution, endemism, and area relationships in South America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations.

de Carvalho AL; de Britto MR; Fernandes DS

2013-01-01

170

Hypothyroidism in women above 35 years in an endemic area recently under iodine supplementation: preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of greater Mymensingh is known of iodine endemicity. Association of IDD with hypothyroidism is well established phenomenon. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to thyroid dysfunction. 150 consecutive female patients of 35 plus years, who attended the Resident Physician of Mymensingh Medical College were invited to assay free T3, free T4 and TSH in CNMU, Mymensingh. Residencies of these patients were in the various districts of greater Mymensingh. 150 volunteers were offered to give their blood for the study. 134 attended CNMU, Mymensingh. Mean age was 45.03 + 6.65 y (mean + STD). Age ranged from 35 to 60 years. 24 (17.91%) had overt or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Full blown hypothyroidism with low FT3, FT4 and high TSH were seen in 6 (4.48%) cases. 18 (13.43%) showed elevated TSH level with normal FT4 and T3, suggesting sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is high in this area. (author) 1 fig., 23 refs.

2004-01-01

171

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal p (more) rotozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

David, EB; Coradi, ST; Oliveira-Sequeira, TCG; Ribolla, PEM; Katagiri, S; Guimarães, S

2011-01-01

172

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David; ST Coradi; TCG Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM Ribolla; S Katagiri; S Guimarães

2011-01-01

173

Randomized controlled trial of doxycycline prophylaxis against leptospirosis in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis occurs as seasonal outbreaks, lasting for about 3 weeks during October-November in North Andaman. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of doxycycline prophylaxis in the prevention of infection and clinical disease due to leptospires during the outbreak period. A sample population of 782 persons, randomized into two groups was given doxycycline 200 mg/week and a placebo. The microscopic agglutination test was done on blood samples collected on day zero, after 6 weeks and after 12 weeks. Infection rates and attack rates of clinical illness were calculated in the two groups based on the serological results. Statistically there was no difference in the infection rates among the two groups. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the clinical disease attack rates (3.11 vs. 6.82%) between study group and control group. The results of the study indicate that doxycycline prophylaxis does not prevent leptospiral infection in an endemic area, but has a significant protective effect in reducing the morbidity and mortality during outbreaks. PMID:10755239

Sehgal, S C; Sugunan, A P; Murhekar, M V; Sharma, S; Vijayachari, P

2000-02-01

174

Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in non-immunosuppressed individuals. Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 an (more) d 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

Faiolla, Rivian Christina Lopes; Coelho, Mariana Correa; Santana, Rodrigo de Carvalho; Martinez, Roberto

2013-07-01

175

Immunomonitoring followed by optimal dec therapy for successful management of clinical filariasis in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphatic filariasis continues to be the major cause of clinical morbidity in India and other developing tropical countries. One of the major lacunae in the effective management of clinical filarial cases is the non-availability of a suitable diagnostic test for confirming filaria aetiology in acute, chronic and occult clinical cases where microfilariae (mf) are not usually seen in peripheral circulation. Studies in our laboratory have shown the usefulness of filarial antibody and antigen assays using microfilarial excretory-secretory (mf ES) antigen in detecting microfilaraemic, acute and chronic filarial cases and in confirming filarial aetiology in occult infections. Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) is the drug of choice for lymphatic filariasis. Different regimens of DEC have been explored in the treatment of microfilaraemic cases. Immunomonitoring has shown that the seroconversion of antigen and antibody positivity was found to be very helpful in determining appropriate period of DEC treatment for clinical relief and cure in clinical filarial patients and further they did not have recurrence in most of the cases. Optimal DEC (6mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days each month for 3-12 months) therapy was found to be very effective in acute and atypical clinical manifestations such as asthmatic bronchitis, pulmonary eosinophilia, monoarthritis, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URI), pneumonia (super imposed infections) in children and minimal hydrocele, epididymoorchitis, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, acute abdomen, central serous retinopathy, tenosynovitis, pain and swelling in limbs and joints in adults living in filaria endemic areas. PMID:23105207

Harinath, B C; Reddy, M V; Alli, R; Mehta, V K; Chaturvedi, P; Patond, K R; Kalantri, S P; Gupta, R K

1999-07-01

176

Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis: analysis of 13 cases observed in an endemic area in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of 13 cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) were analysed. All patients were men, with a mean age of 41.6 years. The lungs were involved in 11 cases (84.6%) and only two cases had mycosis limited to the central nervous system. Co-morbidity was observed in four patients (malignant neoplasm in three and diabetes mellitus in one). The most frequent neurological manifestations were paresis (eight cases), headache (five cases) and gait disturbance (four cases). Neuroimaging diagnosis showed a predominance of multiple round lesions with ring enhancement following contrast medium injection. Lesions were seen in the brain hemispheres (nine cases), thalamus (nine cases), cerebellum (four cases), brainstem (four cases) and spinal cord (four cases). Most cases responded well to therapy. Lesions with enhancement following contrast medium injection persisted in four patients for a period of 6 months to 8 years. These findings emphasize the importance of considering NPCM in the differential diagnosis of brain and spinal cord lesions in endemic areas of paracoccidioidomycosis.

Paniago AM; de Oliveira PA; Aguiar ES; Aguiar JI; da Cunha RV; Leme LM; Salgado PR; Domingos JA; Ferraz RL; Chang MR; Bóia MN; Wanke B

2007-04-01

177

Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis: analysis of 13 cases observed in an endemic area in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of 13 cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) were analysed. All patients were men, with a mean age of 41.6 years. The lungs were involved in 11 cases (84.6%) and only two cases had mycosis limited to the central nervous system. Co-morbidity was observed in four patients (malignant neoplasm in three and diabetes mellitus in one). The most frequent neurological manifestations were paresis (eight cases), headache (five cases) and gait disturbance (four cases). Neuroimaging diagnosis showed a predominance of multiple round lesions with ring enhancement following contrast medium injection. Lesions were seen in the brain hemispheres (nine cases), thalamus (nine cases), cerebellum (four cases), brainstem (four cases) and spinal cord (four cases). Most cases responded well to therapy. Lesions with enhancement following contrast medium injection persisted in four patients for a period of 6 months to 8 years. These findings emphasize the importance of considering NPCM in the differential diagnosis of brain and spinal cord lesions in endemic areas of paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:17011605

Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; de Oliveira, Priscilla Alexandrino; Aguiar, Eliana Setti Albuquerque; Aguiar, José Ivan Albuquerque; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; Leme, Lígia Maria; Salgado, Pedro Rippel; Domingos, João Américo; Ferraz, Renato Lima; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Wanke, Bodo

2006-10-02

178

Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in non-immunosuppressed individuals. Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 and 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

Faiolla RC; Coelho MC; Santana Rde C; Martinez R

2013-07-01

179

Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Most of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6%) asymp (more) tomatic and 17 acute (65.4%) including 5 (19.2%) fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

Sousa, Octavio E; Samudio, Franklyn; Juncá, Corina de; Calzada, José E

2006-06-01

180

Prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and related vascular diseases in southwestern arseniasis-endemic and nonendemic areas in Taiwan.  

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There is evidence indicating that ingestion of arsenic may predispose the development of diabetes mellitus in arsenic-endemic areas in Taiwan. However, the prevalence of diabetes and related vascular diseases in the entire southwestern arseniasis-endemic and nonendemic areas remains to be elucidated...

Wang, Shu-Li; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Chen, Chien-Jen; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Chou, Wei-Ling; Wang, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng

 
 
 
 
181

Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 ?g/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey.

2000-01-01

182

Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. PMID:24018199

Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2013-08-22

183

Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: A useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots.

Angiolini C; Nucci A; Landi M; Bacchetta G

2013-08-01

184

Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani; Ali Wan NWM; Nor Zurainee M; Ismail Zamree; Hadi Azahari A; Ibrahim Mohd N; Lim Lee H

2011-01-01

185

Effects of ethiodol on T3 kinetics in endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] T3 kinetics were carried out in 32 children (11-15 years old) of a mild endemic goiter area. The incidence of goiter of the whole school population was 19% (Ia or Ib degree of the WHO). The mean urinary iodine was 84 ? g/d+-3. Six months before this investigation, 10 of the children received 2 ml of ethiodol by mouth and the other 22 (control group-CG) a placebo. The kinetics studies were carried out using less than 0,5 ? Ci of I-125 per Kg b.w. and the single injection method, non compartimental analysis. The CG shows, distribution volumen (V) 20.1+-0.6; serum T3 (sT3) 1.55 ng/ml+-0.03; plasma T3 T1/2 21.6+-0.6 and production rate (PR) 27.4? g/d+-1.2. The treated group (TG): V, 17.3+-0.6; sT3 1.48 ng/ml+-0.09; T1/2 17.6+-0.6 and PR 25.9? g/d+-1.4. The TG, after 6 months of ethiodol administration, showed a decrease of the distribution volume and a slight reduction in serum T3 values. As a consequence a significant diminution on the T3 extrathyroidal pool and an increase on the T3 plasma clearance (0.68 l/h+-0.01 in CG versus 0.73+-0.3 in TG) were observed. The production ratewas similar in both groups. These results indicate that the administration of ethiodol to children of a not severe endemic goiter area, produces moderate changes in the different parameters of T3 peripheral metabolism, which compensate each other and lead to similar final values on T3-PR, that were previously normal in these cases. This mechanism reflects the role of thyroid homeostasis in maintaining euthyroidism in these children of an endemic goiter area with decreased iodine supply. (Author)[es] Se estudio la cinetica de triiodotironina (T3) en 32 ninos (11 a 15 anos) eutiroideos, escolares de una zona de mediana endemia bociosa. La incidencia de bocio en dicha zona era del 19% (tipos Ia o Ib de la OMS) y el promedio de iodura de 84 ? g/d+-3 entre el grupo investigado. Seis meses antes del estudio, 10 de los ninos recibieron 2 ml de ethiodol ultrafluido via oral (GT, grupos tratados) y los restantes 22 un placebo (GC, grupo control). La cinetica se estudio utilizando menos de 0,5 ? Ci de 125-I-T3 por kilo de peso, con inyeccion unica y analisis no compartimental. El GC presento un volumen de distribucion (V) de 20,1+-0,6; T3 serica (sT3) 1,55 ng/ml+-0,03; T1/2 plasmatico 21,6+-1,2 y la tasa de produccion (TP) 27,4? g/d+-1,2. El GTV, V: 17,3+-0,06; sT3 1,48 ng/ml+-0,09; T1/2: 17,6 hs+-0,6 y TP: 25,9? g/d+-1,4. El GT, despues de 6 meses, mostro una disminucion del volumen de distribucion y una leve reduccion de sT3; como consecuencia se produce una significativa disminucion del comportamiento corporal extratiroideo de T3 y un aumento de la depuracion plasmatica de T3 (0,68 l/h+-0,1 en GC a 0,73 l/h+-0,3 en GT). Estos resultados indican que la administracion del ethiodol a ninos de area endemica bociosa no severa, produce cambios moderados en diferentes parametros del metabolismo periferico de T3, los que se compensan entre si para llevar a valores similares de degradacion y por ende produccion diaria de T3. Estos mecanismos reflejan el papel de la homeostasis tiroidea para mantener eutiroideos a estos ninos de area de endemia con disminucion de aporte iodado. (Autor)

1986-01-01

186

Tropomyosin implicated in host protective responses to microfilariae in onchocerciasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cDNA from adult female Onchocerca volvulus encoding the C-terminal portion of a tropomyosin isoform (termed MOv-14) has been shown previously to confer protective immunity in rodent models of onchocerciasis. The full-length sequence (designated Ov-tmy-1) obtained by PCR amplification, codes for a protein of 33 kDa and shares 91% identity with tropomyosins from other nematodes, falling to 57% identity with human alpha-tropomyosin. Ov-TMY-1 migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa on SDS/PAGE and is present in all life-cycle stages, as determined by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy identified antigenic sites within muscle blocks and the cuticle of microfilariae and infective larvae. Anti-MOv14 antibodies were abundant in mice exhibiting serum-transferable protection against microfilariae conferred by vaccination with a PBS-soluble parasite extract. In contrast, little or no MOv14-specific antibody was present in mice inoculated with live microfilariae, in which resistance is mediated by antibody-independent mechanisms. In human infections, there was an inverse correlation between anti-tropomyosin IgG levels and densities of microfilariae in the skin. Seropositivity varied with the relative endemicity of infection. An immunodominant B cell epitope within Ov-TMY-1 (AQLLAEEADRKYD) was mapped to the N terminus of the MOv14 protein by using sera from protectively vaccinated mice. Intriguingly, the sequence coincides with an IgE-binding epitope within shrimp tropomyosin, believed to be responsible for hypersensitivity in individuals exhibiting allergy to shellfish. IgG and IgE antibodies reacting with the O. volvulus epitope were detected in human infections. It is concluded that antibody responses to tropomyosin may be important in limiting microfilarial densities in a proportion of individuals with onchocerciasis and have the potential to mediate hypersensitivity reactions to dead microfilariae, raising the possibility of a link with the immunopathology of infection.

Jenkins RE; Taylor MJ; Gilvary NJ; Bianco AE

1998-06-01

187

Tropomyosin implicated in host protective responses to microfilariae in onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA from adult female Onchocerca volvulus encoding the C-terminal portion of a tropomyosin isoform (termed MOv-14) has been shown previously to confer protective immunity in rodent models of onchocerciasis. The full-length sequence (designated Ov-tmy-1) obtained by PCR amplification, codes for a protein of 33 kDa and shares 91% identity with tropomyosins from other nematodes, falling to 57% identity with human alpha-tropomyosin. Ov-TMY-1 migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa on SDS/PAGE and is present in all life-cycle stages, as determined by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy identified antigenic sites within muscle blocks and the cuticle of microfilariae and infective larvae. Anti-MOv14 antibodies were abundant in mice exhibiting serum-transferable protection against microfilariae conferred by vaccination with a PBS-soluble parasite extract. In contrast, little or no MOv14-specific antibody was present in mice inoculated with live microfilariae, in which resistance is mediated by antibody-independent mechanisms. In human infections, there was an inverse correlation between anti-tropomyosin IgG levels and densities of microfilariae in the skin. Seropositivity varied with the relative endemicity of infection. An immunodominant B cell epitope within Ov-TMY-1 (AQLLAEEADRKYD) was mapped to the N terminus of the MOv14 protein by using sera from protectively vaccinated mice. Intriguingly, the sequence coincides with an IgE-binding epitope within shrimp tropomyosin, believed to be responsible for hypersensitivity in individuals exhibiting allergy to shellfish. IgG and IgE antibodies reacting with the O. volvulus epitope were detected in human infections. It is concluded that antibody responses to tropomyosin may be important in limiting microfilarial densities in a proportion of individuals with onchocerciasis and have the potential to mediate hypersensitivity reactions to dead microfilariae, raising the possibility of a link with the immunopathology of infection. PMID:9636187

Jenkins, R E; Taylor, M J; Gilvary, N J; Bianco, A E

1998-06-23

188

Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in a malaria-endemic area in Hainan, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria incidence in China's Hainan province has dropped significantly, since Malaria Programme of China Global Fund Round 1 was launched. To lay a foundation for further studies to evaluate the efficacy of Malaria Programme and to help with public health planning and resource allocation in the future, the temporal and spatial variations of malaria epidemic are analysed and areas and seasons with a higher risk are identified at a fine geographic scale within a malaria endemic county in Hainan. Methods Malaria cases among the residents in each of 37 villages within hyper-endemic areas of Wanning county in southeast Hainan from 2005 to 2009 were geo-coded at village level based on residence once the patients were diagnosed. Based on data so obtained, purely temporal, purely spatial and space-time scan statistics and geographic information systems (GIS) were employed to identify clusters of time, space and space-time with elevated proportions of malaria cases. Results Purely temporal scan statistics suggested clusters in 2005,2006 and 2007 and no cluster in 2008 and 2009. Purely spatial clustering analyses pinpointed the most likely cluster as including three villages in 2005 and 2006 respectively, sixteen villages in 2007, nine villages in 2008, and five villages in 2009, and the south area of Nanqiao town as the most likely to have a significantly high occurrence of malaria. The space-time clustering analysis found the most likely cluster as including three villages in the south of Nanqiao town with a time frame from January 2005 to May 2007. Conclusions Even in a small traditional malaria endemic area, malaria incidence has a significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the finer spatial and temporal scales. The scan statistics enable the description of this spatiotemporal heterogeneity, helping with clarifying the epidemiology of malaria and prioritizing the resource assignment and investigation of malaria on a finer geographical scale in endemic areas.

Wen Liang; Li Chengyi; Lin Minghe; Yuan Zhengquan; Huo Donghui; Li Shenlong; Wang Yong; Chu Chenyi; Jia Ruizhong; Song Hongbin

2011-01-01

189

Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that C (more) RP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

Nahrevanian, Hossein; Gholizadeh, Jafar; Farahmand, Mahin; Assmar, Mehdi

2008-02-01

190

Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran  

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Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

Hossein Nahrevanian; Jafar Gholizadeh; Mahin Farahmand; Mehdi Assmar

2008-01-01

191

Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Highly Endemic HBV Areas in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Wuwei City has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. From 2007 to 2011, the average reported incidence rate of hepatitis B was 634.56/100,000 people. However, studies assessing the epidemic features and risk factors of HCV in the general population of Wuwei City are limited. Methods A total of 7189 people were interviewed and screened for HCV antibodies. HCV RNA and HCV genotypes were analyzed by PCR. Relevant information was obtained from the general population using a standardized questionnaire, and association and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The anti-HCV prevalence was 1.64% (118/7189), and HCV-RNA was detected in 37.29% (44/118) of the anti-HCV positive samples. The current HCV infection rate was 0.61% (44/7189) in the Wuwei general population. Hepatitis C infection rate was generally higher in the plains regions (?2?=?27.54,P<0.05), and the most predominant HCV genotypes were 2a (59.1%) and 1b (34.1%). The concurrent HCV and HBV infection rate was 1.37%, and a history of blood transfusion (OR?=?17.9, 95% CI: 6.1 to 52.6, p<0.001) was an independent risk factor for HCV positivity. Conclusions Although Wuwei is a highly endemic area for HBV, the anti-HCV positive rate in the general population is low. More than one-third of HCV-infected people were unaware of their infection; this may become an important risk factor for hepatitis C prevalence in the general population. Maintaining blood safety is important in order to help reduce the burden of HCV infection in developing regions of China.

Wang, Tingcai; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Jingxia; Guo, Zhiwen; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongping

2013-01-01

192

Congenital infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in an endemic area of Chile: a multidisciplinary study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence of Chagas disease (ChD) in pregnant women in Choapa Province (IV Region, Chile) and the vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. METHOD: ELISA and IFI IgG for ChD was performed for the pregnant women. PCR for T. cruzi was done for all chagasic mothers and their newborns. The congenital infection was confirmed by serial positive PCR and/or ELISA or IFI IgG after age of nine months. The placentas of mothers, with and without ChD, were submitted for histopathology and immunohistochemical study. RESULTS: From 4831 deliveries in 2005-2009 with a serological coverage of 88.6%, it was established that 147 cases (3.4%) had ChD. More than 80% of the pregnancies had a physiological evolution and 90% of the newborn were term. Congenital transmission was demonstrated in six children (4.7%) of the 127 newborn studied by serial PCR (at birth and/or between 3-18 months) and/or ELISA or IIF IgG after age nine months. Most of congenital cases were asymptomatic (67%). The histopathology shows edema, necrosis, fibrinoid deposit in the placentas of 28 of 29 chagasic mothers. In three cases the immnunochemistry demonstrated a decrease in actin expression in trophoblast cells. In one congenital case amastigote nests was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and vertical transmission in Chile are still prevalent. For this reason it is important to propose control measures in endemic areas of the country.

