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Epilepsy in Onchocerciasis Endemic Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Population-Based Surveys  

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Epilepsy is particularly common in tropical areas. One main reason is that many endemic infections have neurological consequences. In addition, the medical, social and demographic burden of epilepsy remains substantial in these countries where it is often seen as a contagious condition and where the aetiology is often undetermined. For several decades, field researchers had reported some overlapping between the geographical distributions of epilepsy and onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease cau...

Pion, Se?bastien D. S.; Kaiser, Christoph; Boutros-toni, Fernand; Cournil, Amandine; Taylor, Melanie M.; Meredith, Stefanie E. O.; Stufe, Ansgar; Bertocchi, Ione; Kipp, Walter; Preux, Pierre-marie; Boussinesq, Michel

2009-01-01

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Report of a Scientific Working Group on Serious Adverse Events following Mectizan® treatment of onchocerciasis in Loa loa endemic areas  

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The occurrence of Serious Adverse Experiences (SAEs) following Mectizan® treatment of onchocerciasis in Loa loa endemic areas has been increasingly reported over the past decade. These SAEs include a severely disabling, and potentially fatal, encephalopathy, which appears to correlate with a high load of L. loa microfilariae (> 30,000 mf/ml).

2003-01-01

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Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon  

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Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. T...

Wanji Samuel; Tendongfor Nicholas; Nji Theolbald; Esum Mathias; Che Julious N; Nkwescheu Armand; Alassa Fifen; Kamnang Geremy; Enyong Peter A; Taylor Mark J; Hoerauf Achim; Taylor David W

2009-01-01

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Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  

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Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed sin...

Ibeh, Emmanuel Uttah Dominic C.

2011-01-01

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Eye disease in an onchocerciasis-endemic area of the forest-savanna mosaic region of Nigeria.  

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In a forest-saving mosaic zone of south-eastern Nigeria endemic for onchocerciasis, we identified eye disorders in 65.5% of a randomly selected population sample. Onchocerciasis-related eye disease was present in 13.7% of the study sample and constituted 21% of the total number of eye disorders. A total of 78 (33.2%) of 235 subjects with visual impairment had onchocerciasis-related eye lesions, and of 35 who were blind in both eyes, onchocerciasis-induced eye disease was the cause in 28 (80%)...

Umeh, R. E.; Chijioke, C. P.; Okonkwo, P. O.

1996-01-01

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Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the treatment, 97.5% complied by the end of six weeks. No serious side effect was registered during the six week treatment. Conclusion This study indicates that when empowered the community health implementers can successfully deliver doxycycline for six weeks for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The therapeutic coverage and the compliance treatment rate achieved in this study coupled to the known efficacy of doxycycline on O. volvulus, are indicators that the strategy involving the mass administration of doxycycline can be used to control onchocerciasis in those areas of co-endemicity with loiasis where ivermectin may be contraindicated.

Wanji Samuel

2009-08-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

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Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

2011-05-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

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Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African ...

Tekle Afework; Elhassan Elizabeth; Isiyaku Sunday; Amazigo Uche V; Bush Simon; Noma Mounkaila; Cousens Simon; Abiose Adenike; Remme Jan H.

2012-01-01

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Visual loss in an onchocerciasis endemic community in Sierra Leone.  

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The visual acuities of 1625 individuals recruited to a community-based clinical trial of ivermectin in southern Sierra Leone were measured, and the prevalence of visual loss in this rural population where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic was determined. Ocular examination was performed before treatment to establish the cause of visual loss. Using WHO definitions, 1.3% were blind (less than 3/60 in both eyes), 4.3% were visually impaired (between 6/24 and 3/60 in the better eye), and a further 3...

Whitworth, J. A.; Gilbert, C. E.; Mabey, D. M.; Morgan, D.; Foster, A.

1993-01-01

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Impact of Three Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Lymphatic Filariasis in Areas Previously Treated for Onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone  

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Onchocerciasis studies across Sierra Leone between 1974 and 2005 showed that 12 of the 14 health districts (HDs) are endemic for onchocerciasis. Baseline lymphatic filariasis (LF) studies 2005–2008 showed that all 14 HDs of Sierra Leone are LF endemic. Three annual rounds of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole 2008–2010 were conducted in the 12 HDs that are co-endemic for onchocerciasis and LF with good geographic, epidemiological drug (or programme) ...

Koroma, Joseph B.; Sesay, Santigie; Sonnie, Mustapha; Hodges, Mary H.; Sahr, Foday; Zhang, Yaobi; Bockarie, Moses J.

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of depigmentation of the shins: a simple and cheap way to screen for severe endemic onchocerciasis in Africa.  

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The prevalence of skin depigmentation in the pretibial region is closely correlated in the adult Congolese population with conventional indices (microfilarial index, mean microfilarial density, cyst index) for the evaluation of endemic onchocerciasis. Individuals over 15 years of age in endemic villages who had a microfilarial index of 80-90%, had a cystic index of 60-70% and a pretibial depigmentation index about 20% (30-40% for individuals aged > 50 years). Thus, in Africa, this new evaluat...

Carme, B.; Ntsoumou-madzou, V.; Samba, Y.; Yebakima, A.

1993-01-01

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Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual im­pair­ments by qualified medical doctors. Five categories of skin manifestations were observed, namely permanent itching, onchodermatitis, atrophy of skin, leopard skin, and sowda. A total of 1024 individuals were examined. "nResults: The prevalence of the skin manifestations were permanent itching (2.5%, onchoder­ma­titis (3.9%, atrophy of the skin (5.8%, leopard skin (22.1%, and sowda (0.1%. The preva­lence of subcutaneous nodules was 25.3%, but 88.9% among the oldest age group, and mostly found in lower half of body. The majority of cases of visual acuity problems (6.8% overall prev­alence were in the oldest age groups. Among those who were ? 20 years old, the prevalence of visual acuity problems was significantly higher in females than in males (?2-test; P< 0.05. Only two of the examined persons were observed to be blind. "nConclusion: Clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis are perhaps more intense in the area prob­ably because of presence of endemic infections of other filarial species.

EC Uttah

2009-12-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA, and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

Tekle Afework

2012-02-01

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A three-year follow-up of ocular onchocerciasis in an area of vector control*  

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An evaluation of the effects on onchocerciasis of a 3-year period of vector control was undertaken during 1978 in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area in West Africa. The results revealed that the overall prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis showed only a slight decrease at the follow-up in 1978, but that there was significantly less infection among children in the age group 5-14 years as compared with 1975. There was a total incidence of ocular signs of onchocerciasis of 8.6% over the 3 ...

Thylefors, B.; Tønjum, A. M.

1980-01-01

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Ocular manifestations of onchocerciasis in a rain forest area of west Africa.  

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The epidemiology and natural history of onchocerciasis and its ocular complications in rain forest areas are poorly understood. The present study was conducted on a rubber plantation in a hyperendemic area in the rain forest of Liberia, West Africa, where 800 persons were examined. The prevalence of infection was 84% overall 29% had intraocular microfilariae, and 2.4% were blind in one or both eyes. Onchocerciasis was the cause of all binocular blindness and one-third of all visual impairment...

Newland, H. S.; White, A. T.; Greene, B. M.; Murphy, R. P.; Taylor, H. R.

1991-01-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

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Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their c...

Amuyunzu-nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V.

2011-01-01

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Feasibility of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: First Evidence from Studies in Mali and Senegal  

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The control of onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is based on annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment of populations at risk. This has been effective in controlling the disease as a public health problem, but it is not known whether it can also eliminate infection and transmission to the extent that treatment can be safely stopped. Many doubt that this is feasible in Africa. A study was undertaken in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci in Mali and Senegal where treatment has been given...

Diawara, Lamine; Traore?, Mamadou O.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate?, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Sarr, Moussa D.; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe?, Laurent; Toure?e, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

2009-01-01

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Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review  

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Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on oncho...

Laura Moya Alonso

2009-01-01

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Delimiting Areas of Endemism through Kernel Interpolation  

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We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units. PMID:25611971

Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D.; Santos, Adalberto J.

2015-01-01

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Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

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Full Text Available The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy

Cristian Lizarazo O

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
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[Epidemiological status of onchocerciasis in the Congo].  

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Analysis of 25 surveys carried out in the Congo between 1978 and 1987 (covering nine of the ten administrative regions), during which 6,215 subjects were examined, showed that onchocerciasis is endemic in the southern part of the country. Two main foci meeting at the southern exit of Brazzaville (Pool region) were identified. One focus in the Djoué basin. The other is the zone along the Congo river stretching from below Brazzaville south west to the Zaire border. Two secondary foci were noted, one in the region of the Bouenza and the other west of the Mayombe mountains. Surveys carried out in the north of the country and in the west did not reveal any onchocerciasis. However, certain areas of primary forest in these regions were found to be endemic for Mansonella streptocerca. Simulium damnosum s.l. in the sole vector of onchocerciasis. In both the Pool foci, and in the Mayombe focus, prevalences assessed from microfilarial and cyst counts were high but the mean microfilarial densities were relatively low. In certain villages over 90% of the population aged over 14 years may present with microfilariae and nearly 70% may present cysts. PMID:2241306

Carme, B; Yebakima, A; Samba, Y; Ndienguela, J

1990-09-01

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Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implications of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

Winnen M.

2002-01-01

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Importance of ivermectin to human onchocerciasis: past, present, and the future  

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Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas

Cupp EW

2011-05-01

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Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

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The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculate...

Cristian Lizarazo O; Guadalupe C. Rodríguez C

2010-01-01

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Perception and attitude of people toward onchocerciasis (river blindness in south western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attitudes of rural/semi-urban communities in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State toward onchocerciasis. Materials and Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 500 adults for the study. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to subjects. Data on knowledge of the local name, cause, mode of transmission, manifestation, severity, treatment, and prevention of onchocerciasis were collected and analysed. Statistical analysis included frequency distribution of the responses and a Chi-square test for comparison of variables with the P value for statistical significance set at 0.05. Results: Onchocerciasis was well known by its local name among 458 (91.6% of the respondents. Only seven (1.4% knew that it affects both the eyes and skin. The cause was commonly attributed to impure blood by 114 (22.8%, whereas transmission was thought to be through fomites by 161 (32.2%. Only 12 (2.4% respondents attributed the disease to blackfly bites. The level of education and the association of onchocerciasis with a river were significantly associated (P = 0.001. Subcutaneous nodules were felt to contain water (85.4%, baby worms (3.2%, and fat (0.6%. There was a negative attitude toward sufferers of the disease. Conclusion: Adequate information transfer in simple local dialect by trained personnel to the communities at risk of onchocerciasis is essential for better uptake of all aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme.

Adeoye A

2010-01-01

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Dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.  

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The four diseases discussed in this chapter (dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and trachoma) are among the officially designated "Neglected Tropical Diseases," and each is also both the result of and a contributor to the poverty of many rural populations. To various degrees, they all have adverse effects on health, agricultural productivity, and education. The Carter Center decided to work on these health problems because of their adverse effect on the lives of poor people and the opportunity to help implement effective interventions. As a result of the global campaign spearheaded by the Carter Center since 1986, the extent of dracunculiasis has been reduced from 20 to five endemic countries and the number of cases reduced by more than 99%. We have helped administer nearly 20% of the 530 million Mectizan (ivermectin) doses for onchocerciasis, which is now being controlled throughout most of Africa, and is progressing toward elimination in the Americas. Since 1999, two Nigerian states have been using village-based health workers originally recruited to work on onchocerciasis to also deliver mass treatment and health education for schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis. They now also distribute vitamin A supplements and bed nets to prevent malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Ethiopia aims to eliminate blinding trachoma in the Amhara Region of that highest-endemicity country by 2012, already constructing more than 300,000 latrines and other complementary interventions. Because of the synergy between these diseases and poverty, controlling or eliminating the disease also reduces poverty and increases self-reliance. PMID:17954680

Hopkins, Donald R; Richards, Frank O; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Emerson, Paul; Withers, P Craig

2008-01-01

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Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: ocular findings in Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals.  

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Little is known of the epidemiology and clinical picture of ocular onchocerciasis in South America. A survey of onchocercal eye disease was performed in the hyperendemic area of a rain forest focus of onchocerciasis in Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. A total of 785 skin snip positive individuals from black and Chachi Amerindian communities were examined. The blindness rate attributable to onchocerciasis was 0.4%, and 8.2% were visually impaired. Onchocercal ocular lesions were seen in a high ...

Cooper, P. J.; Proan?o, R.; Beltran, C.; Anselmi, M.; Guderian, R. H.

1995-01-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection  

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Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with iver...

Proaño Roberto; Rivera Jorge; Mancero Tamara; Lovato Raquel; Cooper Philip J; Vieira Juan; López Andrea A; Guderian Ronald H; Guzmán José

2007-01-01

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Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was admini...

Otubanjo, O. A.; Adeoye, G. O.; Ibidapo, C. A.; Akinsanya, B.; Okeke, P.; Atalabi, T.; Adejai, E. T.; Braide, E.

2008-01-01

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Perception and Attitude of People Toward Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) in South Western Nigeria  

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Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attit...

Adeoye A; Ashaye A; Onakpoya O

2010-01-01

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Sensitivity and specificity of three Onchocerca volvulus cloned antigens in diagnosis of onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Onchcerciasis is endemic in three geographical regions in Sudan, and presented with variable clinical reactions. The current diagnosis of onchocerciasis is based on detection of live microflaraie in skin snips in addition to clinical signs and history of living in endemic regions. Different serological diagnostic trials using crude soluble antigens of O. volvulus have shown variable degrees of cross reaction with other nematodes co-endemic in the same area. We have studied the sensitivity and specificity of RAL-2, calreticulin and PDI O. volvulus cloned antigens using the ELISA techniques. Eighty serum samples of Onchocerciasis patients, 20 non endemic normal controls and 42 samples of patients of other endemic deseas including Leishmanoasis, malaria, tuberculosis and shestosomiasis were tested RAL-2 gave the best Ig G response, with 83.75% sensitivity and 91. 66% specificity. PDI sensitivity was 20% and specificity 91.66%, while calreticulum showed sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 73.30%. IgG3 subclasses was not significantly different from controls while IgG4 was significantly higher in patients. The sensitivity of RAL-2 for IgG4 was 90% with a specificity of 100%. For PDI sensitivity was 25% and 100% specificity while calreticulin resulted in sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100%. Low levels of circulating IgE to RAL-2 antigen were detected. For all antigens there was significant correlation with gender, age, microflarial load or presence of nodules. (Acroflarial load or presence of nodules. (Author)

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Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is also being considered for repurposing as a macrofilaricide to aid in the achievement of eradication. The managerial challenges existing at the population level also need to be addressed; these include drug-distribution fatigue, the need to include noncompliant people, civil unrest in endemic areas, political cross-border issues, restrictions of age and pregnancy, and complications due to integration with other treatment programs. It is likely that a panel of chemotherapeutic options, new and old, supported by strong and effective distribution systems will be the best way to address challenges of treatment and elimination of this infection. Future research should also address management of treatment and control, and consider how new treatment paradigms can be incorporated to meet time lines set for global elimination by 2025.Keywords: mass drug administration, ivermectin, macrofilaricides, challenges

Higazi TB

2014-10-01

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Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas - 1993-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected black flies of the genus Simulium, and is characterized by chronic skin disease, severe itching, and eye lesions that can progress to complete blindness. Currently, among approximately 123 million persons at risk for infection in 38 endemic countries, at least 25.7 million are infected, and 1 million are blinded or have severe visual impairment. Periodic, communitywide mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (Mectizan, Merck) prevents eye and skin disease and might interrupt transmission of the infection, depending on the coverage, duration, and frequency of MDA. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) was launched in response to a 1991 resolution of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) calling for the elimination of onchocerciasis from the Americas. By the end of 2012, transmission of the infection, judged by surveys following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, had been interrupted or eliminated in four of the six endemic countries in the WHO Americas Region. Thus, in 2013, only 4% (23,378) of the 560,911 persons originally at risk in the Americas will be under ivermectin MDA. Active transmission currently is limited to two foci among Yanomami indigenes in adjacent border areas of Venezuela and Brazil. PMID:23698606

2013-05-24

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Results Over the period 1990–2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round. Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. Conclusion The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries.

Proaño Roberto

2007-05-01

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Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs  

Science.gov (United States)

... persons live in Africa; the remainder lives in Yemen and six countries in the Americas. Onchocerciasis is ... transmitted in 30 countries of Africa and in Yemen in the Middle East. Local transmission occurred in ...

36

Information for onchocerciasis control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I

Adrian Hopkins

2010-12-01

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High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness) and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis ...

Alemnji, G. A.; Mbuagbaw, J.; Toukam, K. E.; Ayong, L.; Wembe, E.; Asonganyi, T.

2007-01-01

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Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

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Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-06-01

39

Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions. PMID:23866973

Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

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Early detection of malaria in an endemic area: model development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A malaria epidemic warning system was established in Thailand in 1984 using graphs displaying the median or mean incidence of malaria over the previous five years compiled from malaria surveillance data throughout the country. This reporting mechanism is not timely enough to detect the occurrence of a malaria epidemic which usually occurs at the district level over a short period of time. An alternative method for early detection of a malaria epidemic employing the Poisson model has been proposed. The development of this early malaria epidemic detection model involved 3 steps: model specification, model validation and model testing. The model was based on data collected at the Vector Borne Disease Control Unit (VBDU) Level. The results of model testing reveal the model can detect increasing numbers of cases earlier, one to two weeks prior to reaching their highest peak of transmission. The system was tested using data from Kanchanaburi Province during 2000 to 2001. Results from model testing show the model may be used for monitoring the weekly malaria situation at the district level. The Poisson model was able to detect malaria early in a highly endemic province with a satisfactory level of prediction. As the application is essential for the malaria officers in monitoring of malaria epidemics, this early detection system was introduced into malaria epidemiological work. The model may be helpful in the decision making process, planning and budget allocation for the Malaria Control Program. The software for early malaria detection is currently implemented in several endemic areas throughout Thailand. PMID:17333755

Konchom, Supawadee; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chuprapawan, Sirichai; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Kidson, Chev; Yimsamran, Surapon; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

Brain tuberculoma in a non-endemic area  

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Full Text Available Brain tuberculoma has previously accounted for up to a third of new intracranial lesions in areas endemic with tuberculosis, but is unexpected in the United States and other Western countries with improved disease control. Here we show the importance of considering this diagnosis in at-risk patients, even with no definitive pulmonary involvement. We describe a young man who presented with partial seizures and underwent craniotomy for resection of a frontoparietal tuberculoma. He subsequently completed six months of antituberculosis therapy and was doing well without neurological sequelae or evidence of recurrence five months after completion of therapy. With resurgence of tuberculosis cases in the United States and other Western countries, intracerebral tuberculoma should remain a diagnostic consideration in at-risk patients with new space occupying lesions. Mass lesions causing neurological sequelae can be safely addressed surgically and followed with antituberculosis therapy.

Harminder Singh

2013-01-01

42

Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

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Full Text Available Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola Department of Ophthalmological Surgery, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, New Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria Abstract: This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for alternatives to ivermectin. Candidate drugs include moxidectin, a macrofilaricide, doxycycline which targets the Wolbachia endosymbiont, and flubendazole, which shows promise with the newer oral cyclodextrin formulation. Keywords: onchocerciasis, river blindness, ocular, management

Babalola OE

2011-10-01

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Onchocerciasis: a potential risk factor for glaucoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Onchocerciasis is a microfilarial disease that causes ocular disease and blindness. Previous evidence of an association between onchocerciasis and glaucoma has been mixed. This study aims to further investigate the association between onchocerciasis and glaucoma.

Egbert, P. R.; Jacobson, D. W.; Fiadoyor, S.; Dadzie, P.; Ellingson, K. D.

2005-01-01

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Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

Sauerbrey Mauricio

2011-10-01

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Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness) control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentia...

Lazdins Janis; Hf, Remme Jan; Plaisier Anton P; Jd, Nagelkerke Nico; Boatin Boakye A; van Oortmarssen Gerrit J; Alley William; Jjm, Borsboom Gerard; Habbema J. Dik F.

2001-01-01

46

Modelling onchocerciasis transmission and control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1990 the World Health Organization (WHO) coordinated Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) used this slogan for evaluating fifteen years of control of the parasitic disease onchocerciasis and for expressing its optimism about the future. Based on the obvious success of OCP and on the availability of a safe and effective drug (ivermectin), the UNDP/World BanklWHO Special Programme for Research & Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has announced onchocerciasis ...

Plaisier, A. P.

1996-01-01

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Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated  

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Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control ...

Katabarwa, Moses N.; Frank Walsh; Peace Habomugisha; Lakwo, Thomson L.; Stella Agunyo; Oguttu, David W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Dickson Unoba; Edson Byamukama; Ephraim Tukesiga; Richard Ndyomugyenyi; Richards, Frank O.

2012-01-01

48

Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas  

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A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL) is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classification of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz techniq...

Luciano Fernandes Pereira; Andrei Leite Gazzaneo; Roberta Maria Pereira Albuquerque de Melo; Hugo Cabral Tenório; Darlan Silva de Oliveira; Maria Sonia Correia Alves; Danielle Correia Gama; Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes Wyszomirska

2010-01-01

49

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989 conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

Ronald H. Guderian

1992-09-01

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Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989) conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with [...] those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

Ronald H., Guderian; Anthony J., Shelley.

1992-09-01

51

Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools.

Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

2013-01-01

52

Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

Giovanini Evelim Coelho

1998-07-01

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Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine def...

Teeyapant Punthip; Srijantr Pongsant; Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Wongvilairattana Jintana

2010-01-01

54

Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

55

Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

56

New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ?850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s.l. within individual ribosomal DNA variation and thus the first evidence that the species is not subject to the normal effects of concerted evolution. Collectively, these data illustrate the need for diverse sampling in the development of robust molecular tools for vector identification and suggest that ribosomal DNA might be able to assist with resolving S. guianense s.l. species substructuring that C01 barcoding has hitherto failed to. PMID:24200838

Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

2014-03-01

57

Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Central Nigeria: Challenges in Coordinating the Stop MDA Decision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are treated with ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA) regimens in Africa. Where the infections are co-endemic, ivermectin treatments cannot be stopped until both infection transmission cycles are broken. This report follows a previous determination that the LF transmission cycle had been interrupted in five districts (LGAs in Nigeria) but evidence was needed on the status of the onchocerciasis transmission cycle prior to halting MDA. In ...

Evans, Darin S.; Alphonsus, Kal; Umaru, Jon; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Mafuyai, Hayward; Gonzales-peralta, Carlos; Adamani, William; Pede, Elias; Umbugadu, Christopher; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Richards, Frank O.

2014-01-01

58

Leishmaniasis: the healthcare professionals’ knowledge in endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge about leishmaniases among healthcare professionals of an endemic municipality of the state of Minas Gerais-Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 228 professionals (95 zoonosis professionals, 83 community health agents, 18 doctors, 17 nurses, 8 dentists and 7 veterinarians of the municipality of Divinópolis – Minas Gerais between July and November 2009. It was used a structured questionnaire, previously validated, containing objective questions about the disease. Analyses were performed using the Statistical Analysis System. Results: The professional category that obtained the best mean scoring answers was the veterinarians (8.3, followed by the doctors (8.1, while community health agents had the lowest mean scoring (6.7. The adequate answers with the lowest percentage of correct answers were: preventive measures (42.5%, clinical manifestations (25.9%, popular names (20.6% and transmission (20.2%. Although zoonosis professionals and health community agents presented the highest percentage of wrong answers, they were the ones – along with veterinarians – who answered most of the questions about preventive measures right. Conclusion: Conceptual gaps were observed among the healthcare professionals participating in this research, reinforcing the need to implement continuing education processes for these professionals, contextualizing the information on leishmaniases according to the reality studied. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p207

Júlia Alves Menezes

2014-06-01

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Dengue: an update for clinicians working in non-endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue is one of the most rapidly emerging viral infections globally, with 2.5 billion people now thought to live in dengue-endemic areas. In addition, reports of travel-related and autochthonous infections are increasing in non-endemic areas. Most patients with dengue experience a self-limiting febrile illness, but a proportion develop potentially life threatening complications around the time of fever clearance, including plasma leakage occasionally leading to shock, bleeding, and organ impairment. As dengue can present with non-specific symptoms of fever, headache and myalgias, the potential for misdiagnosis and inappropriate management by medical staff inexperienced with the disease is a concern. This short review will outline the latest World Health Organisation disease classification, potential complications, clinical assessment and management for clinicians working in non-endemic areas. PMID:25650206

Yacoub, Sophie; Wills, Bridget

2015-02-01

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Clinical Manifestation of Onchocerciasis in Ise - Orun Local Government, Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Survey of Onchocerciasis syndrome in Ise - Orun local Government Area of Ekiti State was carried out. Village in Ise - Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria are at risk of Onchocerciasis parademic of the 4,100 subjects examined, 2008 representing 51.3% of 95% CI 0.49 - 0.53 were found to be suffering from Onchocerciasis infections. The highest infection rate of 50.4% at 95% CI 0.43 - 0.63 was recorded in Temidire and least percentage of 46.7% at 95% CI 0.3 - 0.64 was found in Aba...

Adewole, S. O.; Ayeni, S. K.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

[What is your diagnosis? A "fat arm". Onchocerciasis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of edema of the right forearm with pruriginous papules and eosinophilia in the blood. The patient had lived in a forested area of Cameroon. The clinical, laboratory, and geographical findings led to a diagnosis of onchocerciasis, despite the absence of microfilaments on skin biopsy samples. The patient was successfully treated with ivermectin and doxycycline. PMID:24922445

Bousquet, A; Larréché, S; Elhadji Toumane, C; Dupin, M; Avignant, J; Mérens, A; Maccari, F

2014-01-01

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Clinical Manifestation of Onchocerciasis in Ise - Orun Local Government, Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Survey of Onchocerciasis syndrome in Ise - Orun local Government Area of Ekiti State was carried out. Village in Ise - Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria are at risk of Onchocerciasis parademic of the 4,100 subjects examined, 2008 representing 51.3% of 95% CI 0.49 - 0.53 were found to be suffering from Onchocerciasis infections. The highest infection rate of 50.4% at 95% CI 0.43 - 0.63 was recorded in Temidire and least percentage of 46.7% at 95% CI 0.3 - 0.64 was found in Aba Ada. The people of 56 years of age accounted for the highest prevalence of 50.3% at 95% CI 0.49 - 0.59 and least was found in 25 - 35 age cohort representing 43.3% at 95% CI 0.34 - 0.52 of the 2008 subjects infected, 29.1%, 50.9%, 4.5% and 15.5% were observed to be suffering from leopard skin, craw - craw, partial blindness and nodules respectively. The prevalence of Onchocerciasis infection was 48.9% in male, while female has the same 48.9% but with differences in the number of individual infected with onchocerciasis. Also, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 between male and female susceptibility to onchocerciasis infection. The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection varied from village to village.