Apt W; Zulantay I; Arnello M; Oddó D; González S; Rodríguez J; Kemmerling U; Truyens C; Carlier Y

2013-02-01

193

Identification of the plague reservoir in an endemic area of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is primarily a parasite of wild rodents that persists in permanent, discrete enzootic foci throughout the world. The disease is transmitted in humans by bites from fleas of wildlife rodent species. Therefore surveillance is the ultimate public health solution through plague detection in domestic dogs, other carnivores and wild rodents. The investigations of die-offs amongst plague-susceptible colonial rodents are also significant to determine the presence of Y. pestis in a susceptible population.This study details the identification of the plague reservoir in a suspected endemic area of Zambia. The study was undertaken through rodent investigation for the presence of Y. pestis. A total of 105 rodents were sampled routinely and during a suspected plague period. On dissection 4 (3.81%, 95% CI: 1.23-10.0) rodents sampled during an outbreak showed signs of spleen enlargement. The blood, liver, lymph nodes and spleen of each rodent were subjected to culture on 6% sheep blood agar and MaCconkey agar. Colonies obtained were identified as Y. pestis by colony morphologic features, biochemical profiles, mouse inoculation assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR primers used targeted the Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene, chromosomal ferric iron uptake regulation gene and the outer membrane protein B gene.The isolates were also subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests using the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar with sensitivity being observed with ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The findings, identifies a natural reservoir of Y. pestis in Zambia providing the public health officials with a definite host for the control strategy.

Hang'ombe BM; Nakamura I; Kaile D; Mweene AS; Samui KL; Kilonzo BS; Sawa H; Sugimoto C; Wren B

2012-01-01

194

Changing Pattern of Hepatitis A Virus Epidemiology in an Area of High Endemicity  

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Full Text Available Background: Continuous assessment of hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroepidemiology is a useful tool to control the risk of infection.Objectives:This study aimed to evaluate the changing patterns of anti-HAV seroprevalence in a population,which isgenerally considered to be anarea ofhigh endemicity.Patients and Methods: Overall, the results of 3349 sera collected during the period 2005-2008 from patients attending the University Hospital of Cagliari, Italy were studied; their mean age was 52.7 years, (s + 16.22). Patients with liver disease were excluded from the study. Age specific seroprevalence results were compared with those observed in similar previous studies carried out in the same area.Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HAV was 74.6% with consistently lower values in subjects younger than 40 years (17.5%; P < 0.0001) particularly in those under 30 years of age (8.9%, CI 5.8-11.9). A significant declining trend in age specific seroprevalence has been foundin people under 30 years;61% in 1988, 33% in 1995 and 8.9% in 2005-2008.Conclusions: Our findings show that a significant decline inherd immunity has occurred in the last 20 years as a consequence of lower HAV circulation due to improvementsin socio-economical and hygienic conditions. Adolescents and young adults are becoming increasingly susceptible to HAV infections, as recent outbreaks of acute HAV hepatitis have occurred. Persistent environmental monitoring and the implementation of prevention measures must be considered in order to contain the risk related to this epidemiological shift..

Marcello Campagna; Andrea Siddu; Angelo Meloni; Claudia Basciu; Luigi Ferrai; Alessandro Pettinau; Cristiana Cardia; Giuseppina Masia; Rosa Cristina Coppola

2012-01-01

195

Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of the concerned population. PMID:23567553

Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

2013-04-06

196

[Epidemiological pattern of lymphatic filariasis in children living in endemic areas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Lymphatic filariasis still represents a major public health problem in the city of Recife. In spite of the fact that previous surveys had already shown high frequency of microfilaraemia in pediatric population, the prevalence of filarial disease and the microfilaraemic pattern of this group were unknown. This paper describes the clinical-epidemiological pattern of filariasis in children and adolescents living in two highly endemic areas of Recife. METHODS: The parasitological survey was done through a census carried out between December 1990 and July 1991. Thick drop technique (45 micro l) was performed on a total of 1,464 children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 14, of whom 967 were submitted to clinical examination. Positive cases had their blood recollected (60 micro l) to measure the microfilaraemic density. RESULTS: The microfilaraemia prevalence was 6.4 %. In the age groups of 5 to 9 and 10 to 14 a microfilaraemia prevalence of respectively 4.6% and 8.3% was observed. The microfilaraemic density varied from 3 to 864 microfilariae per 60 microl of blood, there having been no statistically significant difference between the sexes and age groups (p<0.05). 6 cases (0.6 %) of acute filarial disease and 11 of chronic filarial disease (1.1%) were identified, hydrocele being the principal manifestation found. Lymphadenopathy was found in 22% of the children, statistical association with microfilaraemia being observed (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the parasitological survey show the strong presence of children in the contingent of microfilaraemic individuals, indicating an early and intense exposure to filariasis in the population studied.

Braga C; de Albuquerque MF; Schindler H; Rezende A; Maciel A; Silva MC; Furtado A; de Carvalho AB; Lapa T; Ximenes RA

1997-03-01

197

Thyroid nodules in Graves? disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves? disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves? disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves? disease (1990-1999). Out of these 35 (26.9%) cases had palpable nodules. No patient had history of previous head and neck irradiation or radioiodine therapy. The clinico-pathological findings and follow-up of these cases were noted. RESULTS: Mean age of patients with nodules was 40.2 +/- 9.5 years and male to female ratio was 1:2.2. The overall incidence of thyroid carcinoma in Graves? disease was 6.2% (8/130 cases), while the incidence, in cases having nodule with Graves? disease was 17.1% (6/35 cases). The median age of patients with carcinoma was 45 years (5 women and 1 man). Besides laboratory investigations for hyperthyroidism, preoperative investigations included fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and thyroid scintigraphy in 29 and 25 cases respectively. Incidence of malignancy in palpable cold nodules was 20%. FNAC could not predict malignancy with certainty in any of these cases. Five patients had papillary thyroid carcinoma while one had follicular carcinoma. Median tumour diameter was 10 mm. Tumour was multi-centric in two cases while one case had metastases to cervical lymph node. In follow-up (median =5.5 years) one patient died of unrelated cause, while rest are alive with no evidence of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Nodules are frequently associated with Graves? disease in IDA. Incidence of carcinoma is high in palpable cold nodule. We recommend early thyroidectomy in these cases.

Mishra A; Mishra S

2001-01-01

198

Two-stage PCR assay for detection of human brucellosis in endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a common zoonosis that can cause a severe febrile illness in humans. It constitutes a persistent health problem in many developing countries around the world. It is one of the most frequently reported diseases in Saudi Arabia and incidence is particularly high in the Central region, and around the city of Riyadh. The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-stage PCR assay for detection of human brucellosis particularly in endemic areas. METHODS: A total of 101 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) of unknown cause from two different locations in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. The first location (Northern) is characterized by a nomadic rural population while the second (Central) is a modern urban city. All samples were subjected to DNA extraction and Brucella genus-specific PCR amplification using B4/B5 primers of the bcsp31 gene. Positive B4/B5 samples were subjected to multiplex species-specific Brucella PCR amplification. RESULTS: In the Northern location, 81.9% of the AFI samples were confirmed Brucella positive, while all the samples collected from the Central region proved to be Brucella negative. Samples positive for Brucella were subjected to multiplex species-specific Brucella amplification. B. abortus was detected in 10% and B. melitensis in 8% of the samples, while the majority (82%) of samples showed both B. abortus and B. melitensis. As expected, B. suis was not detected in any of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that a two-stage PCR assay could be useful as a rapid diagnostic tool to allow the consideration of brucellosis as a possible cause of AFI, particularly in non-urban locations. It also recommends the collection of epidemiological data for such patients to obtain further information that may help in rapid diagnosis.

Kamal IH; Al Gashgari B; Moselhy SS; Kumosani TA; Abulnaja KO

2013-01-01

199

Brucellae Growing on Thayer-Martin Medium: a Souce of Inadvertent Exposure to Laboratory Personnel in Endemic Areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brucella organisms are highly transmissible to man because of the low infecting dose and multiple routes of entry to the human body, posing a serious threat to Clinical Microbiology laboratory personnel in endemic areas. Three separate events of inadvertent exposure to Brucella melitensis among technologists working with cultures of genital exudates and placental tissues in a southern Israel laboratory are reported. The true identity of the isolates was missed for many days because the organisms grew on modified Thayer-Martin agar routinely used to isolate gonococci, resulting in extensive and unsafe manipulation of media on an open bench. It is concluded that in areas endemic for brucellosis, obstetric and genital specimens should be processed in a biological safety cabinet, pending final identification of the isolate.

Yagupsky P

2013-09-01

200

TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT IN ENDEMIC AREA OF VILLAGE BRESTOVAC  

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Full Text Available During the twenty- five-year period the incidence of urothelial tumors was followed in the endemic village Brestovac. Thirty patients (3 of which with confirmed endemic nephropathy and 15 persons with suspected nephropathy) were investigated. Our retrograde study showed that there is a relationship between endemic nephropathy and urothelial cancer, and this association persisted with marked tendency to rise. Tumors were more common among males, aged from 50 to 70 years, with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, papillary or trancellular forms, predominantly. Clinical feature showed classic triad of hematuria, flank pain and, rarely, flank mass, accompanied with non-specific symptomatology. Normal renal function was observed in 25 patients, but chronic renal failure was proven in five. Ten patients were treated by surgery, while 20 patients were treated by conservative therapy. There are no marked risk factors.

Radomir Raicevic; Sladjana Miljkovic; Sveto Susa; Vojin Savic; Rade Cukuranovic; Branka Mitic

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Accumulation of iodine-123 in thyroid and urinary excretion of iodine in an area of endemic goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The thyroid radioiodine uptakes decreased from 52.4% (1982, 24-hours, 131J) to 30.5% (1981, 123J). The severity of scintigraphic findings decreased as well, although the incidence of nodules remains definitely high. The excretion of iodine was found to be 53.28 ?g/g creatine and is low compared with the present uptakes. It characterizes an area of endemic goitre degree I, borderline to degree II. (orig.)

1983-06-20

202

Accumulation of iodine-123 in thyroid and urinary excretion of iodine in an area of endemic goiter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thyroid radioiodine uptakes decreased from 52.4% (1982, 24-hours, /sup 131/I) to 30.5% (1981, /sup 123/I). The severity of scintigraphic findings decreased as well, although the incidence of nodules remains definitely high. The excretion of iodine was found to be 53.28 ..mu..g/g creatine and is low compared with the present uptakes. It characterizes an area of endemic goitre degree I, borderline to degree II.

Goebel, R.; Leb, G.; Passath, A.; Knapp, G.

1983-06-20

203

[The efficacy of iodine prophylaxis in the prevention of endemic goiter in the southwestern area of Asturias  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present work was to assess the prevalence of the endemic goiter in Asturias southwestern area (46,000 inhabitants; 6,638 in school age), after 10 years of iodized salt introduction in diet. 317 schooling children were randomly chosen (stratified by age, sex and geographic area). We evaluated thyroid gland size and urinary iodine excretion (microgram of iodine per gram of creatinine = I/C). Previously, studies of infantile population suggested a 63% of prevalence. Our results indicate a decrease to 16.4% of endemic goiter prevalence. Nevertheless, the success of iodine prophylaxis was heterogeneous and not good in some case: point out Ibias population with a prevalence of 48.5% (2,000 inhabitants and 353 in schooling). Remainder population was prevalences between 6.9% and 19.8%. The mean of urinary iodine excretion increased to I/C = 106 (previously I/C = 53). The smallest index I/C become to Ibias population = 78. (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 with regard to Cangas del Narcea and Tineo population respectively). Only 2 of the 52 cases of goiter were hypothyroidism (but because of autoimmune thyroiditis). We conclude that iodine prophylaxis with salt was effective generally, in order to diminish the endemic goiter in the area.

Enguix A; Riaño I; Larrubia O; Gómez de la Torre R; Rey C; Otero J; Pinto I

1995-04-01

204

[Pregnant women living in areas of endemic fluorosis in Senegal and low birthweight newborns: case-control study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In developing countries, maternal and neonatal mortality is high. Among the causes of death during the neonatal period, low birth weight is crucial. A dose of fluoride beyond 2mg/L causes enamel damage, possibly affecting the fetus. The aim of this study was to search for an association between dental fluorosis in the mother and low birthweight of the newborn. METHODOLOGY: This was a case-control study performed in an endemic area in Senegal (Diourbel). It included 108 mothers who gave birth to newborns weighing less than 2500 g (cases) and 216 mothers with newborns weighing greater or equal to 2500 g (controls). Data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, history and pregnancy variables were collected. Those related to water consumption during pregnancy and dental fluorosis (Dean's index) were measured. The data were analyzed by R software. Logistic regression was used to identify associations and the statistical significance level was set to 0.05. RESULTS: The proportions of mothers consuming well water were 62% among cases versus 43.5% among controls. The score 4 of Dean's Index was reported for 25.9% of cases versus 6.9% of controls. The water consumed and the modal score of Dean's Index were significantly associated with the occurrence of low birthweight adjusted for gender, consanguinity, anemia and hypertension. CONCLUSION: Low birthweight was associated with pregnant women living in endemic areas. Defluoridation programs and access for pregnant women and children to high quality water are necessary in areas of endemic fluorosis.

Diouf M; Cisse D; Lo CM; Ly M; Faye D; Ndiaye O

2012-04-01

205

Uncertainty surrounding projections of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment on human onchocerciasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal have indicated that annual (or biannual) ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci. Modelling-based projections have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. A crucial assumption has been that microfilarial production by Onchocerca volvulus is reduced irreversibly by 30-35% with each (annual) ivermectin round. However, other modelling-based analyses suggest that ivermectin may not have such a cumulative effect. Uncertainty in this (biological) and other (programmatic) assumptions would affect projected outcomes of long-term ivermectin treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modify a deterministic age- and sex-structured onchocerciasis transmission model, parameterised for savannah O. volvulus-Simulium damnosum, to explore the impact of assumptions regarding the effect of ivermectin on worm fertility and the patterns of treatment coverage compliance, and frequency on projections of parasitological outcomes due to long-term, mass ivermectin administration in hyperendemic areas. The projected impact of ivermectin distribution on onchocerciasis and the benefits of switching from annual to biannual distribution are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the drug's effect on worm fertility and on treatment compliance. If ivermectin does not have a cumulative impact on microfilarial production, elimination of onchocerciasis in hyperendemic areas may not be feasible with annual ivermectin distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is substantial (biological and programmatic) uncertainty surrounding modelling projections of onchocerciasis elimination. These uncertainties need to be acknowledged for mathematical models to inform control policy reliably. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of ivermectin on O. volvulus reproductive biology and quantify the patterns of coverage and compliance in treated communities.

Turner HC; Churcher TS; Walker M; Osei-Atweneboana MY; Prichard RK; Basáñez MG

2013-01-01

206

African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

Coffeng LE; Stolk WA; Zouré HG; Veerman JL; Agblewonu KB; Murdoch ME; Noma M; Fobi G; Richardus JH; Bundy DA; Habbema D; de Vlas SJ; Amazigo UV

2013-01-01

207

Autoimmune reactivity against precursor form of desmoglein 1 in healthy Tunisians in the area of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), the pemphigus foliaceus (PF) antigen, is produced as a precursor (preDsg1) and is transported to the cell surface as the mature form (matDsg1). Recent studies show that B cells from North American individuals without pemphigus can potentially produce anti-preDsg1 IgG antibodies, but ELISA screening of large numbers of normal people in North America and Japan hardly ever shows circulating antibodies against preDsg1 or matDsg1. In contrast, in Tunisia, where PF is endemic, anti-Dsg1 IgGs are frequently detected in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVE: To characterize these anti-Dsg1 antibodies from normal individuals in Tunisia. METHODS: Sera from 16 healthy individuals and 9 PF patients in the endemic PF area in Tunisia, and sera from Japanese non-endemic PF patients were analyzed by immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting using recombinant proteins of preDsg1, matDsg1, and domain-swapped Dsg1/Dsg2 molecules. RESULTS: Sera from normal Tunisian individuals reacted to preDsg1 alone (8/16) or more strongly to preDsg1 than to matDsg1 (7/16), while those from all Tunisian PF patients and Japanese non-endemic PF patients reacted similarly to preDsg1 and matDsg1, or preferentially to matDsg1. The epitopes recognized by anti-Dsg1 IgGs from normal Tunisian individuals were more frequently found in the C-terminal extracellular domains (EC3 to EC5), while those in Tunisian endemic PF patients were more widely distributed throughout the extracellular domains, suggesting IgGs against EC1 and EC2 developed during disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that IgG autoantibodies against Dsg1 are mostly raised against preDsg1 and/or C-terminal domains of Dsg1 in healthy Tunisians in the endemic area of PF.

Toumi A; Saleh MA; Yamagami J; Abida O; Kallel M; Masmoudi A; Makni S; Turki H; Hachiya T; Kuroda K; Stanley JR; Masmoudi H; Amagai M

2013-04-01

208

Fever in travelers returning from malaria-endemic areas: don't look for malaria only.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Returning travelers with fever pose challenges for clinicians because of the multitude of diagnostic alternatives. Case data in a Finnish tertiary hospital were analyzed in order to define the causes of fever in returned travelers and to evaluate the current diagnostic approach. METHODS: A retrospective study of patient records comprised 462 febrile adults who, after traveling in malaria-endemic areas, were admitted to the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) emergency room from 2005 to 2009. These patients were identified through requests for malaria smear. RESULTS: The most common groups of diagnoses were acute diarrheal disease (126 patients/27%), systemic febrile illness (95/21%), and respiratory illness (69/15%). The most common specific main diagnosis was Campylobacter infection (40/9%). Malaria was diagnosed in 4% (20/462). Blood culture was positive for bacteria in 5% of those tested (21/428). Eight patients were diagnosed with influenza. HIV-antibodies were tested in 174 patients (38%) and proved positive in 3% of them (5/174, 1% of all patients). The cause of fever was noninfectious in 12 (3%), remaining unknown in 116 (25%). Potentially life-threatening illnesses were diagnosed in 118 patients (26%), the strongest risk factors were baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) ?100 (OR 3.6; 95% CI 2.0-6.4) and platelet count ?140 (OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.0-7.3). Nine patients (2%) were treated in high dependency or intensive care units; one died of septicemia. Forty-five patients (10%) had more than one diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of patients with more than one diagnosis proves the importance of careful diagnostics. Every fourth returning traveler with fever had a potentially life-threatening illness. Septicemia was as common as malaria. The proportion of HIV cases exceeded the prevalence in population for which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA (CDC) recommends routine HIV testing. Both blood cultures and HIV tests should be considered in febrile travelers.

Siikamäki HM; Kivelä PS; Sipilä PN; Kettunen A; Kainulainen MK; Ollgren JP; Kantele A

2011-07-01

209

[Comparative evaluation of five test kits for antibody detection in Schistosoma japonicum endemic areas of Poyang Lake region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of five diagnostic test kits for the detection of antibodies to Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of Poyang Lake. METHODS: Residents over 5 years old in three schistosomiasis-endemic administrative villages in the lake region were simultaneously examined by modified Kato-Katz thick smears and nylon bag sedimentation/hatching method. At the same time, five sero-diagnostic test kits for detection of IgG antibody against soluble egg antigen of S. japonicum were carried out. RESULTS: The distribution of seropositive rates of S. japonicum IgG antibodies determined by sero-diagnostic tests showed similar trends with that of egg positive rates in different age groups, but the seropositive rate (33.1%-57.1%) was significantly higher than that of egg positive rate (5.0%-8.2%), both reached a peak in 40-49-year-old group. The antibody positive rates determined by each test increased with the infection intensity. The sensitivity of the evaluated test kits ranged from 81.2%-94.5%. 26.9% to 46.1% among those egg negatives were antibody positive by the kits. Furthermore, 5.5%-18.8% of the egg positives were antibody negative by the kits. CONCLUSION: The five sero-diagnostic kits can be used for epidemiological survey in schistosomiasis endemic areas at community level. Among them, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay shows higher sensitivity.

Lin DD; Xu J; Liu HY; Zeng XJ; Liu YM; Xie SY; Hu F; Li JY; Huang MJ; Chen HG; Zhou XN

2010-12-01

210

Changes in thyroid function following iodine-containing contrast administration in patients in an endemic goitre area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prospective study of thyroid function after the administration of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media was carried out on 119 patients from an area where goitres are endemic. Eighteen patients had a negative TRH test after 28 days. Results showed hyperthyroid function in 27.9% of patients after oral cholecystography, 15.1% of patients after intravenous cholangiography and 5.3% of patients after infusion urography. In these patients, thyroxin and triiodothyronin levels were higher than in euthyroid patients. Thyroid stimulating antibodies could not be demonstrated. Induction of hyperthyroidism by iodine is considered to be due to autonomy of the thyroid gland parenchyma. For this reason the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is greater in patients from a goitre endemic region (by a factor of 1.3 to 17.1).

Grehn, S.; Steidle, B.; Seif, F.J.

1981-08-01

211

Changes in thyroid function following iodine-containing contrast administration in patients in an endemic goitre area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A prospective study of thyroid function after the administration of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media was carried out on 119 patients from an area where goitres are endemic. Eighteen patients had a negative TRH test after 28 days. 27.9% of patients after oral cholecystography, 15.1% of patients after intravenous cholangiography and 5.3% of patients after infusion urography, showed hyperthyroid function. In these patients, thyroxin and triiodothyronin levels were higher than in euthyroid patients. Thyroid stimulating antibodies could not be demonstrated. Induction of hyperthyroidism by iodine is considered to be due to autonomy of the thyroid gland parenchyma. For this reason the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is greater in patients from a goitre endemic region (by a factor of 1.3 to 17.1). (orig.)

1981-01-01

212

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2011-12-01

213

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

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Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Anayansi Valderrama; Mara Garcia Tavares; José Dilermando Andrade Filho

2011-01-01

214

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama. PMID:22241132

Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2011-12-01

215

[Comparative studies on endemic areas of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two districts in Recife (Santo Amaro and Campo Grande) and two districts in Olinda (Sapucaia and Salgadinho), were selected for a comparative study of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife. Selection parameters included similar socio-economic, demographic, and endemic levels of lymphatic filariasis. In the districts studied, streets were chosen randomly. These clusters consisted of 110 people each. A population sample was stratified by sex and age: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60 years old and over. The parasitological data were obtained by measuring thick blood smears (60 micro l), collected from 8:00 to 12:00 PM and processed and stained with hematoxylin. The data were described in tables, and logarithimic expression graphics were used to analyze parasitic densities. In general, Recife showed a prevalence of 13.5%, and Olinda 12.3%. Mean parasitic densities were 41 and 70 microfilariae/60 micro l (mf/60 micro l), respectively. Higher microfilaremic rates were observed in Recife for the 20-29-year age bracket and in Olinda in the 30-39-year bracket. The authors concluded that the disease has returned to former endemic levels, and the data described call for a reevaluation of control campaigns carried out by the Brazilian National Health Foundation, since the endemic has already reached serious proportions.

Maciel MA; Marzochi KB; Silva EC; Rocha A; Furtado AF

1994-01-01

216

[Comparative studies on endemic areas of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two districts in Recife (Santo Amaro and Campo Grande) and two districts in Olinda (Sapucaia and Salgadinho), were selected for a comparative study of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife. Selection parameters included similar socio-economic, demographic, and endemic levels of lymphatic filariasis. In the districts studied, streets were chosen randomly. These clusters consisted of 110 people each. A population sample was stratified by sex and age: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60 years old and over. The parasitological data were obtained by measuring thick blood smears (60 micro l), collected from 8:00 to 12:00 PM and processed and stained with hematoxylin. The data were described in tables, and logarithimic expression graphics were used to analyze parasitic densities. In general, Recife showed a prevalence of 13.5%, and Olinda 12.3%. Mean parasitic densities were 41 and 70 microfilariae/60 micro l (mf/60 micro l), respectively. Higher microfilaremic rates were observed in Recife for the 20-29-year age bracket and in Olinda in the 30-39-year bracket. The authors concluded that the disease has returned to former endemic levels, and the data described call for a reevaluation of control campaigns carried out by the Brazilian National Health Foundation, since the endemic has already reached serious proportions. PMID:15042220

Maciel, M A; Marzochi, K B; Silva, E C; Rocha, A; Furtado, A F

2004-03-19

217

Primary motives for demand of ivermectin drug in mass distribution programmes to control onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is a disease with a spectrum of manifestations suffered by different infected people. Based on individual perceptions and manifestations presented, demand for the drug Ivermectin was due to different motives and priorities during mass distribution programmes. Subjects and Method: This study presents findings from a sample of 594 persons out of a total of 35,763 treated individuals who voluntarily demanded Ivermectin treatment during a community-based Ivermectin distribution exercise. The distribution, which took place in 2008, was mass distribution of the microfilaricide to control onchocerciasis in endemic communities of Ezinihitte in the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. The subjects who were selected by quota sampling procedure on the basis of community and gender, were asked to rank-order six plausible reasons for seeking treatment in terms of their order of importance in motivating them to demand Ivermectin. Results: “To gain treatment and prevention of Skin Problems” and “Desire to be De-wormed” ranked first and second respectively. “To gain promotion of general wellbeing” and “To improve state of vision and prevent blindness” ranked third and fourth respectively. In the fifth and sixth rank-order positions were “To prevent hanging groin” and “to prevent/relieve enlargement of the scrotum or clitoris” in that order. A test of hypothesis to determine if there was significant agreement among treated persons on the rank order of importance of their reasons for demanding Ivermectin gave a Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance of W = 0.62, p <.001. Conclusion: The findings are interpreted within the framework of the major postulations of the health belief model with consideration to perceptions of severity of the conditions and belief that submitting to treatment will abate the perceived risk of the conditions. The role of endemicity of specific manifestations of onchocerciasis in lay assessment of risk of this disease is also discussed.

Okwuoma Abanobi; Uchechukwu Chukwuocha; Celestine Onwuliri; Kenneth Opara

2011-01-01

218

Malaria transmission in non-endemic areas: case report, review of the literature and implications for public health management  

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Full Text Available Abstract In non-endemic areas, malaria is rare and locally acquired infections, particularly with Plasmodium falciparum, are exceptional events. The diagnosis is, therefore, likely to be delayed or missed in patients without a relevant travel history. This report describes a case of falciparum malaria in Berlin, Germany, in a patient who had not been to an endemic area for more than a decade. Potential routes of vector-related and direct transmission were evaluated, particularly with regard to a possible danger to the public. A review of the literature was conducted regarding possible routes of transmission and their probability assessed. Genotyping of parasite isolates of this and another patient with malaria admitted 16 days before revealed homology between the two strains. In a local entomological survey, anopheline vectors on the hospital grounds as well as in the residential area of both patients were found. Despite intensive investigations, the mode of transmission remained obscure. In this context, possible routes of vector-borne and direct occupational/accidental transmission in a major European city are reviewed and discussed, providing information and guidance in case other similar events occur elsewhere. Examples for investigations and measures to be taken in such a situation are provided. When local malaria transmission within a large non-immune population cannot be ruled out, genotyping of parasite isolates, local entomological surveys, preparedness for secondary cases, expert consultations in a multidisciplinary team and careful information management are essential. Malaria acquired in non-endemic areas remains an unlikely, but possible event for which awareness needs to be maintained.

Zoller Thomas; Naucke Torsten J; May Jürgen; Hoffmeister Bodo; Flick Holger; Williams Christopher J; Frank Christina; Bergmann Frank; Suttorp Norbert; Mockenhaupt Frank P

2009-01-01

219

Onchocerciasis in Venezuela: prevalence of microfilaraemia in Amerindians and morphological characteristics of the microfilariae from the Upper Orinoco Focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data are presented on microfilaraemia in 191 Yanomami Amerindians from two areas of Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin, where an endemic focus of onchocerciasis has been recently detected. Onchocerca microfilariae were found in the blood of 12.6% of the persons examined. In the village with the higher number of examined individuals (N = 162), the prevalence of microfilaraemia in the age groups covaried with the prevalence of microfilariae in the skin and with the parasite load (mf/mg of skin). A positive correlation was found between age and these three variables. The prevalence of Onchocerca microfilaraemia in the Upper Orinoco focus is high, and may be related to the ability of the strain to invade the blood stream. Morphobiometric characteristics of the Onchocerca microfilariae isolated from human blood are similar to those of O. volvulus fixed in formalin from skin and from the uterus of female O. volvulus worms. All have a very short cephalic space. Comparisons with the entity from the Upper Caura river designated as Microfilaria bolivarensis were also made. It was concluded that there are no valid biometric differences in thick blood smears between microfilaria bolivarensis and microfilaria of O. volvulus from the Upper Orinoco deme. A more striking difference may be in the concentration of microfilariae observed in the blood, which in one case of mf. bolivarensis was more than forty times the highest number recorded for microfilaria O. volvulus in Parima. PMID:6495385

Botto, C; Arango, M; Yarzábal, L

1984-09-01

220

Onchocerciasis in Venezuela: prevalence of microfilaraemia in Amerindians and morphological characteristics of the microfilariae from the Upper Orinoco Focus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data are presented on microfilaraemia in 191 Yanomami Amerindians from two areas of Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin, where an endemic focus of onchocerciasis has been recently detected. Onchocerca microfilariae were found in the blood of 12.6% of the persons examined. In the village with the higher number of examined individuals (N = 162), the prevalence of microfilaraemia in the age groups covaried with the prevalence of microfilariae in the skin and with the parasite load (mf/mg of skin). A positive correlation was found between age and these three variables. The prevalence of Onchocerca microfilaraemia in the Upper Orinoco focus is high, and may be related to the ability of the strain to invade the blood stream. Morphobiometric characteristics of the Onchocerca microfilariae isolated from human blood are similar to those of O. volvulus fixed in formalin from skin and from the uterus of female O. volvulus worms. All have a very short cephalic space. Comparisons with the entity from the Upper Caura river designated as Microfilaria bolivarensis were also made. It was concluded that there are no valid biometric differences in thick blood smears between microfilaria bolivarensis and microfilaria of O. volvulus from the Upper Orinoco deme. A more striking difference may be in the concentration of microfilariae observed in the blood, which in one case of mf. bolivarensis was more than forty times the highest number recorded for microfilaria O. volvulus in Parima.

Botto C; Arango M; Yarzábal L

1984-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

[Surveillance of Rickettsia sp. infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) a potential model of epidemiological alert in endemic areas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are considered amplifying hosts of Rickettsia sp. These rodents are usually parasitized by the tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, the main vector of rickettsioses in humans and animals in South America. Capybaras can be used as sentinels in detection of circulation of rickettsiae. OBJECTIVE: Antibodies to rickettsiae of spotted fever group were detected in capybaras in a rural area of Cordoba Province, northern Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were analyzed from 36 capybaras in a rural area of Monteria (village of San Jeronimo) in Córdoba. For the detection of IgG antibodies, indirect immunofluorescence was performed. The antigens were derived from R. rickettsia strain Taiaçu isolated in Brazil. Capybara sera were diluted 1:64 for IFA analysis. Ticks were collected from each capybara (also known as chigüiro) and identified to species. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was 22% (8 capybaras). Four sera had a titer of 1:64, 3 had a titer of 1:128 and one serum had a titer of 1:512. All ticks removed from the capybaras (n=933) were taxonomically identified as Amblyomma cajennense. CONCLUSION: Colombia has areas endemic for rickettsioses, as indicated by confirmed annual outbreaks. The current study reports the first evidence of natural rickettsial infection of the spotted fever group in capybaras from Colombia. The findings suggest that capybaras can be used as sentinels for the circulation of rickettsiae and can identify endemic areas for the transmission of rickettsial diseases.

Miranda J; Contreras V; Negrete Y; Labruna MB; Máttar S

2011-06-01

222

Prevention of Canine Leishmaniosis in a Hyper-Endemic Area Using a Combination of 10% Imidacloprid/4.5% Flumethrin  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum, the agent of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. This study investigated the efficacy of a polymer matrix collar containing a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin as a novel prophylactic measure to prevent L. infantum infections in young dogs from a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy, with a view towards enhancing current control strategies against both human and canine leishmaniosis. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out on 124 young dogs, of which 63 were collared (Group A) while 61 were left untreated (Group B), from March-April 2011 until March 2012. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (April 2011) and at the first, second, third and fourth follow-up time points (July, September 2011 and November 2011, and March 2012, respectively). Bone marrow and conjunctiva were sampled at baseline and at the fourth follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect the presence of L. infantum in the different tissues collected. At the end of the trial, no dog from Group A proved positive for L. infantum at any follow-up, whereas 22 dogs from Group B were infected (incidence density rate?=?45.1%); therefore, the combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was 100% efficacious for the prevention of L. infantum infection in young dogs prior to their first exposure to the parasite in a hyper-endemic area for CanL. Conclusions The use of collars containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin conferred long-term protection against infection by L. infantum to dogs located in a hyper-endemic area, thus representing a reliable and sustainable strategy to decrease the frequency and spread of this disease among the canine population which will ultimately result in the reduction of associated risks to human health.

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Caprariis, Donato; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Tarallo, Viviana D.; Latrofa, Maria S.; Lia, Riccardo P.; Annoscia, Giada; Breitshwerdt, Edward B.; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Capelli, Gioia; Stanneck, Dorothee

2013-01-01

223

Prevention of canine leishmaniosis in a hyper-endemic area using a combination of 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum, the agent of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. This study investigated the efficacy of a polymer matrix collar containing a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin as a novel prophylactic measure to prevent L. infantum infections in young dogs from a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy, with a view towards enhancing current control strategies against both human and canine leishmaniosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out on 124 young dogs, of which 63 were collared (Group A) while 61 were left untreated (Group B), from March-April 2011 until March 2012. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (April 2011) and at the first, second, third and fourth follow-up time points (July, September 2011 and November 2011, and March 2012, respectively). Bone marrow and conjunctiva were sampled at baseline and at the fourth follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect the presence of L. infantum in the different tissues collected. At the end of the trial, no dog from Group A proved positive for L. infantum at any follow-up, whereas 22 dogs from Group B were infected (incidence density rate?=?45.1%); therefore, the combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was 100% efficacious for the prevention of L. infantum infection in young dogs prior to their first exposure to the parasite in a hyper-endemic area for CanL. CONCLUSIONS: The use of collars containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin conferred long-term protection against infection by L. infantum to dogs located in a hyper-endemic area, thus representing a reliable and sustainable strategy to decrease the frequency and spread of this disease among the canine population which will ultimately result in the reduction of associated risks to human health.

Otranto D; Dantas-Torres F; de Caprariis D; Di Paola G; Tarallo VD; Latrofa MS; Lia RP; Annoscia G; Breitshwerdt EB; Cantacessi C; Capelli G; Stanneck D

2013-01-01

224

Skin reactions to thimerosal and Leishmania in dogs from a leishmaniasis endemic area: it is better to keep them apart  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of previous infection with Leishmania in both humans and dogs. Montenegro's antigen consists of a crude Leishmania antigen solution, usually containing thimerosal as preserving agent. In this work it is shown that a large proportion of dogs (11 out of 56) examined in an endemic area of leishmaniasis presented induration at the site of injection of a diluent containing thi (more) merosal alone. This clearly demonstrates that thimerosal leads to a high number of false positive skin reactions in dogs and that its use in Montenegro's skin test antigenic preparations should be avoided.

Paranhos-Silva, Moacir; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Oliveira, Geraldo G de Sá; Nascimento, Eliane Góes; dos-Santos, Washington LC

2001-07-01

225

Skin reactions to thimerosal and Leishmania in dogs from a leishmaniasis endemic area: it is better to keep them apart  

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Full Text Available Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of previous infection with Leishmania in both humans and dogs. Montenegro's antigen consists of a crude Leishmania antigen solution, usually containing thimerosal as preserving agent. In this work it is shown that a large proportion of dogs (11 out of 56) examined in an endemic area of leishmaniasis presented induration at the site of injection of a diluent containing thimerosal alone. This clearly demonstrates that thimerosal leads to a high number of false positive skin reactions in dogs and that its use in Montenegro's skin test antigenic preparations should be avoided.

Paranhos-Silva Moacir; Pontes-de-Carvalho Lain C; Oliveira Geraldo G de Sá; Nascimento Eliane Góes; dos-Santos Washington LC

2001-01-01

226

Performance of six different commercial assays to demonstrate antibodies to HIV-2 among immigrants from high-endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four HIV-2 and 8 HIV-1 infections were detected when serum specimens from 422 persons from high-endemic areas were examined with 6 different commercial ELISA tests. 41 specimens showed a positive result in at least one of the assays. 12 of these were confirmed as anti-HIV positive. One of the anti-HIV-2 specimens was negative in the Abbott recombinant HIV-1 test but positive in the ELAVIA II and the 4 HIV-1/HIV-2 combination tests. The 4 HIV-2 positive individuals originated from West Africa.

Skaug K; Ulstrup JC; Espinoza R

1990-01-01

227

Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in a non-endemic area in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF case in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45%) and 4 dogs (20%) were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.

Batista FG; Silva DM; Green KT; Tezza LB; Vasconcelos SP; Carvalho SG; Silveira I; Moraes-Filho J; Labruna MB; Fortes FS; Molento MB

2010-10-01

228

IgM-Immunofluorescence Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas  

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Full Text Available The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic areas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schistosomiasis in the rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil). In each survey, blood samples from about 600 schoolchildren were collected on filter paper and submitted to IgM-IFT. When the blood samples were classified for the IgM antibody levels, according to the intensity of fluorescent reaction observed at fluorescence microscopy, and correlated to the egg counts in the Kato-Katz positive patients, no association was observed. This observation might suggest that the intensity of fluorescence observed in the IgM-IFT, as an indicator of IgM antibody levels, could not be an useful seroepidemiological marker for classifying areas of low endemicity according to degrees of infection.