S.O. Adewole

2009-01-01

63

A review of Simulium damnosum s.l. and human onchocerciasis in Nigeria, with special reference to geographical distribution and the development of a Nigerian national control campaign.  

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The confirmed geographical distribution of human onchocerciasis and its Simulium damnosum complex vectors in Nigeria is reviewed with the aim of defining the endemic zones of the disease relevant to the planning of a Nigerian national onchocerciasis control campaign. Five major endemic zones are recognized, a terminology suggested for them, their sizes estimated and the disease and vector situation within each zone briefly described; four of the zones are in savanna areas of the north, and the fifth in forest-savanna mosaic and forest areas of the south-west. Other areas where disease and/or vectors have been reported are briefly considered. Maps are given of known vector breeding sites, of disease distribution, and of the approximate extent of the anticipated control zones. The scanty available data on cytospecies identity of the vectors, vector biting rates, and Onchocerca volvulus transmission potentials, are reviewed, and it is stressed that acquisition of distributional data for the individual members of the S. damnosum complex and of ATP data is essential for the planning of control. An historical resumé, accompanied by a comprehensive bibliography of the published literature, of the work to date in Nigeria is included. PMID:7015637

Crosskey, R W

1981-03-01

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Ocular onchocerciasis in the Yanomami communities from Brazilian Amazon: effects on intraocular pressure.  

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To determine the influence of onchocercal eye disease on the intraocular pressure of the Yanomami Tribe Aratha-ú of Roraima State, Brazil, considered endemic for onchocerciasis, a total of 86 patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic exam that included external examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus ophthalmoscope examination. A high prevalence of onchocerciasis-related eye lesions was encountered in 68.6% of the patients. Punctate keratitis and microfilariae in the anterior chamber were found in ?28%. The mean of intraocular eye pressure found was 10.47 mm of Hg. PMID:24297812

Herzog-Neto, Guilherme; Jaegger, Karen; Nascimento, Erika S do; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Banic, Dalma M; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

2014-01-01

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Scrub Typhus in Previously Unrecognized Areas of Endemicity in China?  

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Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in areas of northern China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data for 104 patients who were admitted to a hospital in Fuyang City between 26 September and 1 November 2008. We showed that the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), headache (82%), myalgias (77%), eschar (67%), rash (52%), and unusual facial flushing (62%). Among the 10...

Zhang, Shouyin; Song, Hongbin; Liu, Yan; Li, Qun; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiabin; Wan, Junfeng; Li, Guolan; Yu, Changjun; Li, Xiuyong; Yin, Wenwu; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Qian; Wan, Kanglin

2010-01-01

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Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria.  

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Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2331 males and 2469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0-52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. PMID:19419072

Otubanjo, O A; Adeoye, G O; Ibidapo, C A; Akinsanya, B; Okeke, P; Atalabi, T; Adejai, E T; Braide, E

2008-12-01

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Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.  

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Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

Jean-François Guégan; Philippe Legall; Jordi Landier; Laurent Marsollier; Estelle Marion; Sara Eyangoh; Ebong, Solange Meyin A.

2012-01-01

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Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas  

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Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

2003-09-01

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Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

2012-06-01

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Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

71

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update  

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Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

Rastogi V

2007-01-01

72

Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

Lazdins Janis

2001-11-01

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Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm  

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Full Text Available Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan® has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the process leading up to interruption of transmission as well as the critical period following cessation of mass drug administration to document that there is no recrudescence of transmission. This is called the posttreatment surveillance (PTS period. This report describes the aims, phases, and methodology of PTS as operationalized by the endemic countries and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. Successful completion of the PTS period without signs of recrudescence leads to a country request for certification of elimination by the World Health Organization. As elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas proceeds and emphasis in Africa switches from control to elimination, the PTS guide should prove invaluable to those programs going forward.Keywords: Onchocerca volvulus, onchocerciasis, ivermectin, Mectizan®, recrudescence, surveillance

Program Coordinating Committee

2012-05-01

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The future of onchocerciasis control in Africa  

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The complex issues related to onchocerciasis control that must be addressed over the next decade were identified. Onchocerciasis control in Africa since 1974 has been one of the most successful health and development activities in terms of public health achievement, partnership development, sustained donor support, and social and economic development. The group reviewed The landscape of international health has changed much since the inception of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Contr...

Hodgkin, C.; Molyneux, D. H.; Abiose, A.; Philippon, B.; Reich, M. R.; Remme, J. H.; Thylefors, B.; Traore, M.; Grepin, K.

2007-01-01

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Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

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Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola Department of Ophthalmological Surgery, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, New Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria Abstract: This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control ...

Oe, Babalola

2011-01-01

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Are homosexual males a risk group for hepatitis A infection in intermediate endemicity areas?  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A (anti-HAV) in a population of homosexual men compared with that of heterosexual men in an area of intermediate HAV endemicity (Madrid, Spain). A total of 148 patients were recruited in a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic: 74 homosexuals (mean age of 28 +/- 5 years) and 74 heterosexuals (29 +/- 5 years). The prevalence of anti-HAV antibody was 47% and 43% for homo- and heterosexuals, respectively. Among ...

Ballesteros, J.; Dal-re?, R.; Gonza?lez, A.; Del Romero, J.

1996-01-01

77

Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area.  

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The effects of three separate antimalarial prophylactic regimens (proguanil, sulfisoxazole, and proguanil plus sulfisoxazole) and of vitamins in a control group were compared in a study population of 380 children living in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Burmese border. The subjects, aged 5-16 years, were matched for age, weight, and presence of splenomegaly, then randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All medications were administered daily by the investigators and malaria smears...

Pang, L. W.; Limsomwong, N.; Singharaj, P.; Canfield, C. J.

1989-01-01

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origi...

Da, Cerino; Veloso, J.; Tf, Perles; Pd, Zanzarini; Mvc, Lonardoni; Tgv, Silveira

2010-01-01

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Acute seizures attributable to falciparum malaria in an endemic area on the Kenyan coast.  

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Falciparum malaria is an important cause of acute symptomatic seizures in children admitted to hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa, and these seizures are associated with neurological disabilities and epilepsy. However, it is difficult to determine the proportion of seizures attributable to malaria in endemic areas since a significant proportion of asymptomatic children have malaria parasitaemia. We studied children aged 0–13 years who had been admitted with a history of seizures to a rural Ken...

Kariuki, Sm; Ikumi, M.; Ojal, J.; Sadarangani, M.; Idro, R.; Olotu, A.; Bejon, P.; Berkley, Ja; Marsh, K.; Newton, Cr

2011-01-01

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Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas  

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Abstract Anti-malarial drugs can make a significant contribution to the control of malaria in endemic areas when used for prevention as well as for treatment. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in preventing deaths and morbidity from malaria, but it is difficult to sustain for prolonged periods, may interfere with the development of naturally acquired immunity and will facilitate the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains if applied to a whole community. However, chemoprophylaxis...

Greenwood Brian

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

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Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java  

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Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

Endang Puji Astuti

2014-06-01

83

Immunological profiles of patients from endemic areas infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available Crude extracts of eggs (SEA adult worms (SWAP or cercariae (Cerc have been used to stimulate Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells (PBMC and have provided rather distinct profiles of responses in different types of patients. In genenral it is clear that patients with early infections respond strongly to SEA while response to SWAP are developed more slowly. As infection progresses into the more chronic phases, a general pattern is seen whic leads to lower anti-SEA proliferative responses in the face of higher responses to SWAP and variable anti-cerc responsiveness. Cured not re-exposed patients express very high levels of anti-SEA proliferation. It has recently been seen that those individuals who live in endemic areas and have continued water contact, but are reapeatedly stool-negative (who are presumed to have self-cured or be putatively resistant; endemic normals are strongly responsive to antigenic extracts, particularly to SEA. Furthermore, our results show that endemic normal individuals have significantly higher IFN gamma production upon PBMC stimulation with schistosome antigens than infected individuals. With the emergence of more studies it is becoming apparent that both the intensity and the prevalence of a given area may influence or shape the general responsiveness of the population under study.

Giovanni Gazzinelli

1992-01-01

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Immunological profiles of patients from endemic areas infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Crude extracts of eggs (SEA) adult worms (SWAP) or cercariae (Cerc) have been used to stimulate Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells (PBMC) and have provided rather distinct profiles of responses in different types of patients. In genenral it is clear that patients with early infections respond strong [...] ly to SEA while response to SWAP are developed more slowly. As infection progresses into the more chronic phases, a general pattern is seen whic leads to lower anti-SEA proliferative responses in the face of higher responses to SWAP and variable anti-cerc responsiveness. Cured not re-exposed patients express very high levels of anti-SEA proliferation. It has recently been seen that those individuals who live in endemic areas and have continued water contact, but are reapeatedly stool-negative (who are presumed to have self-cured or be putatively resistant; endemic normals) are strongly responsive to antigenic extracts, particularly to SEA. Furthermore, our results show that endemic normal individuals have significantly higher IFN gamma production upon PBMC stimulation with schistosome antigens than infected individuals. With the emergence of more studies it is becoming apparent that both the intensity and the prevalence of a given area may influence or shape the general responsiveness of the population under study.

Giovanni, Gazzinelli; Iramaya R. C., Viana; Lilian M. G., Bahia-Oliveira; Alda Maria S., Silveira; Claudia Carvalho, Queiroz; Omar dos Santos, Carvalho; Cristiano L., Massara; Lucia A. O., Fraga; Daniel G., Colley; Rodrigo Correa, Oliveira.

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Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its implementation to compliment existing control strategies for onchocerciasis, where needed.

Tamarozzi Francesca

2012-03-01

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Vitamin D Toxicity in Adults: A Case Series from an Area with Endemic Hypovitaminosis D  

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Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic to the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Physicians often treat patients with high doses of vitamin D for various ailments and on occasion the prescribed doses far exceed the requirements of the patients. Ten cases of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication are presented with features of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, encephalopathy and renal dysfunction. All the patients had demonstrable hypercalcemia and vitamin D levels were high in nine of the 10 cases. The patients had received high doses of vitamin D and no other cause of hypercalcemia was identified. Treatment of hypercalcemia resulted in clinical recovery in nine cases. We conclude that hypervitaminosis D must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypercalcemia in endemically vitamin D deficient areas. A careful history and appropriate biochemical investigation will unravel the diagnosis in most of the cases.

Parvaiz A. Koul

2011-05-01

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Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of [...] two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

Amanda Ciprandi, Pires; Luciane, Marinoni.

2010-10-01

88

Citrinin in the diet of young and healthy persons living in balkan endemic nephropathy areas.  

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The dietary citrinin (CT) intake of 19 persons living in highrisk "Balkan Endemic Nephropathy" areas in Bulgaria was studied. Over 4 weeks, volunteers collected aliquots of their daily meals. Weekly samples were homogenized and analysed for CT by enzyme immunoassay (detection limit: 1ng/g). CT was found at least once in the weekly diet of 11 persons, maximum levels were at 6 ng/g. Considering the total amount of food consumed, the weekly CT intake of several persons exceeded 10 microgram. The data suggest that people living in high-risk nephropathy areas are exposed to dietary CT at considerable levels. PMID:23605518

Vrabcheva, T; Usleber, E; Petkova-Bocharova, T; Nikolov, I; Chernozemsky, I; Dietrich, R; Märtlbauer, E

2000-06-01

89

High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis of Onchocerciasis, HIV as well as estimate serum antibody levels. Of a total of 162 subjects recruited, 54 were diagnosed positive for Onchocerciasis by skin snip, giving a prevalence of 33.3% (54/162. Also, the prevalence of HIV among these subjects was 12.9% (21/162. This infection was 17.8% among women (13/73 and 8.9% among men (8/89. Six of the 54 subjects positive for Onchocerciasis were also positive for HIV giving a prevalence of co-infection of 11.1% (6/54. Mean serum antibody levels of Onch+ve/HIV+ve, Onch+ve/HIV-ve and Onch-ve/HIV+ve subjects, were significantly higher (p< 0.001, Student=s t-test when compared to that of Onch-ve/HIV-ve subjects. The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV. It further shows significantly high antibody levels, reflecting raised humoral immune responses with co-infected subjects showing the highest response. Hence the integration of HIV/AIDS care and prevention activities into currently ongoing treatment program for Onchocerciasis will save time and scarce resources in Africa with tremendous public health impact.

G.A. Alemnji

2007-01-01

90

Spatial prediction of malaria prevalence in an endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in Southeastern Bangladesh, particularly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region. Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh and the highest prevalence occurs in Khagrachari (15.47%. Methods A risk map was developed and geographic risk factors identified using a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian geostatistical model was developed from previously identified individual and environmental covariates (p Results Predicted high prevalence areas were located along the north-eastern areas, and central part of the study area. Low to moderate prevalence areas were predicted in the southwestern, southeastern and central regions. Individual age and nearness to fragmented forest were associated with malaria prevalence after adjusting the spatial auto-correlation. Conclusion A Bayesian analytical approach using multiple enabling technologies (geographic information systems, global positioning systems, and remote sensing provide a strategy to characterize spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk at a fine scale. Even in the most hyper endemic region of Bangladesh there is substantial spatial heterogeneity in risk. Areas that are predicted to be at high risk, based on the environment but that have not been reached by surveys are identified.

Islam Akramul

2010-05-01

91

Gentamicin-attenuated leishmania infantum vaccine: protection of dogs against canine visceral leishmaniosis in endemic area of southeast of Iran  

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An attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum H-line) has been established by culturing promastigotes in vitro under gentamicin pressure. A vaccine trial was conducted using 103 naive dogs from a leishmaniosis non-endemic area (55 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated) brought into an endemic area of southeast Iran. No local and/or general indications of disease were observed in the vaccinated dogs immediately after vaccination. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated after 24 months (4 s...

Daneshvar, Hamid; Namazi, Mohammad Javad; Kamiabi, Hossein; Burchmore, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Phillips, Stephen

2014-01-01

92

Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas.  

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A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL) is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classification of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique and the diagnosis was based on the reading of two microscopic slides for each sample. The patients whose examinations were positive for schistosomiasis mansoni were submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection. Based on this examination, 8.11% of the study population were positive for schistosomiasis. The medium parasite load was 79.1 +/- 174.3 eggs. The intestinal (90.57%) and hepatointestinal (9.43%) forms were found at statistically significant levels (p < 0.001). The results of the present study update information on schistosomiasis in the city of Rio Largo. These data, although referring only to three locations in that city, suggest a decrease either in the parasite load or in the severity of clinical forms. PMID:20721489

Pereira, Luciano Fernandes; Gazzaneo, Andrei Leite; Melo, Roberta Maria Pereira Albuquerque de; Tenório, Hugo Cabral; Oliveira, Darlan Silva de; Alves, Maria Sonia Correia; Gama, Danielle Correia; Wyszomirska, Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes

2010-07-01

93

Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL) is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classificat [...] ion of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique and the diagnosis was based on the reading of two microscopic slides for each sample. The patients whose examinations were positive for schistosomiasis mansoni were submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection. Based on this examination, 8.11% of the study population were positive for schistosomiasis. The medium parasite load was 79.1 ± 174.3 eggs. The intestinal (90.57%) and hepatointestinal (9.43%) forms were found at statistically significant levels (p

Luciano Fernandes, Pereira; Andrei Leite, Gazzaneo; Roberta Maria Pereira Albuquerque de, Melo; Hugo Cabral, Tenório; Darlan Silva de, Oliveira; Maria Sonia Correia, Alves; Danielle Correia, Gama; Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes, Wyszomirska.

2010-07-01

94

Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

De la Fe Christian

2012-08-01

95

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 ?g per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 ?g for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 ?g/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 ?g/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 ?g/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the community level in Thailand.

Teeyapant Punthip

2010-12-01

96

The relationship between the degree of thrombocytopenia and infection with Ehrlichia canis in an endemic area  

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- Ehrlichia canis is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. In order to evaluate platelet counts as a screening test for E. canis in an endemic area, 217 whole blood samples from dogs were divided into three groups: 71 non-thrombocytopenic samples (group A, platelet counts greater than 200 000/mL) and 146 thrombocytopenic samples (less than 200 000/mL). The thrombocytopenic group was further divided into 62 with platelet counts between 100 000-200 000/mL (Group B) and 84 sample...

Bulla, Camilo; Takahira, Regina; João Pessoa Araújo Jr.,; Aparecidatrinca, Luzia; Lopes, Raimundo; Wiedmeyer, Charles

2004-01-01

97

How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?  

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Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

2003-09-01

98

American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

DA Cerino

2010-01-01

99

Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. [...] infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

Ilana Mirian Almeida, Felipe; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Oliver, Kuppinger; Max Diego Cruz, Santos; Maurício Eduardo Salgado, Rangel; David Soeiro, Barbosa; Aldina, Barral; Guilherme Loureiro, Werneck; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

2011-03-01

100

Results of implementation of preventive recommendations for tuberculosis after renal transplantation in an endemic area.  

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This retrospective cohort study assessed the results of the implementation of preventive recommendations for tuberculosis (TB) among renal transplant recipients in an endemic area (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Subjects were defined as at high risk for TB if they had latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), reported recent close contact with individuals with TB or received a graft from a donor with LTBI. A 6-month course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was targeted to high-risk subjects. The study end point was TB confirmed by culture. Altogether, 535 patients were included. Median follow-up was 59 months. The overall cumulative incidence of TB was 2.1% while among the 274 patients in whom the preventive protocol was fully implemented, the incidence was only 0.7%. The incidence of TB among 75 high-risk recipients not treated with isoniazid (7%) was significantly higher than that observed in 209 untreated low-risk patients (1%, p = 0.006) and in 65 high-risk subjects that received IPT (no case, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the implementation of preventive recommendations for TB in an endemic area allowed the appropriate discrimination between high- and low-risk renal transplant recipients and was associated with long-term reduction in the incidence of this complication among high-risk subjects. PMID:24119248

de Lemos, A S; Vieira, M A M S; Halpern, M; Quaresma, R G; Borchardt, A C; Santos, M A A R; Gonçalves, R T; Santoro-Lopes, G

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

102

Predominance of Mycobacterium fortuitum-chelonae complex in Ghatampur field area, endemic for leprosy.  

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Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are commonly found in the environment. As exposure to environmental mycobacteria has been reported to immunomodulatory in this study, the presence of environmental mycobacteria was investigated in soil, drinking water and drainage sample in Ghatampur, India, which is known for high endemicity for leprosy. Soil, drinking water from the hand pumps/wells and also drainage water collected in pools was collected in clean containers and cultured for environmental mycobacteria. Samples were processed according to the protocol established earlier. 69 soil, 62 drinking water and 31 drainage water samples were analysed from soil and water collected from 48 villages of this field area. After decontamination, cultures were set upon Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium. Mycobacteria were identified using biochemical tests and molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 kD and rpoB region as well as 16S ribosomal sequencing in case of isolates showing variable biochemical features. NTM (non-tubercular mycobacteria) were isolated from 47.82% of soil samples, 20.69% of drinking water samples and 19.35% of the drainage water samples, overall mycobacteria could be isolated 52/162 of samples (32.09%). Among these mycobacteria, M. fortuitum-chelonae complex was predominant in this area; other species isolated were M. phlei, M. vaccae, M. terrae and M. flavescens. Relevance of exposure to these mycobacteria on endemicity needs to be studied by immunological and epidemiological parameters. PMID:20329381

Lavania, M; Katoch, K; Parashar, D; Sharma, P; Das, R; Chauhan, D S; Sharma, V D; Katoch, V M

2008-01-01

103

Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

104

Animal reservoirs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in an endemic area in Paraguay.  

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Animal reservoirs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection were investigated in 5 communities in the Department of San Pedro, currently one of Paraguay's most highly endemic areas. A total of 112 domestic animals (37 cattle, 2 horses, 1 ass, 20 pigs, 44 dogs and 8 cats) and 4 wild animals (1 white-eared opossum, 2 yellow armadillos and 1 common long-nosed armadillo) were examined for blood. Although no trypomastigotes were found by 2 direct observation methods, the microhaematocrit and Giemsa stained thick and thin smears methods, several forms of trypanosoma flagellates morphologically identical to T. cruzi were detected in the liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium from a single sample taken from a yellow armadillo, Euphractus sexicintus. When serum samples of all the animals were examined for antibody to T. cruzi by direct agglutination (DA) test, 3 cattle, 2 pigs, 16 dogs and 3 cats had positive titers (1:32 or greater), but no wild animals showed positive reactions. T. cruzi was not found by culture nor microscopic examination of samples from any of the seropositive animals. However, domestic animals such as cattle, pigs, dogs and cats which were found to be seropositive in this study, possibly act as an animal reservoir in this endemic area as well as armadillos in which T. cruzi was observed. PMID:8075219

Fujita, O; Sanabria, L; Inchaustti, A; De Arias, A R; Tomizawa, Y; Oku, Y

1994-04-01

105

Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area and Bela Fama (urban area, both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identify risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

Amorim Márcia N

1997-01-01

106

Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area) and Bela Fama (urban area), both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, [...] Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identify risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

Márcia N, Amorim; Ana, Rabello; Rabindranah Loyola, Contreras; Naftale, Katz.

1997-09-01

107

Canine Filarial Infections in a Human Brugia malayi Endemic Area of India  

Science.gov (United States)

A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of “local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body” was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out. PMID:24971339

Ravindran, Reghu; Varghese, Sincy; Nair, Suresh N.; Balan, Vimalkumar M.; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Ashruf, Riyas M.; Kumar, Swaroop S.; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K.; Nair, Archana S.; Malayil, Aparna; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Juliet, Sanis; Kopparambil, Devada; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Kunjupillai, Regu; Kakada, Showkath Ali M.

2014-01-01

108

Canine filarial infections in a human Brugia malayi endemic area of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of "local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body" was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out. PMID:24971339

Ravindran, Reghu; Varghese, Sincy; Nair, Suresh N; Balan, Vimalkumar M; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Ashruf, Riyas M; Kumar, Swaroop S; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K; Nair, Archana S; Malayil, Aparna; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Juliet, Sanis; Kopparambil, Devada; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Kunjupillai, Regu; Kakada, Showkath Ali M

2014-01-01

109

[Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

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An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:10904316

Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

1996-04-01

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Spatial analysis for identification of priority areas for surveillance and control in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial analysis of epidemiological data may be used to assist in the implementation of surveillance and control measures against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. This ecological study aimed to identify priority areas for surveillance and control of VL in São Luís, the capital of the state of Maranhão in northeast Brazil, a highly endemic area for the disease. We evaluated the spatial structure of the incidence rates of human VL and of the mean number of human and canine cases occurring between 2005 and 2007 in 355 neighborhoods (aggregated into 203 geographical analytical units) within the municipality. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was explored using global and local Moran's I statistics. A local indicator of spatial autocorrelation was used to generate maps for the identification of VL clusters. The global Moran's I index revealed a weak, but statistically significant spatial autocorrelation for human VL incidence rates (I=0.138). A total of 43 geographical analytical units, encompassing 121 neighborhoods, were identified as priority areas for implementing surveillance and control actions. For the purpose of defining an action plan for the delivery of these measures, those 16 geographical analytical units (encompassing 54 neighborhoods) identified as clusters with high incidence rates of human VL should receive the highest priority. An additional nine geographical analytical units (comprising 28 neighborhoods) showed non-significant clustering of high rates of human, and might be considered as the next priority for VL management. Finally, a further 18 geographical analytical units (covering 39 neighborhoods) had records of coexisting human and canine VL cases during the study period, and these should receive priority attention when resources become available. Spatial data analysis is a valuable tool for defining priority areas for VL surveillance in high transmission areas contributing to a more effective management of financial and technical resources, increasing the sustainability and efficiency of control efforts. PMID:24342506

Barbosa, David Soeiro; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

2014-03-01

111

Effects of ethiodol on T3 kinetics in endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

T3 kinetics were carried out in 32 children (11-15 years old) of a mild endemic goiter area. The incidence of goiter of the whole school population was 19% (Ia or Ib degree of the WHO). The mean urinary iodine was 84 ? g/d+-3. Six months before this investigation, 10 of the children received 2 ml of ethiodol by mouth and the other 22 (control group-CG) a placebo. The kinetics studies were carried out using less than 0,5 ? Ci of I-125 per Kg b.w. and the single injection method, non compartimental analysis. The CG shows, distribution volumen (V) 20.1+-0.6; serum T3 (sT3) 1.55 ng/ml+-0.03; plasma T3 T1/2 21.6+-0.6 and production rate (PR) 27.4? g/d+-1.2. The treated group (TG): V, 17.3+-0.6; sT3 1.48 ng/ml+-0.09; T1/2 17.6+-0.6 and PR 25.9? g/d+-1.4. The TG, after 6 months of ethiodol administration, showed a decrease of the distribution volume and a slight reduction in serum T3 values. As a consequence a significant diminution on the T3 extrathyroidal pool and an increase on the T3 plasma clearance (0.68 l/h+-0.01 in CG versus 0.73+-0.3 in TG) were observed. The production ratewas similar in both groups. These results indicate that the administration of ethiodol to children of a not severe endemic goiter area, produces moderate changes in the different parameters of T3 peripheral metabolism, which compensate each other and lead to similar final values on T3-PR, that were previously normal in these cases. This mechanism reflects the role of thyroid homeostasis in ma the role of thyroid homeostasis in maintaining euthyroidism in these children of an endemic goiter area with decreased iodine supply. (Author)

112

Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for the majority of the cases.

Lacerda Marcus VG

2009-10-01

113

Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA in individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Sudan, Indonesia and The Gambia to study antibody responses to these peptides in donors living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to the peptides increased with malaria endemicity, although there were no differences in reactivities to the GLURP peptide between non-exposed donors and donors living in areas of low malaria endemicity. IgG reactivities to the GLURP peptide in Sudanese adults were high one month after treatment in all adults tested, while IgG reactivities to the ABRA peptide were infrequent. IgM responses to the peptides tested were shortlived in most patients. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM reactivities but not IgG antibody reactivities against the ABRA peptide were higher in those with mild malaria than in those with severe malaria. The peptides may be useful in future epidemiological studies, especially in areas of low malaria endemicity.

Jakobsen, P.H.; Theander, T.G.

1996-01-01

114

Clinical trials of amodiaquine in onchocerciasis  

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Twenty onchocerciasis patients from the rain-forest zone of Western Nigeria were treated with amodiaquine in total dosages ranging from 22 to 68 mg/kg of body weight given over 2-9 days. There was no activity against either the microfilariae or adult forms of Onchocerca volvulus. It is concluded that the drug, which was poorly tolerated by 12 patients, is ineffective against human onchocerciasis.

Kale, Oladele O.

1982-01-01

115

O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima / The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da per [...] iferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela. Abstract in english A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located [...] at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

Mário Augusto Pinto de, Moraes; Anthony J., Shelley; Antonio Paulino A. Luna, Dias.