Herminia Yohko Kanamura; Rita Maria da Silva; Silvia Gabriel Chiodelli; Carmen Moreno Glasser; Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

2002-01-01

229

Oncocercose entre os índios Yanomámi Onchocerciasis among Yanomámi Indians  

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Full Text Available Apresentam-se os dados até agora obtidos sobre o foco brasileiro de oncocercose. Esse foco, localizado no extremo norte do país, envolve principalmente indígenas do grupo Yanomámi, antigos habitantes do local. Em algumas aldeias, a infecção é encontrada em cerca de 80% dos adultos. Aspectos interessantes, como a origem do foco, as características da doença nos indígenas e os principais vetores de Onchocerca volvulus, são abordados. Por fim, é feita uma análise a respeito do comportamento da endemia e da possível disseminação da doença para outras regiões do Brasil - em áreas de garimpo. Sugerem-se medidas de controle, entre elas o uso de larvicidas, método que poderia ser adotado em lugares restritos - com população já estabilizada -, dentro da zona onde mais forte é a prevalência.The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that has lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Mário A. P. Moraes

1991-01-01

230

Oncocercose entre os índios Yanomámi/ Onchocerciasis among Yanomámi Indians  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apresentam-se os dados até agora obtidos sobre o foco brasileiro de oncocercose. Esse foco, localizado no extremo norte do país, envolve principalmente indígenas do grupo Yanomámi, antigos habitantes do local. Em algumas aldeias, a infecção é encontrada em cerca de 80% dos adultos. Aspectos interessantes, como a origem do foco, as características da doença nos indígenas e os principais vetores de Onchocerca volvulus, são abordados. Por fim, é feita uma anális (more) e a respeito do comportamento da endemia e da possível disseminação da doença para outras regiões do Brasil - em áreas de garimpo. Sugerem-se medidas de controle, entre elas o uso de larvicidas, método que poderia ser adotado em lugares restritos - com população já estabilizada -, dentro da zona onde mais forte é a prevalência. Abstract in english The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that has lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as it (more) s origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Moraes, Mário A. P.

1991-12-01

231

Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles) Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species  

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Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2) and four small (1x1m2) quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals? 1.5 m height and ? 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber) under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal) belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species), Anacardiaceae (10 species), Rutaceae (10species), Myrtaceae (7 species), Rubiaceae (6 species), Arecaceae (6 species), Moraceae (5 species),Sapindaceae (4 species) and Zingiberaceae (4 species). Highest number of plant families (43) wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24).Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI), the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri). Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of the studied population preferred fruit trees while 5% wereinterested in some medicinal plants. Preference of this nature indicates that in the future, the plantdiversity in these home gardens is likely to decline considerably. This might even lead to theextinction of rare, endemic plant species. Therefore, people in northern flank encouraged toincorporate multipurpose endemic plants and plants with less IVI values in their home gardens inorder to maintain high diversity and to conserve endemic and relatively rare plants while gainingsubstantial income through their home gardens.Keywords: Northern Flank, Home gardens, Conservation, Woody-perennials, Endemic species

D. M. A. J. Dissanayake; P. L. Hettiarachchi

2013-01-01

232

The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF) severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI) was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9) and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15) and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20), nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65) and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56). Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04) was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]). When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity), only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67). Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

Marc Daniel Grynpas; Ron Hancock; Fabio Correia Sampaio; Hardy Limeback; Maria Vieira Saintrain; Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira

2011-01-01

233

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC).

O.A Otubanjo; G.O Adeoye; C.A Ibidapo; B Akinsanya; P Okeke; T Atalabi; E.T Adejai; E Braide

2008-01-01

234

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y deb (more) ilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC). Abstract in english Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A que (more) stionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

Otubanjo, O.A; Adeoye, G.O; Ibidapo, C.A; Akinsanya, B; Okeke, P; Atalabi, T; Adejai, E.T; Braide, E

2008-12-01

235

Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?  

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Full Text Available The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar). These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha) and Mandrozo (15,145 ha) in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha) in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles, 54 amphibians, 104 birds, 23 smallmammals, 17 lemurs and one fish. Of these 243 species, 30 are threatened taxa comprising two Critically Endangered (CR), 11 Endangered (EN) and 17 Vulnerable (VU) species. The long term ecological viability of these sites has been shown by population stability of the two Critically Endangered flagship species, the Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) in Manambolomaty and Mandrozo and the recently rediscovered Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata) in Bemanevika. Other threatened species and high biological diversity also justifies their inclusion into Madagascar’s SAPM.

Jeanneney Rabearivony; Russell Thorstrom; Lily-Arison Rene de Roland; Marius Rakotondratsima; Tolojanahary R. A. Andriamalala; The Seing Sam; Gilbert Razafimanjato; Daniel Rakotondravony; Achille P. Raselimanana; Michel Rakotoson

2010-01-01

236

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

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Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF). This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espírito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi), Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA Oliveira; LS Oliveira; CCA Dias; A Silva Jr; MR Almeida; G Almada; DH Bouyer; MAM Galvão; CL Mafra

2008-01-01

237

Comparing gene expression profiles of Kashin-Beck and Keshan diseases occurring within the same endemic areas of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood from patients with Kashin-Beck disease and Keshan disease were compared to further investigate the etiology and pathogenesis of both diseases, which occur in a common endemic area of China. Twenty Kashin-Beck disease patients and 12 healthy controls, and 16 Keshan disease patients and 16 healthy controls, were grouped into four pairs. Patients and controls were selected from common endemic areas for the two diseases. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all patients and controls, and gene expression profiles analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Sixteen genes differentially expressed in both Kashin-Beck disease and Keshan disease (versus controls) were identified, and comprised nine genes showing synchronous and seven asynchronous expression. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database shows that expression and biological function of these genes can be affected by multiple environmental factors, including mycotoxin and selenium content, potential environmental risk factors for the two diseases. Thus, these shared differentially expressed genes may contribute to the distinct organ lesions, caused by common environmental risk factors of Kashin-Beck disease and Keshan disease.

Wang X; Wang S; He S; Zhang F; Tan W; Lei Y; Yu H; Li Z; Ning Y; Xiang Y; Guo X

2013-09-01

238

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

Shanan Salah; Abd Hadi; Hedenström Ingela; Saeed Amir; Sandström Gunnar

2011-01-01

239

Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

Carvalho GC; Marques LH; Gomes LI; Rabello A; Ribeiro LC; Scopel KK; Tibiriçá SH; Coimbra ES; Abramo C

2012-11-01

240

Comparing gene expression profiles of Kashin-Beck and Keshan diseases occurring within the same endemic areas of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood from patients with Kashin-Beck disease and Keshan disease were compared to further investigate the etiology and pathogenesis of both diseases, which occur in a common endemic area of China. Twenty Kashin-Beck disease patients and 12 healthy controls, and 16 Keshan disease patients and 16 healthy controls, were grouped into four pairs. Patients and controls were selected from common endemic areas for the two diseases. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all patients and controls, and gene expression profiles analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Sixteen genes differentially expressed in both Kashin-Beck disease and Keshan disease (versus controls) were identified, and comprised nine genes showing synchronous and seven asynchronous expression. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database shows that expression and biological function of these genes can be affected by multiple environmental factors, including mycotoxin and selenium content, potential environmental risk factors for the two diseases. Thus, these shared differentially expressed genes may contribute to the distinct organ lesions, caused by common environmental risk factors of Kashin-Beck disease and Keshan disease. PMID:23729183

Wang, Xi; Wang, Shuang; He, Shulan; Zhang, Feng; Tan, Wuhong; Lei, Yanxia; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Ning, Yujie; Xiang, Youzhang; Guo, Xiong

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Scapular bone destruction: do not forget to think of tuberculosis in endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis is an endemic disease of worldwide concern. The most common involvement is in the form of pulmonary tuberculosis. Musculoskeletal system is involved in 20-30% of cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Among these cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis, vertebral column is most commonly involved followed by long bones. However, tuberculosis of flat bones like scapula is very rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with painless swelling in the right lower back of chest. Ultrasonography suggested abscess formation. A chest X-ray and CT scan suggested coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis. CT revealed abscess with osteomyelitis of inferior angle of scapula. The abscess was aspirated and histopathological examination confirmed tubercular pathology. A 6-month course of antitubercular treatment resulted in complete resolution of symptoms.

Sharma BK; Singh VK; Nishant K; Das D

2013-01-01

242

Enhanced West Nile virus surveillance in a dengue-endemic area--Puerto Rico, 2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions.

Torres-Aponte JM; Luce RR; Hunsperger E; Muñoz-Jordan JL; Beltrán M; Vergne E; Argüello DF; García EJ; Sun W; Tomashek KM

2013-05-01

243

[Endemic occurrence of lyme disease in the forested areas of the Pila district  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lyme disease (L.D.) caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and spread by Ixodes ticks arouses great interest with more and more clinicians and other scientists. It may be very difficult to diagnose a disease as L.D. because of its various clinical symptoms expressions. This is why it is often called "the great imitator". There are three phases in the natural history of the disease. Diagnostic problems come from the fact that early phases are often lacking. The disease may begin with any symptom of any stage. In our paper we present the endemicity of Lyme disease among a group of 28 people who spent their summer holidays on a forest camp near Pi?a (in the north-western part of Poland) in July 1991. We diagnosed 15 of them as having early stages of L.D.

Szechi?ski J; Kowalski M; Sobieszcza?ska B; Go?ciniak G

1992-01-01

244

A clinical profile of donovanosis in a non-endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diagnosis of donovanosis is seldom made in a non-endemic region, because it is usually overlooked as an aetiologic diagnosis of genital ulcers. Clinical suspicion is a yardstick in its diagnosis and has been illustrated in the present study. Its frequency was found to be 3.14% of all sexually transmitted diseases. Unmarried males of vulnerable sexual age were commonly affected. They came from a low socioeconomic strata. The incubation period and duration of disease was variable. The genitalia were primarily affected. The ulcerogranulomatous variety was seen commonly, though unusual expression of the disease was also recorded. The importance of repeated tissue smears and/or histopathology in certain clinical variants is emphasized.

Sehgal VN; Prasad AL

1984-01-01

245

Hepatitis E in the south west of France in individuals who have never visited an endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 431 consecutive patients from the Midi Pyrenees area with acute hepatitis with unknown etiology in 2001-2002 were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G-class (IgG) anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies. Forty-six (10.7%) had anti-HEV IgG, and the results were questionable for a further 17 (3.9%). Real time PCR based on TaqMan detection was used to identify HEV genome fragments in the serum of patients with positive or questionable anti-HEV serology. HEV RNA was found in 25.4% of cases. All amplification products were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the strains were genotype 3. In conclusion, virological and epidemiological data indicate that genotype 3 viruses are circulating in the south west part of France (Midi-Pyrenees) in patients with acute hepatitis and who have not visited recently areas in which HEV is endemic.

Mansuy JM; Peron JM; Abravanel F; Poirson H; Dubois M; Miedouge M; Vischi F; Alric L; Vinel JP; Izopet J

2004-11-01

246

Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of Sao TomE, West Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of the rainforests on the island of Sao TomE for biodiversity is well known. However, the area only recently received full legal protection as a National Park and currently few resources are available to enforce that legislation. With rapid economic development forecast for the island, active conservation efforts are essential. Here we study the distribution and density of the island's endemic bird species, including nine that are Globally Threatened, within the National Park. Sites, covering the full range of primary forest types, were surveyed using distance sampling methods. No introduced species were observed. The highest number of species, including eight Globally Threatened species, were found in lowland rainforest, although many were infrequently encountered. Higher altitude sites were less diverse, but supported some of the common endemic species at extremely high densities. The least diverse assemblage, with generally lower species population densities, occurred at the most accessible mid-altitude forest site. Distance from settlements was a key explanatory variable for the presence of all Globally Threatened species, indicating that human habitation has negative effects on the suitability of nearby forest habitats. This suggests that, as infrastructure improvements proceed, populations of endangered species will come under growing pressure. Integrating the needs of biodiversity conservation and development represents a major challenge for many biodiverse countries and on Sao TomE, as elsewhere, may best be achieved by preserving the still intact functioning forest ecosystem.

Dallimer, Martin; King, T.

2009-01-01

247

Low malignancy risk of thyroid follicular lesion of undetermined significance in patients from post-endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: New classification of the thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results tries to stratify the risk of malignancy of thyroid follicular lesions using 'follicular lesion of undetermined significance' (FLUS) subcategory. Clinical significance of this category in the endemic (or post-endemic) areas has not been clearly established. DESIGN: The aim of the study was to determine the risk of malignancy for FLUS as well as to evaluate ultrasound (US) malignancy risk features (MRF) in such nodules in comparison with 'suspicious for neoplasm' (SFN) and 'benign lesions' (BL). METHODS: The US images and cytological diagnoses of 589 thyroid follicular lesions were analysed from January 2010 to July 2012. Cytological follow-up was assessed in 110 cases and surgical one in 100 cases. RESULTS: FLUS was diagnosed in 340 cases (3.8% of all cytological diagnoses and 57% of thyroid follicular lesions). Altogether, clinical and/or surgical follow-up revealed thyroid cancer in 3.2% patients with FLUS nodules. Repeat FNAB led to more specific diagnosis in 74.4% of FLUS (3.5%, papillary cancers or their suspicion; 2.3%, SFN; 68.6%, BL). The histopathological examination showed thyroid cancer in 6.4% cases of FLUS and 7.0% of SFN and follicular adenoma in 8.5% of FLUS and 11.6% of SFN (NS, FLUS vs SFN). FLUS showed MRF of intermediate values between BL and SFN; SFN more often than FLUS showed at least two MRF (53 vs 30%, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of cancer in FLUS in areas with recently corrected iodine supply is low. In such areas, repeated biopsy leads to more precise cytological diagnosis in about 3/4 cases.

S?owi?ska-Klencka D; Wo?niak E; Wojtaszek M; Popowicz B; Sporny S; Klencki M

2013-04-01

248

Anaphylactic versus mild reactions to hazelnut and apple in a birch-endemic area: different sensitization profiles?.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hazelnut and apple are common causes of food allergy in Europe. In northern Europe, symptoms are usually mild and associated with cross-reactivity to the birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. In the Mediterranean area, symptoms are more frequently severe and associated with sensitization to lipid transfer protein (LTP). This study compared patients with anaphylactic versus mild reactions to hazelnut and apple in The Netherlands, a birch-endemic area, with respect to sensitization to Bet v 1-homologues (i.e. PR10-proteins) and LTP. METHODS: Twenty-one patients fulfilling the criteria for anaphylaxis and 21 with only mild symptoms (oral allergy) to hazelnut and/or apple were recruited. Specific immunoglobulin E to birch pollen, apple, hazelnut and PR10-proteins (rBet v 1, rPru p 1, rMal d 1 and rCor a 1) and recombinant LTP (rPru p 3 and rCor a 8) was measured by ImmunoCAP. RESULTS: Both mild and anaphylactic apple-allergic patients were sensitized to PR10-proteins, whereas only 1/7 of the mild and none of the anaphylactic apple-allergic patients was sensitized to LTP. In contrast, anaphylactic hazelnut-allergic patients displayed no such clear sensitization pattern: some were sensitized to both PR10-proteins and hazelnut LTP (1/9), and others to only LTP (2/9) or to only PR10-proteins (4/9) or to neither PR10-proteins nor LTP (2/9). CONCLUSION: This study shows that in a birch-endemic area, the sensitization profile to PR10-proteins and LTP in anaphylactic patients may differ between different plant foods. In this patient group, anaphylaxis to hazelnut can be LTP-associated, whereas anaphylaxis to apple is not.

Le TM; van Hoffen E; Lebens AF; Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA; Knulst AC

2013-01-01

249

Human onchocerciasis in Brazil: an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human onchocerciasis was recently discovered in Brazil among Yanomámi Indians living along the border region with Venezuela in the States of Amazonas and Roraima. The article reports on the history of the disease's discovery, its distribution, and incrimination of vector simuliid species. The literature that has been generated on the parasite, its vectors, and control of the disease is critically analyzed as well as the organization of epidemiological surveys and the control program developed by the Brazilian government and an international agency. Suggestions for future work are made.

Shelley Anthony J.

2002-01-01

250

Human onchocerciasis in Brazil: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human onchocerciasis was recently discovered in Brazil among Yanomámi Indians living along the border region with Venezuela in the States of Amazonas and Roraima. The article reports on the history of the disease's discovery, its distribution, and incrimination of vector simuliid species. The literature that has been generated on the parasite, its vectors, and control of the disease is critically analyzed as well as the organization of epidemiological surveys and the control program developed by the Brazilian government and an international agency. Suggestions for future work are made.

Shelley AJ

2002-09-01

251

Abundance, behavior and entomological inoculation rates of anthropophilic anophelines from a primary Colombian malaria endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Colombia for several years, the Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú region has registered the highest numbers of malaria cases in the country. Malaria vector incrimination and the characterization of entomological parameters will allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics and the design of effective vector control strategies for this region. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal survey between November 2008 and June 2010 to quantify entomological (abundance and biting activity) and transmission parameters, including infection rate (IR) and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), to incriminate potential anopheline vectors in three localities of a major Colombian malaria endemic region, the Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú: La Capilla, Juan Jose and El Loro. RESULTS: A total of 5,316 anopheline mosquitoes corresponding to seven species were collected. Anopheles nuneztovari (69.5%) and Anopheles darlingi (22.2%) were the most abundant species, followed by Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (4.5%), Anopheles albitarsis s.l. (2%), Anopheles triannulatus lineage Northwest (1.8%), Anopheles punctimacula and Anopheles argyritarsis (at? < 1%, each). Three species were naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax, An. nuneztovari, An. darlingi (IRs?

Naranjo-Diaz N; Rosero DA; Rua-Uribe G; Luckhart S; Correa MM

2013-01-01

252

Malignant neoplasms among residents of a blackfoot disease-endemic area in Taiwan: high-arsenic artesian well water and cancers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to elucidate the association between high-arsenic artesian well water and cancers in endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral vascular disease related to continuous arsenic exposure. As compared with the general population in Taiwan, both the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and cumulative mortality rate were significantly high in blackfoot disease-endemic areas for cancers of bladder, kidney, skin, lung, liver, and colon. A dose-response relationship was observed between SMRs of the cancers and blackfoot disease prevalence rate of the villages and townships in the endemic areas. SMRs of cancers were greater in villages where only artesian wells were used as the drinking water source than in villages using both artesian and shallow wells, and even greater than in villages using shallow wells only.

Chen, C.J.; Chuang, Y.C.; Lin, T.M.; Wu, H.Y.

1985-11-01

253

A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA) AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT) on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil) with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

KANAMURA Herminia Yohko; DIAS Luiz Cândido de Souza; SILVA Rita Maria da; GLASSER Carmen Moreno; PATUCCI Rosa Maria de Jesus; VELLOSA Sylvia Amaral Gurgel; ANTUNES José Leopoldo Ferreira

1998-01-01

254

Changes of thyroid hormones, thyrotropin, and prolactin after application of iodinated radiographic media in patients of an endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to estimate the frequencies of iodine aggravated or induced hyperthyrodism in a susceptible population, patients of an endemic goiter area near Stuttgart in Southern Germany were studied prospectively before and after the application of iodinated radiographic media. The examinations with the radiographic media were carried out because of suggested diseases of the gall bladder, bile ducts, kidney and urinary tract. Patients with clinical signs of hyperthyroidism or Graves-Basedow disease and pituitary diseases were excluded from the study. 7 and 28 day blood samples for hormone measurements were obtained for 114 patients. 15 patients were found to have developed hormonal hyperthyroidism and a higher risk of hyperthyroidism is suggested after ingestion of iopodate. The data obtained is reported and discussed

1979-10-13

255

Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values

2009-09-15

256

Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4%) showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40%) serum and 5 (4.4%) fluid samples. All five fluid antigen positive cases were positive for antibodies and showed microfilaria in blood. These findings emphasize the use of circulating filarial antigen detection and alternative usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filariasis.

Shah A; Mulla S

2007-01-01

257

Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn b allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn b and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

Aparecida Maria Fontes; Simone Kashima; Ricardo Bonfim-Silva; Rochele Azevedo; Kuruvilla Joseph Abraham; Sérgio Roberto Lopes Albuquerque; José Orlando Bordin; Dante Mário Langhi Júnior; Dimas Tadeu Covas

2011-01-01

258

New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp precinctive to Mont Mauru, Tahiti, Society Islands are newly described: M. tutei sp. n., M. tihotii sp. n., M. putaputa sp. n., M. toretore sp. n., M. anaana sp. n., M. pirihao sp. n., and M. poro sp. n. These seven constitute the first representative Mecyclothorax species recorded from Mauru, and their geographic restriction to this isolated massif defines it as a distinct area of endemism along the highly dissected eastern versant of the Tahiti Nui volcano. Each of the new species has a closest relative on another massif of Tahiti Nui, supporting speciation associated with vicariance caused by extensive erosional valley formation, especially the development of Papenoo Valley. Comparison of the known elevational distributions of the new discoveries on Mont Mauru to the elevational diversity profile of the comparatively well-sampled Mont Marau, northwest Tahiti Nui, suggests that numerous Mecyclothorax species remain to be discovered in higher-elevation habitats of Mont Mauru.

James Liebherr

2012-01-01

259

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm?2?day and dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

260

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA) method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo; GC Onyishi; CU Ugokwe

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Rapid epidemiological assessment of onchocerciasis in a tropical semi-urban community, enugu state, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. METHODS: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. RESULTS: Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. CONCLUSION: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy.

Eyo J; Onyishi G; Ugokwe C

2013-01-01

262

Prevalence of antithyroid microsomal antibody in thyroid patients of endemic goitre area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The region of greater Mymensingh known for iodine endemicity, recently came under iodine supplementation as a result of mandatory universal iodination of salt program. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are among the most common human autoimmune disorders & presence of autoantibodies to the microsomal antigen (AntiMCAb) is a hallmark of disease activity. Both iodine deficiency & iodine supplementation precipitate increase rate of autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Study was undertaken to determine prevalence of AntiMCAb positive cases among patients with various thyroid diseases. High resolution ultrasound (HRUS), serum thyroid hormone assays & scintiscan were used to classify the thyroid patients into 8 categories. 221 patients were studied during the stipulated period of 3 months. Male patients were 60 & female patients were 161. Age ranged from 11 to 65 years with median age 29.4 years. AntiMCAb test were done with radioimmunoassay (RIA). 126 patients had antimicrosomal antibody (57.01%). All form of hypothyroid (atrophic, goitrous, Hashimoto's) have very high rate of AntiMCAb positive cases. Highest 89.28% were seen in patients showing feature of Hashimoto's thyroiditis or generalized feature of AITD in HRUS with hypothyroidism, followed had 61.29% positive cases, However, antithyroid antibody was found in all form of thyroid disorders. Nodular goiter had 21.73% antiMCAb positive cases. AntiMCAb found positive at the rate of 33.33% in euthyroid patients with HRUS feature of AITD & diffuse euthyroid goiter, 40% in subclinical hypothyroid, 40% in subclinical hyperthyroid. Female rated higher in range of antimicrosomal antibody positivism. 59% of all thyroid patients among female subjects were AntMCAb positive, where as 51.67% male thyroid patients were positive. Highest number of positive cases found in the 30-35 age group. No definite pattern, however, was observed among age distribution. 20 age matched sample from patients unsuspected of thyroid disease shows 10% AntiMCAb positive compared to 73.33% of the same among same age group of thyroid patients. Frank Hashimoto's thyroiditis with positive antiMCAb and hypothyroidism were all detected by HRUS. PMID:14747776

Mahmood, S; Islam, M M; Siddiqui, N I; Hossain, G A; Chakraborty, R K; Akhter, N; Meah, I

2004-01-01

263

Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela/ Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las márgenes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales (more) solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. an (more) d the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

Fernández, Alexis; Ramírez-Pérez, Jaime; Shuler, Harland; Rodríguez, Noris

2008-06-01

264

Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of patients infected with brucellosis compared to a control population from the same geographic region. The quality of life of brucellosis positive and brucellosis negative individuals from rural and urban areas of Mexico was evaluated using the Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. This survey is a generic measure of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Brucellosis patients had lower overall quality of life compared with the controls. Brucellosis patients from rural areas had lower overall quality of life (P < 0.05) compared with brucellosis patients from urban areas. In conclusion, human brucellosis affects quality of life, with patients living in rural areas most severely impacted. This may be due to the lack of local public policies and programs for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of brucellosis.

Guillermina García-Juárez; Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca; Luz M. Hernández-Calva; José D. Vázquez-Vázquez; Alfonso Pérez-Sánchez; Christine M. Budke

2012-01-01

265

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years), primary school period (7-12 years) and secondary school period (13-14 years). Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe), anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14). The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5) but differed by gender (P < 0.001). The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1) The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2) HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3) Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4) We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

Murat Kangin; Mine Turhanoglu; Serda Gulsun; Bahri Cakabay

2010-01-01

266

Spatial risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area in Côte d'Ivoire  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to identify demographic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors and spatial patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area of Africa, and to specify how this information can facilitate improved malaria control at the district level. Methods A questionnaire was administered to about 4,000 schoolchildren in 55 schools in western Côte d'Ivoire to determine children's socioeconomic status and their habit of sleeping under bed nets. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images, digitized ground maps and a second questionnaire addressed to school directors. Finger prick blood samples were collected and P. falciparum parasitaemia determined under a microscope using standardized, quality-controlled methods. Bayesian variogram models were utilized for spatial risk modelling and mapping of P. falciparum parasitaemia at non-sampled locations, assuming stationary and non-stationary underlying spatial dependence. Results Two-thirds of the schoolchildren were infected with P. falciparum and the mean parasitaemia among infected children was 959 parasites/?l of blood. Age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, coverage rate with bed nets and environmental factors (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, land surface temperature and living in close proximity to standing water) were significantly associated with the risk of P. falciparum parasitaemia. After accounting for spatial correlation, age, bed net coverage, rainfall during the main malaria transmission season and distance to rivers remained significant covariates. Conclusion It is argued that a massive increase in bed net coverage, particularly in villages in close proximity to rivers, in concert with other control measures, is necessary to bring malaria endemicity down to intermediate or low levels.

Raso Giovanna; Silué Kigbafori D; Vounatsou Penelope; Singer Burton H; Yapi Ahoua; Tanner Marcel; Utzinger Jürg; N'Goran Eliézer K

2009-01-01

267

Spatial risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area in Cote d'Ivoire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify demographic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors and spatial patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area of Africa, and to specify how this information can facilitate improved malaria control at the district level. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to about 4,000 schoolchildren in 55 schools in western Côte d'Ivoire to determine children's socioeconomic status and their habit of sleeping under bed nets. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images, digitized ground maps and a second questionnaire addressed to school directors. Finger prick blood samples were collected and P. falciparum parasitaemia determined under a microscope using standardized, quality-controlled methods. Bayesian variogram models were utilized for spatial risk modelling and mapping of P. falciparum parasitaemia at non-sampled locations, assuming stationary and non-stationary underlying spatial dependence. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the schoolchildren were infected with P. falciparum and the mean parasitaemia among infected children was 959 parasites/microl of blood. Age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, coverage rate with bed nets and environmental factors (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, land surface temperature and living in close proximity to standing water) were significantly associated with the risk of P. falciparum parasitaemia. After accounting for spatial correlation, age, bed net coverage, rainfall during the main malaria transmission season and distance to rivers remained significant covariates. CONCLUSION: It is argued that a massive increase in bed net coverage, particularly in villages in close proximity to rivers, in concert with other control measures, is necessary to bring malaria endemicity down to intermediate or low levels.

Raso G; Silué KD; Vounatsou P; Singer BH; Yapi A; Tanner M; Utzinger J; N'Goran EK

2009-01-01

268

Lack of evidence of hepatitis E virus infection among renal transplant recipients in a disease-endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Persistent hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been reported among solid-organ transplant recipients in nonendemic areas. Such chronic infections have all been related to genotype 3 HEV, which is prevalent in these areas. Whether persistent infection occurs with genotype 1 HEV, prevalent in areas where the infection is hyperendemic, is unclear. We therefore tested sera from renal transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive agents in India, where genotype 1 HEV infection is endemic, for alanine aminotransferase levels, and presence of IgM and IgG anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. Of the 205 subjects studied [aged 16-65 (median, 38) years, 182 male], 46 (22.4%) had abnormal ALT levels (>40 IU/mL). IgG anti-HEV was detected in 52 (20.5%) and IgM anti-HEV was detected in 14 (6.8%) subjects, including four who had IgG anti-HEV; antibody positivity had no relation with serum ALT or serum creatinine. All the sera tested were negative for HEV RNA. These findings suggest that chronic infection with genotype 1 HEV is infrequent.

Naik A; Gupta N; Goel D; Ippagunta SK; Sharma RK; Aggarwal R

2013-04-01

269

Risk factors for the occurrence of bancroftian filariasis infection in children living in endemic areas of northeast of Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to identify biological and social risk factors for the occurrence of microfilaraemia in a population of 1464 children of both sexes aged 5-14 years, living in two highly endemic areas of Recife a city in the northeast of Brazil. A survey was performed from December 1990 to July 1991 and the microfilaraemia was examined by the thick-drop technique using 45 microliters of peripheral blood. Information was obtained about use of bednet, length of time living in area and number of occupants per household. Risk was quantified by the crude and adjusted Odds Ratio. The 95 per cent confidence interval, Likelihood Ratio Statistics, and P value were used to test the statistical significance. An association was established between microfilaraemia in children and adolescents, and age, number of individuals per household, the presence of microfilaraemic adults in the household, length of time living in the area, and bednet use. Maternal microfilaraemia was not found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of microfilaraemia in offspring. These results allow the identification of children with a greater risk of microfilaraemia. In addition, these findings highlight the role of the household environment in the transmission process.

Braga C; Albuquerque MF; Schindler HC; Silva MR; Maciel A; Furtado A; Carvalho AB; Souza W; Ximenes RA

1998-04-01

270

A Bayesian approach to study the space time variation of leprosy in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In leprosy endemic areas, patients are usually spatially clustered and not randomly distributed. Classical statistical techniques fail to address the problem of spatial clustering in the regression model. Bayesian method is one which allows itself to incorporate spatial dependence in the model. However little is explored in the field of leprosy. The Bayesian approach may improve our understanding about the variation of the disease prevalence of leprosy over space and time. Methods Data from an endemic area of leprosy, covering 148 panchayats from two taluks in South India for four time points between January 1991 and March 2003 was used. Four Bayesian models, namely, space-cohort and space-period models with and without interactions were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. Cohort effect, period effect over four time points and spatial effect (smoothed) were obtained using WinBUGS. The spatial or panchayat effect thus estimated was compared with the raw standardized morbidity (leprosy prevalence) rate (SMR) using a choropleth map. The possible factors that might have influenced the variations of prevalence of leprosy were explored. Results Bayesian models with the interaction term were found to be the best fitted model. Leprosy prevalence was higher than average in the older cohorts. The last two cohorts 1987–1996 and 1992–2001 showed a notable decline in leprosy prevalence. Period effect over 4 time points varied from a high of 3.2% to a low of 1.8%. Spatial effect varied between 0.59 and 2. Twenty-six panchayats showed significantly higher prevalence of leprosy than the average when Bayesian method was used and it was 40 panchayats with the raw SMR. Conclusion Reduction of prevalence of leprosy was 92% for persons born after 1996, which could be attributed to various intervention and treatment programmes like vaccine trial and MDT. The estimated period effects showed a gradual decline in the risk of leprosy which could be due to better nutrition, hygiene and increased awareness about the disease. Comparison of the maps of the relative risk using the Bayesian smoothing and the raw SMR showed the variation of the geographical distribution of the leprosy prevalence in the study area. Panchayat or spatial effects using Bayesian showed clustersing of leprosy cases towards the northeastern end of the study area which was overcrowded and population belonging to poor economic status.

Joshua Vasna; Gupte Mohan D; Bhagavandas M

2008-01-01

271

Yellow Fever Epidemic Sites Revisited: Possible Areas of Yellow Fever Endemicity in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellow fever antibody of apparently recent origin has been found in two areas studied by the Institute Pasteur during the 1961-1962 yellow fever outbreak in Ethiopia. Yellow fever antibody in an eight year old child in Kulo Konta Awrajah would indicate th...

O. L. Wood V. H. Lee

1975-01-01

272

[Classification study on the marshland in endemic areas of Schistosoma japonicum using satellite TM image data  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To create a land cover map of the marshland region of Schistosoma Japonicum using satellite TM data from Chayegang, Jiangxi Province. METHODS: Satellite data of three TM bands, namely TM3, TM4 and TM5, were selected to be used in classification study with Principal Components Analysis. Then TM satellite images were applied to false color composite and unsupervised classification with computer software to manage the TM data. Finally the resulting clusters were identified by undertaking site visits and a systematic sampling snail survey was also carried out in the study area in April, 2000. RESULTS: Three land cover classes were generated, including class 1, the carex zone that is both the dominant vegetation and main snail habitats of the study area. Based on the snail survey in the spring of 2000, the live snail density and infectious snail density of the carex zone were 2.51/0.11 m2 and 0.006 9/0.11 m2, respectively. The infection rate of the snail was 0.28%. No snail was found in land cover class 3, the mixed vegetation, because the altitude of this area is either above 17 m or under 14 m and therefore the vegetation in this area is unsuitable for snails to survive. CONCLUSION: Remote sensing can contribute the study on the distribution of snail habitats and become a promising epidemiological study method for schistosomiasis and other ecological diseases.

Lin T; Jiang Q; Lin D

2001-09-01

273

Hepatitis B virus genotypes from European origin explains the high endemicity found in some areas from southern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Southern Brazil is considered an area of low Hepatitis B endemicity, but some areas of higher endemicity have been described in the Southwest of Paraná and Santa Catarina states. The aim of this study was to evaluate viral genotypes circulating throughout Paraná state. PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the S gene was carried out in 228 samples from HBsAg positive candidate blood donors. Samples have been collected in seven different counties (Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguaçu, Francisco Beltrão, Maringá, Londrina and Paranaguá). The most common HBV genotype in Paraná state was D (82.9%; 189/228), followed by A (14.1%; 32/228). Genotypes F (1.3%; 3/228), C (1.3%; 3/228) and H (0.4%; 1/228) were also found. Distribution of genotypes was different in the studied counties, but genotype D was the most frequent in all of them. In Francisco Beltrão, all studied samples belonged to genotype D. The high prevalence of HBV genotype D in South of Brazil is explained by the intense migration of settlers from Europeans countries. Subgenotypes A1 and A2 were identified circulating in all cities where HBV/A was found. As observed in other areas of Brazil, HBV/A1 is more frequent than the HBV/A2 in Paraná state and its presence was significantly larger in black and mulatto individuals. Genotype C was found only in individuals with Asian ancestry from Londrina and Maringá. Most HBV/F sequences identified in this study were classified as subgenotype F2a that was previously described in Brazil. The sole case of subgenotype F4 was from Foz do Iguaçu city, near to Northern Argentina, where F4 is highly prevalent. The single genotype H sample was from Curitiba. This is the first case of this genotype described in Brazil. Further studies should be carried out to determine if more genotype H samples can be found in other populations from Brazil.

Bertolini DA; Gomes-Gouvêa MS; Guedes de Carvalho-Mello IM; Carvalho-Mello IM; Saraceni CP; Sitnik R; Grazziotin FG; Laurino JP; Laurindo JP; Fagundes NJ; Carrilho FJ; Pinho JR

2012-08-01

274

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

Calderón-Arguedas O; Troyo A; Solano ME; Avendaño A; Beier JC

2009-12-01

275

Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates.

Freitas MC; Grycajuk M; Molento MB; Bonacin J; Labruna MB; Pacheco Rde C; Moraes-Filho J; Deconto I; Biondo AW

2010-04-01

276

Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates. PMID:20624353

Freitas, Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira; Grycajuk, Marcelly; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Bonacin, José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

277

Epidemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was carried out in the central part of the Islamic Republic of Iran over a 12-month period in 1991-92 in Borkhar, a rural district lying north of Isfahan city. The objective was to determine the ecology of natural reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis for possible future field trials of leishmania vaccine. The main reservoir host in this area is Rhombomys opimus, the great gerbil, followed by Meriones libycus, the Libyan jird, and Hemiechinus auritis, the long-eared hedgehog. Of the 179 small mammals examined in the Borkhar area, the great majority were R. opimus (82.1%), then M. libycus (15.7%), and last H. auritis (2.2%). The highest rate of infection of R. opimus was in September (90.5%), the rate varying between 22.2% and 80.4% in different villages. The average infection rate of M. libycus was 17.9%. These rodents probably play an important role as reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in this area. Sixteen domestic and stray dogs appeared to be uninfected because examination showed no active lesion or scar. PMID:9060218

Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Javadian, E

1996-01-01

278

Epidemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was carried out in the central part of the Islamic Republic of Iran over a 12-month period in 1991-92 in Borkhar, a rural district lying north of Isfahan city. The objective was to determine the ecology of natural reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis for possible future field trials of leishmania vaccine. The main reservoir host in this area is Rhombomys opimus, the great gerbil, followed by Meriones libycus, the Libyan jird, and Hemiechinus auritis, the long-eared hedgehog. Of the 179 small mammals examined in the Borkhar area, the great majority were R. opimus (82.1%), then M. libycus (15.7%), and last H. auritis (2.2%). The highest rate of infection of R. opimus was in September (90.5%), the rate varying between 22.2% and 80.4% in different villages. The average infection rate of M. libycus was 17.9%. These rodents probably play an important role as reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in this area. Sixteen domestic and stray dogs appeared to be uninfected because examination showed no active lesion or scar.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR; Javadian E

1996-01-01

279

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic area...