1986-03-01

116

In a bovine model of onchocerciasis, protective immunity exists naturally, is absent in drug-cured hosts, and is induced by vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major parasitic disease of humans in sub-Saharan Africa caused by the microfilarial stage of the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Using Onchocerca ochengi, a closely related species which infects cattle and is transmitted by the same black fly vector (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) as O. volvulus, we have conducted longitudinal studies after either natural field exposure or experimental infection to determine whether, and under what circumstances, protective immunity exists in onchocerciasis. On the basis of the adult worm burdens (nodules) observed, we determined that cattle reared in endemic areas without detectable parasites (putatively immune) were significantly less susceptible to heavy field challenge than age-matched, naïve controls (P = 0.002), whereas patently infected cattle, cured of infection by adulticide treatment with melarsomine, were fully susceptible. Cattle immunized with irradiated third-stage larvae were significantly protected against experimental challenge (100% reduction in median nodule load, P = 0.003), and vaccination also conferred resistance to severe and prolonged field challenge (64% reduction in median nodule load, P = 0.053; and a significant reduction in microfilarial positivity rates and density, P < 0.05). These results constitute evidence of protective immunity in a naturally evolved host-Onchocerca sp. relationship and provide proof-of-principle for immunoprophylaxis under experimental and field conditions. PMID:16585501

Tchakouté, Virginia L; Graham, Simon P; Jensen, Siv Aina; Makepeace, Benjamin L; Nfon, Charles K; Njongmeta, Leo M; Lustigman, Sara; Enyong, Peter A; Tanya, Vincent N; Bianco, Albert E; Trees, Alexander J

2006-04-11

117

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

Cruz Manuel Aguilar

1986-12-01

118

Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies nen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

119

Mycotoxicological investigations on maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of Mseleni joint disease in Kwazulu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of home-grown maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of Mseleni joint disease (MJD) during four seasons (1980-1983) were examined mycologically. The mycoflora of these dietary staples included Fusarium poae and F. oxysporum, which have been implicated in the aetiology of Kashin-Beck or Urov disease, another osteo-arthrosis endemic in Siberia and China. Two other species of Fusarium, i.e. F. moniliforme and F. equiseti, implicated in syndromes of abnormal bone development in animals, were also present. The predominant fungus associated with maize kernels was F. moniliforme; two other fungi relatively frequently isolated from Mseleni maize, i.e. F. compactum and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, have not previously been reported in maize in southern Africa. The predominant fungi associated with groundnut kernels were Penicillium spp., L. theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and F. oxysporum. The incidence of certain fungi, particularly F. compactum, F. oxysporum and L. theobromae, appeared to be higher in dietary staples from households affected by MJD than from non-affected ones. The numbers of samples examined were, however, small and these findings need to be confirmed. Cultures of 120/322 isolates of fungi from Mseleni dietary staples proved toxic to ducklings, the most toxic species being F. compactum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum and Phomopsis sp. The characteristic pathological changes of MJD have, however, not been induced in experimental animals with cultures of any of these fungi. A diet containing maize and groundnuts from households affected by MJD also failed to induce the characteristic osteo-arthritic changes of MJD in rats. The dietary staples used in this experiment were, however, collected during seasons of abnormally low rainfall at Mseleni.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3961620

Marasas, W F; Van Rensburg, S J

1986-03-15

120

Malaria outbreaks in a non-endemic area of Brazil, 2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

In March 2005, a resident of the municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, without any history of traveling to endemic areas for malaria, was diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection and local mosquito-borne transmission was suspected. The epidemiological investigation identified another 10 cases with local transmission and all of them were related to the imported malaria case that was detected in this region. The potential exposure site was the banks of the river Tejuco, an area frequented by mineral prospectors. Some of these prospectors were known to have come from states with malaria transmission. In the autochthonous cases, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were diagnosed. Entomological investigation identified Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) triannulatus and Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) parvus. After the first outbreak, another three autochthonous cases were notified in municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, in the same year. The occurrence of these outbreaks highlights the importance of surveillance systems in areas that are nonendemic for malaria. PMID:18719800

Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Chaves, Kátia Maria; Paula, Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de; Costa, Fabíola Corrêa da; Silva, Alcides de Assis E; Lopes, Iris de Sousa; Pajuaba Neto, Adalberto de Albuquerque; Sales, José Maria; Rodrigues, Fernando; Resende, Maria Angélica Montes; Ferreira, Marcelo Simão

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent a [...] ntibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

DA, Cerino; J, Veloso; TF, Perles; PD, Zanzarini; MVC, Lonardoni; TGV, Silveira.

122

Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

123

Satellite data transmission and hydrological forecasting in the fight against Onchocerciasis in west Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is an endemic disease which causes great hardship in west Africa. Within the World Health Organization's Onchocerciasis Control Program (WHO/OCP), reliable data on the discharge of the watercourses have been obtained by using remote satellite transmission. These data are necessary to calculate how much insecticide should be introduced into the rivers. A description of the equipment and its use is followed by an initial report covering the functioning of the equipment, its efficiency and the economies attained. The improvement in the resulting treatment and the reduction in the running costs of the programme are discussed. Software for forecasting the discharge over different time intervals was developed by ORSTOM at the request of the OCP. The different functions of this software (PERLES) are described. In conclusion, the advantages of remote transmission techniques for operational hydrology in general are discussed (flood warning systems, hydrological networks, etc.).

Servat, Eric; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Bader, Jean-Claude; Boyer, Jean-Francois

1990-09-01

124

Onchocerciasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... and statistics Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects About WHO Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment Feedback Privacy E-mail scams WHO Regional Offices WHO African Region WHO Region of the Americas WHO South-East Asia Region WHO European Region WHO Eastern Mediterranean ...

125

Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

2012-12-01

126

Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 ?g g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 ?g g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 ?g g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 ?g g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 ?g g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 ?g g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 ?g g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 ?g g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 ?g g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 ?g g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils. PMID:22638723

Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

2013-02-01

127

Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 1dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

128

Topographic Distribution of the Sand Flea Tunga penetrans in Wistar Rats and Humans in Two Endemic Areas in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tungiasis is a zoonosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in many resource-poor communities, in which various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs. Eighty laboratory-raised Wistar rats were exposed to T. penetrans in areas of intense transmission: a fishing village and an urban shantytown in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. The topographic distribution of lesions in Wistar rats was compared with the distribution of lesions in humans in the same area. Our res...

Buckendahl, John; Heukelbach, Jo?rg; Witt, Lars; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Calheiros, Cla?udia M. L.; Feldmeier, Hermann

2012-01-01

129

Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of three separate antimalarial prophylactic regimens (proguanil, sulfisoxazole, and proguanil plus sulfisoxazole) and of vitamins in a control group were compared in a study population of 380 children living in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Burmese border. The subjects, aged 5-16 years, were matched for age, weight, and presence of splenomegaly, then randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All medications were administered daily by the investigators and malaria smears were performed on a weekly basis. Among 99 subjects taking proguanil plus sulfisoxazole for a total of 1464 man-weeks, there was only one case of falciparum and no vivax malaria. Statistically, this regimen proved superior to each of the other groups against both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The data show that proguanil alone, as a causal or suppressive prophylatic, has poor efficacy against P. falciparum. Side-effects were infrequent and generally mild, except for two subjects whose sulfisoxazole prophylaxis was discontinued because of urticarial rash. PMID:2706727

Pang, L. W.; Limsomwong, N.; Singharaj, P.; Canfield, C. J.

1989-01-01

130

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

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Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

132

Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.  

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This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10??g/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1??g/mL after 48?h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100??g/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10??g/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

2014-01-01

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Cytological diagnosis of microfilariae in filariasis endemic areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh  

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Full Text Available Background: Filariasis is a major health problem in tropical countries including India. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays an important role in prompt recognition of disease. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in diagnosis of filariasis at all possible sites. Materials and Methods : Total 250 cases of superficial swellings at various sites were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Results: Out of 250 cases, 24 cases of filariasis were detected which include breast lumps (8 cases, lymph nodes (6 cases, scrotal swellings (4 cases, thyroid swellings (3 cases, soft tissue swellings (2 cases and ascitic fluid (1 case. Eosinophilia was present in 8 out of 24 cases with a percentage ranging from 12-24%. Significant adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was present in 3 out of 24 cases. Conclusions: In endemic areas, it should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of a superficial swelling. Careful screening of FNAC smears help in detecting microfilaria even in asymptomatic patients and thus plays a significant role in recognition of the disease and institution of specific treatment.

Mitra Shaila

2009-01-01

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Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.  

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The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-01-01

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Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria control in an endemic area of southern Iran.  

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Iran is in the malaria pre-elimination stage. In this situation community based strategies are important for malaria control. In order to intensify elimination activities we need to have a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of malaria prevention in the community. We carried out a KAP study in one malaria endemic district in southern Iran in 2009 using a structured questionnaire. Five villages with indigenous malaria cases during the previous year and a high potential for anopheline mosquito breeding were selected. All the households in each village were visited and the head of the household or other responsible adult was interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. A total of 494 respondents from the five villages participated. More than 33% of people in the study area were living in sheds with poor facilities. The illiteracy level of the studied population was high (44.2%) and significantly affected the knowledge and practices of the respondents about malaria control (pmosquitoes were the vector. Most people knew at least one symptom of the disease. The practices of respondents were 59.5% for bednet use and 9.3% for screening windows. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of respondents in this survey about malaria control were good in some cases, but in general needed to be improved with educational programs. PMID:21706926

Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Eshraghian, M R; Haghdoost, A A; Abedi, F; Zamani, Gh; Sedaghat, M M; Rashidian, A; Madani, A H; Raeisi, A

2011-05-01

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Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in non-immunosuppressed individuals. [...] Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 and 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

Rivian Christina Lopes, Faiolla; Mariana Correa, Coelho; Rodrigo de Carvalho, Santana; Roberto, Martinez.

2013-07-01

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Biogeography of freshwater fishes from the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion: distribution, endemism, and area relationships  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ecorregião Mata Atlântica Nordeste (NMAF) inclui parte das drenagens costeiras do leste do Brasil, tem alto grau de endemismo de peixes e grande significado biogeográfico. Um levantamento taxonômico da ictiofauna de água doce de 25 drenagens da ecorregião NMAF e uma análise biogeográfica utilizand [...] o o método de Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismo (PAE) foram realizados. Um total de 192 espécies nativas foi listado. O método PAE foi aplicado a 24 bacias e 37 espécies, resultando em cinco diagramas de áreas igualmente parcimoniosos. O diagrama de consenso estrito indica a existência de dois grupos de bacias principais ao longo da ecorregião NMAF. Estes grupos foram denominados: Grupo Norte e Grupo Centro-Sul. O Grupo Centro-Sul apresenta uma politomia basal composta por dois grupos (Grupo Centro e Grupo Sul) mais a bacia do rio Itapemirim. O Grupo Norte é formado por oito drenagens entre o rio Sergipe e o rio Paraguaçu, o Grupo Centro por cinco drenagens entre o rio Cachoeira e o rio Jequitinhonha e o Grupo Sul por nove drenagens entre o rio Buranhém e rio Doce. Comentários sobre a distribuição das espécies e a fauna compartilhada com ecorregiões adjacentes são fornecidos. Apresentamos também uma comparação da hipótese de relação aqui obtida com filogenias publicadas para alguns táxons relevantes ao presente estudo. Abstract in english The Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion (NMAF) includes part of the eastern Brazilian coastal drainages, has high level of fish endemism and great biogeographic significance. A taxonomic inventory of freshwater fishes from 25 drainages of the NMAF ecoregion and a biogeographic analysis [...] using the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) method were carried out. A total of 192 native species was listed. The PAE method was applied to 24 basins and 37 species, resulting in five equally parsimonious area diagrams. The strict consensus diagram indicates the existence of two main groups of basins throughout the NMAF ecoregion. These groups were denominated: North Group and Central-South Group. The Central-South Group shows a basal polytomy composed by two Groups (Central Group and South Group) plus the rio Itapemirim basin. The North Group is composed by eight drainages from the rio Sergipe to the rio Paraguaçu, the Central Group by five drainages from the rio Cachoeira to the rio Jequitinhonha, and the South Group by nine drainages from the rio Buranhém to the rio Doce. Comments about the species distribution and the fish fauna shared with adjacent ecoregions are provided. We also present a comparison of the hypothesis of river relationships proposed herein with published phylogenetic hypotheses that include taxa relevant to this study.

Priscila, Camelier; Angela M., Zanata.

2014-12-01

138

Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey  

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Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 ?g/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

139

Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani

2011-12-01

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Phylogenetic analysis of environmental Legionella pneumophila isolates from an endemic area (Alcoy, Spain).  

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Environmental surveillance of Legionella pneumophila is a key component of the control measures established in urban settlements to ensure water safety and quality, with the aim of minimizing and limiting opportunistic infections in humans. In this work, we present results on the detection and genetic characterization of these bacteria in the outbreak-recurrent region of Alcoy (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) using water and biofilm samples. We were particularly interested in studying the presence and distribution of L. pneumophila in the absence of outbreak or sporadic cases of legionellosis and in comparing the efficacy of culturing from water samples with a biofilm-based detection procedure using molecular amplification. To this end, water samples were taken from 120 sites distributed all around the city and its surroundings, as well as 60 biofilm swabs from half of the sampling sites. L. pneumophila could be isolated from water in just 4 of the locations. Touchdown PCR was applied to DNA extracted from water and also biofilm swabs, as a rapid method for both routine and outbreak investigations. L. pneumophila was detected by this method in 14 of the sites in which both water and biofilms were taken, although 13 of them tested positive using only the biofilm samples. These results show a ten-fold increase in the success rate of Legionella detection over water samples. The application of this method to study the presence of L. pneumophila in the water-supply system and risk facilities of Alcoy revealed different strains distributed in different areas of the city. Sequence Type ST578, endemic in the area and responsible for most clinical cases, was detected in one of the sampling sites. The number of positive samples correlated with water temperature but not with chlorine levels. The direct analysis of biofilm swabs improves the detection rate and genetic characterization of L. pneumophila and can complement analyses based on bacterial culture. PMID:25511251

Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Olmos, María Piedad; Camaró, María Luisa; Adrián, Francisco; Calafat, Juan Miguel; González-Candelas, Fernando

2015-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mite vectors (Acari: Trombiculidae) of scrub typhus in a new endemic area in northern Kyoto, Japan.  

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Between 1983 and 1999, 27 human cases of scrub typhus (two fatal) occurred in the Nodagawa River basin of northern Kyoto, Japan, an area where no cases had been previously reported. Antibody screening of infected patients' sera showed that nine of 15 patients had high titers against the Gilliam type of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi). To determine the vector mite transmitting the disease, we studied rodent and chigger populations in and near a rice field alongside the Nodagawa River between 1996 and 1999. The most common rodent species was Microtus montebelli (Milne-Edwards), representing 73.3% (33/45) of the population. The mite index (average number of mites per infested host) was highest (190.8) in Leptotrombidium pallidum Nagayo, Mitamura & Tamiya parasitizing on M. montebelli, followed by Leptotrombidium intermedium (Nagayo, Mitamura & Tamiya) (174.9) on the same host species. Orientia tsutsugamushi was isolated from 60.5% (23/38) of rodents and from 71.2% (37/52) of pools of engorged L. pallidum. The Gilliam type of O. tsutsugamushi was most prevalent in rodents, and in engorged L. pallidum and it was the only type recovered from 10 isolates inoculated into L 929 cells for indirect immunofluorescence examination. Orientia tsutsugamushi infected 14.3% (181/1263) and 14.8% (306/2066) of engorged and unfed L. pallidum larvae, respectively, and was also detected in 0.055% (2/3634) of unfed L. intermedium, although previous studies suggest that this mite rarely bites humans. These results show that L. pallidum is the primary vector species of scrub typhus in this new endemic area in Japan. PMID:14989353

Takahashi, Mamoru; Misumi, Hitoko; Urakami, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Satoko; Furui, Sataro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Furuya, Yumiko; Misumi, Motohiro; Matsumoto, Isao

2004-01-01

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Diagnosis of porcine trichinellosis: parasitological and immunoserological tests in pigs from endemic areas of Argentina.  

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In order to compare the reliability of serological and parasitological techniques for the diagnosis of porcine trichinellosis from endemic areas in Argentina, 116 pigs were studied: 61 animals from two separate outbreaks and 55 from a small abattoir. Direct diagnostic techniques included trichinoscopy and the artificial digestion method. Indirect diagnostic tests used in this study were the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), employing the excretory-secretory products of muscle larvae (ML) as antigen, and the indirect immunofluorescence assay using as antigen ML in suspension (IIF-susp), cryostat sections of infected rat muscle or of free ML (IIF-slide). The percentage of parasitologically positive pigs was invariably lower than that of serologically positive animals (IIF-slide), even when digestion studies were carried out individually with a greater amount of muscle sample than required by current regulations. Close correlation was found between IIF using as antigen tissue sections and IIF using free ML sections, while IIF-susp proved unsuitable for diagnosis since this assay presented a high percentage of false negative results (20%). The IIF-slide technique proved positive in all parasitologically positive animals. ELISA rendered a lower percentage of positive reactions than IIF-slide, especially when worm burden was low. Since most parasitologically positive animals rendered at least two positive serological tests (two variations of IIF or IIF plus ELISA), those negative by digestion and positive by two serological methods were strongly suspected of having trichinellosis. Upon studying swine from a abattoir it was found that 9% of the pigs were positive when assayed by two serological techniques, but Trichinella spiralis infection could not be parasitologically confirmed. To sum up, serological methods may be used for screening all pigs and positive findings should be tested by the digestion method by analysing a greater quantity of pork than that required by current regulations, above all in areas with reported clinical trichinellosis in humans, to ensure that the pork is safe for human consumption. PMID:9580432

Venturiello, S M; Ben, G J; Costantino, S N; Malmassari, S L; Nuñez, G G; Veneroni, R L; Traversa, M J

1998-01-31

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Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria g [...] roups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

Hossein, Nahrevanian; Jafar, Gholizadeh; Mahin, Farahmand; Mehdi, Assmar.

2008-02-01

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The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership  

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Full Text Available The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA, which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.

Blanks J

1998-01-01

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Effects of the application of trichinellosis control program in an endemic area in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals, caused by a parasite from the Trichinellidae family and Trichinella genus. Humans get infected by consuming infected and inadequately thermally treated meat from domestic or wild animals containing cocooned infective larvae of T. spiralis. Aside from health problems caused by trichinellosis as a zoonosis, there is no doubt that it represents a serious economic problem for swine meat producers. The research in this paper has been performed in Serbia, in a region which is located at the confluence of two large rivers, and it is the geographical location which makes it an endemic area for the presence of T. spiralis. Epidemiological data pertains to the period of 1995-2003, but also to the period 2003-2009, when the implementation of the program for control and eradication of trichinellosis was complete. The diagnostic testing of cadavers of slaughtered swine for the presence of T. spiralis in the period of 1995-2003 included 41.04% of the slaughtered swine, out of which 0.4281% were positive, and the amount of economic loss was 95301000 dinars or about one million EUR. The infection was confirmed in 432 patients during the research period. The preparation of the program for the control and eradication of trichinellosis has been made in accordance with applicable laws and technological standards, with a clear determination of input and output using a cost-benefit analysis. The effects of its application show a reduction in the number of swine which are positive for the presence of T. spiralis by a factor of three times (p<0.01, and the present net value (PNV and the benefit/cost ratio (B/C show economic and epidemiological justification.

Teši? M.

2011-01-01

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Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamics in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy.  

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A 2-year survey was carried out from May to November 2008 and 2009 to study the sand fly species composition, its seasonal phenology and density in Apulia region (southern, Italy). The study was conducted in a dog shelter located in a new residential urban district where Leishmania infantum is endemic. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps from May to November, at about 7-day intervals. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily. In December 2008, general environmental improvements (e.g., the ground was covered with gravel and the vegetation present inside the cages was removed to facilitate cleaning) were made in the study area. The most diffused species during the whole study period were Phlebotomus perniciosus (2008, n=248, 49.4%; 2009, n=254, 50.6%) followed by Phlebotomus neglectus (2008, n=76, 39.8%; 2009, n=115, 60.2%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (2008, n=5, 50.0%; 2009, n=5, 50.0%). Four specimens of Phlebotomus perfiliewi were collected only in the first year. The number of Sergentomyia minuta specimens collected increased considerably in the second (n=548, 86.2%) in comparison to the first year (n=88, 13.8%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in July and August when a mean temperature from 27.09 to 28.02°C and mean relative humidity from 47.28 to 56.36% were recorded. The variations in phlebotomine sand fly species diversity and abundance recorded in this study were related to climatic and environmental factors. Data here presented confirm that sand flies easily adapt to the urban environments and that the may represent a public health concern for L. infantum and other pathogen transmission also in similar urban environment of southern Europe. PMID:20816927

Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

2010-12-01

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Infrequency of asymptomatic malaria in an endemic area in Amazonas, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A malaria survey was conducted in an area of high transmission (Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and its clinical significance. Most of the people surveyed were immigrants who had lived in the endemic area 2 days, 4 had only gametocytes, 1 had taken inadequate anti-malarial treatment, 3 were under treatment and 2 moved. Six asymptomatic patients denied the use of anti-malarial drugs and they developed malaria 3-6 days after the initial parasitological diagnosis. The final patient remained asymptomatic during the 7 day observation period. He had a history of > 40 malaria attacks and denied the use of antimalarial treatment. With the exception of the latter all of the other asymptomatic patients, were either in the incubation period or had been treated It is concluded that asymptomatic malaria is rare in the Costa Marques area and that it is necessary to treat all individuals with plasmodial parasitemia.Em uma área de alta transmissão de malária (Costa Marques, Rondônia foi feito um estudo para determinar a prevalência de parasitemia assintomática e seu significado clínico. A maioria dos habitantes estudados era imigrante que vivia na região há menos de 5 anos. Em Costa Marques há facilidades para o diagnóstico e pronto tratamento da malária. Em 344 pessoas examinadas havia 77 (22% com parasitemia para hematozoários. Entre estes, 36 não tinham sintomatologia de malária. Após dois dias, 19 dos 36 desenvolveram sintomatologia. Dos 17 que continuavam assintomáticos, 4 tinham somente gametócitos no esfregaço de sangue examinado, 1 tinha recebido tratamento antimalárico inadequado, 3 estavam em tratamento e 2 se mudaram da área. Entre o 3.º e 6.º dia 6 apresentaram sintomatologia. Um paciente continuou assintomático no 7.º dia, quando terminou a observação. Ele contava já ter tido mais de 40 ataques de malária. Exceto ele, todos os outros assintomáticos ou estavam no período de incubação ou em tratamento. Conclui-se que a malária assintomática é rara em Costa Marques e que é necessário tratar todos os indivíduos com parasitemia.

Aluizio Prata

1988-06-01

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Infrequency of asymptomatic malaria in an endemic area in Amazonas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em uma área de alta transmissão de malária (Costa Marques, Rondônia) foi feito um estudo para determinar a prevalência de parasitemia assintomática e seu significado clínico. A maioria dos habitantes estudados era imigrante que vivia na região há menos de 5 anos. Em Costa Marques há facilidades para [...] o diagnóstico e pronto tratamento da malária. Em 344 pessoas examinadas havia 77 (22%) com parasitemia para hematozoários. Entre estes, 36 não tinham sintomatologia de malária. Após dois dias, 19 dos 36 desenvolveram sintomatologia. Dos 17 que continuavam assintomáticos, 4 tinham somente gametócitos no esfregaço de sangue examinado, 1 tinha recebido tratamento antimalárico inadequado, 3 estavam em tratamento e 2 se mudaram da área. Entre o 3.º e 6.º dia 6 apresentaram sintomatologia. Um paciente continuou assintomático no 7.º dia, quando terminou a observação. Ele contava já ter tido mais de 40 ataques de malária. Exceto ele, todos os outros assintomáticos ou estavam no período de incubação ou em tratamento. Conclui-se que a malária assintomática é rara em Costa Marques e que é necessário tratar todos os indivíduos com parasitemia. Abstract in english A malaria survey was conducted in an area of high transmission (Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil) to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and its clinical significance. Most of the people surveyed were immigrants who had lived in the endemic area [...] to free diagnostic and treatment services at the Malaria Clinic in the town of Costa Marques. The prevalence of plasmodial parasitemia in 344 people was 22%. There were 36 individuals with asymptomatic infections among the 77 parasitemic patients. During the two days following the initial examination, 19 ofthe 36 individuals: with asymptomatic infections developed malaria. Among the 17 patients who remained asymptomatic for > 2 days, 4 had only gametocytes, 1 had taken inadequate anti-malarial treatment, 3 were under treatment and 2 moved. Six asymptomatic patients denied the use of anti-malarial drugs and they developed malaria 3-6 days after the initial parasitological diagnosis. The final patient remained asymptomatic during the 7 day observation period. He had a history of > 40 malaria attacks and denied the use of antimalarial treatment. With the exception of the latter all of the other asymptomatic patients, were either in the incubation period or had been treated It is concluded that asymptomatic malaria is rare in the Costa Marques area and that it is necessary to treat all individuals with plasmodial parasitemia.

Aluizio, Prata; Margarita, Urdaneta; Patrick B., McGreevy; Mauro Shugiro, Tada.

1988-06-01

149

Alterations in the conjunctival bacterial flora following a single dose of azithromycin in a trachoma endemic area  

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BACKGROUND/AIMS—The World Health Organisation has recommended repeated mass treatment of children in trachoma endemic areas with oral azithromycin. While chlamydia, the causative agent of trachoma, remains universally sensitive to azithromycin, there is concern that large scale programmes may alter the bacterial flora and induce resistance in streptococcal species. In this study the effect of a single dose of azithromcyin on the prevalence, species distribution, and resistance of conjunctiv...

Chern, K.; Shrestha, S.; Cevallos, V.; Dhami, H.; Tiwari, P.; Chern, L.; Whitcher, J.; Lietman, T.

1999-01-01

150

Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil  

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmenta...

Cheryl Gouveia; Rosely Magalhães de Oliveira; Adriana Zwetsch; Daniel Motta-Silva; Bruno Moreira Carvalho; Antônio Ferreira de Santana; Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel

2012-01-01

151

A Bayesian approach to study the space time variation of leprosy in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India  

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Abstract Background In leprosy endemic areas, patients are usually spatially clustered and not randomly distributed. Classical statistical techniques fail to address the problem of spatial clustering in the regression model. Bayesian method is one which allows itself to incorporate spatial dependence in the model. However little is explored in the field of leprosy. The Bayesian approach may improve our understanding about the variation of the disease prevalence of leprosy ove...

Gupte Mohan D; Joshua Vasna; Bhagavandas M

2008-01-01

152

Assessment of Skeletal and Non-skeletal Fluorosis in Endemic Fluoridated Areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A Survey  

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Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s). Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and ob...

Rawlani Sudhir; Rawlani Shobha; Rawlani Shivlal

2010-01-01

153

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil  

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The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58%) specimens were...