Reddy D

280

Hepatitis E in the south west of France in individuals who have never visited an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 431 consecutive patients from the Midi Pyrenees area with acute hepatitis with unknown etiology in 2001-2002 were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G-class (IgG) anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies. Forty-six (10.7%) had anti-HEV IgG, and the results were questionable for a further 17 (3.9%). Real time PCR based on TaqMan detection was used to identify HEV genome fragments in the serum of patients with positive or questionable anti-HEV serology. HEV RNA was found in 25.4% of cases. All amplification products were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the strains were genotype 3. In conclusion, virological and epidemiological data indicate that genotype 3 viruses are circulating in the south west part of France (Midi-Pyrenees) in patients with acute hepatitis and who have not visited recently areas in which HEV is endemic. PMID:15368508

Mansuy, Jean Michel; Peron, Jean Marie; Abravanel, Florence; Poirson, Hélène; Dubois, Martine; Miedouge, Marcel; Vischi, Françoise; Alric, Laurent; Vinel, Jean Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains in an area of Italy where Lyme borreliosis is endemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1993 and 1998, we isolated Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from 55 of the 119 patients with clinically diagnosed Lyme borreliosis who were admitted to "San Martino" Hospital in Belluno, Veneto, an Adriatic region in northeastern Italy where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. Upon hospitalization, all patients presented erythema migrans. Isolates were typed using ribosomal DNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer. Of the 41 isolates typed, 37 belonged to Borrelia afzelii, 2 to Borrelia garinii, and 2 to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, performed on 21 strains (13 new isolates and 8 controls), revealed different RFLP patterns within the B. garinii and B. afzelii strains; among the five B. garinii strains and the 12 B. afzelii strains, three or two different RFLP patterns were identified, according to the restriction enzyme used. The protein patterns of the new isolates confirmed their genotypic classification and revealed the level of expression of some immunodominant proteins like OspA and other characteristic Osps. These findings constitute the first report of such a high recovery rate of B. burgdorferi from patients in a very restricted area in Italy; they also indicate the predominance of the genospecies B. afzelii in the study area and the heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

Ciceroni L; Ciarrochi S; Ciervo A; Mondarini V; Guzzo F; Caruso G; Murgia R; Cinco M

2001-06-01

282

Determination of chemical forms of arsenic in environmental water for endemic arsenism disease area of Azuoqi by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The areas of endemic arsenic disease in the Azuoqi belong to the drinking water type arsenism disease area. A simple and sensitive method to identify the chemical forms of As was presented. In-organic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were separated by the use of coprecipitation and cation exchange chromatography combined with neutron activation analysis. Separation of inorganic and organic arsenic (MMA and DMA) was based on coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3, inorganic arsenic was coprecipitated quantitatively, but MMA and DMA was not coprecipitated at all. Experiments showed that MMA and DMA in solution were adsorbed on cation exchange resin in pH 2. MMA was eluted by 60 mL of 0.5 mol/L acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7) and then 60 mL of 3 mol/L NH3·H2O was used to strip the DMA. The recovery of MMA and DMA was 96% and 103%, respectively

2001-01-01

283

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. METHODS: Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. RESULTS: We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Machado VW; Vasconcelos PF; Silva EV; Santos JB

2013-03-01

284

[Study on unsupervised classification in marshland of endemic area of Schistosomiasis Japonica using satellite TM image data  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To categorize the vegetation of marshland in the endemic areas of Schistosomiasis Japonica using satellite thematic mapper (TM)data in Liupo Village, Anhui Province. METHODS: Data of three satellite TM hands, namely TM3, TM4 and TM5, were selected to be used in classification with principal component analysis. Then, satellite TM images were applied to false color composite and unsupervised classification with computer software to manage the images. Finally, the resulting clusters were identified and reclassified by site visits to categorize the land coverage and vegetation. RESULTS: Five classifications of land coverage were generated, including poplar forest, bulrush and marshland, all with snail habitants. Based on the survey in the spring of 1998, the overall live snail density and infested snail density in the study areas were 0.510/0.11 m2 and 0.007/0.11 m2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Unsupervised classification, which is a technique for the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery, can contribute to the classification of environment with snail habitants and ecological diseases and become a new method in epidemiological studies.

Lin T; Jiang Q; Zhang S

2000-09-01

285

Topographic distribution of the sand flea Tunga penetrans in Wistar rats and humans in two endemic areas in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a zoonosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in many resource-poor communities, in which various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs. Eighty laboratory-raised Wistar rats were exposed to T. penetrans in areas of intense transmission: a fishing village and an urban shantytown in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. The topographic distribution of lesions in Wistar rats was compared with the distribution of lesions in humans in the same area. Our results show that the topographic distribution of embedded sand fleas was almost identical in Wistar rats and humans and that lesions were confined to the feet. In humans, 76% of all lesions were located periungually, whereas in Wistar rats, 67% of lesions were located at the distal end of the digits (P = 0.73). Both had the majority of lesions at the toes and digits: 70.2% versus 65.7% (P = 0.79). The Wistar rat model mirrors human tungiasis in topographic distribution. PMID:22764302

Buckendahl, John; Heukelbach, Jörg; Witt, Lars; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Calheiros, Cláudia M L; Feldmeier, Hermann

2012-07-01

286

Topographic distribution of the sand flea Tunga penetrans in Wistar rats and humans in two endemic areas in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tungiasis is a zoonosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in many resource-poor communities, in which various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs. Eighty laboratory-raised Wistar rats were exposed to T. penetrans in areas of intense transmission: a fishing village and an urban shantytown in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. The topographic distribution of lesions in Wistar rats was compared with the distribution of lesions in humans in the same area. Our results show that the topographic distribution of embedded sand fleas was almost identical in Wistar rats and humans and that lesions were confined to the feet. In humans, 76% of all lesions were located periungually, whereas in Wistar rats, 67% of lesions were located at the distal end of the digits (P = 0.73). Both had the majority of lesions at the toes and digits: 70.2% versus 65.7% (P = 0.79). The Wistar rat model mirrors human tungiasis in topographic distribution.

Buckendahl J; Heukelbach J; Witt L; Schwalfenberg S; Calheiros CM; Feldmeier H

2012-07-01

287

Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Everton Falcão de Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos Fernandes; Antonio Conceição Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo Gamarra; Alisson André Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira

2012-01-01

288

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Vanessa Wolff Machado; Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos; Eliana Vieira Pinto Silva; João Barberino Santos

2013-01-01

289

Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. T (more) he sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

2012-05-01

290

The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

2004-07-01

291

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA  

Science.gov (United States)

Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

292

Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002-2011: a case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002-2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas.

Badirzadeh A; Mohebali M; Ghasemian M; Amini H; Zarei Z; Akhoundi B; Hajjaran H; Emdadi D; Molaei S; Kusha A; Alizadeh S

2013-06-01

293

The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis) and anaplasmosis (A...

B.O. Rikhotso; W.H. Stoltsz; N.R. Bryson; J.E.M. Sommerville

294

Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

2012-01-01

295

[Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzed the prevalence and distribution of serological reactivity to hantavirus (antibody against ANDES virus) of human population exposed to hantavirus and rodents trapped in the studied area. This study was developed in Salta (Orán and San Martín Departments), area with the highest incidence for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in Argentina. In December 1997, 453 healthy people were studied by serology and 39 rodents by serology and PCR. The studied individuals were distributed as: 145 farm inhabitants (FI), 212 people living in the same dwelling with healthy individuals (controls) (Cco), 87 people living in the same dwelling with persons undergoing SPH in 1997 (cases) (Cca). Moreover, 19 physicians and nurses who cared for patients with SPH in 1997 were also studied. The prevalence of hantavirus infection among the studied population was 6.3%. The prevalence was 10.3% among FI, 6.9% among Cca and 3.3% among Cco (p < 0.02). There was no serological reactivity among PS. The prevalence in 39 trapped rodents was 10.2%, with infection only for Oligoryzomys chacoensis, O. flavescens and Akodon varius species. The prevalence of human cases with asymptomatic infection in Salta is higher than in other regions of the country, and we are presenting a hypothesis to explain these differences. The analyzed data suggest that in this region up to the time this study was performed, there would not have been person to person transmission of hantavirus. The transmission would be from rodent contact exclusively and mainly in ongoing deforestation areas and domestic habitat surrounding rural dwellings. PMID:11965841

Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Martínez, Valeria P; González Della Valle, Marcelo; Edelstein, Alexis; Miguel, Sergio; Padula, Paula J; Cacase, María L; Segura, Elsa L

2002-01-01

296

Effect of school based treatment on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic area in yemen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil transmitted infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries including Yemen. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Yemen established in 2002 a programme for Schistosomal, soil transmitted infection control that aimed to reduce morbidity and prevalence rates of Schistosomiasis, and Soil transmitted helminthes to less than 5% by 2015. The study was conducted to assess the current prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of the Taiz governorate after 6 years of running National Control Programme. METHODS: Grade 3 schoolchildren from Shara'b Al-Raona district of Taiz Governorate were examined for infections with Schistosoma mansoni using Modified Kato-Katz method and S. haematobium applying filtration method in 1998/1999, comparing the prevalence and intensity of infection with base line study, which was done 6 years ago. RESULTS: The S. mansoni prevalence in the study population was 31%, while the prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.6%. This result considerably is similar to the prevalence of base line study. The intensity of mild, moderate and severe infection for S. mansoni reached to 15.9%, 60.6% & 23.5% respectively. The severity of S. haematobium infection was 68.4%. It was exceptionally found that the prevalence of S. haematobium is increased. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of schistosomiasis and low effectiveness of control programme against schistosomal infection in the study area demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches.

Abdulrab A; Salem A; Algobati F; Saleh S; Shibani K; Albuthigi R

2013-04-01

297

Anisakis simplex hypersensitivity is associated with chronic urticaria in endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria (CU) may affect up to 1% of the general population. Anisakis simplex hypersensitivity is frequent in areas where raw fish is consumed and A. simplex allergy represents a relevant cause of acute urticaria. We assessed the possible association between CU and A. simplex sensitization in an area where marinated fish is very frequently eaten. METHODS: A thorough history of CU was sought in 919 adults seen at the Allergy Center, Bari. CU patients and 187 controls underwent skin-prick testing with a commercial extract of A. simplex, and reactors were recommended a 6-month raw-fish-free diet regimen. Responders were followed after a further 3 months. RESULTS: Of 919 subjects, 213 (23%) met the criteria for CU and 106/213 (49.7%) were sensitized to A. simplex with a significant difference between patients aged >65 or <65 years (56 vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.05). All patients hypersensitive to A. simplex were regular consumers of marinated fish. In a control population without CU, the prevalence of A. simplex sensitization was 16% (p < 0.001). The 6-month diet regimen led to the disappearance of urticaria in 82/106 cases (77%) versus 1/42 (2%) subjects who did not change their dietary habits (p < 0.001). All nonresponders were sensitized to house-dust mites. Of 75 responders who were followed-up after 3 months, CU relapsed in 88% of those who had reintroduced raw fish versus 14% of those who were still on the diet (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In areas where raw or marinated fish is frequently eaten, A. simplex hypersensitivity is a frequent cause of CU.

Ventura MT; Napolitano S; Menga R; Cecere R; Asero R

2013-01-01

298

HTLV-1 cosmopolitan and HTLV-2 subtype b among pregnant women of non-endemic areas of Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2, HIV-1, hepatitis B virus (HBV), Trypanosoma cruzi, Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infections and to identify the subtypes/subgroups of HTLV-1/2 among pregnant women (PW) from non-endemic provinces of Argentina. METHODS: Methods A total of 2403 samples were screened for HTLV-1/2 and confirmed by western blot and PCR. The long terminal repeat (LTR) of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were amplified. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by Neighbour Joining by using molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) 4.0. RESULTS: Among a total of 2403 PW studied, 6 (0.25%) tested positive for HTLV-1/2 (3 HTLV-1 (0.12%) and 3 HTLV-2 (0.12%)). The total prevalence when distributed by province was 0.3% (3/804) for Buenos Aires (BA), 0.4% (1/241) for BA surroundings, 0.1% (1/707) for Neuquen and 1.0% (1/95) for Ushuaia. In San Juan, no PW were HTLV-1/2 positive. The prevalence was similar when compared with rates among blood donors of the same areas and years. The phylogenetic analysis classified one sequence as HTLV-1 aA and one as HTLV-2b. The prevalence of HIV-1, HBV, T cruzi, T pallidum and T gondii was 0.6%, 0.2%, 1.4%, 1.2% and 20.9%, respectively. One case of HTLV-1/HIV-1 and one of HTLV-2/HIV-1 co-infection were detected. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-1/2, which have been associated with different diseases, are circulating among PW of Argentina, even in non-endemic areas. Therefore, testing should be recommended in women who have risk factors for these infections given that the majority of HTLV-1/2 mother to child transmission can be prevented by the avoidance of breast feeding.

Berini CA; Delfino C; Torres O; García G; Espejo R; Pianciola L; Juarez M; Arribere G; Nadal M; Eirin ME; Biglione MM

2013-06-01

299

Increase in incidence of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in non-endemic areas of Japan and the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T cell neoplasm that is associated with infection by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1). Although the high incidence of ATLL in HTLV-1-endemic areas is well known, population-based evidence concerning the incidence of ATLL in non-endemic areas is scarce. To answer this, we estimated the age-standardized incidence of ATLL from 1993 to 2006 for Japan and 1993 to 2008 for the US and assessed its trend using data from a population-based cancer registry in Japan and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the US. The Japanese data were collected from 15 prefectures. A total of 2055 patients in the three prefectures in Kyushu and 1380 patients in the 12 prefectures in Honshu were diagnosed with ATLL in the study period. In the US, a total of 140 patients were diagnosed with ATLL. The results showed that the age-standardized incidence in non-endemic areas in Japan and in the US significantly increased during this period (annual percent change [95%CI]; Japan-Honshu: +4.6% [1.1, 8.2]; US: +6.2% [1.5, 11.1]), while in the endemic areas of Japan there was no change (annual percent change [95%CI]; Japan-Kyushu: 0.0% [-1.6, 1.7]). This result indicates that the disease has been spread by carriers to non-endemic areas, and suggests the necessity of establishing a standard preventive strategy.

Chihara D; Ito H; Katanoda K; Shibata A; Matsuda T; Tajima K; Sobue T; Matsuo K

2012-10-01

300

Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com níveis distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109); média endemicidade (n = 255) e alta endemicidade (n = 190). Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000). Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência) mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas.OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endemicity levels: low (n = 109), medium (n = 255) and high endemicity (n = 190). The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000) protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index), most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

Leticia Martins Azeredo; Leonardo Campos de Queiroz; Carolina Coimbra Marinho; Maria Cristina Carvalho do Espírito Santo; Maria Cristina Chammas; Raiza Ruiz-Guevara; Aluizio Prata; Carlos Mauricio Figueiredo Antunes; José Roberto Lambertucci; Giovanni Guido Cerri

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions) of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females) and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females) populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317) and 14.2% (26/183), respectively. Almost all (96.2%) of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8%) carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1%) was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%), G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%), G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%), G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%), G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%), and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%). No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be optimized, based on endemic areas with supporting data on G6PD variants. Larger sample size from different malaria endemic is required to obtain accurate genetic mapping of G6PD variants in Burmese and Thai population residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand.

Phompradit Papichaya; Kuesap Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul Wanna; Rueangweerayut Ronnatrai; Hongkaew Yaowaluck; Yamnuan Rujira; Na-Bangchang Kesara

2011-01-01

302

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis (more) celdas (100x100m) fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales). La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii). La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y localidades fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Chi-cuadrado (?=0.05). Ocho de los tipos de larvas encontrados fueron identificados a nivel de especie (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. interrogator, C. nigripalpus, C. corniger, C. tarsalis, Limatus durhamii, Toxorhynchites theobaldi) y dos se identificaron a nivel de género (Culex sp., y Uranotaenia sp). A aegypti fue la especie más frecuente en la Gran Puntarenas. C. quinquefasciatus fue la segunda en frecuencia. Algunas localidades como Carrizal mostraron una importante diversidad de ambientes acuáticos que promovieron la ocurrencia de diferentes especies de culícidos. La distribución de los contenedores positivos por localidad en función de las especies encontradas no mostró homogeneidad (p>0.05). Aunque A. aegypti es el único vector documentado en la zona, otros mosquitos como C. quinquefasciatus y otras especies de Culex podrían ser potenciales vectores de otros agentes etiológicos (virus del Nilo occidental, virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, virus de la encefalitis equina del este). Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad considerar la presencia y la ecología de todas las especies de mosquitos en las campañas preventivas por dengue en el área, y en la vigilancia epidemiológica por otras enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Abstract in english Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the stu (more) dy. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.

Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

2009-12-01

303

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; however, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the house (more) s of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

Leite, Anderson B; Lima, Ana RV de; Leite, Renata B; Santos, Rafael V; Gonçalves, Johnathan EL; Rocha, Eliana MM; Fontes, Gilberto

2010-04-01

304

[Seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and associated factors in an endemic area of Venezuela].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated risk factors associated with positive serological status for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 26 rural communities including 905 households, 2,156 humans, and 333 dogs in Lara State, Venezuela. Serology was performed with ELISA and MABA. Data were obtained from entomological, demographic, and clinical surveys. Risk factors were determined through binary logistic regression. Seroprevalence was 7.24% in humans and 6.9% in canines. Positive serological status was positively associated with the Rhodnius prolixus vector, age, maternal history of Chagas disease, tobacco chewing, presence of mammals and birds in the household, household disarray, mud-and-wattle outbuildings, and animal nests and burrows in the peridomicile, and negatively associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, history of cancer, and storage deposits in the peridomile. In conclusion, Chagas disease in this rural area is an old phenomenon transmitted by R. prolixus or by the transplacental route, associated with socio-cultural habits related to poverty, sylvatic surroundings, and the host's medical history.

Bonfante-Cabarcas R; Rodríguez-Bonfante C; Vielma BO; García D; Saldivia AM; Aldana E; Curvelo JL

2011-10-01

305

Neonatal thyroid screening in a mild iodine deficiency endemic area in Iran  

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Full Text Available Background : Evaluated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), as an early index for diagnosis of neonatal hypothyroidism, indicates insufficient supply of thyroid hormones. Objective : The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism and assessment of iodine deficiency in the eastern part of Iran. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted in a pilot screening. Materials and Methods : The measurement of blood TSH spotted on filter paper was performed by ELISA method in 59,436 neonates. TSH value equal to 5 mU/L was considered cut off point. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in neonates with the blood TSH higher than the cut off point was based on clinical examinations and laboratory tests (serum TSH and T4). Statistical Analysis: The groups were compared using chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results : In our study, the recall rate and incidence of hypothyroidism were 3.6% and 2 per 1000 neonates respectively. Based on the proposal made by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD, the results of our study showed a mild iodine deficiency in the area. Conclusions : A comprehensive policy should be developed for control of iodine deficiency and treatment of hypothyroidism in the studied population and neighboring countries.

Najafi Mohammad; Khodaee Gholam; Bahari Mohammad; Sabahi Masoumeh; Farsi Mostafa; Kiani Fatomeh

2008-01-01

306

Seasonal abundance and distribution of Anopheles larvae in a riparian malaria endemic area of western Thailand.  