Cláudio Casanova; Ip, Antonio Costa; Delsio Natal

2005-01-01

154

Evaluation of a sticky trap for collecting Aedes (Stegomyia) adults in a dengue-endemic area in Thailand.  

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Development of new operational techniques for collection and monitoring of adult Stegomyia mosquitoes is considered a pressing need for surveillance and prevention of arboviruses. Here we report the results from a trial carried out in 2 dengue-endemic villages in Thailand to compare the ability to collect Aedes adults of a sticky trap versus a CDC backpack aspirator, which has been used routinely at the study area for entomological/epidemiological surveys. Our comparison was based on a compar...

Facchinelli, L.; Koenraadt, Cj; Fanello, C.; Kijchalao, U.; Valerio, L.; Jones, Jw; Scott, Tw; Della Torre, A.

2008-01-01

155

TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT IN ENDEMIC AREA OF VILLAGE BRESTOVAC  

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Full Text Available During the twenty- five-year period the incidence of urothelial tumors was followed in the endemic village Brestovac. Thirty patients (3 of which with confirmed endemic nephropathy and 15 persons with suspected nephropathy were investigated. Our retrograde study showed that there is a relationship between endemic nephropathy and urothelial cancer, and this association persisted with marked tendency to rise. Tumors were more common among males, aged from 50 to 70 years, with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, papillary or trancellular forms, predominantly. Clinical feature showed classic triad of hematuria, flank pain and, rarely, flank mass, accompanied with non-specific symptomatology. Normal renal function was observed in 25 patients, but chronic renal failure was proven in five. Ten patients were treated by surgery, while 20 patients were treated by conservative therapy. There are no marked risk factors.

Rade Cukuranovic

2006-04-01

156

Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoen­demic Communities  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assess­ing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nige­ria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder were taken from 1024 individu­als examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population. An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Win­dows package was used for entering and analysis of data.Results: Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females. The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip than females (14 mf/skin snip (p < 0.01. A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.90; p < 0.01, and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities.Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

EC Uttah

2010-06-01

157

Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

2014-07-01

158

Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasi [...] te distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

Sérgio Luiz Bessa, Luz; James Lee, Crainey; Anthony John, Shelley; Miguel, Rubio.

2014-07-01

159

Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2012-01-01

160

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this s [...] pecies has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Anayansi, Valderrama; Mara Garcia, Tavares; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

1049-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination  

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Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival...

Sauerbrey Mauricio; Hopkins Adrian; Gustavsen Ken

2011-01-01

162

Prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and related vascular diseases in southwestern arseniasis-endemic and nonendemic areas in Taiwan.  

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There is evidence indicating that ingestion of arsenic may predispose the development of diabetes mellitus in arsenic-endemic areas in Taiwan. However, the prevalence of diabetes and related vascular diseases in the entire southwestern arseniasis-endemic and nonendemic areas remains to be elucidated. We used the National Health Insurance Database for 1999-2000 to derive the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes and related vascular diseases by age and sex among residents in southwester...

Wang, Shu-li; Chiou, Jeng-min; Chen, Chien-jen; Tseng, Chin-hsiao; Chou, Wei-ling; Wang, Cheng-chung; Wu, Trong-neng; Chang, Louis W.

2003-01-01

163

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; however, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilarem...

Leite, Anderson B.; Rv, Ana Lima; Leite, Renata B.; Santos, Rafael V.; El, Johnathan Gonc?alves; Mm, Eliana Rocha; Gilberto Fontes

2010-01-01

164

Can Equids Be a Reservoir of Leishmania braziliensis in Endemic Areas?  

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In this study, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in equids living in endemic regions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To determine the role of these animals in the Leishmania cycle, we used two approaches: serological and molecular methods. Antibodies to the parasite were assayed using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood samples were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the positive products were sequenced. The results showed that 11.0...

Truppel, Jesse? Henrique; Otomura, Flavio; Teodoro, Ueslei; Massafera, Rubens; Da Costa-ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Catarino, Carolina Motter; Dalagrana, Luana; Costa Ferreira, Maria Euge?nia Moreira; Thomaz-soccol, Vanete

2014-01-01

165

Primary motives for demand of ivermectin drug in mass distribution programmes to control onchocerciasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Onchocerciasis is a disease with a spectrum of manifestations suffered by different infected people. Based on individual perceptions and manifestations presented, demand for the drug Ivermectin was due to different motives and priorities during mass distribution programmes. Subjects and Method: This study presents findings from a sample of 594 persons out of a total of 35,763 treated individuals who voluntarily demanded Ivermectin treatment during a community-based Ivermectin distribution exercise. The distribution, which took place in 2008, was mass distribution of the microfilaricide to control onchocerciasis in endemic communities of Ezinihitte in the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. The subjects who were selected by quota sampling procedure on the basis of community and gender, were asked to rank-order six plausible reasons for seeking treatment in terms of their order of importance in motivating them to demand Ivermectin. Results: “To gain treatment and prevention of Skin Problems” and “Desire to be De-wormed” ranked first and second respectively. “To gain promotion of general wellbeing” and “To improve state of vision and prevent blindness” ranked third and fourth respectively. In the fifth and sixth rank-order positions were “To prevent hanging groin” and “to prevent/relieve enlargement of the scrotum or clitoris” in that order. A test of hypothesis to determine if there was significant agreement among treated persons on the rank order of importance of their reasons for demanding Ivermectin gave a Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance of W = 0.62, p <.001. Conclusion: The findings are interpreted within the framework of the major postulations of the health belief model with consideration to perceptions of severity of the conditions and belief that submitting to treatment will abate the perceived risk of the conditions. The role of endemicity of specific manifestations of onchocerciasis in lay assessment of risk of this disease is also discussed. PMID:22540073

Abanobi, Okwuoma; Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu; Onwuliri, Celestine; Opara, Kenneth

2011-01-01

166

Primary motives for demand of ivermectin drug in mass distribution programmes to control onchocerciasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is a disease with a spectrum of manifestations suffered by different infected people. Based on individual perceptions and manifestations presented, demand for the drug Ivermectin was due to different motives and priorities during mass distribution programmes. Subjects and Method: This study presents findings from a sample of 594 persons out of a total of 35,763 treated individuals who voluntarily demanded Ivermectin treatment during a community-based Ivermectin distribution exercise. The distribution, which took place in 2008, was mass distribution of the microfilaricide to control onchocerciasis in endemic communities of Ezinihitte in the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. The subjects who were selected by quota sampling procedure on the basis of community and gender, were asked to rank-order six plausible reasons for seeking treatment in terms of their order of importance in motivating them to demand Ivermectin. Results: “To gain treatment and prevention of Skin Problems” and “Desire to be De-wormed” ranked first and second respectively. “To gain promotion of general wellbeing” and “To improve state of vision and prevent blindness” ranked third and fourth respectively. In the fifth and sixth rank-order positions were “To prevent hanging groin” and “to prevent/relieve enlargement of the scrotum or clitoris” in that order. A test of hypothesis to determine if there was significant agreement among treated persons on the rank order of importance of their reasons for demanding Ivermectin gave a Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance of W = 0.62, p <.001. Conclusion: The findings are interpreted within the framework of the major postulations of the health belief model with consideration to perceptions of severity of the conditions and belief that submitting to treatment will abate the perceived risk of the conditions. The role of endemicity of specific manifestations of onchocerciasis in lay assessment of risk of this disease is also discussed.

Okwuoma Abanobi

2011-02-01

167

Malaria transmission in non-endemic areas: case report, review of the literature and implications for public health management  

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Full Text Available Abstract In non-endemic areas, malaria is rare and locally acquired infections, particularly with Plasmodium falciparum, are exceptional events. The diagnosis is, therefore, likely to be delayed or missed in patients without a relevant travel history. This report describes a case of falciparum malaria in Berlin, Germany, in a patient who had not been to an endemic area for more than a decade. Potential routes of vector-related and direct transmission were evaluated, particularly with regard to a possible danger to the public. A review of the literature was conducted regarding possible routes of transmission and their probability assessed. Genotyping of parasite isolates of this and another patient with malaria admitted 16 days before revealed homology between the two strains. In a local entomological survey, anopheline vectors on the hospital grounds as well as in the residential area of both patients were found. Despite intensive investigations, the mode of transmission remained obscure. In this context, possible routes of vector-borne and direct occupational/accidental transmission in a major European city are reviewed and discussed, providing information and guidance in case other similar events occur elsewhere. Examples for investigations and measures to be taken in such a situation are provided. When local malaria transmission within a large non-immune population cannot be ruled out, genotyping of parasite isolates, local entomological surveys, preparedness for secondary cases, expert consultations in a multidisciplinary team and careful information management are essential. Malaria acquired in non-endemic areas remains an unlikely, but possible event for which awareness needs to be maintained.

Bergmann Frank

2009-04-01

168

Recent developments in the treatment of onchocerciasis*  

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The treatment of onchocerciasis using diethylcarbamazine and suramin sodium, which can kill different stages of the parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, remains unsatisfactory. Recent studies have more clearly defined the serious limitations of the existing forms of treatment. However, two new classes of compounds, the benzimidazoles and avermectins, offer exciting new leads in the search for a safe and effective treatment that could be used on a large scale.

Taylor, Hugh R.

1984-01-01

169

Entamoeba infections in different populations of dogs in an endemic area of Lahore, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite that affects humans and other primates all over the world. It is a common waterborne pathogen in endemic areas that have fecal oral transmission cycle. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of E. histolytica and other Entamoeba species cysts in three different dog populations. Fecal samples from 600 dogs were collected and processed to detect Entamoeba cysts using the triple fecal test (light microscopy) and fecal antigens of E. histolytica were detected using a fecal antigen ELISA (TechLab E. histolytica II). Because it is impossible to differentiate E. histolytica from Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii, using light microscopy we referred to all cysts morphologically consistent with E. histolytica as E. histolytica/dispar/moskovskii to reflect this uncertainty. Samples from 197 household dogs without clinical signs, 122 samples from household dogs exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhea, dysentery and vomiting and 281 stray dogs with no specific clinical signs were examined. Entamoeba histolytica-like cysts were observed in 94 (15.6%, 95% CI=±3.88) by triple fecal test microscopy and E. histolytica antigens were demonstrated in 66 (11%, 95% CI=±4.41) by fecal antigen ELISA in 600 fecal samples. Significant differences (P?0.05) in prevalence were found between the three populations. Twenty (10.1%, 95% CI=±7.86) and 11 (5.6%, 95% CI=±7.70) of 197 fecal samples from household dogs without clinical signs were positive by microscopy and by antigen ELISA, respectively. Twenty-nine (23.8%, 95% CI=±6.58) and 23 (18.8%, 95% CI=±7.81) of 122 the fecal samples from household dogs with clinical signs were positive by microscopy and by antigen ELISA, respectively. Forty-five (16.01%, 95% CI=±5.62) and 32 (11.3%, 95% CI=±6.38) of 281 fecal samples from stray dogs were positive by microscopy and by fecal antigen ELISA, respectively. Dogs from the youngest age group (6 months to 1 year) were more likely to be E. histolytica antigen positive than were dogs from the other two older age groups, with a significant difference (P?0.05) between all age groups. Statistically, no significant (P?0.05) difference of prevalence was seen in male and female dogs. The local dogs had the highest prevalence rate of E. histolytica antigens (36 of 246, 14.2%, 95% CI=±6.32) followed by imported breeds (11 of 115, 9.5%, 95% CI=±10.4) and crossbred (19 of 239, 8.3%, 95% CI=±7.47), indicating a significant (P?0.05) trend of positivity between various breeds of dogs. These findings suggest that dogs may play an important role in the epidemiology of this pathogen. PMID:25557213

Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Maqbool, Azhar; Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Lateef, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Lindsay, David S

2015-01-30

170

Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis  

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This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4%) showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40%) serum and 5 (4.4%) fluid samples. A...

Shah A; Mulla S

2007-01-01

171

Cost-benefit analysis of a nationwide inoculation programme against viral hepatitis B in an area of intermediate endemicity.  

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The large decrease in the cost of vaccines against hepatitis virus B prompts a re-examination of nationwide vaccination campaign strategies. The present study estimates the costs and benefits that would result from a viral hepatitis B prevention programme (with no prior screening) targeted at all under-16-year-olds in Israel in 1990 and only neonates in the period 1991-2034. Israel is situated in an area of intermediate endemicity, where the majority of HBsAg carriers are anti-HBe positive. S...

Ginsberg, G. M.; Berger, S.; Shouval, D.

1992-01-01

172

Cost-benefit analysis of a nationwide neonatal inoculation programme against hepatitis B in an area of intermediate endemicity.  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to estimate the costs and benefits of a nationwide neonatal vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in Israel for the 1990-2034 period. DESIGN--Using morbidity, mortality, utilisation, and cost data from Israeli and international sources, a spreadsheet model was constructed to carry out the cost-benefit analysis. SETTING--The entire State of Israel, an area of intermediate endemicity. PARTICIPANTS--The population of Israel from 1990-2034. MAIN RESULTS--A policy o...

Ginsberg, G. M.; Shouval, D.

1992-01-01

173

The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

Marc Daniel Grynpas

2011-12-01

174

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con [...] reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC). Abstract in english Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa [...] loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

O.A, Otubanjo; G.O, Adeoye; C.A, Ibidapo; B, Akinsanya; P, Okeke; T, Atalabi; E.T, Adejai; E, Braide.

1635-16-01

175

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%, edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%, erupciones cutáneas (3% y debilidad (2%; dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC.

O.A Otubanjo

2008-12-01

176

Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

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Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern an...

Phompradit Papichaya; Kuesap Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul Wanna; Rueangweerayut Ronnatrai; Hongkaew Yaowaluck; Yamnuan Rujira; Na-Bangchang Kesara

2011-01-01

177

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

Saeed Amir

2011-04-01

178

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF). This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espír [...] ito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi), Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA, Oliveira; LS, Oliveira; CCA, Dias; A, Silva Jr; MR, Almeida; G, Almada; DH, Bouyer; MAM, Galvão; CL, Mafra.

2008-03-01

179

Predictive value of interferon-? ELISPOT assay in HIV 1-infected patients in an intermediate tuberculosis-endemic area.  

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The tuberculin skin test for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB) has some limitations for HIV-infected patients, especially in BCG vaccinated countries. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among HIV-infected patients in an intermediate TB-endemic area and to examine its correlation with the ELISPOT assay. We prospectively followed up 124 patients with HIV-1 infection to monitor development of active TB disease after performing an ELISPOT assay (T-SPOT. TB test, Oxford Immunotec, Ltd., Abingdon, UK). A total of 120 patients were followed for a median of 947 days; four patients with active TB at enrollment were excluded. Eleven patients developed active TB during 238 person-years, giving a high incidence rate of 4621/100,000 person-years. Patients with positive ELISPOT responses had a higher TB incidence rate than those with negative ELISPOT responses; however this was not statistically significant [20% (6/30) vs. 6.02% (5/83), p=0.052]. A Cox regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors associated with progression of TB were low CD4(+) T cell counts, previous history of TB treatment, and positive ELISPOT results. Advanced HIV-infected patients who showed a positive TB ELISPOT assay had a higher rate of progression to TB in the intermediate TB-endemic area. PMID:22352311

Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Yang Ree; Wie, Seong Heon; Park, Yeon Joon; Kang, Moon Won

2012-09-01

180

Onchocerciasis in Sudan: the distribution of the disease and its vectors.  

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The distribution of onchocerciasis and its vectors in Sudan has been reviewed with special emphasis on the hyperendemic foci where there is serious visual handicap caused by the disease. These blinding foci lie primarily in the south-west of the country, along the rivers flowing north and east from the borders with Central African Republic and Zaire, though at least one such focus is known from the eastern part of the country close to the Ethiopian border. In the blinding foci, often small villages localized to short stretches of the rivers, ocular onchocerciasis is as severe as that found in any other African foci. Only the S. damnosum s.l. species complex has been implicated in disease transmission and only the two dangerous, morphologically similar, savanna cytospecies, S. damnosum s.s. and S. sirbanum, have been identified from breeding sites close to known onchocerciasis foci. Near to the Uganda and Zaire borders it is very likely that other, less anthropophilic, cytospecies occur. Different Onchocerca-Simulium complexes (different strains of parasite with different pathogenicities transmitted by different vector species) may be responsible for the different severities of disease found in the 3 main areas of onchocerciasis in North, East and South-West Sudan. The localized, focal distribution of the communities seriously blinded by onchocerciasis, suggests that a strategy of tackling the disease on a focus basis may prove optimal. A control scheme, planned to treat all the vector breeding sites with insecticide, as in West Africa, would receive extensive invasion from the Zaire/Congo River Basin and the headwaters of the White and Blue Niles in neighbouring countries. While some foci are situated beside major river rapids, with vector breeding only controllable by regular insecticide treatments, several foci have been identified as lying close to removable man-made objects which provide excellent breeding sites at certain water levels e.g. causeways. The destruction of such breeding sites should be considered since localized vector control may produce substantial reductions in onchocerciasis transmission. PMID:3551025

Baker, R H; Abdelnur, O M

1986-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Can equids be a reservoir of Leishmania braziliensis in endemic areas?  

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In this study, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in equids living in endemic regions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To determine the role of these animals in the Leishmania cycle, we used two approaches: serological and molecular methods. Antibodies to the parasite were assayed using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood samples were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the positive products were sequenced. The results showed that 11.0% (25/227) of the equids were seropositive for Leishmania sp, and 16.3% (37/227) were PCR positive. Antibodies were detected in 20 horses, 3 donkeys, and 2 mules, and the parasite DNA was detected in 30 horses, 5 donkeys, and 2 mules. Sequencing the amplified DNA revealed 100% similarity with sequences for Viannia complex, corroborating the results of PCR for L. braziliensis. Our results show that equids are infected with L. braziliensis, which could be food sources for phlebotomines in the peridomiciliary environment and consequently play a role in the cutaneous leishmaniasis cycle. PMID:24721908

Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Otomura, Flavio; Teodoro, Ueslei; Massafera, Rubens; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Catarino, Carolina Motter; Dalagrana, Luana; Costa Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

2014-01-01

182

A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

1998-01-01

183

Effectiveness of polio vaccination coverage in reducing the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in a highly endemic area of Bombay city.  

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Full Text Available 100% oral polio vaccine coverage was sought through household visits by health center personnel in a slum area in northwestern Bombay. Children up to and including 3 years of age comprised the target population. In the 2 1/2-year period following initiation of the vaccination campaign in September 1980, 83% of children in the target population were covered and no cases of paralytic poliomyelitis were reported from the area. This coverage rate of 83% stands in contrast with the 64% rate obtained in Bombay?s Ward B, a residential area for middle and upper-income people, and the 70% rate in Ward E, another slum district where household visits were not conducted. This experience demonstrates that it is possible to abolish paralytic poliomyelitis through adequate vaccination coverage even in slum areas located in the middle of highly endemic areas. Experience further demonstrated that it is not necessary to withhold oral polio vaccine from children with minor illnesses such as diarrhea or immediately before or after breastfeeding. These 2 contraindications have in the past increased the difficulty of obtaining adequate vaccine coverage rates among young children.

Desai V

1984-01-01

184

Hyperreactive Onchocerciasis is Characterized by a Combination of Th17-Th2 Immune Responses and Reduced Regulatory T Cells.  

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Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO)/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection and endemic normals (EN). In addition to elevated frequencies of memory CD4+ T cells, individuals with HO showed accentuated Th17 and Th2 profiles but decreased CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. These profiles included increased IL-17A+, IL-4+, RORC2+ and GATA3+CD4+ T cell populations. Flow cytometry data was further confirmed using a PCR array since Th17-related genes (IL-17 family members, IL-6, IL-1? and IL-22) and Th2-related (IL-4, IL-13, STAT6) genes were all significantly up-regulated in HO individuals. In addition, stronger Onchocerca volvulus-specific Th2 responses, especially IL-13, were observed in vitro in hyperreactive individuals when compared to GEO or EN groups. This study provides initial evidence that elevated frequencies of Th17 and Th2 cells form part of the immune network instigating the development of severe onchocerciasis. PMID:25569210

Katawa, Gnatoulma; Layland, Laura E; Debrah, Alex Y; von Horn, Charlotte; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Arriens, Sandra; W Taylor, David; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

2015-01-01

185

Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis  

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Full Text Available This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4% showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40% serum and 5 (4.4% fluid samples. All five fluid antigen positive cases were positive for antibodies and showed microfilaria in blood. These findings emphasize the use of circulating filarial antigen detection and alternative usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filariasis.

Shah A

2007-01-01

186

New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism  

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Full Text Available Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp precinctive to Mont Mauru, Tahiti, Society Islands are newly described: M. tutei sp. n., M. tihotii sp. n., M. putaputa sp. n., M. toretore sp. n., M. anaana sp. n., M. pirihao sp. n., and M. poro sp. n. These seven constitute the first representative Mecyclothorax species recorded from Mauru, and their geographic restriction to this isolated massif defines it as a distinct area of endemism along the highly dissected eastern versant of the Tahiti Nui volcano. Each of the new species has a closest relative on another massif of Tahiti Nui, supporting speciation associated with vicariance caused by extensive erosional valley formation, especially the development of Papenoo Valley. Comparison of the known elevational distributions of the new discoveries on Mont Mauru to the elevational diversity profile of the comparatively well-sampled Mont Marau, northwest Tahiti Nui, suggests that numerous Mecyclothorax species remain to be discovered in higher-elevation habitats of Mont Mauru.

James Liebherr

2012-10-01

187

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

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Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

188

Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

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Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identif...

Makoto Itoh; Yukiko Wagatsuma; Mizuho Fukushige; Mohammad Shafiul Alam; Hirotomo Kato

2012-01-01

189

Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City  

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Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

Tri Ramadhani

2010-12-01

190

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Background This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. Methods A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. Results Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. Conclusion Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy. PMID:23682272

Eyo, JE; Onyishi, GC; Ugokwe, CU

2013-01-01

191

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo

2013-03-01

192

Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in particular the range of spatial autocorrelation, reflect differences in the mode of transmission of cholera and dysentery. Our risk maps for cholera and dysentery incidences should help identifying putative factors of increased disease incidence, leading to more effective prevention and remedial actions in endemic areas.

Haq M Zahirul

2006-10-01

193

Serology of typhoid fever in an area of endemicity and its relevance to diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of > or =0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P < or = 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available. PMID:11230418

House, D; Wain, J; Ho, V A; Diep, T S; Chinh, N T; Bay, P V; Vinh, H; Duc, M; Parry, C M; Dougan, G; White, N J; Hien, T T; Farrar, J J

2001-03-01

194

Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela / Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las már [...] genes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the [...] proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. and the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

Alexis, Fernández; Jaime, Ramírez-Pérez; Harland, Shuler; Noris, Rodríguez.

2008-06-01

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The vector control operations in the onchocerciasis control programme in West Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Onchocerciasis is a dermal filariasis transmitted to man by a blood sucking blackfly belonging to the Simulium genus. The most serious manifestations of the disease are blindness and debilitating skin lesions. Africa is by far the most affected continent both in terms of distribution and severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. That is the reason why an ambitious regional onchocerciasis control project, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), was launched in 1974 (Molyneux 1995). The objective is to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem and as an obstacle to socio-economic development and to ensure that the countries are in a position to maintain these achievements. Seven countries were concerned at the beginning of the programme), delimiting the 'initial area' (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo). In 1988, the OCP began operations in the 'western extension', an additional four countries in the West (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone) and extended operations into the 'southeastern extension' (south Benin, Ghana and Togo). The rationale for these extensions related to findings that the vectors were able to migrate and hence re-invade controlled areas over several hundred kilometres (Garms et al. 1979). Until 1989, in the absence of a non-toxic drug which could be used on a wide scale to kill the adult worm, the vector control strategy was the only method to interrupt the transmis the only method to interrupt the transmission of the blinding form of the parasite until the adult worm in the human body was eliminated (the maximum duration of the adult worm is estimated to be about fourteen years). In the late 1980s, ivermectin, a microfilaricide which is the only drug available to date, became an integral part of the OCP control strategy (Webbe 1992). In the extension areas, larviciding is still going on with satisfaction, combined with the distribution of ivermectin. In pursuing this combined therapeutic and vector control strategy, the whole of the basins treated should be freed from blinding onchocerciasis by the year 2002 at the latest, which is the end point of the programme activities

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Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum and Neospora caninum in cats from an area endemic for leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was made into the occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum and Neospora caninum in 151 domestic cats, based on the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Serum samples were collected from 151 domestic cats (65 free-roaming and 86 domiciled cats; 55 males and 96 females) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil between January and April 2013. IgG antibodies to T. gondii, L. infantum and N. caninum were found, respectively, in 49 (32.5%), 34 (22.5%) and 10 (6.6%) sampled cats. A positive correlation was found between T. gondii and N. caninum, T. gondii and L. infantum, and N. caninum and L. infantum (p <0.05) infections. Also, a significant interaction was identified between gender and area of activity on the probability of T. gondii (p = 0.0324) infection. However, no significant interaction was observed between gender and area of activity on infections by either N. caninum or L. infantum. This study showed that cats from an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil are exposed to three different protozoans, two of which are causal agents of important zoonosis. PMID:25517522

Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Domingos, Iara Helena; Campos, João Bosco Vilela; Santos, Isabela Maria Campanelli Dos; Neves, Haroldo Henrique; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

2014-12-01

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Final report of the Conference on the eradicability of Onchocerciasis  

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Sixty-four experts from a variety of disciplines attended a Conference on the Eradicability of Onchocerciasis at The Carter Center, in Atlanta GA, held January 22-24, 2002. The Conference, which was organized by The Carter Center and the World Health Organization, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, addressed the question: "Is onchocerciasis (River Blindness) eradicable with current knowledge and tools?" Former US President Jimmy Carter attended part of the final plenary pr...

Dadzie, Yankum; Neira, Maria; Hopkins, Donald

2003-01-01

198

Socioeconomic consequences of blinding onchocerciasis in west Africa.  

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Onchocerciasis or river blindness, a major cause of irreversible blindness among adults, has been the focus of international disease control efforts for over 20 years in West Africa. This paper employs the international classification of impairment, disability and handicap (ICIDH) to interpret results from a field study to assess the socioeconomic consequences of onchocerciasis in Guinea in 1987. In a sample of 136 blind, 94 visually impaired and 89 well-sighted persons, decreasing visual acu...

Evans, T. G.

1995-01-01

199

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years, primary school period (7-12 years and secondary school period (13-14 years. Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14. The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5 but differed by gender (P < 0.001. The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1 The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2 HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3 Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4 We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

Bahri Cakabay

2010-01-01

200

Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series  

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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002-2011: a case series.  

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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002-2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

2013-06-01

202

Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region  

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Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

2012-01-01

203

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

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Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Vanessa Wolff Machado

2013-04-01

204

Diversity of Anopheles species and trophic behavior of putative malaria vectors in two malaria endemic areas of northwestern Thailand.  

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We determined the species diversity, blood-feeding behavior, and host preference of Anopheles mosquitoes in two malaria endemic areas of Tak (Mae Sot District) and Mae Hong Son (Sop Moei District) Provinces, located along the Thai border with Myanmar, during a consecutive two-year period. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected using indoor and outdoor human-landing captures and outdoor cow-baited collections. Mosquitoes were initially identified using morphological characters, followed by the appropriate multiplex AS-PCR assay for the identification of sibling species within Anopheles (Cellia) complexes and groups present. Real-time PCR was performed for parasite-specific detection in mosquitoes (Plasmodium spp. and Wuchereria bancrofti). A total of 7,129 Anopheles females were captured, 3,939 from Mae Sot and 3,190 from Sop Moei, with 58.6% and 37% of all anophelines identified as An. minimus, respectively. All three malaria vector complexes were detected in both areas. One species within the Minimus Complex (An. minimus) was present along with two related species in the Funestus Group, (An. aconitus, An. varuna), two species within the Dirus Complex (An. dirus, An. baimaii), and four species within the Maculatus Group (An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, An. pseudowillmori, and An. dravidicus). The trophic behavior of An. minimus, An. dirus, An. baimaii, An. maculatus, and An. sawadwongporni are described herein. The highest An. minimus densities were detected from February through April of both years. One specimen of An. minimus from Mae Sot was found positive for Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25424272

Tainchum, Krajana; Ritthison, Wanapa; Chuaycharoensuk, Thipwara; Bangs, Michael J; Manguin, Sylvie; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-12-01

205

Determination of chemical forms of arsenic in environmental water for endemic arsenism disease area of Azuoqi by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas of endemic arsenic disease in the Azuoqi belong to the drinking water type arsenism disease area. A simple and sensitive method to identify the chemical forms of As was presented. In-organic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were separated by the use of coprecipitation and cation exchange chromatography combined with neutron activation analysis. Separation of inorganic and organic arsenic (MMA and DMA) was based on coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3, inorganic arsenic was coprecipitated quantitatively, but MMA and DMA was not coprecipitated at all. Experiments showed that MMA and DMA in solution were adsorbed on cation exchange resin in pH 2. MMA was eluted by 60 mL of 0.5 mol/L acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7) and then 60 mL of 3 mol/L NH3·H2O was used to strip the DMA. The recovery of MMA and DMA was 96% and 103%, respectively

206

Topographic distribution of the sand flea Tunga penetrans in Wistar rats and humans in two endemic areas in Brazil.  

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Tungiasis is a zoonosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in many resource-poor communities, in which various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs. Eighty laboratory-raised Wistar rats were exposed to T. penetrans in areas of intense transmission: a fishing village and an urban shantytown in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. The topographic distribution of lesions in Wistar rats was compared with the distribution of lesions in humans in the same area. Our results show that the topographic distribution of embedded sand fleas was almost identical in Wistar rats and humans and that lesions were confined to the feet. In humans, 76% of all lesions were located periungually, whereas in Wistar rats, 67% of lesions were located at the distal end of the digits (P = 0.73). Both had the majority of lesions at the toes and digits: 70.2% versus 65.7% (P = 0.79). The Wistar rat model mirrors human tungiasis in topographic distribution. PMID:22764302

Buckendahl, John; Heukelbach, Jörg; Witt, Lars; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Calheiros, Cláudia M L; Feldmeier, Hermann

2012-07-01

207

Wild, synanthropic and domestic hosts of Leishmania in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

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Domestic, synanthropic and wild hosts of Leishmania spp. parasites were studied in an area endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), specifically in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Domestic dogs and small forest mammals are reservoir hosts for L. (Leishmania) infantum. However, the role that these animals play in the transmission cycle of the Leishmania spp. that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis is not well known. This study evaluated 72 rodents, 25 marsupials and 98 domestic dogs found in two villages of the Xakriabá Indigenous Territory, an area of intense ATL transmission. A total of 23 dogs (23.47%) were shown to be positive according to at least one test; 8 dogs (8.16%) tested positive in a single serological test and 15 dogs (15.31%) tested positive by IFAT and ELISA. Eleven dogs were euthanised to allow for molecular diagnosis, of which nine (81.8%) tested positive by PCR for Leishmania in at least one tissue. Seven animals were infected only with L. (L.) infantum, whilst two displayed a mixed infection of L. (L.) infantum and L. (V.) braziliensis. Isoenzymatic characterisation identified L. (L.) infantum parasites isolated from the bone marrow of two dogs. Of the 97 small mammals captured, 24 tested positive for Leishmania by PCR. The results showed that L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) infantum and L. (V.) guyanensis are circulating among wild and synanthropic mammals present in the Xakriabá Reserve, highlighting the epidemiological diversity of ATL in this region. PMID:21890159

Quaresma, Patrícia F; Rêgo, Felipe D; Botelho, Helbert A; da Silva, Shara R; Moura Júnior, Airton J; Teixeira Neto, Rafael G; Madeira, Filipe M; Carvalho, Maria Beatriz; Paglia, Adriano P; Melo, Maria Norma; Gontijo, Célia M F Ferreira

2011-10-01

208

The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou  

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Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

2004-07-01

209

Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distributio [...] n of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Everton Falcão de, Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e, Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Antonio Conceição, Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo, Gamarra; Alisson André, Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira.

2012-05-01

210

Endemic mansonellosis in Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria: human parasitaemia and Culicoides biting patterns  

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Background & objectives: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonellaperstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance,circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector.Methods: Thick smear of 50 ?l finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in across-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of thevector biting pat...

E C Uttah, S. Etim

2011-01-01

211

Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa? / Le traitement de masse par l'ivermectine peut-il éliminer l'onchocercose en Afrique ? / ¿Es posible eliminar la oncocercosis en África mediante la administración masiva de ivermectina?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar las condiciones en que el tratamiento masivo con ivermectina reduciría la transmisión de Onchocerca volvulus en la medida suficiente para poder eliminar la infección en una comunidad de África. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un modelo de microsimulación de la transmisión de la oncocercosis [...] (ONCHOSIM) para analizar el efecto de diferentes intervalos de tratamiento, niveles de cobertura y niveles de endemicidad preintervención en la probabilidad de eliminación. RESULTADOS: Las simulaciones indican que las estrategias basadas exclusivamente en la administración masiva de ivermectina permitirían eliminar la oncocercosis. La duración del tratamiento requerido para eliminar la infección depende en gran medida del programa de tratamiento y de la endemicidad preintervención. En las zonas con niveles medios/altos de infección se necesitarían al menos 25 años de tratamiento anual masivo con una cobertura del 65%. Las predicciones del modelo muestran asimismo que en una situación de gran heterogeneidad en la exposición a las picaduras del vector, y grandes diferencias individuales por tanto en lo concerniente al recuento de microfilarias, el tratamiento debería prolongarse más de 35 años. Si el intervalo de tratamiento se redujera de 12 a 6 meses, la duración del programa podría reducirse a menos de la mitad y se podría lograr la eliminación en zonas de hiperendemicidad, siempre que cada tratamiento tuviera el mismo efecto que el tratamiento anual. Sin embargo, es dudoso que puedan mantenerse niveles altos de cobertura durante el tiempo suficiente para erradicar la enfermedad a escala mundial. CONCLUSIÓN: La eliminación de la oncocercosis de los focos más endémicos de África parece un objetivo alcanzable. Ahora bien, las condiciones para ello en lo tocante a la duración, cobertura y frecuencia del tratamiento pueden ser prohibitivas en las zonas de alta endemicidad. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implicatio [...] ns of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

M., Winnen; A.P., Plaisier; E.S., Alley; N.J.D., Nagelkerke; G., van Oortmarssen; B.A., Boatin; J.D.F., Habbema.

212

Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be optimized, based on endemic areas with supporting data on G6PD variants. Larger sample size from different malaria endemic is required to obtain accurate genetic mapping of G6PD variants in Burmese and Thai population residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand.

Phompradit Papichaya

2011-12-01

213

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; howeve [...] r, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

Anderson B, Leite; Ana RV de, Lima; Renata B, Leite; Rafael V, Santos; Johnathan EL, Gonçalves; Eliana MM, Rocha; Gilberto, Fontes.

2010-04-01

214

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; however, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood. As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

Anderson B Leite

2010-04-01

215

[Trichinellosis serology in blood-donors from a non-endemic area of Argentina].  

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The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease. This parasitosis was assessed on 150 blood donors by means of immunoserological tests, and their relation with risk alimentary habits by a questionnaire. The questionnaires showed that 98.0% (n=147) of the individuals consumed pork and pork products at a high frequency. The main pork products incorporated to the habitual diet were the stuffed ones. A 80.3% (n=118) of the individuals had acquired such products at butchers, a 38.1% (n=56) at home slaughters and a 34.0% (n=50) at supermarkets. The immunoserological techniques employed were: enzyme immunoanalysis, indirect immunofluorescence and/or immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. Anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 8.0% (n=12) of the serum samples by more than one of the methodologies employed, considering these results as confirmatory of trichinellosis. The studies carried out herein demonstrate the existence of human trichinellosis in an area historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease and suggest its relationship with the ingestion of pork or pork products as a risk factor. These results indicate that the lack of reports should not be the only criterion for an area to be considered as Trichinella-free. The awareness of the existence of the parasite in a region will favor the establishment of control and prevention strategies which is of fundamental importance to avoid the spread of the disease. PMID:19622475

Barlasina, Mariana S; Pedevilla, Carolina; Kade, Paula; Costantino, Susana N; Taus, María R; Venturiello, Stella M

2009-01-01

216

Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of patients infected with brucellosis compared to a control population from the same geographic region. The quality of life of brucellosis positive and brucellosis negative individuals from rural and urban areas of Mexico was evaluated using the Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. This survey is a generic measure of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey ...

Guillermina García-Juárez; Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca; Herna?ndez-calva, Luz M.; Va?zquez-va?zquez, Jose? D.; Alfonso Pérez-Sánchez; Budke, Christine M.

2012-01-01

217

Epidemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.  

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The study was carried out in the central part of the Islamic Republic of Iran over a 12-month period in 1991-92 in Borkhar, a rural district lying north of Isfahan city. The objective was to determine the ecology of natural reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis for possible future field trials of leishmania vaccine. The main reservoir host in this area is Rhombomys opimus, the great gerbil, followed by Meriones libycus, the Libyan jird, and Hemiechinus auritis, the long-eared hedgehog. Of the 179 ...

Yaghoobi-ershadi, M. R.; Javadian, E.

1996-01-01

218

Dispersal and memory of sand flies in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil.  

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The dispersal of and the existence of memory in sand flies were measured in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brazil. Sand flies were caught in a rural area, with Shannon trap installed in the forest and three Falcão traps installed in a human-inhabited environment (HIE) and three others in an impacted environment presently uninhabited by humans (EUH), from 1800 to 0600 hours. The captured sand flies were marked with yellow, blue, or red fluorescent powder, according to the environments where they were captured. All marked sand flies were released at 0700 hours at a point between the three environments. The recaptures were made with 28 Falcão traps, distributed in the environments from for 10 consecutive days. The sand flies recaptured were examined under a stereomicroscope and later identified. It was concluded that sand flies are able to disperse over an average distance of 73 m, reaching 130 m in 24 h, showing that: 1) the sand flies were attracted with different intensities to each environment, and the ability to move among different environments allows the existence of enzootic cycle of Leishmania; 2) the sand flies possess a spatial memory, olfactory memory, or both, that enable them to return to the environment where they were captured initially, although the distances were different. PMID:24180102

Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; De Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Massafera, Rubens; Rossi, Robson Marcelo; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-09-01

219

Epidemiological survey of Lutzomyia longipalpis infected by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area of Brazil.  

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The objective of this study was to perform an epidemiological survey to determine the areas at risk of visceral leishmaniasis through the detection and quantification of natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis. The sandflies were captured between February 2009 and January 2010, at 21 sites in four regions of the Fortaleza municipality. Samples were screened for the presence of Leishmania DNA by Real Time PCR (qPCR), amplification of kDNA minicircle sequence. Out of the 123 pools of analyzed sandflies, 45 were positive for L.infantum, and the minimum infection rate was 3.7%. In the north, south, east and west regions, the pool screen assay predicted sand-fly infection prevalence of 3.4%, 4.7%, 4.9% and 8.4%, respectively. The parasite load ranged from 2.45 ± 0.96 to 2,820,246 ± 106,072. No statistical differences were found with respect to the frequency of sand-fly infection between the regions (P=0.3014), seasons (P = 0.3906) or trap locations (P = 0.8486). Statistical differences were found with respect to the frequency of sand-fly infection between the two seasons only in the west region (P=0.0152). The qPCR was able to detect and quantify L. infantum in L. longipalpis, therefore succeeding in identifying the areas of greatest risk of VL transmission. PMID:24728361

Rodrigues, Ana Caroline Moura; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Luciano, Maria Claudia Santos; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-03-01

220

Effects of Annual Mass Treatment with Ivermectin for Onchocerciasis on the Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths  

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We evaluated the effect of annual ivermectin (IV) distribution for onchocerciasis on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PAC) children by comparing children in villages that had received treatment for 13 years to those from socioeconomically similar villages in untreated areas. We enrolled 1,031 SAC and 211 PAC for Kato Katz examinations. Treated areas had a lower prevalence of Ascaris (SAC: 3% versus 12%, P < 0.0001; PAC: 3% v...

Gutman, Julie; Emukah, Emmanuel; Okpala, Njideka; Okoro, Chinyere; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S.; Richards, Frank O.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Use of affordable technology for the sensitive and specific diagnosis of onchocerciasis (river blindness)  

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Onchocerciasis or river blindness is the most common infectious cause of blindness. Even in the absence of blindness, the skin effects caused are of social stigma. It is the goal of the World Health Organization to eradicate filariasis (including onchocerciasis). Eradication of onchocerciasis is to be undertaken by mass treatment with tile microfilaricide ivermectin, combined with vector control. To date, the gold standard for diagnosis of onchocerciasis is through the pa...

Guzma?n Laparra, Gabriel Eduardo

2002-01-01

222

Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

Rawlani Sudhir

2010-01-01

223

Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan  

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Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

224

Biting Activities of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito at Filariatic Endemic Area Pabean Village Pekalongan Regency East Java Province  

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Full Text Available Pabean villages is a filariasis endemic areas caused by Whuchereria bancrofti parasite with incidence rate is 3.4% on year 2007. To determine biting activity of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes that been confirmed as filariasis’s vector, it been conducted a entomological survey as long as 5 months (from August up to December every 2 weeks that aimed to know mosquito???s peak biting and resting density in each hour catching. A survey was conducted using all night landing collection method from 18.00 am up to 06.00 pm. In each hour survey; indoor and outdoor landing mosquitoes and also resting mosquitoes on inside wall and cattle stable, will be caught using aspirator and put onto paper cup. A study result was showed that indoor peak of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes biting densi-ty is 20.00, 22.00 and 23.00 o’clock, whereas the outside peak one is 21.00, 24.00 and 02.00 o’clock; peak of resting on inside wall is 18.00 o’clock and cattle stable resting is 24.00 o’clock.

Tri Ramadhani

2009-06-01

225

Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control  

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Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’ of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6% respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of respondents and the measures they take to prevent malaria (?2 = 58.7; df = 16; p < 0.001. The findings clearly suggest that the majority of the respondents had adequate knowledge and enviable health seeking behaviour. However, still a sizable faction had misconception and undesirable health seeking behaviour. It’s a major barrier to implement effective malaria control strategies in the resource- limited settings particularly in country like Ethiopia. In this context, appropriate communication strategies apparently inevitable. Therefore, appropriate communication strategies should be designed to promote the knowledge and health seeking behaviour of vulnerable section of the society in this vicinity.

Abdi Kumera

2010-06-01

226

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitat [...] s from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58%) specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

Cláudio, Casanova; Antonio IP, Costa; Delsio, Natal.

2005-11-01

227

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

Cláudio Casanova

2005-11-01

228

Molecular investigation of the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in wildlife and ticks in an endemic area.  

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At present few studies have been carried out on the distribution and incidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in wildlife. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of C. burnetii in the main wild species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain), such as carnivores, cervids, wild boar, lagomorphs and several species of birds. Tissues from a total of 601 animals and 340 adult ticks collected from them were analyzed by PCR. DNA of C. burnetii was detected in 5.1% of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 4.3% of wild boar (Sus scrofa), 9.1% of European hare (Lepus europaeus), and among wild birds, in 11% of vultures (Gyps fulvus) and 14% of black kites (Milvus migrans). These results showed that C. burnetii circulates in wildlife in Spain participating in the cycle of Q fever in nature. All of the adult ticks analyzed were negative for C. burnetii, suggesting that ticks do not play an important role in the transmission of C. burnetii in this area. PMID:20580169

Astobiza, I; Barral, M; Ruiz-Fons, F; Barandika, J F; Gerrikagoitia, X; Hurtado, A; García-Pérez, A L

2011-01-10

229

Brucella endocarditis in a non-endemic area presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 67-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension since 7?years presented with a 3-month history of low-grade fever and malaise. Cardiac auscultation revealed the presence of an ejection systolic murmur in the primary aortic area. Most of the investigations for febrile illness were reported normal. His two-dimensional (2D) echocardiogram revealed a calcified aortic valve with mild aortic stenosis. In view of the prolonged fever and calcified aortic valve with mild aortic stenosis, a transoesophageal echocardiogram was performed, which showed small vegetation noted on right coronary cusp about 2.2?mm with free independent mobility. Blood culture was positive for Brucella spp from all the three venepuncture sites. Medical therapy for brucellosis was given with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole and streptomycin, resulting in complete recovery. Brucella endocarditis is a rare, mostly ignored and missed clinical infection. It requires a high index of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25239983

Manade, Vivek Vilas; Kakrani, Arjun; Gadage, Siddharth Narayan; Misra, Rabindra

2014-01-01

230

Seasonal abundance and distribution of Anopheles larvae in a riparian malaria endemic area of western Thailand.  

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Three taxonomic groups of Anopheles larvae were morphologically identified within the Funestus Group (Minimus Subgroup and Aconitus Subgroup) (75.63%), Maculatus Group (20.47%), and Barbirostris Group (0.57%) during a two-year period in conjunction with active malaria transmission in a village near the Thai-Myanmar border in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The remaining 3.33% of anophelines collected were Anopheles culicifacies (3.07%), Anopheles philippinensis (0.17%), and Anopheles vagus (0.09%). Using an allele-specific multiplex molecular identification assay, the Minimus Subgroup consisted of Anopheles minimus (69.83%), and Anopheles harrisoni (0.06%) and 2 genetically-related species belonging to the Aconitus Subgroup, Anopheles aconitus (0.63%) and Anopheles varuna (5.12%). The Minimus and Aconitus Subgroup species were more abundant during the dry season (52.58%) than during the hot (24.95%) and wet (22.46%) seasons. The number of Anopheles larvae collected from the stream habitat was significantly higher during the second year than the first year, believed to be due to human environmental changes in the stream habitat from the building of a small check dam, which provided a more suitable and stable habitat for mosquito larval development. This study illustrates the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector bionomics (eg, larval habitats) and adult activity patterns and linking observations with malaria transmission dynamics in a given area. PMID:23077839

Kongmee, Monthathip; Achee, Nicole L; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Bangs, Michael J; Chowpongpang, Srimek; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2012-05-01

231

Neonatal thyroid screening in a mild iodine deficiency endemic area in Iran  

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Full Text Available Background : Evaluated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as an early index for diagnosis of neonatal hypothyroidism, indicates insufficient supply of thyroid hormones. Objective : The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism and assessment of iodine deficiency in the eastern part of Iran. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted in a pilot screening. Materials and Methods : The measurement of blood TSH spotted on filter paper was performed by ELISA method in 59,436 neonates. TSH value equal to 5 mU/L was considered cut off point. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in neonates with the blood TSH higher than the cut off point was based on clinical examinations and laboratory tests (serum TSH and T4. Statistical Analysis: The groups were compared using chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results : In our study, the recall rate and incidence of hypothyroidism were 3.6% and 2 per 1000 neonates respectively. Based on the proposal made by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD, the results of our study showed a mild iodine deficiency in the area. Conclusions : A comprehensive policy should be developed for control of iodine deficiency and treatment of hypothyroidism in the studied population and neighboring countries.

Najafi Mohammad

2008-03-01

232

Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

2014-04-01

233

Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection in an Endemic Area of Tuberculosis  

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The majority of investigations of the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have focused on highly developed nations with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. In contrast, the Para state of north Brazil represents an area of high tuberculosis prevalence and increasing NTM incidence. Toward the goal of understanding the dynamics of infection by all Mycobacterium species, we report patient characteristics and the identification of NTM strains isolated from sputum samples from patients that were residents of Para, a state in the Amazon region, Northern of Brazil, over the period January 2010 through December 2011 (2 years). The 29 NTM patients comprised 13.5% of positive mycobacterial cultures over the 2-year period. A major risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease was previous tuberculosis (76%). Further, the average age of NTM patients (52 years) was significantly higher than that of tuberculosis patients (39 years) and more were female (72.4% vs. 37.4%). Unlike other Brazilian states, NTM pulmonary patients in Para were infected with a different spectrum of mycobacteria; primarily the rapidly growing Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium simiae complex. PMID:23875055

da Costa, Ana Roberta Fusco; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Barretto, Adriana Rodrigues; Felicio, João Soares; Sales, Lúcia Helena Messias; Bahia, Jeann Ricardo da Costa; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista

2013-01-01

234

Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China  

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Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2?, 5-dichloro-4?-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

Jing Xia

2014-10-01

235

Evaluating the effect of a novel molluscicide in the endemic schistosomiasis japonica area of China.  

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Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

2014-01-01

236

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases we [...] re present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Vanessa Wolff, Machado; Pedro Fernando da Costa, Vasconcelos; Eliana Vieira Pinto, Silva; João Barberino, Santos.

2013-04-01

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Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.  

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The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. PMID:25108786

Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

2014-10-01

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Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role in the small-scale geographical variation of malaria risk in northern Angola. The results presented in this study can be used by provincial malaria control programme managers to help target the delivery of malaria control resources to priority areas in the Dande municipality.

Magalhães Ricardo J

2012-11-01

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A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.  

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Khodutka geothermal area is located near Khodutka and Priemysh volcanoes and is one of the largest geothermal areas of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Vakin (2003) described geological, geochemical and geothermic conditions of this geothermal area in detail. The main thermal water sources have temperatures up to 87°C and a discharge of approximately 150 l×sec.-1 are flows out into the warm lake with dimensions of ca. 250 m length and 80 m width. This warm river is ca. 20 m in width beginning from the lake and flows to the Bolshaya Khodutka River basin. Two local endemic Radix species were described from this geothermal area, especially Lymnaea (Radix) hadutkae Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 and L. (R.) thermokamtschatica Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Kruglov 2005). These species were separated using proportions of shell and reproductive system (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Starobogatov et al. 2004). According to the diagnosis, L. (R.) hadutkae differs in the ear-shape shell, a form of the provaginal duct with cylindrical distal part and conical proximal part, and larger value of the index of the copulatory apparatus (ICA: proportion of the preputium to phallotheca is 1.27) from other species within the section Thermoradix Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989. The last whorl is large, 0.86-0.89 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.15-0.16 of the aperture height. L. (R.) thermokamtschatica has the cylindrical provaginal duct, relatively short bursa duct (1.5X longer than the bursa copulatrix diameter) and very long phallotheca (ICA is 0.77). The last whorl is large, 0.85-0.87 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.2-0.25 of the aperture height. In accordance with an identification key (Starobogatov et al. 2004), the main diagnostic feature is an excess of the last whorl over the shell aperture, which has ?0.78 and ?0.80 of the penultimate whorl width in the first and second species, respectively. In the present paper, we revised these taxa using newly collected topotypes and additional Radix spp. specimens from other areas of the Russian Far East.  PMID:25283942

Bolotov, Ivan; Bespalaya, Yulia; Aksenova, Olga; Aksenov, Andrey; Bolotov, Nikita; Gofarov, Mikhail; Kondakov, Alexander; Paltser, Inga; Vikhrev, Ilya

2014-01-01

240

An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

Kumar Pradeep

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Asymptomatic infections in man: a Trojan horse for the introduction and spread of mosquito-borne arboviruses in non-endemic areas?].  

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In mosquito-borne arbovirus infections in man the asymptomatic cases are much more frequent than the symptomatic ones, but their true role in the introduction and subsequent spread of such diseases in non-endemic areas remains to be clarified. We have collected pertinent data from English and French literature from 1952 to 2010 through Pubmed and other bibliographic sources. Data were analysed to assess if viremia in asymptomatic human arbovirus infections might be sufficient to represent a true risk for introduction in non-endemic areas. During dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks, humans are believed to be the only vertebrate hosts. Since a very large number of individuals are infected and since viremic levels are known to vary by many orders of magnitude in symptomatic patients, it is reasonable to augur that a proportion of asymptomatic cases might reach levels of viremia sufficient to infect competent mosquitoes. Moreover, in both dengue and chikungunya fever, nosocomial infections have been identified representing an alternative opportunity for virus introduction in non-endemic areas. In zoonotic mosquito-borne arbovirus infections such as Japanese encephalitis or West Nile infection, the situation is quite different since humans are considered as "dead-end" hosts. However, the very large number of asymptomatic cases arising during outbreaks and the existence of newly recognised ways of contamination (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental way etc.) may also ensure their introduction and subsequent spread in new areas. PMID:21701863

Chastel, C

2011-08-01

242

Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina  

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Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

Diego E. Cargnelutti

2012-02-01

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Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.  

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For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination program. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ were associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) were also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts. PMID:24060539

Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Eisaku; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Itoh, Makoto

2014-02-01

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Polymerase Chain Reaction Pool Screening Used To Compare Prevalence of Infective Black Flies in Two Onchocerciasis Foci in Northern Sudan  

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Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infectious stage L3 larvae by usin...

Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Mohamed, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank

2011-01-01

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Survey of domestic cattle for anti-Leishmania antibodies and Leishmania DNA in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by an intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent, is considered to be anthroponotic. The role of domestic animals in its transmission is still unclear. Although cattle are the preferred blood host for Phlebotomus argentipes, the sandfly vector of VL in the Indian subcontinent, very little information is available for their role in the disease transmission. In this study, we examined domestic cattle for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection in a VL-endemic area in Bangladesh. Blood samples from 138 domestic cattle were collected from houses with active or recently-treated VL and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients. The presence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in serum was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and then with direct agglutination tests (DAT. Nested PCR (Ln PCR was performed to amplify the ssu-rRNA gene using the DNA extracted from Buffy coat. Recently-developed molecular assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP was also performed for further sensitive detection of parasite DNA. Results In this study, 9.4% (n = 13 of the cattle were found to be positive by ELISA. Of the 13 ELISA-positive cattle, only four (30.8% were positive in DAT. Parasite DNA was not detected in either of the molecular assays (Ln PCR and LAMP. Conclusions The study confirmed the presence of antibodies against Leishmania parasite in cattle. However, the absence of Leishmania DNA in the cattle indicates clearly that the cattle do not play a role as reservoir host. Similar study needs to be undertaken in the Indian subcontinent to determine the role of other domestic animals on which sandflies feed.