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Three taxonomic groups of Anopheles larvae were morphologically identified within the Funestus Group (Minimus Subgroup and Aconitus Subgroup) (75.63%), Maculatus Group (20.47%), and Barbirostris Group (0.57%) during a two-year period in conjunction with active malaria transmission in a village near the Thai-Myanmar border in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The remaining 3.33% of anophelines collected were Anopheles culicifacies (3.07%), Anopheles philippinensis (0.17%), and Anopheles vagus (0.09%). Using an allele-specific multiplex molecular identification assay, the Minimus Subgroup consisted of Anopheles minimus (69.83%), and Anopheles harrisoni (0.06%) and 2 genetically-related species belonging to the Aconitus Subgroup, Anopheles aconitus (0.63%) and Anopheles varuna (5.12%). The Minimus and Aconitus Subgroup species were more abundant during the dry season (52.58%) than during the hot (24.95%) and wet (22.46%) seasons. The number of Anopheles larvae collected from the stream habitat was significantly higher during the second year than the first year, believed to be due to human environmental changes in the stream habitat from the building of a small check dam, which provided a more suitable and stable habitat for mosquito larval development. This study illustrates the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector bionomics (eg, larval habitats) and adult activity patterns and linking observations with malaria transmission dynamics in a given area. PMID:23077839

Kongmee, Monthathip; Achee, Nicole L; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Bangs, Michael J; Chowpongpang, Srimek; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2012-05-01

307

Seasonal abundance and distribution of Anopheles larvae in a riparian malaria endemic area of western Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three taxonomic groups of Anopheles larvae were morphologically identified within the Funestus Group (Minimus Subgroup and Aconitus Subgroup) (75.63%), Maculatus Group (20.47%), and Barbirostris Group (0.57%) during a two-year period in conjunction with active malaria transmission in a village near the Thai-Myanmar border in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The remaining 3.33% of anophelines collected were Anopheles culicifacies (3.07%), Anopheles philippinensis (0.17%), and Anopheles vagus (0.09%). Using an allele-specific multiplex molecular identification assay, the Minimus Subgroup consisted of Anopheles minimus (69.83%), and Anopheles harrisoni (0.06%) and 2 genetically-related species belonging to the Aconitus Subgroup, Anopheles aconitus (0.63%) and Anopheles varuna (5.12%). The Minimus and Aconitus Subgroup species were more abundant during the dry season (52.58%) than during the hot (24.95%) and wet (22.46%) seasons. The number of Anopheles larvae collected from the stream habitat was significantly higher during the second year than the first year, believed to be due to human environmental changes in the stream habitat from the building of a small check dam, which provided a more suitable and stable habitat for mosquito larval development. This study illustrates the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector bionomics (eg, larval habitats) and adult activity patterns and linking observations with malaria transmission dynamics in a given area.

Kongmee M; Achee NL; Lerdthusnee K; Bangs MJ; Chowpongpang S; Prabaripai A; Charoenviriyaphap T

2012-05-01

308

Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection in an Endemic Area of Tuberculosis  

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The majority of investigations of the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have focused on highly developed nations with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. In contrast, the Para state of north Brazil represents an area of high tuberculosis prevalence and increasing NTM incidence. Toward the goal of understanding the dynamics of infection by all Mycobacterium species, we report patient characteristics and the identification of NTM strains isolated from sputum samples from patients that were residents of Para, a state in the Amazon region, Northern of Brazil, over the period January 2010 through December 2011 (2 years). The 29 NTM patients comprised 13.5% of positive mycobacterial cultures over the 2-year period. A major risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease was previous tuberculosis (76%). Further, the average age of NTM patients (52 years) was significantly higher than that of tuberculosis patients (39 years) and more were female (72.4% vs. 37.4%). Unlike other Brazilian states, NTM pulmonary patients in Para were infected with a different spectrum of mycobacteria; primarily the rapidly growing Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium simiae complex.

da Costa, Ana Roberta Fusco; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Barretto, Adriana Rodrigues; Felicio, Joao Soares; Sales, Lucia Helena Messias; Bahia, Jeann Ricardo da Costa; Conceicao, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valeria Batista

2013-01-01

309

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange) microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis) and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS) were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48%) showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene Bosch; Carmen Bracho; Hilda A Pérez

1996-01-01

310

Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s). Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116) and in female patients (88) it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

Rawlani Sudhir; Rawlani Shobha; Rawlani Shivlal

2010-01-01

311

Knowledge of Malaria and Implications for Control in an Endemic Urban Area of North Central Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the peoples knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the peoples knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, the frequency at which they experience episodes of the disease. The results revealed that 80.95% of the respondents correctly associated malaria with clinical symptoms of the disease, while the remaining 19.05% attributed non-malaria conditions, especially, stomach pain (4.50%), influenza (2.74%), diarrhea (2.36%), etc., to the disease. About 97% of the respondents had experienced malaria, with 49.16% of them having an episode in the three months preceding this survey. Though, all the respondents claimed to know the cause of malaria, only 89.47% correctly mentioned mosquito bites while, the remaining 10.53% gave spurious answers including, changes in weather conditions (3.09%), onset of teething in infants (2.75%), dirty environment (1.66%), etc. Almost all the respondents (96.53%) knew an appropriate method of preventing malaria, with the use of mosquito coils/aerosols (33.69%) and bed nets (27.30%) been the most preferred options. The epidemiological implications of these results were highlighted and discussed and it was concluded that the findings will serve as an impetus for re-designing anti-malaria behavioural change communication messages.

I.K. Olayemi; I.C.J. Omalu; S.O. Abolarinwa; O.M. Mustapha; V.A. Ayanwale; A.Z. Mohammed; I.M. Bello; V.I. Chukwuemeka

2012-01-01

312

Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite.

Umhang G; Richomme C; Boucher JM; Guedon G; Boué F

2013-10-01

313

Validation of an attenuated live vaccine against babesiosis in native cattle in an endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate in native cattle the use of an in vitro derived attenuated live vaccine (Babesia bovis-Babesia bigemina). Three commercial farms located in a tropical region in Chiapas State, Mexico were included. For each ranch, 40 animals were selected as negative to Babesia spp. by using an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR. Animals were distributed in four groups with 10 animals each: (i) <9 months, (ii) 9-18, (iii) 18-36 and (iv) >36 months old. From each group, two subgroups were formed with five animals each; one subgroup was vaccinated and the other served as control without vaccination. Monitoring and sampling were carried out initially at vaccination (day 0), at day 7 and then every 4 weeks for 12 months. During the study rectal temperature ( degrees C), packed cell volume (Ht %) and percentage of erythrocytes parasitized were registered, furthermore IFAT and PCR were performed. Prevalence rate at the beginning of the study was 83% by IFAT. During the survey, 26 non-vaccinated of the 120 selected animals (43%) showed clinical symptoms of babesiosis, confirmed by stained smears versus only four (6.6%) of the vaccinated ones. All Babesia-affected animals required specific treatment. Vaccinated cattle showed titres of up to 1 : 1840 and 1 : 1027 for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively by IFAT. Protection conferred by vaccination was about 93%. We propose that this vaccine should not only be used in cattle coming from babesiosis free zones, but also in native cattle kept in hyperendemic areas.

Ojeda JJ; Orozco L; Flores R; Rojas C; Figueroa JV; Alvarez JA

2010-04-01

314

Endemic mansonellosis in Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria: human parasitaemia and Culicoides biting patterns  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonellaperstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance,circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector.Methods: Thick smear of 50 ?l finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in across-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of thevector biting patterns, carried out between July 2005 and August 2006.Results: Of 1486 individuals examined, 11.2% of both males and females were positive for M. perstansmicrofilaraemia. Microfilaraemia appeared early in life. The overall geometric mean intensity among those withpositive microfilaraemia was 117 mf/ml (121 mf/ml for males and 113 mf/ml for females). The differences ingeometric mean intensity between different age groups were statistically significant (one-way analysis of variance;p <0.05), being highest in the oldest age group (266 mf/ml). A total of 1183 female Culicoides sp were caughtfrom September 2005 to August 2006. The abundance of Culicoides sp was seasonal. The circadian bitingactivity had a broad peak between 0700 and 1200 hrs. The monthly biting rates ranged from zero bite per personper month in January 2006 to 1151 bites per person per month in June 2006. The annual biting rate was 7382bites per person per year.Conclusion: Majority of those with positive microfilaraemia were poor socioeconomically, underscoring theneed for health education and application of effective control measures against Culicoides biting midges inEmohua.

E.C. Uttah, S. Etim, C. Okonofua & O.E. Effiom

2011-01-01

315

Pyrethroid and organophosphates resistance in Anopheles (N.) nuneztovari Gabaldon populations from malaria endemic areas in Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field populations of Colombian malaria vector Anopheles (N.) nuneztovari were studied using World Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bioassay techniques and through the use of biochemical microplate-based assays for resistance enzymes. Insecticides evaluated included the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion, and the organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Study sites selected were based upon malaria incidence, vector presence, and control activities in Colombia. Early stage selection for reduced susceptibility was observed in the bioassays for some locations. Data from the WHO and CDC bioassay methods were broadly consistent, with some differences noted. Evidence is presented for low-level initial selection of some resistance mechanisms such as mixed-function oxidases and modified acetylcholinesterase. Data from the site Encharcazón implies that selection for DDT-pyrethroid cross-resistance has occurred, though not likely at a level that currently threatens vector control by either class of insecticides, and further implies that knockdown resistance (kdr) may be present in those populations. Further studies using synergists and development of a kdr-specific assay for A. nuneztovari thus become priorities. The resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin found in the Encharcazón population are of concern since these two insecticides are currently used for both indoor spraying and treated nets. In addition, the resistance to fenitrothion, the indoor spray insecticide mostly used for this species due to their exophilic behavior, found in the El Zulia population, makes urgent to find alternatives for chemical control in these areas. These data provide the initial baselines for insecticide susceptibility profiles for A. nuneztovari in Colombia and the first report of insecticide resistance in this vector.

Fonseca-González I; Cárdenas R; Quiñones ML; McAllister J; Brogdon WG

2009-10-01

316

Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite. PMID:23725822

Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guedon, Gérald; Boué, Franck

2013-05-14

317

Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vectorial importance of known and potential vectors in Morong, Bataan, Philippines was assessed based on human and animal baited collections of adult mosquitoes and on larval collections. Anopheles flavirostris, the principal vector in the Philippines, was the most abundant among human landing catches, followed by An. maculatus sensu lato (s.l.). Both showed similar seasonal abundance with a peak during the early drier part of the year, which coincided with the peak in malaria cases. Both An. flavirostris and An. maculatus s.l. fed throughout the night with the broad peak of capture from 00:00 to 04:00 and from 22:00 to 00:00, respectively. The two species had similar parous rates (0.76 and 0.72, respectively) giving an average life span equivalent to four feeding cycles. Neither vector was abundant with average human landing rates on collectors of 0.6 and 0.4 mosquitoes per person per night, respectively over the study period. An. maculatus s.l. showed a stronger preference for outdoor feeding compared to An. flavirostris. An. maculatus s.l. was markedly zoophilic with a biting rate on water buffalo 50 times the human landing rate. An. flavirostris was less zoophilic with a corresponding ratio of 7.5. It was concluded that in this area, An. flavirostris is the principal vector. The combination of localised transmission, late night biting pattern and localised breeding sites of An. flavirostris suggest that the use of bed nets and environmental management are relevant control measures that can be implemented through community participation. PMID:9088435

Torres, E P; Salazar, N P; Belizario, V Y; Saul, A

1997-03-01

318

Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vectorial importance of known and potential vectors in Morong, Bataan, Philippines was assessed based on human and animal baited collections of adult mosquitoes and on larval collections. Anopheles flavirostris, the principal vector in the Philippines, was the most abundant among human landing catches, followed by An. maculatus sensu lato (s.l.). Both showed similar seasonal abundance with a peak during the early drier part of the year, which coincided with the peak in malaria cases. Both An. flavirostris and An. maculatus s.l. fed throughout the night with the broad peak of capture from 00:00 to 04:00 and from 22:00 to 00:00, respectively. The two species had similar parous rates (0.76 and 0.72, respectively) giving an average life span equivalent to four feeding cycles. Neither vector was abundant with average human landing rates on collectors of 0.6 and 0.4 mosquitoes per person per night, respectively over the study period. An. maculatus s.l. showed a stronger preference for outdoor feeding compared to An. flavirostris. An. maculatus s.l. was markedly zoophilic with a biting rate on water buffalo 50 times the human landing rate. An. flavirostris was less zoophilic with a corresponding ratio of 7.5. It was concluded that in this area, An. flavirostris is the principal vector. The combination of localised transmission, late night biting pattern and localised breeding sites of An. flavirostris suggest that the use of bed nets and environmental management are relevant control measures that can be implemented through community participation.

Torres EP; Salazar NP; Belizario VY; Saul A

1997-03-01

319

The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

Carlos F. D. Rocha; Carla da C. Siqueira; Cristina V. Ariani

2009-01-01

320

A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.

Johansen MV; Simonsen PE; Butterworth AE; Ouma JH; Mbugua GG; Sturrock RF; Orinda DA; Christensen NO

1994-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

[The Queixadinha Project: morbidity and control of schistosomiasis in an endemic area in the northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil 516 individuals have been submitted to clinical and laboratory examination, ultrasonography of the abdomen and dopplerecocardiography in order to define the morbidity of schistosomiasis before and after treatment. A high prevalence of schistosomiasis (66.3%) and of severe disease (9.5% with palpable spleens) were recorded. Ultrasonography classified liver periportal fibrosis as light (19.4%), moderate (27.6%) and intense (6.8%), and 46.0% presented no periportal fibrosis. Twenty one out of the 53 individuals (39.6%) with palpable spleens did not present liver fibrosis on ultrasound. Periportal lymph nodes were described in 33.8% of the population and anti-KLH antibodies were found in the serum of 40.7%. Urinary alterations compatible with the glomerulopathy of schistosomiasis were observed in 4.5% of the population, and 11.7% of the individuals examined by dopplerecocardiography had pulmonary hypertension. Twelve months after treatment for schistosomiasis the prevalence of the disease dropped from 66.3% to 25.0%. In Queixadinha, a profile of the morbidity of schistosomiasis has just been established.

Lambertucci JR; Gerspacher-Lara R; Pinto-Silva RA; Barbosa MM; Teixeira R; Barbosa HF; Serufo JC; Rezende DF; Drummond SC; Rayes AA

1996-03-01

322

Visceral leishmaniasis in Somalia: prevalence of markers of infection and disease manifestations in a village in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence and disease manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were studied in a Somali village in an area which has long been known to be endemic for VL. Demographic data were collected from 102 households, comprising 438 inhabitants. Clinical examination was performed of 306 individuals, 72% of the 426 eligible persons. Of these, 276 (90%) agreed to give blood and 246 (80%) to be skin tested with leishmanin. Leishmanin reactions were positive; in 26% anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 11%, and splenomegaly was recorded in 14% (23% of those who were seropositive). Malaria was hypoendemic and therefore unlikely to be responsible for more than 10% of the cases with splenomegaly. Three of the seropositive villagers with splenomegaly complained of feeling ill. The remaining 91 sero- and/or leishmanin-positive individuals had no complaint regarding their health and had not experienced any long period of illness. There was a slight over-representation of males in the group of sero- and/or leishmanin-positive villagers, possibly due to a gender-associated difference in exposure to the parasite. Among the patients with clinical VL treated at Mogadishu hospitals during 1989 and 1990, the male/female ratio was 3.3:1, which may indicate a selection of male patients for hospital care. Most patients were < or = 15 years old, suggesting that the highest risk of becoming clinically ill was among children. PMID:7570862

Shiddo, S A; Aden Mohamed, A; Akuffo, H O; Mohamud, K A; Herzi, A A; Herzi Mohamed, H; Huldt, G; Nilsson, L A; Ouchterlony, O; Thorstensson, R

323

Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred an (more) d twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn b allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn b and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Kashima, Simone; Bonfim-Silva, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rochele; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; Bordin, José Orlando; Langhi Júnior, Dante Mário; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

2011-01-01

324

In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella melitensis isolates from sheep in an area endemic for human brucellosis in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to assess in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella melitensis isolates isolated from naturally infected sheep cases in an area where human brucellosis is endemic, focusing on rifampin (RIF), streptomycin (SM), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ), gentamicin (GM) and tetracycline (TC) and on 11 other antimicrobials. The identification and typing of Brucella isolates were carried out using standard classification tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on Mueller-Hilton agar. The resistance to SM, CPFX and GM was determined at the rate of 7.3% and to RIF at the rate of 9.7%. The highest (46.3%) resistance was determined against TMP/SMZ. All strains were found to be sensitive to TC at the rate of 100.0%. In conclusion, ovine origin B. melitensis strains evaluated in this study were resistant to at least one antimicrobial (51.2%) that is commonly used in human clinical medicine against brucellosis.

Ilhan Z; Solmaz H; Ekin IH

2013-01-01

325

Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’) of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6%) respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of respondents and the measures they take to prevent malaria (?2 = 58.7; df = 16; p < 0.001). The findings clearly suggest that the majority of the respondents had adequate knowledge and enviable health seeking behaviour. However, still a sizable faction had misconception and undesirable health seeking behaviour. It’s a major barrier to implement effective malaria control strategies in the resource- limited settings particularly in country like Ethiopia. In this context, appropriate communication strategies apparently inevitable. Therefore, appropriate communication strategies should be designed to promote the knowledge and health seeking behaviour of vulnerable section of the society in this vicinity.

Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Abdi Kumera

2010-01-01

326

The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, (more) in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

Rocha, Carlos F. D.; Siqueira, Carla da C.; Ariani, Cristina V.

2009-09-01

327

An in-vivo study of falciparum malaria sensitivity to Chloroquine in unstable malaria endemic area of central Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of Chloroquine as a first line drug to treat P. falciparum is almost universally becoming questionable. This study was conducted in one of the country's unstable malaria endemic area, North Shoa with the objective of assessing the in-vivo treatment efficacy of Chloroquine to falciparum malaria using the standard WHO 14 days treatment response monitoring guideline. A total of 427 patients were followed among which 87.8% showed treatment failure. This was more pronounced in children than in adults (Chi-square for trend = 8.16; P < 0.01). Clinical presentation with high grade fever on day 0 was found to be more predictive of treatment failure in children (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.26, 3.36; P < 0.005). Tendency to remain febrile on subsequent follow up days was also more observed in children compared to adults. Treatment failure was further associated with high Parasite Density Index (PDI) on day 0 in all age groups (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.83; P < 0.05). Supplemented with large scale sensitivity studies, it is high time that switch to alternate drugs needs due consideration by policy makers. PMID:11957310

Kebede, F; Taffa, N; Tedla, T

1999-04-01

328

An in-vivo study of falciparum malaria sensitivity to Chloroquine in unstable malaria endemic area of central Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of Chloroquine as a first line drug to treat P. falciparum is almost universally becoming questionable. This study was conducted in one of the country's unstable malaria endemic area, North Shoa with the objective of assessing the in-vivo treatment efficacy of Chloroquine to falciparum malaria using the standard WHO 14 days treatment response monitoring guideline. A total of 427 patients were followed among which 87.8% showed treatment failure. This was more pronounced in children than in adults (Chi-square for trend = 8.16; P < 0.01). Clinical presentation with high grade fever on day 0 was found to be more predictive of treatment failure in children (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.26, 3.36; P < 0.005). Tendency to remain febrile on subsequent follow up days was also more observed in children compared to adults. Treatment failure was further associated with high Parasite Density Index (PDI) on day 0 in all age groups (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.83; P < 0.05). Supplemented with large scale sensitivity studies, it is high time that switch to alternate drugs needs due consideration by policy makers.

Kebede F; Taffa N; Tedla T

1999-04-01

329

Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin.

Rohani A; Wan Najdah WM; Zamree I; Azahari AH; Mohd Noor I; Rahimi H; Lee HL

2010-07-01

330

In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates from Sheep in an Area Endemic for Human Brucellosis in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella melitensis isolates isolated from naturally infected sheep cases in an area where human brucellosis is endemic, focusing on rifampin (RIF), streptomycin (SM), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ), gentamicin (GM) and tetracycline (TC) and on 11 other antimicrobials. The identification and typing of Brucella isolates were carried out using standard classification tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on Mueller-Hilton agar. The resistance to SM, CPFX and GM was determined at the rate of 7.3% and to RIF at the rate of 9.7%. The highest (46.3%) resistance was determined against TMP/SMZ. All strains were found to be sensitive to TC at the rate of 100.0%. In conclusion, ovine origin B. melitensis strains evaluated in this study were resistant to at least one antimicrobial (51.2%) that is commonly used in human clinical medicine against brucellosis. PMID:23545462

Ilhan, Ziya; Solmaz, Hasan; Ekin, Ismail Hakki

2013-04-02

331

Origin of Mediterranean insular endemics in the Boraginales: integrative evidence from molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of numerous reliable fossils and the occurrence of many endemic island species make the Boraginales particularly suitable for integrative biogeographical studies. In this paper we aim to elucidate the time frame and events associated with the origin of selected borages endemic to the Mediterranean climate zone. More specifically, we describe and examine the alternative palaeo- and neoendemic hypotheses for their origin. Corsica and Sardinia (continental fragment islands) and the Canary Islands (an oceanic island archipelago). Eighty-nine accessions, representing 30 genera from five families ascribed to the Boraginales, were examined for six chloroplast DNA regions. We used an integrative approach including phylogenetic analyses (M rB ayes), Bayesian molecular dating (T3 package) with four fossil constraints on nodes, and biogeographical reconstructions ( diva) to elucidate the temporal and spatial origins of the Corso-Sardinian and Canary Island endemics. Species of Echium endemic to the Canary Islands diverged from their continental sister clade during the Miocene (15.3 ± 5.4 Ma), probably after the rise of the oldest islands (c. 20 Ma). Corso-Sardinian endemics of Borago diverged from their primarily North African sister clade during the late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 6.9 ± 3.6 Ma), well after the initial fragmentation of the islands (c. 30 Ma). Similarly, Corso-Sardinian endemics of Anchusa diverged from the South African Anchusa capensis during the Pliocene-Pleistocene (c. 2.7 ± 2.1 Ma). The present study reveals an Anatolian origin for Anchusa, Borago and Echium and underlines the importance of the Eastern Mediterranean region as a possible reservoir for plant evolution in the Mediterranean Basin. For Anchusa and Borago, the divergence from their respective sister clades on the two types of islands post-dated the formation of the islands, thus supporting the neo-endemic hypothesis, whereas the dating results for the origin of Echium endemics were less conclusive.

Mansion Guilhem; Selvi Federico; Guggisberg Alessia; Conti Elena

2009-07-01

332

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.

Casanova, Claudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Angelo P.

2013-01-01

333

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with (more) the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Machado, Vanessa Wolff; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; Santos, João Barberino

2013-04-01

334

Malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a seroepidemiological survey of malaria prevalence in two areas of low endemicity: Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Tourist Park (PETAR). Both are located in the Vale do Ribeira in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In this study, 318 subjects from both areas had their blood analyzed for the presence of malaria parasites by thin and thick blood smears. One hundred and sixty-three (51.2%) of the subjects were from Intervales State Park and 155 (48.7%) were from PETAR. We analyzed all the samples by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect antibodies against asexual forms of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae and enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the presence of antibodies against circumsporozoite proteins (CSP) from P. vivax VK210, human P. vivax-like/Plasmodium simiovale, P. vivax VK247 and Plasmodium brasilianum/P. malariae. The presence of Plasmodium species was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighteen of the subjects analyzed had positive IFA results for IgM against P. malariae antigens, and three others were positive for P. vivax antigens. Positivity of IgG antibodies against P. vivax detected by IFA was high in samples from both Intervales State Park and PETAR (32.0% and 49.0%, respectively), while positivity for P. malariae was lower (16.0% and 19.3% in Intervales State Park and PETAR, respectively). ELISA tests showed a higher prevalence of antibodies against P. vivax VK210 (35.0%) in samples from Intervales State Park and against human P. vivax-like (29.7%) in samples from PETAR. PCR reactions revealed the presence of parasites in several of the samples analyzed. In Intervales State Park, one subject was infected by P. malariae and two by Plasmodium falciparum, while in PETAR, one subject was positive for P. falciparum and three for both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The areas where these parks are located belong to the Atlantic Forest habitat, and inhabitants frequently, see monkeys. Our data suggest that monkeys may constitute a natural reservoir for malaria in both areas. PMID:17126279

Curado, Izilda; Dos Santos Malafronte, Rosely; de Castro Duarte, Ana Maria Ribeiro; Kirchgatter, Karin; Branquinho, Maria Stela; Bianchi Galati, Eunice Aparecida

2006-11-01

335

Malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a seroepidemiological survey of malaria prevalence in two areas of low endemicity: Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Tourist Park (PETAR). Both are located in the Vale do Ribeira in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In this study, 318 subjects from both areas had their blood analyzed for the presence of malaria parasites by thin and thick blood smears. One hundred and sixty-three (51.2%) of the subjects were from Intervales State Park and 155 (48.7%) were from PETAR. We analyzed all the samples by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect antibodies against asexual forms of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae and enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the presence of antibodies against circumsporozoite proteins (CSP) from P. vivax VK210, human P. vivax-like/Plasmodium simiovale, P. vivax VK247 and Plasmodium brasilianum/P. malariae. The presence of Plasmodium species was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighteen of the subjects analyzed had positive IFA results for IgM against P. malariae antigens, and three others were positive for P. vivax antigens. Positivity of IgG antibodies against P. vivax detected by IFA was high in samples from both Intervales State Park and PETAR (32.0% and 49.0%, respectively), while positivity for P. malariae was lower (16.0% and 19.3% in Intervales State Park and PETAR, respectively). ELISA tests showed a higher prevalence of antibodies against P. vivax VK210 (35.0%) in samples from Intervales State Park and against human P. vivax-like (29.7%) in samples from PETAR. PCR reactions revealed the presence of parasites in several of the samples analyzed. In Intervales State Park, one subject was infected by P. malariae and two by Plasmodium falciparum, while in PETAR, one subject was positive for P. falciparum and three for both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The areas where these parks are located belong to the Atlantic Forest habitat, and inhabitants frequently, see monkeys. Our data suggest that monkeys may constitute a natural reservoir for malaria in both areas.

Curado I; Dos Santos Malafronte R; de Castro Duarte AM; Kirchgatter K; Branquinho MS; Bianchi Galati EA

2006-11-01

336

[The prevalence of Chagas' disease in puerperal women and congenital transmission in an endemic area of Peru].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in puerperal women and to assess possible congenital transmission of Chagas' disease in the department of Arequipa, Peru, where the disease is endemic. METHODS: Women who had given birth between December 2001 and July 2002 in three hospitals (two urban and one rural) and four health centers (three rural and one urban) of the department of Arequipa, Peru, were studied. The serological study included screening all the puerperal women in order to detect antibodies against T. cruzi through indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), with confirmatory testing done with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing and the titration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by IIF. IIF tests to screen for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were done with the seropositive women and their newborns, and infection was evaluated through xenodiagnosis (evaluated at 30 and 60 days) and the direct micromethod of Freilij et al. The results were analyzed in terms of the presence of the vector and of cases of Chagas' disease in the places where the puerperal women had been born and where they were living. Two neonatologists clinically evaluated the newborns in order to detect abnormalities and signs of congenital Chagas' disease. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Chagas' disease in the 3 000 puerperal women studied was 0.73%. Prevalence was highest in two health centers located in rural areas (2.2% in El Pedregal and 4.1% in La Joya) (P=0.018). The disease was associated with previous direct contact with the vector (P<0.05) and with having been born in an area considered endemic (P<0.01). Four (20%) of the 20 seropositive puerperal women were also positive by xenodiagnosis. However, none of the women was aware of her infectious carrier state, and none showed the characteristic symptoms or signs of acute or chronic Chagas' disease. IgM antibodies were not detected in any of the puerperal women. One neonate (whose mother did not have evidence of parasitemia) presented an IgM titer of 1/8, but in later controls neither IgM nor IgG antibodies were detected. Parasites were not detected in the blood of the neonates by either of the two testing methods used. Of the 20 neonates evaluated, one presented microcephaly and hepatosplenomegaly; although the child had specific IgG antibodies against T. cruzi at birth, the antibodies were not present at the age of two months. The growth and development of the other 19 newborns were normal. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Chagas' disease in puerperal women of the department of Arequipa, Peru, is low. No cases of intrauterine congenital transmission were found. We recommend carrying out studies on prenatal detection that evaluate more mothers and in which women who give birth at home also participate.

Mendoza Ticona CA; Córdova Benzaquen E; Ancca Juárez J; Saldaña Díaz J; Torres Choque A; Velásquez Talavera R; de los Ríos Alvarez J; Saldaña Díaz J; Vega Chirinos S; Sánchez Pérez R

2005-03-01

337

Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area?/ Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neurocisticercose é a infestação do sistema nervoso central pelo Cysticercus cellulosae, a forma larval da Taenia solium. É relacionada a hábitos higiênicos e sanitários precários; embora o Nordeste seja a Região mais pobre do Brasil, foi sempre considerada área não-endêmica para neurocisticercose. Depois da instalação de um serviço de tomografia computadorizada (TC), a incidência da neurocisticercose começou a crescer nos serviços de neurologia em Campi (more) na Grande PB, cidade para onde confluem pessoas de todo o interior paraibano à procura de serviços médicos especializados. Analisamos 5.883 TC realizadas no Serviço TomoHPI de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I de agosto de 1993 até dezembro de 1995 e 1,02% foram diagnosticadas como sugestivas de neurocisticercose e classificadas de acordo com idade e sexo, procedência e condições sócio-econômicas. A distribuição dos casos de acordo com a idade é homogênea até os 50 anos de idade (média: 28,36 anos). Homens e mulheres são afetados igualmente. Procedentes de áreas urbanas representam 83.33%. Residentes em Campina Grande representam 48.33% do total; 48,34% residem em cidades ao redor de Campina Grande (até 50 Km de distância) ou em outras cidades da Paraíba. Cincoenta e oito pacientes são dependentes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Concluimos que a neurocisticercose parece ser endêmica em nosso Estado, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados para que tal assertiva possa ser confirmada. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba ca (more) n find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, precedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraíba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

Gonçalves-Coêlho, Thiago D.; Coêlho, Matheus D. G.

1996-12-01

338

Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination programme. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts.

Yahathugoda TC; Weerasooriya MV; Sunahara T; Kimura E; Samarawickrema WA; Itoh M

2013-09-01

339

An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8%) was much below the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

Kumar Pradeep; Prajapati P; Saxena Deepak; Kavishwar Abhay; Kurian George

2008-01-01

340

Hepatitis C virus infection in an endemic area of Southern Italy 14 years later: evidence for a vanishing infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In a 1996 survey, prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV) in a southern Italian town was 12.6%. AIMS: To identify changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Anti-HCV, HCV-RNA (PCR, detection limit 15 IU/mL), HCV genotype (Innolipa). Were performed in a random 1:4 systematic sample of the general population. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate factors independently associated with the likelihood of anti-HCV positivity. RESULTS: Of 1012 subjects, 58 (5.7%) were anti-HCV-positive, compared to 12.6% 14 years earlier. Prevalence was 0.4% in individuals <30 years old and 31.8% in those ? 70 years old. Among 139 HCV-negative in 1996 re-sampled in 2010, only one had seroconverted (incidence: 0.05 × 100 persons/year). Alanine transaminase levels were elevated in 8 (13.8%). HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 46.5% anti-HCV-positive subjects. In 2010 59% were genotype 2-infected, in 1996 50.7% genotype 1-infected. Previous use of non-disposable glass syringes was a strong independent predictor (OR 3.2; CI 95%=1.4-7.3). CONCLUSION: Epidemiology of HCV infection in an endemic area of south Italy has changed over 14 years, now largely confined to the oldest age group; this seems to be due to the disappearance of its past main mode of transmission, namely the use of glass syringes.

Guadagnino V; Stroffolini T; Caroleo B; Menniti Ippolito F; Rapicetta M; Ciccaglione AR; Chionne P; Madonna E; Costantino A; De Sarro G; Focà A; Lentini M; Staltari O

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors. PMID:22246369

Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

2012-01-14

342

Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors.

Tiwananthagorn S; Bhutto AM; Baloch JH; Soomro FR; Kawamura Y; Nakao R; Aoshima K; Nonaka N; Oku Y; Katakura K

2012-07-01

343

Survey of domestic cattle for anti-Leishmania antibodies and Leishmania DNA in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by an intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent, is considered to be anthroponotic. The role of domestic animals in its transmission is still unclear. Although cattle are the preferred blood host for Phlebotomus argentipes, the sandfly vector of VL in the Indian subcontinent, very little information is available for their role in the disease transmission. In this study, we examined domestic cattle for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection in a VL-endemic area in Bangladesh. Blood samples from 138 domestic cattle were collected from houses with active or recently-treated VL and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients. The presence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in serum was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then with direct agglutination tests (DAT). Nested PCR (Ln PCR) was performed to amplify the ssu-rRNA gene using the DNA extracted from Buffy coat. Recently-developed molecular assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was also performed for further sensitive detection of parasite DNA. Results In this study, 9.4% (n = 13) of the cattle were found to be positive by ELISA. Of the 13 ELISA-positive cattle, only four (30.8%) were positive in DAT. Parasite DNA was not detected in either of the molecular assays (Ln PCR and LAMP). Conclusions The study confirmed the presence of antibodies against Leishmania parasite in cattle. However, the absence of Leishmania DNA in the cattle indicates clearly that the cattle do not play a role as reservoir host. Similar study needs to be undertaken in the Indian subcontinent to determine the role of other domestic animals on which sandflies feed.

Alam Mohammad Shafiul; Ghosh Debashis; Khan Md Gulam Musawwir; Islam Mohammad Faizul; Mondal Dinesh; Itoh Makoto; Islam Md Nurul; Haque Rashidul

2011-01-01

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Evaluation of Cytauxzoon felis infection status in captive-born wild felids housed in an area endemic for the pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether apparently healthy captive-born wild felids that were not native to North America and were housed in an area endemic for Cytauxzoon felis harbored the pathogen. DESIGN: Prospective observational case series. ANIMALS: 11 captive-born wild felids that were (1 bobcat [Lynx rufus] and 1 cougar [Puma concolor]) or were not (1 lion [Panthera leo] and 8 tigers [Panthera tigris]) native to North America and 6 domestic cats (5 pets and 1 feral). PROCEDURES: Blood was collected, and a PCR assay for C felis was performed. The C felis 18S rRNA gene sequence was characterized in samples that tested positive. Blood smears were evaluated microscopically for intraerythrocytic organisms consistent with C felis. Blood smears from an additional 6 feral domestic cats found dead on the study premises were also evaluated. RESULTS: 4 tigers and 6 domestic cats without clinical signs of disease tested positive for C felis infection via PCR assay; intraerythrocytic organisms consistent with C felis were identified in smears from 1 C felis-infected tiger (which also had azotemia) and in smears from 11 of 12 domestic cats. Possible erythrocytic inclusions were identified in 1 tiger that tested negative for C felis. Sequences of C felis 18S rRNA amplicons from all infected tigers shared > 99.8% identity with reported C felis sequences from North American domestic cats and were identical to amplicons from domestic cats on the premises. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Captive tigers without clinical signs of disease tested positive for C felis. The PCR assay for C felis appeared to be more reliable than cytologic detection of piroplasms in tigers.

Lewis KM; Cohn LA; Downey ME; Whitney MS; Birkenheuer AJ

2012-10-01

345

Prevalence of malaria as co-infection in HIV-infected individuals in a malaria endemic area of southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: The present study was conducted on the prevalence of malaria as co-infectionamongst ‘asymptomatic HIV’ and ‘symptomatic HIV’ subjects to see if such prevalence deviatedfrom that commonly reported in apparently health individuals in same locality.Methods: A prospective study that involved 196 participants grouped according to their HIV statusas: ‘asymptomatic HIV seropositive group’ (n = 101); ‘symptomatic HIV seropositive group’ (n =48) and ‘control HIV-seronegative group (n = 47). Blood samples collected from the participantswere used for double HIV screening by rapid immunoassay technique and immunochromatographictechnique, and for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using rapid P. falciparum antigendetection method.Results: The result showed that the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria as a co-infection amongst theasymptomatic HIV seropositive group was 12 (11.8%) and amongst the symptomatic HIV seropositivegroup was 16 (33.3%). However, the prevalence rate of P. falciparum malaria amongst the controlHIV seronegative group was 5 (10.6%) and the combined burden of P. falciparum malaria amongstboth groups of HIV seropositives was 28 (18.9%).Interpretation & conclusion: The present study observed different prevalence rates of P. falciparummalaria amongst the three groups. The prevalence was tripled in symptomatic HIV seropositive group.This shows a clear departure from possible obtainable prevalence of malaria infection alone in thismalaria endemic area. Due to the mortality rates associated with malaria infection in an endemicarea, it may be necessary that routine malaria screening be adopted as part of the management policyto check the co-infection.

C.C. Onyenekwe, N. Ukibe, S.C. Meludu, A. Ilika, N. Aboh, N. Ofiaeli, M. Ezaeni & A. Onochie

2007-01-01

346

Onchocerciasis: the pre-control association between prevalence of palpable nodules and skin microfilariae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prospect of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin has been rejuvenated following recent successes in foci in Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Elimination prospects depend strongly on local transmission conditions and therefore on pre-control infection levels. Pre-control infection levels in Africa have been mapped largely by means of nodule palpation of adult males, a relatively crude method for detecting infection. We investigated how informative pre-control nodule prevalence data are for estimating the pre-control prevalence of microfilariae (mf) in the skin and discuss implications for assessing elimination prospects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed published data on pre-control nodule prevalence in males aged ? 20 years and mf prevalence in the population aged ? 5 years from 148 African villages. A meta-analysis was performed by means of Bayesian hierarchical multivariate logistic regression, accounting for measurement error in mf and nodule prevalence, bioclimatic zones, and other geographical variation. There was a strong positive correlation between nodule prevalence in adult males and mf prevalence in the general population. In the forest-savanna mosaic area, the pattern in nodule and mf prevalence differed significantly from that in the savanna or forest areas. SIGNIFICANCE: We provide a tool to convert pre-control nodule prevalence in adult males to mf prevalence in the general population, allowing historical data to be interpreted in terms of elimination prospects and disease burden of onchocerciasis. Furthermore, we identified significant geographical variation in mf prevalence and nodule prevalence patterns warranting further investigation of geographical differences in transmission patterns of onchocerciasis.

Coffeng LE; Pion SD; O'Hanlon S; Cousens S; Abiose AO; Fischer PU; Remme JH; Dadzie KY; Murdoch ME; de Vlas SJ; Basáñez MG; Stolk WA; Boussinesq M

2013-01-01

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Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina/ Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la m (more) ateria fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas. Abstract in english Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These re (more) sults suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

Cargnelutti, Diego E.; Salomón, María Cristina

2012-02-01

348

Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina  

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Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

Diego E. Cargn