Itoh Makoto

2011-06-01

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Evaluation of infection and treatment methods in immunization of improved cattle against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya.  

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Five experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of immunization against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya using artificial infection with a mixture of stabilates of Theileria parva stock or natural infection and treatment with parvaquone or several formulations of oxytetracyclines. For the first four experiments, introduced, susceptible Sahiwal/Friesian crosses were used and in the fifth, calves of Boran/Maasai zebu crosses born on the site. Cattle were infected either artificially with sporozoite stabilates of local isolates of T. parva parva derived from cattle and T. parva lawrencei derived from African buffalo or exposed to natural tick challenge on the ranch mostly derived from buffalo. The cattle were then given various treatment regimens using either parvaquone or long- and short-acting formulations of oxytetracycline. Treatment of natural infections, although it can be effective, was not considered a practical method on a large scale because of the need for intensive monitoring in the case of parvaquone treatment and the possibility of cattle not becoming infected in the case of prolonged application of long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline. Both methods were relatively expensive. Artificial infection treatment proved more practical and methods were developed where the monitoring of cattle was not required during the immunization procedure. Out of a total of 16 drug regimens investigated, one (consisting of two treatments of a short-acting formulation of oxytetracycline at 10 mg kg-1 body weight on Days 0 and 3 or 4 after infection) was found to be the most efficacious and the cheapest, and has now been used on a routine basis. This method can be used successfully on calves greater than 1 month of age. PMID:2343540

Young, A S; Leitch, B L; Dolan, T T; Mbogo, S K; Ndungu, S G; Grootenhuis, J G; De Castro, J J

1990-03-01

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Prevalence of malaria as co-infection in HIV-infected individuals in a malaria endemic area of southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: The present study was conducted on the prevalence of malaria as co-infectionamongst ‘asymptomatic HIV’ and ‘symptomatic HIV’ subjects to see if such prevalence deviatedfrom that commonly reported in apparently health individuals in same locality.Methods: A prospective study that involved 196 participants grouped according to their HIV statusas: ‘asymptomatic HIV seropositive group’ (n = 101; ‘symptomatic HIV seropositive group’ (n =48 and ‘control HIV-seronegative group (n = 47. Blood samples collected from the participantswere used for double HIV screening by rapid immunoassay technique and immunochromatographictechnique, and for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using rapid P. falciparum antigendetection method.Results: The result showed that the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria as a co-infection amongst theasymptomatic HIV seropositive group was 12 (11.8% and amongst the symptomatic HIV seropositivegroup was 16 (33.3%. However, the prevalence rate of P. falciparum malaria amongst the controlHIV seronegative group was 5 (10.6% and the combined burden of P. falciparum malaria amongstboth groups of HIV seropositives was 28 (18.9%.Interpretation & conclusion: The present study observed different prevalence rates of P. falciparummalaria amongst the three groups. The prevalence was tripled in symptomatic HIV seropositive group.This shows a clear departure from possible obtainable prevalence of malaria infection alone in thismalaria endemic area. Due to the mortality rates associated with malaria infection in an endemicarea, it may be necessary that routine malaria screening be adopted as part of the management policyto check the co-infection.

C.C. Onyenekwe, N. Ukibe, S.C. Meludu, A. Ilika, N. Aboh, N. Ofiaeli, M. Ezaeni & A. Onochie

2007-12-01

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T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10 production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10. The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10 and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma, leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

Rita C Bittar

2007-08-01

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T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor [...] resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10) production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma) and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10). The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10) and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma), leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

Rita C, Bittar; Ricardo S, Nogueira; Ricardo, Vieira-Gonçalves; Vanessa, Pinho-Ribeiro; Marise S, Mattos; Manoel Paes, Oliveira-Neto; Sergio G, Coutinho; Alda M, Da-Cruz.

2007-08-01

250

Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae, and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86% villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.

Carabin Hélène

2003-01-01

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Malaria outbreaks in a non-endemic area of Brazil, 2005 Surtos de malária em área não endêmica do Brasil, 2005  

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In March 2005, a resident of the municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, without any history of traveling to endemic areas for malaria, was diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection and local mosquito-borne transmission was suspected. The epidemiological investigation identified another 10 cases with local transmission and all of them were related to the imported malaria case that was detected in this region. The potential exposure site was the banks of the river Tejuco,...

Jean Ezequiel Limongi; Kátia Maria Chaves; Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula; Fabíola Corrêa da Costa; Silva, Alcides Assis E.; Íris de Sousa Lopes; Adalberto de Albuquerque Pajuaba Neto; José Maria Sales; Fernando Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Montes Resende; Marcelo Simão Ferreira

2008-01-01

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The impact of two dipping systems on endemic stability of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle at four communal grazing areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

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A twelve-month study was conducted at four communal grazing areas namely, Oakley, Cunningmore, Mkhuhlu and Ronaldsy in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective of the study was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on the endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis) and anaplasmosis in a sample of the local cattle population. The study should be of assistance to farmers who are attempting ...

Rikhotso, Boetie Oupa

2004-01-01

253

Dengue vaccine trial guidelines and role of large-scale, post proof-of-concept demonstration projects in bringing a dengue vaccine to use in dengue endemic areas  

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In this review, we consider the issues impacting conduct and design of dengue vaccine trials with reference to the recently published world Health Organization “Guidelines for Conduct of Clinical Trials of Dengue vaccines in endemic Areas.” We discuss logistic, scientific and ethical challenges concerning evaluation and introduction of dengue vaccines; these range from randomized trials that establish “proof of concept” of vaccine efficacy, to post-“proof of concept” trials, parti...

Letson, G. William; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Fernandez, Eduardo; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Amador, Juan Jose; Margolis, Harold S.; Edelman, Robert

2010-01-01

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An Evaluation of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2006 for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Gujarat  

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Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visi...

Kumar Pradeep; Prajapati P; Saxena Deepak; Kavishwar Abhay; Kurian George

2008-01-01

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Socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Montenegro skin test positivity in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

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In Marocco, many aspects of human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) still have to be clarified and little information is available about the factors that predispose individuals to asymptomatic infection. A prospective study was carried out in 889 healthy children under the age of 15 years living in two provinces in the endemic area in northern Morocco (the provinces of Taounate and My Yacoub) from April to May 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the socio-econ...

Hamid Amarouch; Abderahmane Laamrani; Meryem Lemrani; Mohammed Hassar; Rajaa Ejghal; Salsabil Hamdi; Abdellah Faouzi

2012-01-01

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Host immune response to Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides in a highly endemic area: evidence of parasite co-immunomodulation properties influencing the outcome of both infections  

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Toxoplasmosis and ascaridiasis evoke polar Th-1 and Th-2 host immune responses, respectively. A study to investigate the specific cytokine profile production by in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals living under precarious sanitary conditions in a highly endemic area for the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides was conducted. High levels of both IFN-³ (Th-1) and IL-13 (Th-2) were observed in groups of co-infected individuals presenting toxop...

Mg, Li?lian Bahia-oliveira; Juliana Azevedo da Silva; Alba Lucinia Peixoto-Rangel; Marcela Santana Bastos Boechat; Wilken Abreu Oliveira, Annelise M.; Massara, Cristiano L.; Ricardo Guerra Peixe

2009-01-01

257

Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh  

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Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few st...

Akter Jasmin; Thriemer Kamala; Khan Wasif A; Sullivan David J; Noedl Harald; Haque Rashidul

2012-01-01

258

Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis  

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Background: Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods: Indiv...

Solano Gallego, Laia

2012-01-01

259

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each...

Paulo Silva de Almeida; Jhoy Alves Leite; Aldecir Dutra de Araújo; Paulo Mira Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva Touro; Vânia Santos Araújo; Edson José de Souza; João Batista Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos Santos; Odival Faccenda; José Dilermando Andrade Filho

2013-01-01

260

Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B.) Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third...

Mendes Nelymar M; Vasconcellos Maurício C; Baptista Darcilio F; Rocha Roberto S.; Schall Virginia T

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250?kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200?mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18?months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36?months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36?months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6.5% in untreated and 11% in no net villages. PI in LN villages was 16.4 in comparison to 24.8 and 44.2 in untreated polyester net and no net villages respectively. In surveys carried out after three years of initial distribution, 78.7% (737/936 nets were still in possession with the households, of which 68% were used every night. An. culicifacies mortality was >80% in cone bioassays done on LNs washed up to 20 times in laboratory. Mean alpha-cypermethrin content was 43.5?±?31.7?mg/m2 on Interceptor LNs withdrawn after three years of household use against the baseline specification of 200?mg/m2. A gradual increase in the proportion of holed nets was observed with the increased period of usage. Conclusion Interceptor nets were highly effective in reducing vector densities as well as malaria incidence in the study villages. Availability of 78% nets with the households in usable condition clearly indicated durability of Interceptor LNs up to three years in the rural setting of India. The nets were found to contain an effective concentration of alpha-cypermethrin against malaria vector after three years of household use.

Bhatt Rajendra M

2012-06-01

262

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

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Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluor...

Reddy D

2009-01-01

263

Evaluation of rK-39 strip test using urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by demonstration of parasites in tissue smears obtained from bone marrow, spleen or lymph nodes is risky, painful, and difficult. The rK-39 strip test is widely used for the diagnosis of VL using blood/serum samples in endemic countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rK-39 strip test using urine sample as a non-invasive means for the diagnosis of VL. The rk-39 strip test was performed using urine from 100 suspected VL cases along with 25 disease control (malarial febrile cases and 50 healthy control (from endemic and non-endemic areas. All the VL suspected cases were positive with the rK-39 strip test using serum. The sensitivity and specificity of the rK-39 strip test using urine samples was 95% and 93.3%, respectively, compared to serum based rK-39 test. The findings suggest that the urine based rK-39 test could be a practical and efficient tool for the diagnosis of VL patients in rural areas, particularly where resources are limited.

Haque Rashidul

2010-11-01

264

Low prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala-azar endemic areas of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health problem in Bangladesh with the highest disease burden in the Mymensingh District. The disease is transmitted by sand fly bites, but it may also be transmitted through blood transfusions. No information is available about the prevalence of Leishmania infection among blood donors in Bangladesh; therefore we aimed to investigate this question. Methods The study was carried out in the Blood Transfusion Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. One thousand one hundred and ninety five adult healthy blood donors attending in this department were enrolled in the study from August 2010 to April 2011. After obtaining written consent, socio-demographic data and a detailed health history were collected. The medical officer in the unit performed a complete physical examination to exclude any acute or chronic diseases, which was followed by sero-diagnosis for exposure to Leishmania by rK39 strip test using finger prick blood. Blood donors with a positive rK39 strip test underwent a PCR test for detection of leishmania DNA in their peripheral blood buffy coat. Results Eighty two percent of enrolled blood donors were male (n=985 and 18% (n=210 were female. The mean age of blood donors was 27 years (SD, 7.95 years. The majority of donors were literate and had mid-to-higher socioeconomic condition reflected by household conditions reported by the subject. Only 2.6% had a family member with VL in the past. Three blood donors were positive for leishmania infection by rK39 strip test (0.3%, 95%CI, 0.05%-0.73%. None of these 3 had active leishmania infection as demonstrated by PCR analysis. During six months of follow up, neither rK39 positive (n=3 nor rK39 negative (n=1192 donors developed VL. Conclusion The prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among blood donors attending the Blood Transfusion Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital was very low. Therefore the chance for transmission of VL through blood transfusion is negligible. We believe that the National VL Elimination Program does not need set up routine screening for Leishmania donovani infection in blood transfusion departments located in VL endemic areas of Bangladesh.

Huda M Mamun

2013-02-01

265

Hepatitis E Virus Infection among Animals and Humans in Xinjiang, China: Possibility of Swine to Human Transmission of Sporadic Hepatitis E in an Endemic Area  

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Hepatitis E is a worldwide public health problem, especially in areas with poor sanitation. This study examines the potential hepatitis E virus (HEV) animal reservoirs and the current status of HEV infection among animals and humans in an endemic area of Xinjiang, China. One thousand five hundred twenty-one serum samples from 12 different animal species and 296 sera from humans were detected for anti-HEV with an in-house enzyme immunoassay, and partial HEV RNA was amplified with a reverse tra...

Fu, Hongwei; Li, Lingjun; Zhu, Yonghong; Wang, Ling; Geng, Jiabao; Chang, Yibin; Xue, Cheng; Du, Gang; Li, Yaning; Zhuang, Hui

2010-01-01

266

Efficacy of DEET and non-DEET-based insect repellents against bites of Simulium damnosum vectors of onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coping strategies including smoke screens are used against nuisance bites of Simulium damnosum Theobald (Diptera:Simuliidae) in onchocerciasis endemic communities. To find more effective alternatives, the efficacy of commercially available N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) products with active concentrations of 9.5, 13, 25, 50 and 98.1-100% and 'NO MAS,' (active component: para-menthane-3,8-diol and lemon grass oil) were tested at Bui-Agblekame, Ghana. A Latin square study design was implemented using eight groups of two vector collectors each, who used repellents (treatment), mineral oil or nothing each day until the end of the study. Flies were caught and their numbers each hour recorded using the standard methods for onchocerciasis transmission studies. T-tests were used to compare the mean duration of protection and a one-way analysis of variance controlling for catchers and repellents was performed. Tukey's test was used to compare protection by repellents and mineral oil. The highest percentage protection was 80.8% by NO MAS and the least 42.5% by the 13% DEET product. The period of absolute protection was 5 h by NO MAS and 1 h by 50% DEET product. No significant increase in protection was offered beyond 25% active DEET products and no significance was observed in terms of catcher × repellent effect (F = 1.731, d.f. = 48, P = 0.209). PMID:23167529

Wilson, M D; Osei-Atweneboana, M; Boakye, D A; Osei-Akoto, I; Obuobi, E; Wiafe, C; Kiszewski, A

2013-06-01

267

Isolation and Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Strains in an Area of Italy Where Lyme Borreliosis Is Endemic  

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Between 1993 and 1998, we isolated Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from 55 of the 119 patients with clinically diagnosed Lyme borreliosis who were admitted to “San Martino” Hospital in Belluno, Veneto, an Adriatic region in northeastern Italy where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. Upon hospitalization, all patients presented erythema migrans. Isolates were typed using ribosomal DNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer. Of the 41 isola...

Ciceroni, Lorenzo; Ciarrochi, Simonetta; Ciervo, Alessandra; Mondarini, Valeria; Guzzo, Francesco; Caruso, Giuseppe; Murgia, Rossella; Cinco, Marina

2001-01-01

268

Ecological studies in Madagascar of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. 2. Biology and dynamics in the non-endemic area of Antananarivo.  

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The region of Antananarivo, where Schistosomiasis is not yet endemic, is compared to Ambositra, a well established focus of S. mansoni, with regard to climate, hydrology and snail habitats. Higher mean temperatures and a more pronounced dry season in Antananarivo contribute to sometimes less favourable hydrological conditions. Biomphalaria is found in very few and limited habitats. Population dynamics were followed up in selected habitats and showed ecological parameters comparable to those of the Ambositra-strain. Trematode infections were very scarce. Both strains of Biomphalaria are equally susceptible to infections with the malagasy strain of S. mansoni (up to 100 p. 100). Mortality rates, prepatency periods and the electrophoretic pattern of egg proteins are very similar. Foreign snail species like B. glabrata (albino strain) and B. pfeifferi (South African strain) are hardly susceptible to malagasy S. mansoni. Some cases of S. mansoni-infections are mentioned, which presumably had been contracted in non-endemic areas of the province of Antananarivo. The possibility and risk of implantation of schistosomiasis in this region and in the town is evaluated following the discussion of epidemiological details. The author concludes that in spite of some unfavourable conditions for S. mansoni the establishment of the cycle can locally not be excluded. Attention is all the more important, as control of endemic schistosomiasis would be particularly difficult under malagasy conditions of geography, climate, snail dynamics and human behaviour. PMID:747438

Pfluger, W

1978-01-01

269

Optimized nuclear techniques, thyroid function studies of newborns in iodine deficient areas and assessment of severity of iodine deficiency of endemic goitre areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cord blood samples, as a sera (n 4753) and as dried blood spots (n 5041) were obtained from subjects in Bangkok and iodine deficient districts in northern Thailand to study for T4 and TSH. The nuclear techniques were optimized by the use of NETRIA bulk reagents and in-house methods were developed and adapted for cost reduction, conveniences and precision/accuracy. The biochemical findings with cut-off values at 50 mIU/L for TSH as confirmed by <1 ng/dl for FT4 showed 0.34% (n16) of neonatal chemical hypothyroidism (NCH) varying in different provinces from 0.18 to 1.6% of 2253 cases of Phase I and 0.34-1.45% of 2500 cases of Phase II. Out of the total 4753 cases, 1.12% (n53) might be benefited by thyroxine administration. In this research project, the screening indicated moderate degree of IDD severity. It is useful for epidemiological evaluations, surveillance and for advocacy of the IDD control programme. Follow-up studies were undertaken in the available three subjects with abnormal serum findings in which all of them appeared to have transient neonatal hypothyroidism to assess the IDD severity. Further studies of dried cord blood spots (n 5041) demonstrated that the percentages of TSH above 5, 20 and 50 mIU/L and of T4 under 3, 5 and 10 ug/dl could be used for follow-up to compare the severity of different districts at the same time intervals and to assess the severity of the same district in different years. By this way, the severity of individual districts and its progress, could be evaluated for the IDD control in any endemic areas

270

Characterization of overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among HTLV-1 positive healthy carriers in the Northeast of Iran; AN HTLV-I endemic area.  

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To date, no studies have provided data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence among asymptomatic, healthy human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) positive carriers. This sero- and molecular epidemiology study was performed on patients in the Northeast of Iran, which is an endemic area for HTLV-I infection. A total of 109 sera were collected from HTLV-I positive healthy carriers who were admitted to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad City. All were tested for HBV serology and subsequently, real time PCR was carried out on the samples, regardless of the results of the serology. Standard PCR and direct sequencing were applied on positive samples. All cases were negative for HBsAg, Anti-HBc, and anti-HBs were positive in 34 (31.1%), and 35 (32%) individuals, respectively. There were 19 (17.4%) cases that were positive only for anti-HBs, and they had already received HBV vaccine. 16 (15%) were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, indicating a past-resolved HBV infection. 18 (16.5%) were isolated as anti-HBc, and 56 (51.3%) were negative for all HBV serological markers. Only one subject (0.9%) had detectable HBV DNA (2153?copy/ml), and assigned as being an occult HBV infection. The low prevalence of HBsAg, despite the high percentage of anti-HBc positive cases, might be related to the suppression effect of HTLV-I on surface protein expression. The low prevalence of HBV infection among HTLV-I positive healthy carriers from an endemic region, indicates that the epidemiology of HTLV-I and HBV coinfection is related to the endemicity of HBV in that region, rather than HTLV-I endemicity. PMID:25132488

Chenari, Maryam; Norouzi, Mehdy; Ghalichi, Leila; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Yari, Atefe; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

2014-11-01

271

Immune recognition of Onchocerca volvulus proteins in the human host and animal models of onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-dwelling, vector-borne nematode parasite of humans and is the causative agent of onchocerciasis or river blindness. Natural infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis and of cattle with Onchocerca ochengi were used as models to study the immune responses to O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins (OvALT-2, OvNLT-1, Ov103 and Ov7). The humoral immune response of O. volvulus-infected humans against OvALT-2, OvNLT-1 and Ov7 revealed pronounced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres which were, however, significantly lower than against the lysate of O. volvulus adult female worms. Sera derived from patients displaying the hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis showed a uniform trend of higher IgG reactivity both to the single proteins and the O. volvulus lysate. Sera derived from L. sigmodontis-infected mice and from calves exposed to O. ochengi transmission in a hyperendemic area also contained IgM and IgG1 specific for O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins. These results strongly suggest that L. sigmodontis-specific and O. ochengi-specific immunoglobulins elicited during natural infection of mice and cattle cross-reacted with O. volvulus-derived recombinant antigens. Monitoring O. ochengi-infected calves over a 26-month period, provided a comprehensive kinetic of the humoral response to infection that was strictly correlated with parasite load and occurrence of microfilariae. PMID:24721822

Manchang, T K; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Ndjonka, D; Eisenbarth, A; Achukwi, M D; Renz, A; Brattig, N W; Liebau, E; Breloer, M

2014-04-10

272

Rabies and bats in a rabies-endemic area of southern Africa : application of two commercial test kits for antigen and antibody detection  

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In southern Africa, isolates of rabies-related viruses (i.e. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus) have been made from insectivorous and frugivorous bats. As no recent formal bat virus survey has been reported in southern Africa, a survey of bats in rabies-endemic areas was undertaken. Five hundred and forty seven bats (13 species) were collected from 21 localities in the Orange Free State, Lesotho and the northern Cape Province. None of the 190 bat sera tested using the "Trousse P...

Oelofsen, M. J.; Smith, M. S.

1993-01-01

273

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with STh and STp Genotypes Is Associated with Diarrhea Both in Children in Areas of Endemicity and in Travelers?  

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea among children in developing countries and in travelers to areas of ETEC endemicity. ETEC strains isolated from humans may produce a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and two types of the heat-stable enterotoxin STa, called STh and STp, encoded by the estA gene. Two commonly used assay methods for the detection of STa, the infant mouse assay or different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are unable to distinguish between t...

Bo?lin, Ingrid?; Wiklund, Gudrun; Qadri, Firdausi; Torres, Olga; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Savarino, Stephen; Svennerholm, Ann-mari

2006-01-01

274

Eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem: the beginning of the end  

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Onchocerciasis is one of the diseases targeted by Vision 2020. It is the world’s second leading infectious cause of blindness, responsible for at least one million blind or severely visually disabled people. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in sub-Saharan Africa will be closed down in 2002, after 27 years of operation. This is the clearest indication that the prospects of eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem may be achieved by the end of this decade. The programme...

Etya’ale?, D.

2002-01-01

275

Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:25022923

Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

2014-07-14

276

Frequency of Infection of Lutzomyia Phlebotomines with Leishmania braziliensis in a Brazilian Endemic Area as Assessed by Pinpoint Capture and Polymerase Chain Reaction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania infected of Lutzomyia spp. are rare in endemic areas. We tested the hypothesis that there is clustering of infected vectors by combining pinpoint capture with sensitive L. braziliensis kDNA minicircle specific PCR/dot blot in an endemic area in the State of Bahia. Thirty out of 335 sample [...] s (10 to 20 sand flies/sample; total of 4,027 female sand flies) were positive by PCR analysis and dot blot leading to a underestimated overall rate of 0.4% positive phlebotomines. However, 83.3% of the positive samples were contributed by a single sector out of four sectors of the whole studied area. This resulted in a rate of 1.5% Leishmania positive phlebotomines for this sector, far above rates of other sectors. Incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases for this sector was about twice that for other sectors. Our results show that there is a non-homogeneous distribution of Leishmania-infected vectors. Such a clustering may have implications in control strategies against leishmaniasis, and reinforces the necessity of understanding the ecological and geographical factors involved in leishmanial transmission.

José Carlos, Miranda; Eliana, Reis; Albert, Schriefer; Marilda, Gonçalves; Mitermayer Galvão, Reis; Lucas, Carvalho; Octavio, Fernandes; Manoel, Barral-Netto; Aldina, Barral.

2002-03-01

277

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, populati...

Castellucci, Le?a Cristina; Almeida, Lucas Frederico; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-01-01

278

High prevalence anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, among blood donors in the State of Puebla, a non-endemic area of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Blood transfusion is the second most common transmission route of Chagas disease in many Latin American countries. In Mexico, the prevalence of Chagas disease and impact of transfusion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated blood is not clear. We determined the seropositivity to T. cruzi in a representat [...] ive random sample, of 2,140 blood donors (1,423 men and 647 women, aged 19-65 years), from a non-endemic state of almost 5 millions of inhabitants by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests using one autochthonous antigen from T. cruzi parasites, which were genetically characterized like TBAR/ME/1997/RyC-V1 (T. cruzi I) isolated from a Triatoma barberi specimen collected in the same locality. The seropositivity was up to 8.5% and 9% with IHA and ELISA tests, respectively, and up to 7.7% using both tests in common. We found high seroprevalence in a non-endemic area of Mexico, comparable to endemic countries where the disease occurs, e.g. Brazil (0.7%), Bolivia (13.7%) and Argentina (3.5%). The highest values observed in samples from urban areas, associated to continuous rural emigration and the absence of control in blood donors, suggest unsuspected high risk of transmission of T. cruzi, higher than those reported for infections by blood e.g. hepatitis (0.1%) and AIDS (0.1%) in the same region.

MC, Sánchez-Guillén; C, Barnabé; JF, Guégan; M, Tibayrenc; M, Velásquez-Rojas; J, Martínez-Munguía; H, Salgado-Rosas; E, Torres-Rasgado; MI, Rosas-Ramírez; R, Pérez-Fuentes.

2002-10-01

279

The relationship between dental fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentration - a study in an endemic area - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p355  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DF severity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a good predictor/indicator of DF severity.

Marc Daniel Grynpas

2012-01-01

280

Comparison of Microscopy, Nested-PCR, and Real-Time-PCR Assays Using High-Throughput Screening of Pooled Samples for Diagnosis of Malaria in Asymptomatic Carriers from Areas of Endemicity in Myanmar  

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Asymptomatic infection is an important obstacle for controlling disease in countries where malaria is endemic. Because asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infections, they can have high levels of gametocytes and constitute a reservoir available for new infection. We employed a sample pooling/PCR-based molecular detection strategy for screening malaria infection in residents from areas of Myanmar where malaria is endemic. Blood samples (n = 1,552) were collected from resident...

Wang, Bo; Han, Soe-soe; Cho, Cho; Han, Jin-hee; Cheng, Yang; Lee, Seong-kyun; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Soe, Myat Thu; Oo, Htet Wai; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-taek

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic ar [...] eas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

Rosana, Gentile; Sócrates F, Costa-Neto; Margareth ML, Gonçalves; Simone T, Bonecker; Fabiano A, Fernandes; Juberlan S, Garcia; Magali G M, Barreto; Marisa S, Soares; Paulo S, D' Andrea; José M, Peralta; Luis, Rey.

2006-10-01

282

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 [...] of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

Teiliane Rodrigues, Carneiro; Regina Helena Saramago, Peralta; Marta Cristhiany Cunha, Pinheiro; Sara Menezes de, Oliveira; Jose Mauro, Peralta; Fernando Schemelzer Moraes, Bezerra.

2013-12-06

283

Detection of active schistosome infection by cell-free circulating DNA of Schistosoma japonicum in highly endemic areas in Sorsogon Province, the Philippines.  

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The current status of schistosomiasis in highly endemic areas is difficult to determine by ovum detection because of the superficially low parasite load after mass drug administration, whereas the parasite transmission rates are still high. Cell-free parasite DNA is fragments of parasite-derived DNA existing in the host's body fluids. We conducted population-based studies to test the presence of cell-free schistosome DNA in endemic areas of Sorsogon Province, the Philippines. Schistosome DNA in the serum and urine of Kato-Katz (KK)-positive subjects was detected by PCR (100% sensitivity). Schistosome DNA was also detected from KK-negative subjects (9/22 serum and 10/41 urine samples). Schistosome DNA was found to be network echogenic pattern (NW)-positive (serum 53.3%, urine 42.9%) or NW-negative (serum 25.5%, urine 20.8%) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive (serum 47.1%, urine 40%) or ELISA-negative (serum 33.3%, urine 13.3%). These results indicate that cell-free schistosome DNA is a promising diagnostic marker for active schistosome infection in the case of light infection. PMID:24836919

Kato-Hayashi, Naoko; Leonardo, Lydia R; Arevalo, Napoleon L; Tagum, Ma Nerissa B; Apin, James; Agsolid, Lea M; Chua, James C; Villacorte, Elena A; Kirinoki, Masashi; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Haruki, Kosuke; Chigusa, Yuichi

2015-01-01

284

Serosurveillance to monitor onchocerciasis elimination: the Ugandan experience.  

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Uganda is the only African country whose onchocerciasis elimination program uses a two-pronged approach of vector control and mass drug distribution. The Ugandan program relies heavily upon the use of serosurveys of children to monitor progress toward elimination. The program has tested over 39,000 individuals from 11 foci for Onchocerca volvulus exposure, using the Ov16 ELISA test. The data show that the Ov16 ELISA is a useful operational tool to monitor onchocerciasis transmission interruption in Africa at the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold of < 0.1% in children. The Ugandan experience has also resulted in a re-examination of the statistical methods used to estimate the boundary of the upper 95% confidence interval for the WHO prevalence threshold when all samples tested are negative. This has resulted in the development of Bayesian and hypergeometric statistical methods that reduce the number of individuals who must be tested to meet the WHO criterion. PMID:24343885

Oguttu, David; Byamukama, Edson; Katholi, Charles R; Habomugisha, Peace; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank O; Unnasch, Thomas R

2014-02-01

285

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

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Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05). The prevalenc...

S O Sam-wobo, M. A. Adeleke

2012-01-01

286

Immunologic aspects of the pathogenesis of human onchocerciasis  

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Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a parasitic disease that affects more than 20 million people globally. The induction of pathology is directly related to the presence and destruction of the microfilarial stages (mf) of this filarial nematode. The disease presents clinically with a wide spectrum of dermal and ocular manifestations, the basis of the variation is believed to involve the immune system. The clinical presentations of infected hosts relate to the intensity of the reactions aga...

Ali, Magdi Mahmoud

2006-01-01

287

HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was [...] to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

Priscilla, Alexandrino-de-Oliveira; Joanna Reis, Santos-Oliveira; Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Dorval; Francisco das Chagas Brandão, Da-Costa; Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite, Pereira; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha; Anamaria Mello Miranda, Paniago; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz.

2010-08-01

288

Eco-Epidemiology of Chagas Disease in an Endemic Area of Colombia: Risk Factor Estimation, Trypanosoma cruzi Characterization and Identification of Blood-Meal Sources in Bugs.  

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The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) is a mountainous area in Colombia that is highly endemic to Chagas disease. We explored some eco-epidemiological attributes involved in the Chagas disease transmission scenario in three Indigenous communities. An epidemiological survey was done, where parasite infection in reservoirs and insects, Trypanosoma cruzi genotyping, identification of blood-meal sources in intradomiciliary insects using the high-resolution melting technique, and some risk factors were evaluated. The results suggest that several dwelling conditions such as thatched palm roofs and mud walls carried the highest risk of finding intradomiciliary Rhodnius prolixus, which 56.41% were infected with T. cruzi and fed with human blood. Moreover, T. cruzi Ia was the most frequent haplotype found in insects. These results indicate the existence of a domestic T. cruzi transmission cycle that does not overlap with the sylvatic cycle, and highlight the need for efficient entomological control focused to this area. PMID:25331808

Peña-García, Víctor H; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés M; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M

2014-12-01

289

Primera descripción del hábitat acuático de Simulium guianense s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) en el área endémica de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela / First description of the Simulium guianense s.l. larval habitat in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis, southern Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Simulium guianense sensu lato es el vector de Onchocerca volvulus en el foco amazónico de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela. En esta nota presentamos la primera identificación geográfica, caracterización ecológica y descripción del paisaje del hábitat acuático de las formas pre-adultas de este compl [...] ejo de especies, en el área de transmisión de esta parasitosis. Las larvas y pupas de esta especie fueron muestreadas sobre plantas Podostemaceas presentes en un raudal de aguas claras (pH= 7, conductividad = 158 umhos/cm, y caudal = 0.12 m³/s) del río Orinoquito, en el área de la Reserva de Biosfera del Alto Orinoco-Casiquiare. El paisaje del área de muestreo correspondió a un bosque húmedo ombrófilo macrotérmico y el raudal del río estudiado fluye sobre una planicie aluvial de sustrato de arena y gravas de cuarzo. El presente hallazgo contribuirá con la estratificación epidemiológica de la endemia y orientará las medidas de eliminación de la oncocercosis al sur de Venezuela. Abstract in english Simulium guianense sensu lato is the main vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, southern Venezuela. Here, we present the first report of the pre-adult aquatic habitat spatial distribution as well as the landscape and the habitat ecological characterization of this spec [...] ies complex within the endemic area. Larvae and pupae were collected on submerged aquatic plants (Podosteamaceas) located in a waterfall (pH = 7, conductivity = 158 umhos/cm, discharge = 0.12 m3/s) of the Orinoquito river, in the Upper Orinoco-Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve. These results will help with the epidemiological stratification and control program of the onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela.

Nestor, Villamizar; José, Cortez; Oscar, Noya Alarcón; Marisela, Escalona; Carlos, Botto; María Eugenia, Grillet.

2011-06-01

290

Evaluation of allelic forms of the erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Brazilian endemic area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175 (EBA-175 is an antigen considered to be one of the leading malaria vaccine candidates. EBA-175 mediates sialic acid-dependent binding to glycophorin A on the erythrocytes playing a crucial role during invasion of the P. falciparum in the host cell. Dimorphic allele segments, termed C-fragment and F-fragment, have been found in high endemicity malaria areas and associations between the dimorphism and severe malaria have been described. In this study, the genetic dimorphism of EBA-175 was evaluated in P. falciparum field isolates from Brazilian malaria endemic area. Methods The study was carried out in rural villages situated near Porto Velho, Rondonia State in the Brazilian Amazon in three time points between 1993 and 2008. The allelic dimorphism of the EBA-175 was analysed by Nested PCR. Results The classical allelic dimorphism of the EBA-175 was identified in the studied area. Overall, C-fragment was amplified in a higher frequency than F-fragment. The same was observed in the three time points where C-fragment was observed in a higher frequency than F-fragment. Single infections (one fragment amplified were more frequent than mixed infection (two fragments amplified. Conclusions These findings confirm the dimorphism of EBA175, since only the two types of fragments were amplified, C-fragment and F-fragment. Also, the results show the remarkable predominance of CAMP allele in the studied area. The comparative analysis in three time points indicates that the allelic dimorphism of the EBA-175 is stable over time.

de Oliveira-Ferreira Joseli

2011-05-01

291

The Potato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans Mont de Bary as Selection Factor of Phurejas Potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) in Endemic Areas of the Bolivian Andes  

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Phurejas potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) are cultivated in very restricted areas of the Bolivian Andes. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a destructive, endemic disease that affects the survival and cultivation of this crop. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance characteristics of phurejas potato varieties to P. infestans in a traditional area of cultivation. An experimental p...

Mario Coca-Morante; Ismael Tolín-Tordoya

2013-01-01

292

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

2014-06-01

293

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

Castellucci, Léa Cristina; de Almeida, Lucas Frederico; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; de Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-01-01

294

Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2.10-19.29] are positive predictors of compliance to ivermectin. Conclusion Interventions to improve compliance in the area should focus on health education using epidemiological data in order to increase risk perception and dispelling misconceptions. Motivation and continued support to improve CDD's performance including training and incentives are crucial.

Wondafrash Mekite

2010-06-01

295

High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil.  

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Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture). Results T. cruzi I (TcI) was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1%) subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands); however, high similarities (80-100%) among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease. PMID:25271788

Alkmim-Oliveira, Sandra Maria; Kappel, Henrique Borges; Andrade, Cristiane Pontes; Prata, Aluízio; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; Correia, Dalmo; Lages-Silva, Eliane

2014-10-01

296

Rabies and bats in a rabies-endemic area of southern Africa: application of two commercial test kits for antigen and antibody detection.  

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In southern Africa, isolates of rabies-related viruses (i.e. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus) have been made from insectivorous and frugivorous bats. As no recent formal bat virus survey has been reported in southern Africa, a survey of bats in rabies-endemic areas was undertaken. Five hundred and forty-seven bats (13 species) were collected from 21 localities in the Orange Free State, Lesotho and the northern Cape Province. None of the 190 bat sera tested using the "Trousse Platelia Rage" ELISA kit (Diagnostic Pasteur), had antibodies to rabies virus glycoprotein G. Rabies virus nucleocapsid antigen was also sought for in the brains of 530 bats (13 species) by means of the "Rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis" (RREID) test (Diagnostics Pasteur). No positive results were obtained. These results show that bats are unlikely to play an important role as hosts of rabies in these parts of Africa, although a low rate of infection cannot be excluded. PMID:7970582

Oelofsen, M J; Smith, M S

1993-09-01

297

Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis infection by indirect fluorescence antibody assay: test development and application to a population in an area of bartonellosis endemicity.  

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Bartonella bacilliformis causes bartonellosis, a potentially life-threatening emerging infectious disease seen in the Andes Mountains of South America. There are no generally accepted serologic tests to confirm the disease. We developed an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test for the detection of antibodies to B. bacilliformis and then tested its performance as an aid in the diagnosis of acute bartonellosis. The IFA is 82% sensitive in detecting B. bacilliformis antibodies in acute-phase blood samples of laboratory-confirmed bartonellosis patients. When used to examine convalescent-phase sera, the IFA is positive in 93% of bartonellosis cases. The positive predictive value of the test is 89% in an area of Peru where B. bacilliformis is endemic and where the point prevalence of infection is 45%. PMID:11060108

Chamberlin, J; Laughlin, L; Gordon, S; Romero, S; Solórzano, N; Regnery, R L

2000-11-01

298

Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis Infection by Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay: Test Development and Application to a Population in an Area of Bartonellosis Endemicity  

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Bartonella bacilliformis causes bartonellosis, a potentially life-threatening emerging infectious disease seen in the Andes Mountains of South America. There are no generally accepted serologic tests to confirm the disease. We developed an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test for the detection of antibodies to B. bacilliformis and then tested its performance as an aid in the diagnosis of acute bartonellosis. The IFA is 82% sensitive in detecting B. bacilliformis antibodies in acute-phase blood samples of laboratory-confirmed bartonellosis patients. When used to examine convalescent-phase sera, the IFA is positive in 93% of bartonellosis cases. The positive predictive value of the test is 89% in an area of Peru where B. bacilliformis is endemic and where the point prevalence of infection is 45%. PMID:11060108

Chamberlin, Judith; Laughlin, Larry; Gordon, Scott; Romero, Sofia; Solórzano, Nelson; Regnery, Russell L.

2000-01-01

299

Host immune response to Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides in a highly endemic area: evidence of parasite co-immunomodulation properties influencing the outcome of both infections  

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Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and ascaridiasis evoke polar Th-1 and Th-2 host immune responses, respectively. A study to investigate the specific cytokine profile production by in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals living under precarious sanitary conditions in a highly endemic area for the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides was conducted. High levels of both IFN-³ (Th-1 and IL-13 (Th-2 were observed in groups of co-infected individuals presenting toxoplasmic ocular lesions. Significantly lower IL-10 and TGF-² levels were produced by co-infected individuals in comparison with groups of individuals not infected with A. lumbricoides and either positive or negative for T. gondii living under good sanitary conditions (control groups. The possible influence of co-parasitism on the clinical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis is discussed.

Lílian MG Bahia-Oliveira

2009-03-01

300

SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

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Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02) and flooding (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study. PMID:25351539

Finger, Mariane Angélica; de Barros, Ivan Roque; Leutenegger, Christian; Estrada, Marko; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Langoni, Hélio; Kikuti, Mariana; Dornbush, Peterson Triches; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few studies on the genetic diversity of P. falciparum have been performed in Bangladesh. Anderson et al. performed a study in Khagrachari, northern Chittagong Hill Tracts in 2002 on 203 patients and found that parasites had a multiplicity of infection of 1.3 by MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genotyping. A total of 94% of the isolates had the K76T Pfcrt chloroquine resistant genotype, and 70% showed the N86Y Pfmdr1 genotype. Antifolate drug resistant genotypes were high with 99% and 73% of parasites having two or more mutations at the dhfr or dhps loci. Methods Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were used to genotype P. falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Results The analysis of polymorphic and drug resistant genotype on 33 paired recrudescent infections after drug treatment in the period 2004 to 2008 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which is just prior to countrywide provision of artemisinin combination therapy. Overall the multiplicity of infection for MSP-1 was 2.7 with a slightly smaller parasite diversity post-treatment. The 13 monoclonal infections by both GLURP and MSP-1 were evenly divided between pre- and post-treatment. The MSP-1 MAD block was most frequent in 66 of the samples. The prevalence of the K76T PfCRT chloroquine resistant allele was approximately 82% of the samples, while the resistant Pfmdr1 N86Y was present in 33% of the samples. Interestingly, the post-treatment samples had a small but significantly higher frequency of the sensitive PfCRT alleles by RT-PCR. Conclusion The parasite population retains high population diversity despite hypo-endemic transmission with retention, but decrease in the chloroquine-resistant allele and Pfmdr1 resistant alleles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

Akter Jasmin

2012-11-01

302

Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

Nadle Joelle

2003-03-01

303

Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1% including one female, (2.0% and 12 males (15.2%, and in only five dogs (12.2%. Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.

Solano-Gallego Laia

2012-05-01

304

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree) environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, wi...

Carlos Frederico Loiola; Delano Anibal da Silva; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

2007-01-01

305

Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. Methods The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1 climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2 monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3 ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; 4 evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Results Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. Conclusions The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour transmission. The temperature increase has favoured a widening of the monthly potential transmission window with respect to when malaria was endemic. The combined application of modified climate diagrams and GMR index, together with spatial characterization conforms a useful tool for assessing potential areas at risk of malaria resurgence. NDVI is a good marker when dealing with a rice field area.

Mas-Coma Santiago

2010-07-01

306

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

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Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

307

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings. PMID:19305069

Reddy, D Raja

2009-01-01

308

Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

2014-12-01

309

Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandf [...] lies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%), which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25%) and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

Davi Marcos Souza de, Oliveira; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Edna Aoba Yassui, Ishikawa; Adelson Alcimar Almeida de, Sousa; Edilene Oliveira da, Silva; Ivoneide Maria da, Silva.

1039-10-01

310

Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

2011-12-01

311

Analysis of ochratoxin A in foods consumed by inhabitants from an area with balkan endemic nephropathy: a 1 month follow-up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1950s, a series of publications from Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Romania locally described a kidney disease called Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). In Bulgaria, the exposure of populations to ochratoxin A (OTA) was supported by analysis of individual food items demonstrating a higher prevalence and higher levels of OTA in food from the high-incidence areas of BEN. In this work, food consumption from a series of individuals from two villages of the BEN area during 1 month was followed using the duplicate diet method. Meals consumed by volunteers from both villages showed uneven OTA contents, spreading from below the limit of quantification (<0.07 microg/kg) to 2.6 microg/kg. The average weekly intake of OTA varies from 1.86 to 92.7 ng/kg of body weight. Some of these levels approach the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the JECFA at 100 ng/kg of body weight. These results confirm previous studies performed in the same area and demonstrate the high exposure of this population to OTA, thus strengthening the hypothesis of the involvement of this mycotoxin in BEN etiology. PMID:15080654

Vrabcheva, Terry; Petkova-Bocharova, Theodora; Grosso, Frederic; Nikolov, Ivan; Chernozemsky, Ivan Nicolaï; Castegnaro, Marcel; Dragacci, Sylviane

2004-04-21

312

Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Blue Nile valley of western Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003

Jira, C

1993-01-01

313

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species h...

Dorval, Maria Elizabeth C.; Geucira Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da Rocha; Tulia Peixoto Alves; Murilo Andrade Alves; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha

2009-01-01

314

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a definição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95% foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81, hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46, contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48 e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98.A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The case definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI, were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81, housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46, contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48, and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98 were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda D'Amaral

2005-12-01

315

A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental intermediate hosts such as humans. The disease, human alveolar echinococcosis, is fatal in untreated patients and results in reduced survival rates in continuously treated patients. Finland, Ireland, Malta, UK and mainland Norway consider themselves free from Em. The first case of Em was reported in Sweden in 2011.These countries therefore require dogs, cats and ferrets to be treated with an appropriate drug to prevent accidental introductions. Ireland, UK and Malta requires dogs to be treated 24-48 hours before entry, while Sweden and Finland allow treatment up to 10 and 30 days respectively prior to entry. Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel to be administrated 10 and 30 days prior to entering Sweden and Finland respectively. Because the drug is only effective 24 hours after oral intake, these strategies leaves 9 and 29 days for the dogs to be reinfected in endemic areas. The lifespan of the worms is only 90 days and the maximum prevalence is therefore reached after 90 days exposure. A reinfection period of e.g. 9 days will thus allow for 10% of the maximum prevalence to be reached in the period between treatment and crossing the border. In the worst case the Swedish and the Finnish strategies only reduce the probability of importing an infected dog with 90% and 68 % respectively. EFSA therefore recommended that pet animals are treated with a single dose of Praziquantel 24 to 48 hours prior to departure. The EFSA risk assessment model defines risk as the probability of introducing a dog with an Em infection. However, I suggest Em may not be so contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern is establishing the parasite ina free area rather than the risk of importing an infected dog, I propose risk should be defined as the number of eggs excreted in a non-endemic area. Furthermore I suggest that the probability of establishing the parasite in a free area is linearly proportional to the number of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing or still in the immature stage or whether the worm are young or old and thus likely to have a long or short remaining lifespan. I here present an alternative deterministic mathematical model which calculates the average number of eggs excreted in a free country by a dog exposed in an endemic area. The model quantifies the risk as the cumulative number of eggs excreted by a dog in the free country. In order to calculate the number of eggs excrete

BØdker, Rene

316

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

Carlos Frederico Loiola

2007-08-01

317

Malondialdehyde and 8-oxo-7.8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine in the urine of residents from Balkan endemic nephropathy area in Croatia--a pilot study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a human chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease that occurs in rural areas of some Balkan countries. The disease is insidious and fatal, and mostly affects persons in their sixties or seventies. BEN areas have unusually high rates of otherwise rare upper urinary tract tumors (UTT). Since extensive production of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress has been implicated in tumor development, the aim of this study was to see whether oxidative stress is involved in the development of BEN and UTT. Urine samples were collected from a BEN village (N = 22) and a control village (N = 16) residents and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). The levels of both oxidative stress parameters were significantly higher in the BEN village residents than controls. However, there was no correlation between MDA and 8-oxodG results. Our results confirm that oxidative stress could be implicated in development of both, BEN and UTT.

Domijan, Ana-Marija; Mileti?-Medved, Marica

2013-01-01

318

Temporal variation in the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Japanese encephalitis virus in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study area, Cuddalore, is one of the endemic districts for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in southern India and there is a strong seasonality in JE case incidence, as well as JE virus (JEV) infection in the principal vector Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles. In a longitudinal 3-year study (July 2003 to June 2006), we determined the susceptibility of wild-caught female Cx. tritaeniorhynchus for JEV infection over several seasons from several villages. The susceptibility varied in all four seasons with the lowest value (4.82 geometric mean [GM]) in hot and wet seasons and highest (13.22 GM) in cool and wet seasons. Infection rate was significant between seasons (7.08-11.85 GM) and years (4.82-13.22 GM). Although the vector was abundant throughout the year, with an average per man-hour density ranging from 58 to 652, the JEV infection rates showed no correlation with vector abundance during different seasons in the index villages. The temporal and spatial changes in the competency of the vector appeared to influence the JEV infection rate in vector, which may at least partially explain the seasonality in JEV human cases in the study area. PMID:20426689

Samuel, Pauiraj Philip; Arunachalam, Natarajan; Rajendran, Rathinasamy; Leo, Soosaimanickam Victor Jerold; Ayanar, Krishnan; Balasubramaniam, Ramakrishnan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore

2010-12-01

319

Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B. Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third stream (C remained untreated for negative control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of 100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides. Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated

Mendes Nelymar M

1997-01-01

320

Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores. In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8% and cryptococcin (31.9% in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. immitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores. En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%.

Héctor Rubinstein

1989-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand f [...] lies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C, Dorval; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha.

2009-08-01

322

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C Dorval

2009-08-01

323

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree) environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state o [...] f Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5%) with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5%) with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%), Migonemyia migonei (21.4%), Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%), and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%). Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0) and Mg. migonei (0.82). In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83%) of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

Carlos Frederico, Loiola; Delano Anibal da, Silva; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati.

2007-08-01

324

Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

Pfeffer Martin

2008-11-01

325

Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas  

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Background: Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007) after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F.) tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far.Methods: We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the pre...

Kaysser, Philipp; Seibold, Erik; Ma?tz-rensing, Kerstin; Pfeffer, Martin; Essbauer, Sandra; Splettstoesser, Wolf D.

2008-01-01

326

Molecular characterization of Fasciola samples, collected from different host species coming from the endemic area of Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical animal breeding programs are important for achieving maximum gain, and any factors resulting in economical loss should be minimized or eliminated. An organism of concern is the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, which causes decreased yield and even death in sheep and dairy cattle. In an effort to eliminate or minimize the detrimental effect of this parasite in animals, it is important to understand the genetic diversity within the liver flukes and the relationship between this parasite and the host in the particular geographic area. The aim of this study was to explore genetic diversity by analyzing the mitochondrial ND1 and cyt b genes and Ribosomal ITS1-2 regions. With these analyses, the individual differences, the host animal differences and combined effects of these factors on genetic relationships have been determined. PMID:24881270

Dosay-Akbulut, Mine; Köse, Mustafa; Erdo?an, Metin; U?uz, Cevdet; Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Lenger, Omer F

2014-01-01

327

Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regar [...] ding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and significance was determined using chi-square (?2) and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032). Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

Kalidia Felipe de Lima, Costa; Sthenia Santos Albano, Amóra; Camila Fernandes de Amorim, Couto; Celeste da Silva Freitas de, Souza; Luanna Fernandes, Silva; Luiz Ney, d' Escoffier; Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de, Sousa; Thais Aparecida, Kazimoto.

2014-10-01

328

Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina / ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar si las areas de endemismo pueden ser caracterizadas cuantitativamente utilizando insectos, los cuales generalmente se encuentran mucho más pobremente muestreados que vertebrados y plantas. La búsqueda de areas de endemismo fue realizada utilizando un [...] criterio de optimalidad sobre aproximadamente 1,100 georreferencias de 288 especies de insectos holometábolos presentes en la región de estudio. Esta corresponde al noroeste de la Argentina, específicamente en las Yungas (un bosque lluvioso montano muy húmedo). El software NDM/VNDM, que aplica dicho criterio de optimalidad, fue usado para buscar areas de endemismo (i.e. conjuntos de celdas definidos por dos o más especies). Se utilizaron cinco tamaños de grilla: tres cuadrados (Iº, 0.5° y 0.25°) y dos rectangulares (0.25° x 0.5° y 0.5° x 0.25°). Los resultados de este estudio indican que las Yungas pueden ser caracterizadas como una unidad biogeográfica con identidad propia y estos resultados concuerdan con propuestas biogeográficas previas. Se obtuvieron 26 areas de endemismo con 23 especies endémicas de insectos (en 14 familias) restringidas a Yungas y 46 especies (en 10 familias) endémicas, presentes en Yungas y hábitats adyacentes. Nuestro análisis sugiere que el uso de insectos puede ser una herramienta poderosa para identificar areas de endemismo, aun considerando lo fragmentario del conocimiento actual de estos grupos en América del Sur. El uso de diferentes tamaños de grilla fue crucial. Tamaños pequeños y medianos son altamente recomendados para identificar patrones diferentes. El método cuantitativo utilizado permitió identificar areas de endemismo difíciles de reconocer con métodos biogeográficos tradicionales, tales como areas disyuntas o parcialmente superpuestas. Abstract in english The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1, [...] 100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest), located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion is implemented with the programs NDM/VNDM, used to evaluate areas of endemism (i.e. a set of cells defined by two or more endemic species). Five grid sizes were used, three square (Iº, 0.5°, and 0.25°) and two rectangular (0.25° x 0.5° and 0.5° x 0.25°). In agreement with the traditional biogeographic proposal, the results of the present study indicate that the Yungas can be characterized as a biogeographic unit with its own identity. Twenty six areas related to Yungas have shown 23 species of insects (in 14 families) as endemic, restricted to Yungas environment, and 46 species (in 10 families) as endemic, present in Yungas and surrounding habitats. Our analysis suggests that the use of insects to identify areas of endemism is a powerful tool, even considering the current fragmentary knowledge of these groups in South América. Given that there is no criterion to choose an optimal grid size, the use of different grid sizes is crucial; medium and small sizes are highly recommended because both identify seemingly different patterns. The quantitative method used here is useful to identify areas of endemism, such as disjoint areas or partially overlapping areas, which are difficult to see with other traditional biogeographic methods.

FERNANDO R, NAVARRO; FABIANA, CUEZZO; PABLO A, GOLOBOFF; CLAUDIA, SZUMIK; MERCEDES, LIZARRALDE DE GROSSO; M. GABRIELA, QUINTANA.

2009-12-01

329

Malaria outbreaks in a non-endemic area of Brazil, 2005 / Surtos de malária em área não endêmica do Brasil, 2005  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em março de 2005, um morador do município de Monte Alegre de Minas, Estado de Minas Gerais, sem histórico de viagem para área endêmica de malária foi diagnosticado com infecção por Plasmodium vivax e a transmissão vetorial no local foi suspeitada. A investigação epidemiológica identificou outros 10 [...] casos com transmissão local e todos relacionados ao caso de malária importada detectado na região. A área de potencial exposição foi às margens do rio Tejuco, local freqüentado por garimpeiros, muitos sabidamente, oriundos de estados com transmissão de malária. Nos casos autóctones, Plasmodium vivax e Plasmodium falciparum foram diagnosticados. A investigação entomológica identificou Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) triannulatus e Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) parvus. Após o primeiro surto, outros três casos autóctones foram notificados no município de Monte Alegre de Minas no mesmo ano. A ocorrência desses surtos alerta sobre a importância de sistemas de vigilância em áreas não endêmicas para a malária. Abstract in english In March 2005, a resident of the municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, without any history of traveling to endemic areas for malaria, was diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection and local mosquito-borne transmission was suspected. The epidemiological investigation identifie [...] d another 10 cases with local transmission and all of them were related to the imported malaria case that was detected in this region. The potential exposure site was the banks of the river Tejuco, an area frequented by mineral prospectors. Some of these prospectors were known to have come from states with malaria transmission. In the autochthonous cases, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were diagnosed. Entomological investigation identified Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) triannulatus and Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) parvus. After the first outbreak, another three autochthonous cases were notified in municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, in the same year. The occurrence of these outbreaks highlights the importance of surveillance systems in areas that are nonendemic for malaria.

Jean Ezequiel, Limongi; Kátia Maria, Chaves; Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de, Paula; Fabíola Corrêa da, Costa; Alcides de Assis e, Silva; Íris de Sousa, Lopes; Adalberto de Albuquerque, Pajuaba Neto; José Maria, Sales; Fernando, Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Montes, Resende; Marcelo Simão, Ferreira.

2008-06-01

330

Malaria outbreaks in a non-endemic area of Brazil, 2005 Surtos de malária em área não endêmica do Brasil, 2005  

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Full Text Available In March 2005, a resident of the municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, without any history of traveling to endemic areas for malaria, was diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection and local mosquito-borne transmission was suspected. The epidemiological investigation identified another 10 cases with local transmission and all of them were related to the imported malaria case that was detected in this region. The potential exposure site was the banks of the river Tejuco, an area frequented by mineral prospectors. Some of these prospectors were known to have come from states with malaria transmission. In the autochthonous cases, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were diagnosed. Entomological investigation identified Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus triannulatus and Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus parvus. After the first outbreak, another three autochthonous cases were notified in municipality of Monte Alegre de Minas, in the same year. The occurrence of these outbreaks highlights the importance of surveillance systems in areas that are nonendemic for malaria.Em março de 2005, um morador do município de Monte Alegre de Minas, Estado de Minas Gerais, sem histórico de viagem para área endêmica de malária foi diagnosticado com infecção por Plasmodium vivax e a transmissão vetorial no local foi suspeitada. A investigação epidemiológica identificou outros 10 casos com transmissão local e todos relacionados ao caso de malária importada detectado na região. A área de potencial exposição foi às margens do rio Tejuco, local freqüentado por garimpeiros, muitos sabidamente, oriundos de estados com transmissão de malária. Nos casos autóctones, Plasmodium vivax e Plasmodium falciparum foram diagnosticados. A investigação entomológica identificou Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albitarsis, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus triannulatus e Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus parvus. Após o primeiro surto, outros três casos autóctones foram notificados no município de Monte Alegre de Minas no mesmo ano. A ocorrência desses surtos alerta sobre a importância de sistemas de vigilância em áreas não endêmicas para a malária.

Jean Ezequiel Limongi

2008-06-01

331

Reduction in dengue cases observed during mass control of Aedes (Stegomyia) in street catch basins in an endemic urban area in Colombia.  

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Dengue incidence continues to increase globally and, in the absence of an efficacious vaccine, prevention strategies are limited to vector control. It has been suggested that targeting the most productive breeding sites instead of all water-holding containers could be a cost-effective vector control strategy. We sought to identify and continuously control the most productive Aedes (Stegomyia) breeding site in an endemic urban area in Colombia and followed the subsequent incidence of dengue. In the urban area of Guadalajara de Buga, southwestern Colombia, potential breeding sites inside and outside houses were first characterized, and local personnel trained to assess their productivity based on the pupae/person index. Simultaneously, training and monitoring were implemented to improve the dengue case surveillance system. Entomological data and insecticide resistance studies were used to define the targeted intervention. Then, a quasi-experimental design was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of the positivity index of the targeted and non- targeted breeding sites, and the impact on dengue cases. Street catch basins (storm drains) were the potential breeding site most frequently found containing Aedes immature stages in the baseline (58.3% of 108). Due to the high resistance to temephos (0% mortality after 24h), the intervention consisted of monthly application of pyriproxyfen in all the street catch basins (n=4800). A significant decrease in catch basins positivity for Aedes larvae was observed after each monthly treatment (p<0.001). Over the intervention period, a reduction in the dengue incidence in Buga was observed (rate ratio 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.30, p<0.0001) after adjusting for autocorrelation and controlling with a neighboring town, Palmira, This study highlights the importance of street catch basins as Aedes breeding sites and suggests that their targeted control could help to decrease dengue transmission in such areas. PMID:24388794

Ocampo, Clara B; Mina, Neila Julieth; Carabalí, Mabel; Alexander, Neal; Osorio, Lyda

2014-04-01

332

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected [...] in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology), Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology), La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology), and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology). A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

Joy R, Guderian; Mariela, Anselmi; Mauricio, Espinel; Carlos, Sandoval; Philip J, Cooper; Gonzalo, Rivadeneira; Ronald H, Guderian.

1997-03-01

333

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology, Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology, La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology, and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology. A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

Guderian Joy R

1997-01-01

334

Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica / Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y [...] MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93) entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT). Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001) y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001). CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific [...] index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI) was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93) between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001), and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

Juan Pablo, Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús, Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos, Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco, Hernández-Sierra.

2000-06-01

335

Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93 entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT. Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001 y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

2000-06-01

336

Attempts to Improve Xenodiagnosis: Comparative Test of Sensibility Using Rhodnius neglectus, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma vitticeps and Triatoma infestans in Endemic Areas of Brazil  

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Full Text Available From June 1984 to July 1992, 392 xenodiagnostic tests were applied on 264 patients with chronic Chagas disease from Brazilian endemic areas of Virgem da Lapa and Coronel Murta, situated in the Jequitinhonha Valley, in the State of Minas Gerais. The susceptibilities of Rhodnius neglectus, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma vitticeps and Triatoma infestans were compared. Most of the time 20 nymphs (fourth instar of each species were applied to 161 women and 103 men aged between 5 and 83 years of age. The tests were prepared to compare the susceptibilities of two species at a time, using the same patients for each test. Results showed a xenopositiveness of 26.28% (103 tests being 27.98% in women (68 positive in 243 applied tests and 23.49% in men (35 positive in 149 applied tests. The relative frequency of xenopositiveness displayed a great superiority of P. megistus and T. vitticeps. In tests from type I, for example, P. megistus was the unique responsible for 10.73% of positive xenodiagnosis vs. only 0.98% in T. infestans. Other parameters analized in this work confirm this superiority, and corroborate that T. infestans can be replaced by P. megistus and /or T. vitticeps in order to upgrade the efficacy of xenodiagnosis

Carlos José de Carvalho Moreira

1997-01-01

337

Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

2013-09-01

338

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has [...] been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-? may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Lilian Rose, Pratt-Riccio; Cesare, Bianco-Junior; Paulo Renato Rivas, Totino; Daiana De Souza, Perce-Da-Silva; Luciene Aquino, Silva; Evelyn Kety Pratt, Riccio; Vítor, Ennes-Vidal; Ana Gisele Costa, Neves-Ferreira; Jonas, Perales; Surza Lucia Gonçalves Da, Rocha; Fabrício, Dias-Da-Silva; Maria de Fátima, Ferreira-da-Cruz; Cláudio Tadeu, Daniel-Ribeiro; Joseli De, Oliveira-Ferreira; Michael, Theisen; Leonardo José De Moura, Carvalho; Dalma Maria, Banic.

2011-08-01

339

Polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of the 121-bp repetitive sequence of Schistosoma mansoni: a highly sensitive potential diagnostic tool for areas of low endemicity.  

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Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, whose diagnosis has limitations, such as the low sensitivity and specificity of parasitological and immunological methods, respectively. In the present study an alternative molecular technique requiring previous standardization was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of a 121-bp highly repetitive sequence for Schistosoma mansoni. DNA was extracted from eggs of S. mansoni by salting out. Different conditions were standardized for the PCR technique, including the concentration of reagents and the DNA template, annealing temperature and number of cycles, followed by the determination of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Furthermore, the standardized PCR technique was employed in DNA extracted, using Chelex®100, from samples of sera of patients with an immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. The optimal conditions for the PCR were 2.5 mm MgCl2, 150 mm deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.4 ?m primers, 0.75 U DNA polymerase, using 35 cycles and an annealing temperature of 63°C. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was 10 attograms of DNA and the specificity was 100%. The DNA sequence was successfully detected in the sera of two patients, demonstrating schistosomiasis transmission, although low, in the community studied. The standardized PCR technique, using smaller amounts of reagents than in the original protocol, is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of DNA from S. mansoni and could be an important tool for diagnosis in areas of low endemicity. PMID:25141275

Ferrer, E; Pérez, F; Bello, I; Bolívar, A; Lares, M; Osorio, A; León, L; Amarista, M; Incani, R N

2014-08-20

340

The Effect of Antihelminthic Treatment on Subjects with Asthma from an Endemic Area of Schistosomiasis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial  

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This is a prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of antihelminthic treatments on asthma severity in individuals living in an endemic area of schistosomiasis. Patients from group 1 received placebo of Albendazole or of Praziquantel and from group 2 received Albendazole and Praziquantel. Asthma severity was assessed by clinical scores and by pulmonary function test. There was no significant difference in the asthma scores from D0 to D1–D7 after Albendazole or Praziquantel and from D0 to D30–90 after Albendazole or Praziquantel in both, group 1 and 2. It was observed, however, a clinical worsening of the overall studied population after 6 months and 12 months of antihelminthic treatments. Additionally, we observed increased frequency of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <80% on 12 and 18 months after treatment. The worsening of asthma severity after repeated antihelminthic treatments is consistent with the hypothesis of the protective role conferred by helminths in atopic diseases. PMID:22934153

Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Lima, Givaneide S.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; de Souza, Robson P.; Campos, Régis A.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibodyresponse induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-a may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco, Cesare

2011-01-01

342

Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.  

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The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season. PMID:24581349

de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

2013-12-01

343

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

2013-03-01

344

Effects of annual mass treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis on the prevalence of intestinal helminths.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effect of annual ivermectin (IV) distribution for onchocerciasis on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PAC) children by comparing children in villages that had received treatment for 13 years to those from socioeconomically similar villages in untreated areas. We enrolled 1,031 SAC and 211 PAC for Kato Katz examinations. Treated areas had a lower prevalence of Ascaris (SAC: 3% versus 12%, P < 0.0001; PAC: 3% versus 10%, P < 0.051) and Trichuris (SAC: 6% versus 10%, P = 0.012; PAC: 1% versus 8%, P = 0.019), but not hookworm (SAC: 38% versus 42%, P = 0.20; PAC: 21% versus 27%, P = 0.30). The prevalence of Ascaris or Trichuris in treated areas was below the WHO threshold for mass antihelminthic treatment (MDA), but not for hookworm. We conclude that benzimidazole MDA in IV treatment areas is indicated to effectively control hookworm. PMID:20810817

Gutman, Julie; Emukah, Emmanuel; Okpala, Njideka; Okoro, Chinyere; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S; Richards, Frank O

2010-09-01

345

Effects of tick infestation on Boran (Bos indicus) cattle immunised against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boran (Bos indicus) heifers were immunised by infection with local Theileria parva parva, T p lawrencei and T mutans stocks and treated with parvaquone and later exposed to natural tick and tick-borne disease challenge in the Trans-Mara Division of Kenya. The Theileria species parasites in the challenge were maintained in African buffalo and cattle and the tick vectors were supported by several species of wild Bovidae and domestic livestock present in the area. Thirty immune cattle were observed for 30 weeks while grazing on a ranch in the Trans-Mara Division. Of these, 15 were immersed in toxaphene at weekly or twice-weekly intervals while 15 cattle remained without acaricide application. Cattle which became pregnant were withdrawn from the experiment. There was no evidence of any clinical tick-borne disease in either group of cattle during the experiment. Five species of ixodid ticks infested the cattle during the experiment and cattle which were not treated with acaricide had far more ticks. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was the most abundant tick species, with a mean infestation of 46 adults per animal in the undipped cattle. This tick also appeared to be the cause of the observed reduction in weight gains. Major haematological parameters did not differ significantly between the groups. Behavioural studies showed that the undipped cattle spent less time grazing and ruminating. This study has shown that, at the expense of some loss in productivity, zebu cattle, immunised against ticks and theileriosis, can be kept despite tick infestation. PMID:4081331

De Castro, J J; Young, A S; Dransfield, R D; Cunningham, M P; Dolan, T T

1985-11-01

346

Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-t...

Wondafrash Mekite; Woldemichael Kifle; Deribe Kebede; Yirga Daniel; Kassahun Wondosen

2010-01-01

347

Compliance with eight years of annual ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon and Nigeria  

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Abstract Background As the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) matured into its 10th year of ensuring community involvement in mass annual treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin, there was recognition of a need to study not only annual coverage of ivermectin in villages but also the compliance of individual villagers with these annual treatments. This was based on the concern that while population coverage goals may be achieved each year, there...

Elhassan Elizabeth; Wanji Samuel; Abiose Adenike O; Okeibunor Joseph C; Brieger William R; Ndyomugyenyi Richard; Amazigo Uche V

2011-01-01

348

Onchocerciasis: The Pre-control Association between Prevalence of Palpable Nodules and Skin Microfilariae  

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Until recently, elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin alone was deemed impossible. However, recent reports of elimination of onchocerciasis from various African foci have stimulated renewed interest. An important determinant of achieving elimination is the pre-control microfilarial (mf) prevalence, i.e. the percentage of people with larval stages of the Onchocerca volvulus worm in the skin, which can be detected in a skin snip (a small s...

Coffeng, Luc E.; Pion, Se?bastien D. S.; O Hanlon, Simon; Cousens, Simon; Abiose, Adenike O.; Fischer, Peter U.; Remme, Jan H. F.; Dadzie, K. Yankum; Murdoch, Michele E.; Vlas, Sake J.; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria; Stolk, Wilma A.; Boussinesq, Michel

2013-01-01

349

Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm  

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Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan®) has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the pro...

Program Coordinating Committee; Oepa, Staff

2012-01-01

350

The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Si...

Blanks J; Richards F; Beltrán F; Collins R; Álvarez E; Zea, Flores G.; Bauler B; Cedillos R; Heisler M; Brandling-Bennett D; Baldwin W; Bayona M; Klein R; Jacox M

1998-01-01

351

Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo Distric...

Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K. N.; Hailu, Asrat

2011-01-01

352

Wolbachia-Induced Neutrophil Activation in a Mouse Model of Ocular Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria are abundant in the filarial nematodes that cause onchocerciasis (river blindness), including the larvae (microfilariae) that migrate into the cornea. Using a mouse model of ocular onchocerciasis, we recently demonstrated that it is these endosymbiotic bacteria rather than the nematodes per se that induce neutrophil infiltration to the corneal stroma and loss of corneal clarity (Saint Andre et al., Science 295:1892-1895, 2002). To better understand the role of...

Gillette-ferguson, Illona; Hise, Amy G.; Mcgarry, Helen F.; Turner, Joseph; Esposito, Andrew; Sun, Yan; Diaconu, Eugenia; Taylor, Mark J.; Pearlman, Eric

2004-01-01

353

Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) / Áreas de endemismo del Océano Austral: un re-análisis basado en datos adicionales de hidroides bentónicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia biogeográfica de la fauna del océano Antártico (OA) es compleja y está poco estudiada, principalmente en relación a las áreas de endemismo. Se ha reanalizado los datos de Marques & Peña Cantero (2010) junto con otros registros geográficos de hidrozoos bentónicos endémicos de la zona abaj [...] o de los 45°S. Una Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE) a partir de una matriz de 5° latitud por 5° longitud con 61 especies, obtuvo ocho áreas de endemismo. Se discute los resultados tomando en cuenta diferentes hipótesis sobre la evolución de la fauna del OA y los patrones biogeográficos de la literatura. Abstract in english The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO) fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010), along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) [...] based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

Thaís P, Miranda; Álvaro L, Peña Cantero; Antonio C, Marques.

1003-10-01

354

"SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IRRITABILITY LEVELS OF MAIN MALARIA VECTORS TO SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS IN THE ENDEMIC AREAS OF IRAN"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rational use of insecticides largely depends on a broad knowledge of the susceptibility and irritability levels of malaria vectors to currently used insecticides especially pyrethroids. In this study the susceptibility and irritability levels of Anopheles stephensi and An.culicifacies to DDT 4%,malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.025%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%, cyfluthrin 0.1% and permethrin 0.25% were determined. Susceptibility and irritability tests on adult mosquitoes were carried out according to WHO methods. The results showed that An.stephensi was resistant to DDT 4% and mortality rates to this insecticide in Gavdary and Abtar areas were 64.2%±3.9 and 61.8%±4.36, respectively. An.stephensi was assumed susceptible to other insecticides. An.culicifacies was found susceptible to all the tested insecticides. The irritability tests carried out with pyrethroids exhibited that permethrin 0.25% had the highest irritancy effect against both species. Lambdacyhalothrin 0.1% and deltamethrin 0.025% had the least irritancy effect against An.stephensi and An.culicifacies, respectively. Average numbers of take offs/females/minute of An.stephensi to permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin were 6.64±1.04, 3.11±0.67, 2.73±0.61 and 2.57±0.67, respectively. These figures for An.culicifacies were 2.24±0.37, 1.44±0.38, 1.59±0.35 and 1.46±0.5, respectively. Irritancy effect of pyrethroids should come in consideration while they are used for control of malaria vectors.

H. Vatandosst N. Borhani

2004-09-01

355

Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older children.

Conway David J

2010-06-01

356

The Cost of Annual versus Biannual Community-Directed Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin: Ghana as a Case Study  

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The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has recently been extended until 2025, with renewed commitment towards onchocerciasis elimination. This aim is aligned with the goals stated by the World Health Organization and the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases in January 2012. Switching from annual to biannual (twice yearly) ivermectin distribution might increase the feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination in some African foci. However, relatively few communities ...

Turner, Hugo C.; Osei-atweneboana, Mike Y.; Walker, Martin; Tettevi, Edward J.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Asiedu, Odame; Biritwum, Nana-kwadwo; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria

2013-01-01

357

Behaviour and population dynamics of the major anopheline vectors in a malaria endemic area in southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheline mosquitoes consist of a large number of species each of whichdiffers from another in population, resting and feeding behaviour in relation to the prevailing conditionsin the locality. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the population dynamics, restingand feeding behaviour of the major anopheline species found in a rain forest zone of Nigeria.Methods: Mosquitoes resting and biting indoors were collected using WHO standard techniques andsupplemented with outdoor-biting collections in the study areas between January and December2004. Samples were sorted and identified microscopically for morphological features while molecularidentification was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques.Results: PCR-based tests showed that both indoor and outdoor collections constitute three groups ofAnopheles mosquitoes, An. gambiae s.l. Giles (68.6%, An. funestus Giles (30.7% and An. mouchetiEvans (0.7%. Of the 1,342 female Anopheles mosquitoes collected indoors, 799 were caught restingand 543 were caught biting. The outdoor-biting population accounted for 28.8% of the total collections(n =1885. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the biting activities (indoors and outdoorsof these species in four villages. However, An. arabiensis and An. moucheti were more exophagicwith >60% of their biting occurring outdoors while An. gambiae and An. funestus were moreendophagic with >55% of their biting occurring indoors. The human-vector contact with An. gambiaeand An. funestus (indoors was about 73.3 and 66.7%, respectively as against 27.7% in An. arabiensisand 25.3% in An. moucheti. This gave the corresponding man-biting rates (MBR of 17.5 bites/man/night for An. gambiae, 14.6 bites/man/night for An. funestus, 6.7 bites/man/night for An. arabiensisand 4.3 bites/man/night for An. moucheti. Moreover, the number of An. gambiae and An. funestuscaught resting indoors was significantly higher than the other two species (p <0.05. The wet seasoncollections showed that An. gambiae caught were more than 67% of the total catch while An. arabiensiswas predominant in the dry season (?2 = 75.44, df = 3, p <0.01.Interpretation & conclusion: The present study highlights some aspects of the behaviour ofanopheline mosquitoes in southern Nigeria which is an important component of epidemiologicalstudy of malaria. This information provides basis to the understanding of the role played by theidentified anopheline species in malaria transmission and a baseline to formulate malaria controlprogramme.

I.O. Oyewole

2007-03-01

358

Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection  

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Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

Ayoola Ayobanji

2001-01-01

359

Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná / Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA), entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresento [...] u lesão, mas 12 (24,0%) tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8%) tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7%) apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença. Abstract in english The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immu [...] nofluorescent test (IIF) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0%) had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8%) out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7%) were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

E., Pittner; E., Voltarelli; T.F., Perles; S.M.A.A., Arraes; T.G.V., Silveira; M.V.C., Lonardoni.

2009-06-01

360

Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State  

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Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

E. Pittner

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.  

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The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. PMID:23290449

Durán, David; Rey, L; Sánchez-Cañizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T

2013-03-01

362

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

Paulo Silva de Almeida

2013-03-01

363

Long-term survival and predictors for mortality among dialysis patients in an endemic area for chronic liver disease: a national cohort study in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD are at a higher risk for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (LC and mortality than the general population. Optimal modalities of renal replacement therapy for ESRD patients with concomitant end-stage liver disease remain controversial. We investigated the long-term outcome for chronic liver disease among dialysis patients in an endemic area. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claim data (NHRI-NHIRD-99182, We performed a longitudinal cohort study to investigate the impact of comorbidities on mortality in dialysis patients. We followed up 11293 incident hemodialysis (HD and 761 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients from the start of dialysis until the date of death or the end of database period (December 31, 2008. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors for all-cause mortality. Results Patients receiving PD tended to be younger and less likely to have comorbidities than those receiving HD. At the beginning of dialysis, a high prevalence rate (6.16?% of LC was found. Other than well-known risk factors, LC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.473, 95?% CI: 1.329-1.634 and dementia (HR 1.376, 95?% CI: 1.083-1.750 were also independent predictors of mortality. Hypertension and mortality were inversely associated. Dialysis modality and three individual comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and dementia interacted significantly on mortality risk. Conclusions LC is an important predictor of mortality; however, the effect on mortality was not different between HD and PD patients.

Chien Chih-Chiang

2012-06-01

364

What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria attack in children with submicroscopic malaria. Methods PCR data were prospectively collected in the setting of an exposed (with fever/non exposed (without fever study design. All children had a negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT at baseline, were followed up to day 14 and did not receive drugs with anti-malarial activity. The index group was defined by children with fever at baseline and the control group by children without fever at baseline. Children with submicroscopic malaria in these two groups were defined by a positive PCR at baseline. Results PCR was positive in 66 (27% children of the index group and in 104 (44% children of the control group respectively. The only significant factor positively related to PCR positivity at baseline was the clinical status (control group. When definition of malaria attacks included PCR results, no difference of malaria incidence was observed between the index and control groups, neither in the whole cohort, nor in children with submicroscopic malaria. The rate of undiagnosed malaria at baseline was estimated to 3.7% at baseline in the index group. Conclusions Treating all children with fever and a positive PCR would have led to a significant increase of anti-malarial consumption, with few benefits in terms of clinical events. Non malarial fevers do not or do not frequently trigger malaria attacks in children with submicroscopic malaria.

Faucher Jean-François

2010-08-01

365

THE CONTROL OF ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOS BY THE SPRAYING OF DELTAMETHRIN ON RAFFIA CURTAINS USED IN MINERS' HUTS IN AREAS ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O poder residual da deltametrina FW (25 mg i.a./m2) foi avaliado em cortinas de ráfia tecido sintético, utilizadas na construção das barracas nos garimpos. Foram realizadas provas biológicas de parede, durante 420 dias, sendo as cortinas laterais das barracas enroladas durante o dia e desenroladas n [...] o final da tarde. Os dados da regressão logística evidenciaram que a ráfia impregnada com a deltametrina apresenta taxas de mortalidade superiores à tratada com DDT. O poder residual da ráfia/deltametrina mostrou efeito elevado, atingindo índices de mortalidade acima de 85% aos 360 dias, diminuindo em quase 50% aos 420 dias. O efeito do DDT foi reduzido aos 180 dias, chegando a zero de mortalidade ao final do experimento. Mediante o resultado do tratamento dado à ráfia, recomenda-se seu emprego em barracas nos garimpos e áreas endêmicas de malária. Abstract in english The residual potential of an aqueous solution of Deltamethrin (FW 25 mg i.a./m2) was evaluated on raffia curtains. These are sheets of synthetic material used in the construction of huts to house miners. Experiments were conducted during 420 days and the curtains were always rolled up in the daytime [...] and unrolled in late afternoon. Data analyzed by logarithmic regression indicated that raffia treated with Deltamethrin had higher mortality indices than that covered with DDT. The residual capacity of Deltamethrin on raffia was high. The mortality percentage was above 85% after 360 days and dropped to about 50% at 420 days. The effect of DDT was reduced after 180 days and reached zero by the end of the experiment. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that Deltamethrin be used to spray raffia curtains in mining regions and other areas that are endemic for malaria.

Regina, FIGUEIREDO; Wanderli P., TADEI; Bedsy Dutary, THATCHER.

1998-03-01

366

High rates of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: epidemiological consequences.  

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Leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. However, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. Our focus was on another lagomorph, Oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. This species is native to the Iberian Peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of Spain. In an endemic area for canine leishmaniasis in the southeast of Spain, 150 rabbits were captured over a period of three years. Samples of blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen, heart and skin were taken and analysed through parasitological, serological and molecular techniques in order to detect Leishmania and Trypanosoma. 20.7% of the rabbits were infected with L. infantum and 82.4% with Trypanosoma nabiasi, and 14.8% of mixed infections were detected. Both parasites were found in all the animal organs analysed, a factor which, along with the presence of serological cross-reactions, must be taken into account in epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis. O. cuniculus is an abundant and gregarious species, with a long enough average lifespan to ensure L. infantum transmission. The presence of the parasite in the skin and blood of these rabbits with no acute manifestation of disease ensures its contact with the vector, which finds in their warrens a suitable biotope to inhabit. The rabbit therefore seems to meet the most of conditions for being considered a reservoir host of L. infantum. PMID:24774436

Díaz-Sáez, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morales-Yuste, M; Corpas-López, V; Pratlong, F; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

2014-05-28

367

HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area  

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV