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1

[Onchocerciasis infection following temporary stay in endemic areas].  

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We report the clinical picture of an European female patient, who suffered from Onchocercosis after a 4 year stay in endemic areas in Africa. The diagnosis was based on repeated skin-snips. Despite two courses of systemic chemotherapy, initial corneal changes could be observed as peripheral superficial stroma infiltrations. PMID:2023372

Steinhorst, U; Mehlhorn, H

1991-01-01

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Field diagnosis of onchocerciasis in an area of high versus low endemicity: evaluation of the Dot Blot Assay.  

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Parasitological examination of skin snips is the most widely used diagnostic method for onchocerciasis, but it is associated with inconvenience and low sensitivity. We describe an inexpensive antibody-based dot blot assay (DBA) for the detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection. A field evaluation of this method was performed in the onchocerciasis endemic country Ghana by testing 370 individuals living in a highly onchocerciasis endemic area and 122 in an area of low endemicity. Sera from individuals with other filarial infections were also tested. The DBA was able to detect 95% of the parasitologically confirmed infected individuals in the highly endemic area. Cross-reactivity occurred with a minority of the sera from individuals infected with other filarial worms. The DBA was as good as or superior to presently available diagnostic tests, and it also fulfilled the criteria for a good screening method. PMID:9122638

Lavebratt, C; Dalhammar, G; Awadzi, K; Akuffo, H O

1996-01-01

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Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

2011-12-01

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[Onchocerciasis].  

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Onchocerciasis is an infestation caused by the nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and characterized by eye manifestations, skin lesions and troublesome itching. Although partially controlled by international mass treatment programs, onchocerciasis remains a major health hazard in endemic areas in Africa, Arabia, and the Americas. Onchocerciasis is spread by bites from infested blackflies which transmit larvae that subsequently develop into adult filariae. Skin findings are commonly non-specific, and include severe pruritus, acute and chronic dermatitis, vitiligo-like hypopigmentation and atrophy. Onchocercal ocular disease has a large spectrum of manifestations and may even lead to blindness. Diagnosis is usually made by direct visualization of the larvae emerging from superficial skin biopsies, "skin snips". In some cases, the microfilariae can also be directly observed with a slit lamp when they migrate into the anterior chamber of the eye. Ivermectin is highly microfilaricidal, and is the current drug of choice for both skin and ocular manifestations. PMID:12759735

Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Ruzicka, T; BenEzra, D

2003-06-01

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[Endemic onchocerciasis in forested zones of Ivory Coast: prevalence rate and microfilarial densities].  

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Since 1974 grassy plain areas of the western Africa have been protected by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, but wooded endemic areas are also of concerned to countries in the region. Numerous studies have been performed to study endemic features of onchocerciasis in wooded areas. A parasitologic/entomologic survey was conducted between April and October 1990 in 5 villages in wooded areas located in Cote d'Ivoire. The parasitologic survey consisted of blood-free skin snips taken from both iliac crests of all subjects one year or over. Microfilarial counts performed after soaking biopsy material in distilled water for 30 minutes allowed characterization of the disease in the area. Overall microfilariae were found in 60.51% of the population indicating that onchocerciasis was highly endemic. The level of endemicity varied from one village to another. Prevalence was same in the two sexes and increased with age. Microfilarial density was the same in men and women up to the age of 9 years. After that time the density was at least twofold higher in men than in women at the same age. Although onchocerciasis is highly endemic in the area, blindness is uncommon. PMID:8767795

Diarrassouba, S; Traore, S; Riviere, F

1996-01-01

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Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs  

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... focal areas in 6 countries in the Americas (Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil), but transmission ... impact of onchocerciasis? Onchocerciasis is the second leading infectious ... skin disease. However, the worldwide burden of onchocerciasis has been ...

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A multidisciplinary study of onchocerciasis in Bure area, Ethiopia.  

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A clinicoepidemiological and entomological study of onchocerciasis was conducted in Bure area, Illubabor Administrative Region, in October 1987. All 1063 houses in four villages were numbered and census taken. The total population was 4119. Of the total 1063 houses, 107 (10.07%) were selected by systematic random sampling and all members of these households were examined. History, physical examination, and skin biopsy were taken. Of 4119 people in the area, 3555 (86.3%) were indigenous and 564 (13.7%) settlers. Four hundred and three of the former and 68 of the latter were studied. Clinical manifestations were mild and ocular onchocerciasis was not encountered. One hundred and sixteen (24.6%) had O. volvulus in the skin; with a mean of 11.7 microfilariae per milligram of skin. Positivity in males was 1 1/2 times that in females. None of the settlers had positive skin snips. We concluded that onchocerciasis is hypoendemic in Bure area with mild clinical manifestations. Adult and aquatic stages of Simulium were collected for later identification, and a preliminary report indicates that S. damnosum s.l. is the most likely vector. PMID:2787743

Yeneneh, H; Mengistu, F; Ayele, T

1989-07-01

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Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual im­pair­ments by qualified medical doctors. Five categories of skin manifestations were observed, namely permanent itching, onchodermatitis, atrophy of skin, leopard skin, and sowda. A total of 1024 individuals were examined. "nResults: The prevalence of the skin manifestations were permanent itching (2.5%, onchoder­ma­titis (3.9%, atrophy of the skin (5.8%, leopard skin (22.1%, and sowda (0.1%. The preva­lence of subcutaneous nodules was 25.3%, but 88.9% among the oldest age group, and mostly found in lower half of body. The majority of cases of visual acuity problems (6.8% overall prev­alence were in the oldest age groups. Among those who were ? 20 years old, the prevalence of visual acuity problems was significantly higher in females than in males (?2-test; P< 0.05. Only two of the examined persons were observed to be blind. "nConclusion: Clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis are perhaps more intense in the area prob­ably because of presence of endemic infections of other filarial species.

EC Uttah

2009-12-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA, and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

Tekle Afework

2012-02-01

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Onchocerciasis in pre-primary school children in Nigeria: lessons for onchocerciasis country control programme.  

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There is limited data on the prevalence of onchocerciasis in young children in Nigeria, partly because treatment with the effective drug Ivermectin has been contra-indicated in children less than 5. As the risk of complications of onchocerciasis is related to duration and intensity of infection, it would be beneficial to know the prevalence in young children for design of control programmes. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis in 642 children 0-4 years old in a rain forest endemic community in South East Nigeria. The overall onchocerciasis prevalence (positive skin snips) for children 0-4 years old in three Local Government Areas in Enugu State, Eastern Nigeria was 15.7% with no significant difference in infection rates between male and female children. There was no detectable infection in children less than 1 year old. Characteristic onchocercal rash was identified in 11.1% of the children and presence of typical onchocercal subcutaneous palpable nodules in 4.6%. Total prevalence for adults in the same population was found to be 26.9%. This indicates that in onchocerciasis endemic communities, everybody may be at risk of infection irrespective of age. PMID:10546837

Nwaorgu, O C; Okeibunor, J C

1999-10-15

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Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal  

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Background Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Conclusion/Significance The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa. PMID:23029586

Traore, Mamadou O.; Sarr, Moussa D.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

2012-01-01

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Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

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Full Text Available The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy

Cristian Lizarazo O

2010-04-01

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Onchocerciasis--river blindness.  

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Onchocerciasis results from infestation by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus and is characterized by troublesome itching, skin lesions, and eye manifestations. Although partially controlled by international mass prevention programs, onchocerciasis remains a major health hazard and is endemic in Africa, Arabia, and the Americas. Onchocerciasis is spread by bites from infested black flies, which transmit larvae that subsequently develop into adult filariae. Skin symptoms are commonly nonspecific and include severe pruritus, acute and chronic dermatitis, vitiligo-like hypopigmentation, and atrophy. Onchocercal ocular disease covers a large spectrum of manifestations, which in severe cases, may lead to blindness. Diagnosis is usually made by direct visualization of the larvae emerging from superficial skin biopsies, "skin snips." In some cases, the microfilariae can also be directly observed at the slit lamp when migrating into the anterior chamber of the eye. Ivermectin is, at present, the drug of choice for skin and ocular manifestations. Recent research using a chemotherapeutic approach that targets filarial Wolbachia symbionts in the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, however, suggests that 100 mg/d of doxycycline for 6 weeks might be effective in reducing the filarial load and preventing ocular symptoms. PMID:16714198

Enk, Claes D

2006-01-01

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Immunity to onchocerciasis: identification of a putatively immune population in a hyperendemic area of Ecuador.  

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The existence of immunity to Onchocerca volvulus (Ov) infection is suggested by the presence of uninfected persons in hyperendemic areas. A major barrier to the study of immunity has been the correct identification of putatively immune (PI) subjects. To identify a PI group in a hyperendemic area in Ecuador, clinical and epidemiologic information was combined with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay identifying Ov DNA in skin snips and a recombinant antigen-based ELISA. Comparison of immune responses revealed that PI subjects had significantly lower levels of Ov-specific IgG, IgG subclasses, and IgE than infected (INF) subjects. Female subjects were significantly more likely to be PI than male subjects, and INF female subjects had significantly lower levels of Ov-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 than INF male subjects. Thus, the use of molecular-based techniques has helped to define more precisely the PI state in onchocerciasis. PMID:8158031

Elson, L H; Guderian, R H; Araujo, E; Bradley, J E; Days, A; Nutman, T B

1994-03-01

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Local knowledge and attitudes about onchocerciasis in Oji-River local government area of Enugu State, Nigeria.  

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A total of 556 individuals in Agbalenyi Community of Oji-River local government area of Enugu State, Nigeria were studied using questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews to determine the socio-cultural factors affecting the transmission of onchocerciasis. The result revealed a low level of knowledge about the cause, prevention and complications of onchocerciasis. Respondents have developed a cultural system around the disease due to long exposure. The majority are aware of the disease which they recognize once their body starts itching or musculoskeletal pain develops but only 64.4, 34.0, 1.4 and 3.6%, respectively attributed chronic itching, nodules, bad vision and leopard skin to blackfly bite. Other perceived causes mentioned include ageing, the type of food eaten, farm work and 'bad blood'. Only 0.8% knew diagnosis could be made through skin snips. Neither Oji-River nor any of the river systems were associated with any of the complications of onchocerciasis. Significant differences in most socio-demographic characteristics were associated with differences in the level of knowledge about the disease. PMID:12558348

Manafa, O U; Isamah, A N

2002-12-01

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Perception and attitude of people toward onchocerciasis (river blindness in south western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attitudes of rural/semi-urban communities in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State toward onchocerciasis. Materials and Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 500 adults for the study. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to subjects. Data on knowledge of the local name, cause, mode of transmission, manifestation, severity, treatment, and prevention of onchocerciasis were collected and analysed. Statistical analysis included frequency distribution of the responses and a Chi-square test for comparison of variables with the P value for statistical significance set at 0.05. Results: Onchocerciasis was well known by its local name among 458 (91.6% of the respondents. Only seven (1.4% knew that it affects both the eyes and skin. The cause was commonly attributed to impure blood by 114 (22.8%, whereas transmission was thought to be through fomites by 161 (32.2%. Only 12 (2.4% respondents attributed the disease to blackfly bites. The level of education and the association of onchocerciasis with a river were significantly associated (P = 0.001. Subcutaneous nodules were felt to contain water (85.4%, baby worms (3.2%, and fat (0.6%. There was a negative attitude toward sufferers of the disease. Conclusion: Adequate information transfer in simple local dialect by trained personnel to the communities at risk of onchocerciasis is essential for better uptake of all aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme.

Adeoye A

2010-01-01

17

Intervention policy in endemic goitre areas.  

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The multifactorial nature and complex interactions of regionspecific environmental conditions with host factors in the pathogenesis of endemic goitre constitute a major challenge to the understanding and control of the problem in endemic areas. However, to control and prevent this important public health problem, the most obvious but difficult initial step requires substantial socioeconomic improvements in the affected areas of less developed countries, including, first, provision of efficient iodine prophylaxis programs, second, diversification of dietary constituents with adequate daily protein-calorie intake, and third, institution of proper sanitary conditions with effective water treatment to eliminate organic and bacterial pollutants. This last intervention is also a requirement to control and prevent goitre in the iodine-sufficient more developed countries. In this regard, more research is needed to provide effective ways of water treatment that can be applied in individual households or at the community level. PMID:1726413

Gaitan, E

1990-12-01

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Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost-effective. Priority should be given to the development of new tools to support control programmes and to enable eradication of the disease.

Laura Moya Alonso

2009-02-01

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Population biology of human onchocerciasis.  

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Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is the filarial infection caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted among people through the bites of the Simulium vector. Some 86 million people around the world are at risk of acquiring the nematode, with 18 million people infected and 600,000 visually impaired, half of them partially or totally blind. 99% of cases occur in tropical Africa; scattered foci exist in Latin America. Until recently control programmes, in operation since 1975, have consisted of antivectorial measures. With the introduction of ivermectin in 1988, safe and effective chemotherapy is now available. With the original Onchocerciasis Control Programme of West Africa coming to an end, both the new African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas, rely heavily on ivermectin self-sustained mass delivery. In consequence, the need for understanding the processes regulating parasite abundance in human and simuliid populations is of utmost importance. We present a simple mathematical framework built around recent analyses of exposure- and density-dependent processes operating, respectively, within the human and vector hosts. An expression for the basic reproductive ratio, R0, is derived and related to the minimum vector density required for parasite persistence in localities of West Africa in general and northern Cameroon in particular. Model outputs suggest that constraints acting against parasite establishment in both humans and vectors are necessary to reproduce field observations, but those in humans may not fully protect against reinfection. Analyses of host age-profiles of infection prevalence, intensity, and aggregation for increasing levels of endemicity and intensity of transmission in the Vina valley of northern Cameroon are in agreement with these results and discussed in light of novel work on onchocerciasis immunology. PMID:10365406

Basáñez, M G; Boussinesq, M

1999-04-29

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Country-wide rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) in Cameroon.  

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The prevalence of infection in local communities has been used as the basis for the country-wide repartition of onchocerciasis in Cameroon, following the principles for rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) developed by the World Health Organization. The levels of endemicity were evaluated in 349 villages by rapid epidemiological assessment (REA), a method based on the examination of nodules in males aged > or = 20 years. An onchocerciasis map was then drawn from the epidemiological data which had been collected previously, from clinico-parasitological surveys based on the examination of skin snips, and the results of the REA surveys. The REMO surveys allowed the main onchocerciasis foci in Cameroon to be accurately delineated, and several small endemic areas which had never been reported before to be identified. The total 'at risk' population (i.e. those for which ivermectin treatment should be considered as urgent or highly desirable) was estimated by combining the epidemiological results and the demographical data available from an administrative census. Those at risk were estimated to number 3.5 million, representing about 50% of the total rural population in Cameroon. PMID:9290845

Macé, J M; Boussinesq, M; Ngoumou, P; Enyegue Oye, J; Koéranga, A; Godin, C

1997-06-01

 
 
 
 
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[The correlation between onchocercomas and positivity for microfilaria in onchocerciasis].  

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The objective of this work is to evaluate the palpation sensitivity of onchocercomata for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis in individuals residents of the locality of Nueva Costa Rica, Mapastepec, in the south endemic area of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Every one of the 243 individuals who voluntarily participate in this study was interrogated and physical examined for the detection of nodules. The positivity and the worm burden to the Onchocerca volvulus infections was estimated by the presence of one or more microfilariae in any of the for skin snips taken from both suprascapular and gluteal regions, and by the mean of the Dmf/mg of each skin snip. From the total number of individual studied, 131 (53.9%) were positives to microfilariae and 37 (15.2%) to onchocercomata. Only 23 (17.6%) of the microfilariae positive individuals carried nodules. The distribution of positive individuals to nodules in relation to age, was similar in all the age groups. In relation to the intensity of the infection was found that, the mean of the Dmf/mg of all individuals was 6.67, there was not significant differences (p greater than 0.001) between males and females; being the Dmf/mg of 6.35 and 6.99, respectively. The age group between 21 and 30 years old showed the higher mean of Dmf/mg than the rest of the groups (p greater than 0.001). However, there was a high microfilariae positivity in the oldest groups than in the young. The prevalence for onchocerciasis in this locality, estimated by the positivity to either microfilariae or nodules, was 59.9 per cent. It is concluded that, the onchocercomata detection sensitivity for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis was very low, probably due to the nodulectomy activity of the onchocerciasis control program, which has been operating since 1930 and therefore, there are an important number of individuals positive to microfilariae without detectable nodules. PMID:2089642

Rivas Alcalá, A R; Alvarez Gordillo, G C; Villafuerte Martínez, E; Vázquez Pérez, E

1990-01-01

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Sensitivity and specificity of three Onchocerca volvulus cloned antigens in diagnosis of onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Onchcerciasis is endemic in three geographical regions in Sudan, and presented with variable clinical reactions. The current diagnosis of onchocerciasis is based on detection of live microflaraie in skin snips in addition to clinical signs and history of living in endemic regions. Different serological diagnostic trials using crude soluble antigens of O. volvulus have shown variable degrees of cross reaction with other nematodes co-endemic in the same area. We have studied the sensitivity and specificity of RAL-2, calreticulin and PDI O. volvulus cloned antigens using the ELISA techniques. Eighty serum samples of Onchocerciasis patients, 20 non endemic normal controls and 42 samples of patients of other endemic deseas including Leishmanoasis, malaria, tuberculosis and shestosomiasis were tested RAL-2 gave the best Ig G response, with 83.75% sensitivity and 91. 66% specificity. PDI sensitivity was 20% and specificity 91.66%, while calreticulum showed sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 73.30%. IgG3 subclasses was not significantly different from controls while IgG4 was significantly higher in patients. The sensitivity of RAL-2 for IgG4 was 90% with a specificity of 100%. For PDI sensitivity was 25% and 100% specificity while calreticulin resulted in sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100%. Low levels of circulating IgE to RAL-2 antigen were detected. For all antigens there was significant correlation with gender, age, microflarial load or presence of nodules. (Author)

23

Laboratory toxicity of potential blackfly larvicides on some African fish species in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area.  

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The Onchocerciasis Control Programme of the World Health Organization uses larvicides to fight against the aquatic stages of the vector Simulium damnosum s.l., and thereby interrupt transmission of the disease. Since the appearance of resistance to Abate and chlorphoxim in certain cytotypes of the vector, the efficacy of many possible replacement insecticides has been tested and the impact of the best of them (permethrin, cyphenothrin, pyraclofos, and carbosulfan) on the aquatic fauna evaluated. PMID:1868781

Yameogo, L; Tapsoba, J M; Calamari, D

1991-06-01

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Information for onchocerciasis control  

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Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I

Adrian Hopkins

2010-12-01

25

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km²). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

26

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km²). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

2012-12-01

27

Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population. PMID:2775644

Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

1989-08-01

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Revisión epidemiológica de la Oncocercosis en América Latina / Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La oncocercosis es una enfermedad exclusiva del ser humano, caracterizada por prurito intenso, lesiones dérmicas y daño ocular que puede llegar a la ceguera. Las regiones endémicas están limitadas a zonas con latitud, relieve, temperatura y humedad relativa óptimas para el desarrollo del parásito y [...] el insecto vector. Estas zonas se encuentran en el oeste de África, Yemen y algunos países de América latina. El parásito es transmitido a través de la mordedura de una mosca del género Simulium, que al alimentarse de sangre deposita larvas del parásito. En América se creó el Programa de Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), cuya estrategia es la administración de ivermectina y la nodulectomía para eliminar la oncocercosis como amenaza de salud pública en la región. Abstract in english The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Th [...] ose zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (OEPA) was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy.

Guadalupe C, Rodríguez C; Cristian, Lizarazo O.

2010-01-01

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Epidemiological studies of onchocerciasis in southern Benin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the prevalence of human onchocerciasis in four geographically different regions of the southern part of Benin in West Africa. In a total of thirteen villages 1596 individuals were examined for clinical and parasitological signs of onchocerciasis. Prevalence of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in skin snips was 29% in region I (lower Oueme river), 64% in region II (Mono river), 56% in region III (upper Oueme river) and 70% in region IV (Okpara river). Based on endemicity criteria of the WHO regions II and IV were found to be hyperendemic, region III mesoendemic and region I hypoendemic for onchocerciasis. The community microfilarial load ranged from 4 mf/mg skin in the hypoendemic region to 10.5 mf/mg skin in the hyperendemic regions. The prevalence of nodules was 21% in region I, 30% in region II, 17% in region III and 41% in region IV. The overall prevalence of chronic onchocercal dermatitis was 12%. Of 689 individuals infected with O. volvulus 388 were treated with a single dose of ivermectin. PMID:8367668

Gallin, M; Adams, A; Kruppa, T F; Gbaguidi, E A; Massougbodji, A; Sadeler, B C; Brattig, N; Erttmann, K D

1993-06-01

30

Prospects for the control of onchocerciasis in Africa with special reference to the Volta River basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis is found in association with all the main river systems of northern tropical Africa, and there are endemic foci south of the Equator. Heavy and prolonged infection may cause blindness and intense pruritus. The vectors, Simulium damnosum and S. neavei, are also intolerable pests when they swarm. The disease and its vector together cause serious economic loss and are a main cause of the depopulation of river valleys in the savanna lands.The basin of the River Volta, in which the worst endemic area in the world is situated, is considered to be the most favourable area for a study of the problems involved in the large-scale control of onchocerciasis carried by S. damnosum. Mass treatment or prophylaxis are not practicable at present. The clinical condition progresses for many years in the absence of fresh infection, and drugs capable of mass application are needed. However, the first aim is to attack the larval stages of the vector with insecticides. DDT is ideal for this purpose in large, steadily flowing rivers, but a more suitable insecticide and formulation are needed for small, irregularly flowing streams.Research is needed into many aspects of the adult life of S. damnosum, including feeding and resting habits, dry season survival and flight range. One of the main practical problems is prevention of reinfestation of a treated river system. PMID:5307598

Waddy, B B

1969-01-01

31

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

Sauerbrey Mauricio

2011-10-01

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Use of Geographic Information Systems in the development of prediction models for onchocerciasis control in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A risk assessment model was developed for onchocerciasis distribution and its control in Ethiopia using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. GIS data analysis was done to generate 3 separate risk models using selected environmental features of (1) earth observing satellite data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) prepared from AVHRR sensor data of the Global land 1-km project for the years 1992 and 1995, (2) FAO agroclimatic databases from the Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region of East Africa, and (3) a climate-based forecast index based on the growing degree days (GDD) and water budget concepts. Parasitological data used for the analysis were published and unpublished reports of onchocerciasis surveillance made between 1969 and 2000 in various parts of the country. Analysis of queries based on 1992 and 1995 annual wet and dry season data of the Global land 1-km project resulted in a predictive value of 95.1%, 94.0% and 96.3%, respectively, using data values extracted from buffers centered on sites above 5% prevalence. The model based on CPSZ data predicted an endemic area that best fit the distribution of sites over 5% prevalence; the query was based on CPSZ values of average altitude (442-2134 m), annual mean temperature (18-28 degrees C), annual rainfall (822-1980 mm), annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938 mm), rain minus potential evapotranspiration (-124 - 792 mm), average NDVI x 100 (2000-5000) and average terrain percent slope (9-34). The climate-based model based on GDD and water-budget predicted high risk to severe risk areas in the western and southwestern parts of the country. All three of the models predicted suitable areas for the transmission of onchocerciasis outside known endemic areas, suggesting the need for ground-based validation and potential application to current community-directed treatment programs with ivermectin (CDTI) for control of onchocerciasis in Ethiopia. PMID:16044682

Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; McNally, K

2005-03-01

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Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelli [...] ng of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A., Al-Tawfiq.

2006-06-01

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Study of Hydatidosis-Attributed Mortality in Endemic Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cystic hydatid disease is still an important health problem in European Mediterranean areas. In spite of being traditionally considered as a “benign” pathology, cystic echinococcosis is an important cause of morbidity in these areas. Nevertheless, there are few analyses of mortality attributed to human hydatidosis. Objective To describe the epidemiology, the mortality rate and the causes of mortality due to E. granulosus infection in an endemic area. Methodology A retrospective study followed up over a period of 14 years (1998–2011). Principal Findings Of the 567 patients diagnosed with hydatid disease over the period 1998–2011, eleven deaths directly related to hydatid disease complications were recorded. Ten patients (90.9%) died due to infectious complications and the remaining one (9.1%) died due to mechanical complications after a massive hemoptysis. We registered a case fatality rate of 1.94% and a mortality rate of 3.1 per 100.000 inhabitants. Conclusions Hydatidosis is still a frequent parasitic disease that causes a considerable mortality. The main causes of mortality in patients with hydatidosis are complications related to the rupture of CE cysts with supurative collangitis. Therefore, an expectant management can be dangerous and it must be only employed in well-selected patients. PMID:24632824

Belhassen-García, Moncef; Romero-Alegria, Angela; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Lopez-Bernus, Amparo; Alvela-Suarez, Lucia; del Villar, Luis Perez; Carpio-Perez, Adela; Galindo-Perez, Inmaculada; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Pardo-Lledias, Javier

2014-01-01

35

The effect of 5 years of annual treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan) on the prevalence and morbidity of onchocerciasis in the village of Gami in the Central African Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the impact of 5 years of annual community treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan) on the prevalence of onchocerciasis and onchocerciasis-associated morbidity, data collected, before and after such treatment, in the village of Gami, in a hyper-endemic area of the Central African Republic, were analysed. Skin snips from all the villagers treated in 1990 and/or 1995 were used to assess the prevalence and intensity of infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Ocular and dermatological morbidity was assessed by ophthalmological and clinical examinations of the same subjects. Following the five annual treatments, there was a reduction in the prevalence of infection and a dramatic decrease in the microfilarial load of the community. The prevalences of pruritus, onchocercal nodules and impaired vision were all significantly reduced. The results emphasise the long-term benefits of the mass-treatment programmes, particularly for children aged <10 years. PMID:12061976

Kennedy, M H; Bertocchi, I; Hopkins, A D; Meredith, S E

2002-04-01

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Use of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigens for diagnosis and surveillance of human onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnostic value of ELISAs based on recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigens OC 3.6 and OC 9.3 was evaluated with sera from endemic areas in West Africa, Guatemala and Ecuador. IgG assays were slightly more sensitive than those that detected IgG4, and the antigen combination was significantly more sensitive than either antigen alone (OC 3.6, 93%; OC 9.3, 84%, combined 98%). These assays were also evaluated with sera from 2 villages in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area of West Africa including one village (Pendie) with recent recrudescence of infection and one (Niarba) where transmission had been interrupted for 15 years by vector control. The OC 3.6 IgG antibody assay was sensitive for new infections and exposure in Pendie; 24/24 (100%) of people with positive skin snips and 15/74 (20%) of sera from MF negative people had IgG antibodies to this antigen. In addition, antibodies to OC 3.6 often preceded the onset of skin snip positivity in Pendie. In contrast, IgG antibodies to OC 3.6 and OC 9.3 were rarely seen in children born during the 15 years since transmission was interrupted by vector control in Niarba. These encouraging results suggest that antibody assays based on OC 3.6 and OC 9.3 may be valuable tools for surveillance of onchocerciasis and also for monitoring the efficacy of control programmes. PMID:8911441

Chandrashekar, R; Ogunrinade, A F; Weil, G J

1996-10-01

37

Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools.

Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

2013-01-01

38

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

39

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine def...

Teeyapant Punthip; Srijantr Pongsant; Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Wongvilairattana Jintana

2010-01-01

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Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Central Nigeria: Challenges in Coordinating the Stop MDA Decision  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF) co-endemic local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria. Annual MDA with ivermectin had been given for 17 years, 8 of which were in combination with albendazole. In 2008, assessments indicated that LF transmission was interrupted, but that the MDA had to continue due to the uncertain status of onchocerciasis transmission. Accordingly, assessments to determine if ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped were conducted in 2009. Methods We evaluated nodule, microfilarial (mf) skin snip, and antibody (IgG4 response to OV16) prevalence in adults and children in six sentinel sites where baseline data from the 1990s were available. We applied the 2001 WHO criteria for elimination of onchocerciasis that defined transmission interruption as an infection rate of skin snip and OV16 antibody) and a rate of infective (L3) blackflies of <0.05%. Results Among adult residents in sentinel sites, mean mf prevalence decreased by 99.37% from the 1991–1993 baseline of 42.95% (64/149) to 0.27% (2/739) in 2009 (p<0.001). The OV16 seropositivity of 3.52% (26/739) among this same group was over ten times the mf rate. No mf or nodules were detected in 4,451 children in sentinel sites and ‘spot check’ villages, allowing the exclusion of 0.1% infection rate with 95% confidence. Seven OV16 seropositives were detected, yielding a seroprevalence of 0.16% (0.32% upper 95%CI). No infections were detected in PCR testing of 1,568 Simulium damnosum s.l. flies obtained from capture sites around the six sentinel sites. Conclusion Interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis in these five LGAs is highly likely, although the number of flies caught was insufficient to exclude 0.05% with 95% confidence (upper CI 0.23%). We suggest that ivermectin MDA could be stopped in these LGAs if similar results are seen in neighboring districts. PMID:25233351

Evans, Darin S.; Alphonsus, Kal; Umaru, Jon; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Mafuyai, Hayward; Gonzales-Peralta, Carlos; Adamani, William; Pede, Elias; Umbugadu, Christopher; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Richards, Frank O.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Endemic goitre in schoolchildren in high and low altitude areas of Asir region, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Endemic goitre is more prevalent in mountainous, high altitude areas of Asir Region. However, the distribution of goitre in these areas is patchy and differs from area to area. Well water might have been a contributing factor for the high prevalence in Tamnia.

S. A. Abu-Eshy

2001-02-01

42

Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

43

First imported coccidioidomycosis in Turkey: A potential health risk for laboratory workers outside endemic areas?  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is endemic in arid climate zones in America, travel-related cases have been reported. We report the first documented case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey, overviewing reported cases in Europe and underlying difficulties of differential diagnosis outside endemic regions. The patient was an otherwise healthy 41-year-old man who travelled endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis was based on direct microscopy of two subsequent subcutaneous biopsy specimens and culture and confirmed molecularly. Laboratory personnel should become aware that BioSafety Level-3 organisms may become more frequent and widespread. PMID:24567896

Kantarcioglu, A. Serda; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Aygun, Gokhan; Kiraz, Nuri; Akman, Canan; Apaydin, Hulya; Karaman, Emin; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Gurel, M.S.

2014-01-01

44

Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

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Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte dynamics in areas of different malaria endemicity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify and compare factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in three regions of differing malaria endemicity. Methods Retrospective data from Thailand, The Gambia and Tanzania were used. The data came from large prospective field-based clinical trials, which investigated gametocyte carriage after different anti-malarial drug treatments. Results Gametocytaemia was detected during the observation period in 12% of patients (931 out of 7548 in Thailand, 34% (683 out of 2020 in The Gambia, and 31% (430 out of 1400 in Tanzania (p Conclusion This study confirms the independent association of gametocytaemia with anaemia, and the significantly lower prevalence and duration of gametocyte carriage following treatment with an artemisinin derivative. The large differences in gametocyte carriage rates between regions with different levels of malaria transmission suggest that drug interventions to prevent transmission will have different effects in different places.

von Seidlein Lorenz

2008-12-01

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Asymptomatic Leishmania infantum infections in humans living in endemic and non-endemic areas of Croatia, 2007 to 2009.  

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The prevalence of asymptomatic leishmaniasis in the general population of Croatia has not been studied to date. To assess the prevalence of Leishmania infantum specific IgG antibodies among immunocompetent residents of Croatia, sera from 2,035 persons (eastern coast of Adriatic Sea, n=1,186; Adriatic islands, n=653; mainland, n=196), were tested by an enzyme immunoassay. A total of 231 (11.4%) persons had anti-Leishmania antibodies. Multivariate analysis revealed that seropositivity was associated with geographic location and age. Residents of coastal areas and islands were significantly more seropositive than mainland residents (odds ratios (OR) 20.37 to 28.51). Moderate to high anti-Leishmania seroprevalence was found throughout the eastern Adriatic coast and islands (4.0% to 22.2%) including the sites previously considered non-endemic. A highly endemic focus was identified in central coastal Dalmatia (seroprevalence 22.2%; OR: 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-2.22). Regarding age, children aged 0-9 years were the most vulnerable group for asymptomatic Leishmania infection (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.16-4.14). PMID:23929119

Šiško-Kraljevi?, K; Jeron?i?, A; Mohar, B; Punda-Poli?, V

2013-01-01

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Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

48

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

2012-06-01

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Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

Lazdins Janis

2001-11-01

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Yellow fever in a Brazilian family returning from vacation in an endemic area: relevant clinical features and epidemiological issues.  

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We report three cases of yellow fever (YF) in a family traveling from the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil (without previous vaccination) to an endemic area, acquiring the disease and presenting mild-to-moderate symptoms. Despite posing the intermittent risk of YF in endemic areas, it also alerts to the threat of introduction and spread of YF in the urban cycle, when infected travelers return to non-endemic areas where potential vectors are highly prevalent. PMID:19930387

Chaves, Tânia S S; Vasconcelos, Marileide J; Filho, Nosor Oliveira; Alves, Jesse R

2009-01-01

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Effects of repeated ivermectin treatment in onchocerciasis.  

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A group of 87 onchocerciasis patients from a hyperendemic area without vector control was treated with a single dose of 150 micrograms/kg ivermectin. A second, third and fourth dose was administered 5, 12 and 17 months later to 44, 35 and 25 patients. Skin snip loads reduced substantially following each consecutive dose. However, after three doses 44% of the patients remained skin snip positive. Side-effects decreased from 32.2% requiring medical treatment at the first dose to none after the fourth dose. From this study it was concluded that a complete eradication of microfilariae in skin snips in severely infected persons living in a hyperendemic area without vector control is probably not feasible. Medical supervision for the observation of side-effects after the third dose can be limited. PMID:1600843

Njoo, F L; Stilma, J S; van der Lelij, A

1992-01-01

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Thyroid status in chronic liver diseases in an endemic area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine absorptive thyroid function, the levels of T3, T4 and TSH by means of radioimmunoassay and thyroid scanning were determined and performed in 132 patients with chronic liver diseases. All patients lived in a goiterendemic area with higher prevalence of liver diseases. Functional thyroid disorders were revealed in all the patients: hypofunction in 85.6 %, hyperfunction in 14.4 %. Structural and morphological and anatomic thyroid changes were detected in 91.6 %

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Fatal congenital Chagas' disease in a non-endemic area: a case report.  

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The early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease is very important if infected newborns, whether symptomatic or not, are to receive adequate treatment. This paper describes the complications arising in the diagnosis of a newborn with fatal congenital Chagas' disease in Spain, a non-endemic area where visceral leishmaniasis is present. PMID:18992159

Flores-Chávez, María; Faez, Yamile; Olalla, José M; Cruz, Israel; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Blanc, Pilar; Cañavate, Carmen

2008-01-01

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Onchocerciasis distribution and severity in five West African countries.  

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The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa recently extended its operation to Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the western part of Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. To estimate the number of people infected and blinded by the disease and to determine its distribution and severity in the extension area, 215 villages were selected, using a stratified random sampling procedure, and surveyed. All the relevant entomological information available at the time was used in the sampling procedure and in the selection of 92 non-representative villages that were surveyed to confirm the findings. In addition, the populations of 608 villages were examined to map out in detail the distribution of onchocerciasis in the areas at a high risk of onchocercal blindness. The study estimated that 1,475,367 people were infected and 23,728 were blinded from onchocerciasis out of a rural population of 4,464,183. The northern and western part of the study area and the lower Niger basin presented a low or no risk of onchocercal blindness. The upper Niger basin, the south-central part of Sierra Leone, and three small foci in the Gambia, Bakoye, and lower Niger river basins were areas with a high risk of onchocercal blindness. The other parts of the study area presented a medium risk of onchocercal blindness. By detecting the communities at risk of onchocercal disease this study permits the selection of populations for disease control based on mass distribution of ivermectin, a microfilaricide. PMID:1786617

De Sole, G; Baker, R; Dadzie, K Y; Giese, J; Guillet, P; Keita, F M; Remme, J

1991-01-01

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Assessment of goiter in an area of endemic iodine deficiency.  

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Urinary iodone (UI) excretion and sonographically measured thyroid volume were investigated in 195 subjects living in 6 separate villages in the Casamance region of southeastern Senegal, West Africa. A comparison of goiter prevalence using thyroid palpation and volume measurement and of iodine excretion expressed as micrograms per gram (microg/g) creatinine or micrograms per deciliter (microg/dl) urine was undertaken, and possible pathogenetic factors were investigated. Ultrasound measured thyroid volumes were above the recommended upper limit of the reference range for an area replete in iodine in 83.1% or females, 52.3% of males, and 80.0% of children aged 13 years or younger. Overall sensitivity and specificity for palpation compared to sonographically demonstrated thyroid enlargement was 51.7% and 91.5%, respectively. Thyroid enlargement was not associated with ethnic origin, thiocyanate ingestion, HLA DR/DQ phenotype frequency, or thyroid growth-stimulating immunoglobulin (TGI) positivity. Median UI was 32 microg/g creatinine with 65.0% having values consistent with iodine deficiency (< 50 microg/g). When results were expressed as micrograms per deciliter, the percentage having values consistent with iodine deficiency (< 5.0 microg/dl) increased to 95.7%. The findings suggest a primary role for iodine deficiency in goitrogenesis in the study population. They demonstrate that classification of the severity of the endemia in this or other study populations in areas of iodine deficiency is dependent on the methods used to determine goiter prevalence (palpation or ultrasound measured thyroid enlargement), or dietary iodine status (iodine excretion expressed as micrograms per gram creatinine or micrograms per deciliter urine). PMID:10524568

Smyth, P P; Darke, C; Parkes, A B; Smith, D F; John, R; Hetherton, A M; Lazarus, J H

1999-09-01

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High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis of Onchocerciasis, HIV as well as estimate serum antibody levels. Of a total of 162 subjects recruited, 54 were diagnosed positive for Onchocerciasis by skin snip, giving a prevalence of 33.3% (54/162. Also, the prevalence of HIV among these subjects was 12.9% (21/162. This infection was 17.8% among women (13/73 and 8.9% among men (8/89. Six of the 54 subjects positive for Onchocerciasis were also positive for HIV giving a prevalence of co-infection of 11.1% (6/54. Mean serum antibody levels of Onch+ve/HIV+ve, Onch+ve/HIV-ve and Onch-ve/HIV+ve subjects, were significantly higher (p< 0.001, Student=s t-test when compared to that of Onch-ve/HIV-ve subjects. The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV. It further shows significantly high antibody levels, reflecting raised humoral immune responses with co-infected subjects showing the highest response. Hence the integration of HIV/AIDS care and prevention activities into currently ongoing treatment program for Onchocerciasis will save time and scarce resources in Africa with tremendous public health impact.

G.A. Alemnji

2007-01-01

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Diagnostic and treatment challenges for the pediatric hematologist oncologist in endemic areas for coccidioidomycosis.  

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Coccidioidomycosis is a mycosis endemic to certain areas in the Southwest, mostly Arizona and California, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is much more common in immunocompromised hosts; therefore, it is frequently encountered by pediatric oncologists in endemic areas. Special attention is needed to diagnose, effectively treat the infection, and appropriately adjust chemotherapy treatment plans to minimize immunosuppression. We describe the presentation and course of 6 patients with coccidioidomycosis who were seen by the pediatric hematology-oncology service at the University of Arizona during the last 3 years. Coccidioidomycosis is a relatively common infection encountered by pediatric oncologists in the southwestern states and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients living or visiting these areas. PMID:22510771

Bravo, Raquel; Pelayo-Katsanis, Luz O; Shehab, Ziad M; Katsanis, Emmanuel

2012-07-01

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Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas  

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Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

2003-09-01

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update  

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Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

Rastogi V

2007-01-01

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Distribution of trace elements in water, grain and soil for endemic arsenism disease area by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of trace elements in water, grain and soil from Tumotezuoqi of Inner-Mongolia are determined by neutron activation analysis(NAA). The analytical quality is verified by the analysis of some standard reference materials. The result shows that the arsenic concentrations in drinking water of endemic arsenism disease area are much higher than those of the allowance limit (<50 ?g/L). Fe contents are higher than those of the allowance limit (<300 ?g/L), and RE concentrations are about ten times than the elemental composition of freshwater. As and RE contents in wheat and corn of endemic arsenism disease area are higher than those of Beijing wheat. Trace elements in soil of Tumotezuoqi are similar to that in medians of elemental composition of soil

 
 
 
 
61

Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

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Between 1991-2000, Leishmania species were isolated and characterized by isoenzyme and molecular analysis from rodents caught in various parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, parasites were observed by direct microscopy in smears from 18.6% of 566 specimens. L. major was isolated from 4 species: Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica and Mer. hurrianae. L. turanica was isolated from R. opimus for the first time in this country. In endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, parasites were observed in liver and spleen from 13.7% of 504 rodents. Two species were positive on culture; promastigotes isolated from Mer. persicus were characterized as L. donovani zymodeme LON50 and from Mesocricetus auratus as L. infantum LON49. PMID:16335651

Mohebali, M; Javadian, E; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Akhavan, A A; Hajjaran, H; Abaei, M R

2004-01-01

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Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. ma [...] nsoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

Marta G, Cavalcanti; Margareth MI, Gonçalves; Magali M, Barreto; Aline Helen da, Silva; Kalil, Madi; José Mauro, Peralta; Ricardo P, Igreja.

2011-04-01

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Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas  

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Abstract Anti-malarial drugs can make a significant contribution to the control of malaria in endemic areas when used for prevention as well as for treatment. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in preventing deaths and morbidity from malaria, but it is difficult to sustain for prolonged periods, may interfere with the development of naturally acquired immunity and will facilitate the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains if applied to a whole community. However, chemoprophylaxis...

Greenwood Brian

2010-01-01

64

Food intake of Tibetan children living in Kashin Beck disease endemic areas in Central Tibet  

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Introduction: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a bone and joint pathology. KBD begins during childhood, causes deformities, pain, lack of mobility, and short stature. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown. Nutrition possibly plays a role. Children living in KBD endemic areas in Central Tibet present severe growth retardation, signs of chronic malnutrition and a high prevalence of rickets. A food consumption study was conducted. We have focused our attention on total energy intake, calc...

Rooze, Shancy; Voghel, Pauline; Mathieu, Franc?oise; Robert, Martine; Lobsang, Rinchen; Wangdu, Lakpa; Dermience, Michael; Lognay, Georges; Goyens, Philippe

2013-01-01

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Circumsporozoite antibodies and falciparum malaria incidence in children living in a malaria endemic area*  

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In a case—control study we examined the association of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antibodies (anti-R32tet32) with subsequent P. falciparum infections. A study population of 140 children living in an endemic area was followed longitudinally for 25 weeks with weekly blood smears for malaria parasites and, once every two weeks, serum samples for circumsporozoite antibody determinations. From the malaria cases, antibody measurements occurring between two and six weeks prior to the o...

Pang, L. W.; Limsomwong, N.; Karwacki, J.; Webster, H. K.

1988-01-01

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Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

67

Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java  

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Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

Endang Puji Astuti

2014-06-01

68

Onchocerciasis in Gilgel Ghibe River Valley southwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

400 people in Gilgel Ghibe, southwestern Ethiopia, were subjected to parasitological and clinical examination to determine the prevalence and intensity of onchocerciasis. Its association with entomological transmission indices such as the parous rate and annual transmission potential (ATP) were determined simultaneously. Two skin snips per person were taken and examined for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. In addition, collections of adult blackfly were done from human baits seated in pairs at 4 representative sites at the riverbank and away from the riverbank. Flies were then dissected for parity and infections with O. volvulus. Among the 228 people examined, the prevalence of the disease was low (17%), being higher in males than in females (19% vs. 14%). The geometric mean of microfilarial density was 11.1 mf per skin snip. Itching and skin changes were the most common signs and symptoms of the disease. The predominant anthropophilic blackfly species was Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum s.l. The annual parous rate was 74.7%, while ATP was 1669.5, being higher at the riverbank than at farther sites, suggesting a greater risk of infection by the riverside. In conclusion, the low prevalence of onchocerciasis vis-a-vis the high ATP level could be caused by the possible presence of bovine onchocerciasis in the area. Further studies employing molecular techniques are needed to identify O. volvulus from other filariae in flies. PMID:10774086

Taye, A; Gebre-Michael, T; Taticheff, S

2000-02-01

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Clinical trials of amodiaquine in onchocerciasis  

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Twenty onchocerciasis patients from the rain-forest zone of Western Nigeria were treated with amodiaquine in total dosages ranging from 22 to 68 mg/kg of body weight given over 2-9 days. There was no activity against either the microfilariae or adult forms of Onchocerca volvulus. It is concluded that the drug, which was poorly tolerated by 12 patients, is ineffective against human onchocerciasis.

Kale, Oladele O.

1982-01-01

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Vitamin D Toxicity in Adults: A Case Series from an Area with Endemic Hypovitaminosis D  

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Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic to the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Physicians often treat patients with high doses of vitamin D for various ailments and on occasion the prescribed doses far exceed the requirements of the patients. Ten cases of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication are presented with features of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, encephalopathy and renal dysfunction. All the patients had demonstrable hypercalcemia and vitamin D levels were high in nine of the 10 cases. The patients had received high doses of vitamin D and no other cause of hypercalcemia was identified. Treatment of hypercalcemia resulted in clinical recovery in nine cases. We conclude that hypervitaminosis D must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypercalcemia in endemically vitamin D deficient areas. A careful history and appropriate biochemical investigation will unravel the diagnosis in most of the cases.

Parvaiz A. Koul

2011-05-01

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Onchocerciasis in Malawi. 2. Subjective complaints and decreased weight in persons infected with Onchocerca volvulus in the Thyolo highlands.  

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In the course of an onchocerciasis survey in southern Malawi, body weight was recorded for 10,335 persons aged 20 years and older, and the body mass index was calculated for 5572. A history of symptomatic complaints was elicited from 5653 persons 20 years of age and older. Persons with microfilariae in the skin snips weighed significantly less than persons with negative skin snips. Symptomatic complaints of musculoskeletal pains, itching, dizziness and poor vision were reported more commonly in the group with microfilariae. These findings suggest that onchocerciasis should no longer be considered a disease affecting the eye and skin only but an infection which produces systemic effects as well. Systemic effects of onchocerciasis may lessen productivity of an endemic region by a process distinct from the effects of visual impairment. PMID:1836686

Burnham, G M

1991-01-01

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Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of [...] two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

Amanda Ciprandi, Pires; Luciane, Marinoni.

2010-10-01

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Spatial prediction of malaria prevalence in an endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in Southeastern Bangladesh, particularly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region. Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh and the highest prevalence occurs in Khagrachari (15.47%. Methods A risk map was developed and geographic risk factors identified using a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian geostatistical model was developed from previously identified individual and environmental covariates (p Results Predicted high prevalence areas were located along the north-eastern areas, and central part of the study area. Low to moderate prevalence areas were predicted in the southwestern, southeastern and central regions. Individual age and nearness to fragmented forest were associated with malaria prevalence after adjusting the spatial auto-correlation. Conclusion A Bayesian analytical approach using multiple enabling technologies (geographic information systems, global positioning systems, and remote sensing provide a strategy to characterize spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk at a fine scale. Even in the most hyper endemic region of Bangladesh there is substantial spatial heterogeneity in risk. Areas that are predicted to be at high risk, based on the environment but that have not been reached by surveys are identified.

Islam Akramul

2010-05-01

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Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas  

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Full Text Available A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classification of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique and the diagnosis was based on the reading of two microscopic slides for each sample. The patients whose examinations were positive for schistosomiasis mansoni were submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection. Based on this examination, 8.11% of the study population were positive for schistosomiasis. The medium parasite load was 79.1 ± 174.3 eggs. The intestinal (90.57% and hepatointestinal (9.43% forms were found at statistically significant levels (p < 0.001. The results of the present study update information on schistosomiasis in the city of Rio Largo. These data, although referring only to three locations in that city, suggest a decrease either in the parasite load or in the severity of clinical forms.

Luciano Fernandes Pereira

2010-07-01

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Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL) is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classificat [...] ion of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique and the diagnosis was based on the reading of two microscopic slides for each sample. The patients whose examinations were positive for schistosomiasis mansoni were submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection. Based on this examination, 8.11% of the study population were positive for schistosomiasis. The medium parasite load was 79.1 ± 174.3 eggs. The intestinal (90.57%) and hepatointestinal (9.43%) forms were found at statistically significant levels (p

Luciano Fernandes, Pereira; Andrei Leite, Gazzaneo; Roberta Maria Pereira Albuquerque de, Melo; Hugo Cabral, Tenório; Darlan Silva de, Oliveira; Maria Sonia Correia, Alves; Danielle Correia, Gama; Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes, Wyszomirska.

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Transmission of onchocerciasis in wadelai focus of northwestern Uganda has been interrupted and the disease eliminated.  

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Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control onchocerciasis only as a public health problem. From 2006 to 2010, Wadelai program successfully attained ultimate treatment goal (UTG), treatment coverage of ?90%, despite expanding from 19 to 34 communities and from 5,600 annual treatments to over 29,000 semiannual treatments. Evaluations in 2009 showed no microfilaria in skin snips of over 500 persons examined, and only 1 of 3011 children was IgG4 antibody positive to the OV16 recombinant antigen. No Simulium vectors were found, and their disappearance could have sped up interruption of transmission. Although twice-per-year treatment had an unclear role in interruption of transmission, the experience demonstrated that twice-per-year treatment is feasible in the Ugandan setting. The monitoring data support the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from the Wadelai focus of Uganda. PMID:22970347

Katabarwa, Moses N; Walsh, Frank; Habomugisha, Peace; Lakwo, Thomson L; Agunyo, Stella; Oguttu, David W; Unnasch, Thomas R; Unoba, Dickson; Byamukama, Edson; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Richards, Frank O

2012-01-01

77

Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru  

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The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36 old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

78

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 ?g per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 ?g for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 ?g/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 ?g/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 ?g/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the community level in Thailand.

Teeyapant Punthip

2010-12-01

79

How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?  

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Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

2003-09-01

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Reproductive performance in sows in relation to Japanese Encephalitis Virus seropositivity in an endemic area.  

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Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is considered an important reproductive pathogen in pigs. Most studies of the reproductive impact of JEV have been conducted in areas where the disease occurs in seasonal epidemics. In this study, the associations between seropositivity for JEV, measured with an IgG ELISA, and the number of piglets born alive and stillborn were investigated in a tropical area endemic for JEV in Vietnam. Sixty percent of sows from four farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam were seropositive to JEV and the Odds Ratio for a sow being infected was highest (6.4) in sows above 3.5 years (95% confidence interval 2.2-18.3). There was an association between increasing Optical Density (OD) values from the ELISA and the number of stillborn piglets in sows less than 1.5 years, but no effect of seropositivity could be shown when all sows were studied. OD values had an effect (p = 0.04) on the number of piglets born alive in the statistical analysis only when interacting with the effect of the breeds. An increase in mean OD value of the herd was correlated (p pigs is of minor importance for the reproductive performance in endemic areas. PMID:22081319

Lindahl, Johanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Ståhl, Karl; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluation of a Community-Based Trapping Program to Collect Simulium ochraceum sensu lato for Verification of Onchocerciasis Elimination  

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Background Collection of the black fly vectors of onchocerciasis worldwide relies upon human landing collections. Recent studies have suggested that the Esperanza Window Trap baited with a human scent lure and CO2 had the potential to replace human hosts for the collection of Simulium ochraceum sensu lato in Southern Chiapas focus, Mexico. The feasibility of utilizing these traps in a community-based approach for the collection of S. ochraceum s.l. was evaluated. Methodology/Principal findings Local residents of a formerly endemic extra-sentinel community for onchocerciasis were trained to carry out collections using the traps. The residents operated the traps over a 60-day period and conducted parallel landing collections, resulting in a total of 28,397 vector black flies collected. None of the flies collected were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting a parasite specific sequence, resulting in a point estimate of infection in the vectors of zero, with an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval 0.13 per 2,000. This meets the accepted criterion for demonstrating an interruption of parasite transmission. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that Esperanza Window Traps may be effectively operated by minimally trained residents of formerly endemic communities, resulting in the collection of sufficient numbers of flies to verify transmission interruption of onchocerciasis. The traps represent a viable alternative to using humans as hosts for the collection of vector flies as part of the verification of onchocerciasis elimination. PMID:25340517

Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Rodriguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

82

American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

DA Cerino

2010-01-01

83

Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile  

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Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

84

Imaging of parathyroid adenomas with (99)mTc-Sestamibi in an endemic goiter area  

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Recently 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) has been introduced into parathyroid imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MIBI scan in an endemic goiter area. 25 patients with primary and 9 with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) underwent a MIBI scan one day prior to surgical exploration of the neck. Cervicothoracic planar scintigraphy was performed 5, 15 and 120 min after i.v. injection of 444 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The MIBI scan correctly detected 20 of 25 adenomas in 25 patients with pHPT. In only 6 of 9 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia a focal uptake was found. The cause of one false-positive result in the control group was an increased MIBI uptake by a follicular adenoma of the thyroid. Parathyroid scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestamibi as a single radiopharmaceutical is as sensitive in detecting and localizing parathyroid adenomas as the Tl/Tc-scintigraphy. Due to a high prevalence of thyroid adenomas in an endemic goiter area a higher rate of falsely positive results may be expected. (orig.)

85

Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. [...] infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

Ilana Mirian Almeida, Felipe; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Oliver, Kuppinger; Max Diego Cruz, Santos; Maurício Eduardo Salgado, Rangel; David Soeiro, Barbosa; Aldina, Barral; Guilherme Loureiro, Werneck; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

86

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

87

Individual Correlates of Podoconiosis in Areas of Varying Endemicity: A Case-Control Study  

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Background Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls. Methods/principal findings This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit) in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: ‘low’ (prevalence 5%). A total of 142 (30.7%) households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR?=?1.7, 95% CI?=?1.3 to 2.2), were unmarried (OR?=?3.4, 95% CI?=?2.6–4.6) and had lower income (t?=??4.4, p<0.0001). On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r?=?0.6, t?=?12.5, p<0.0001). Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in ‘high’ and ‘medium’ endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in ‘low’ endemicity areas to ‘ever’ have owned shoes (OR?=?0.5, 95% CI?=?0.4–0.7). Conclusions Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis. PMID:24340109

Molla, Yordanos B.; Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Wardrop, Nicola; Baxter, Peter; Atkinson, Peter M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

2013-01-01

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Effects of ethiodol on T3 kinetics in endemic goiter area  

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T3 kinetics were carried out in 32 children (11-15 years old) of a mild endemic goiter area. The incidence of goiter of the whole school population was 19% (Ia or Ib degree of the WHO). The mean urinary iodine was 84 ? g/d+-3. Six months before this investigation, 10 of the children received 2 ml of ethiodol by mouth and the other 22 (control group-CG) a placebo. The kinetics studies were carried out using less than 0,5 ? Ci of I-125 per Kg b.w. and the single injection method, non compartimental analysis. The CG shows, distribution volumen (V) 20.1+-0.6; serum T3 (sT3) 1.55 ng/ml+-0.03; plasma T3 T1/2 21.6+-0.6 and production rate (PR) 27.4? g/d+-1.2. The treated group (TG): V, 17.3+-0.6; sT3 1.48 ng/ml+-0.09; T1/2 17.6+-0.6 and PR 25.9? g/d+-1.4. The TG, after 6 months of ethiodol administration, showed a decrease of the distribution volume and a slight reduction in serum T3 values. As a consequence a significant diminution on the T3 extrathyroidal pool and an increase on the T3 plasma clearance (0.68 l/h+-0.01 in CG versus 0.73+-0.3 in TG) were observed. The production ratewas similar in both groups. These results indicate that the administration of ethiodol to children of a not severe endemic goiter area, produces moderate changes in the different parameters of T3 peripheral metabolism, which compensate each other and lead to similar final values on T3-PR, that were previously normal in these cases. This mechanism reflects the role of thyroid homeostasis in maintaining euthyroidism in these children of an endemic goiter area with decreased iodine supply. (Author)

89

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia [...] epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada. Abstract in english In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role [...] of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.

Cruz Manuel, Aguilar; Elizabeth Ferreira, Rangel; Leonidas M., Deane.

90

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

Cruz Manuel Aguilar

1986-12-01

91

Parasitological and clinical characterization of Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in western Uganda.  

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In the forests of western Uganda onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium neavei s.s. Since little is known about the infection transmitted by this vector, a survey was made in 1991 with special regard to adult persons of 15 years and older in the 13 villages of the parish Kigoyera 40 km northeast of Fort Portal. 3268 (52%) of the 6271 registered inhabitants were examined clinically and parasitologically. The highest microfilaria (mf) densities were found on the buttocks, lower ones on the shoulders and the lowest on the ankles. In the parish the standardised prevalence of mf carriers was 62%. The crude prevalences of adult mf carriers ranged from 80% to 95% in the 13 villages. Densities of 100 mf/snip or more were found in 25% of male persons. The community microfilarial load (CMFL) in skin snips from the buttocks was 49 mf/snip, ranging from 22 to 93 in the 13 villages. The standardised prevalence of nodule carriers was 25% and the mean nodule load was 1.9 nodules per nodule carrier. Among 3420 nodules 90% were found on the pelvic girdle. The standardised prevalence of onchocercal dermatitis was 19%. The crude rates ranged within the age groups in males from 20% to 45% and in females from 16% to 41%. The standardised prevalence of persons presenting mf in the anterior chamber of the eye was 24% and the CMFL in the anterior chamber ranged between 1.2 and 3.3 mf/chamber in six villages. Standardised rates were 1.6% for sclerosing keratitis and 0.9% for reduced vision of 3/60 or less. These prevalences of eye lesions are comparable to those observed in West African forest areas. The CMFLs and the prevalences of mf and nodule carriers represent suitable criteria for community diagnosis of S. neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Uganda to guide ivermectin treatment, whereas the prevalence of "leopard skin" is not useful. Immigrants living less than five years in the endemic focus should be excluded from the assessment of mf carrier rates and those living there less than ten years from rapid assessment of nodule carrier rates. PMID:8134773

Fischer, P; Kipp, W; Bamuhiga, J; Binta-Kahwa, J; Kiefer, A; Büttner, D W

1993-12-01

92

Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya  

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The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies nen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

93

Annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Bihar, India.  

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The study presents the findings of a population-based survey of the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the rural areas of one VL-endemic district in Bihar, India. Stratified multi-stage sampling was applied in the selection of blocks, villages, hamlets, and households. We screened 15 178 households (91 000 individuals) in 80 villages in 7 of 27 administrative blocks of the district, East Champaran. We identified 227 VL cases that occurred in the past 12 months: 149 treated individuals who survived, 14 who died from VL, and 64 active cases. The high-incidence stratum had an estimated incidence of 35.6 cases per 10 000 persons per year (90% CI: 27.7-45.7). The annual incidence rate in the medium stratum areas was 16.8 cases per 10 000 (90% CI: 9.3-30.6). The combined annual incidence rate for the high and medium areas combined was 21.9 cases per 10 000 per year, (90% CI: 14.0-34.2). The Government of India's VL elimination goal is to reduce the VL incidence to one case per 10 000 at the sub-district level; thus, a 35-fold reduction will be required in those areas with the highest VL incidence. PMID:20487422

Das, Pradeep; Samuels, Steven; Desjeux, Philippe; Mittal, Atul; Topno, Roshan; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Sur, Dipika; Pandey, Arvind; Sarnoff, Rhonda

2010-07-01

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Study of the incidence and etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in an endemic goiter area after treatment with iodine enriched salt  

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A screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed in a severe endemic goiter area, Chengde district including 7 counties, after treatment with Iodine enriched salt, and Beijing city as a control area. From May 1985 to Sep. 1991, 26570 newborns in Beijing city and 16227 in Chengde were screened. The incidence of primary hypothyroidism in Beijing city was 1/8800 and that in Chengde 1/8100. Of all the 5 Ch detected, 3 from Beijing city and 2 from Chengde, were thyroid dysgenesis. Not a single case of endemic goiter cretinism (including both myxedematous and neurological cretinism) was found in our study. We conclude that Iodine deficiency is the only cause of endemic cretinism and this problem can be solved by Iodine enriched salt treatment

95

[Compatibility between nine strains of Biomphalaria glabrata coming from endemic and non-endemic areas and one strain of Schistosoma mansoni from Venezuela].  

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Nine lots of 32 B. glabrata snails (5-7mm in diameter) from the following strains from the endemic area: Cagua, Valencia Lake (Puerta Negra Sector), Ingenio Bolívar (Aragua State), Mariara, Caserío El 25 and Güigüe (Carabobo state), and from the non-endemic area: Anzoátegui (Lara state), Chabasquén (Portuguesa state) and Caripe (Monagas state) were experimentally infected (5 miracidiums/snail) with C5 Schistosoma mansoni strain. The intramolluscal prepatent period oscillated between 23 and 25 days for the nine strains. The duration of intramolluscal infection varied a lot, from 20 days in the case of the Chabasquén strain to 93 days for the Güigüe strain. The average cercariae production in the 3rd day of emission varied from X = 74.4 for the Mariara strain to 591.7 in the case of the Chabasquén strain. Significant statistical differences were found in relation to the total number of emitted cercariae in the 3rd day (H = 97.4; P < 0.05), with significant statistical differences detected among most of the 36 strain combinations, except for the following: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Cas. El 25, Valencia Lake/Güigüe and Güigüe/Caripe. The strains of Valencia Lake (88.8%), Cagua (85.2), Chabasquén (82.6%) and Caripe (82.6%) showed the highest rates of self-cure, whereas the Güigüe strain showed the lowest: 21.4%. PMID:10881105

Pino, L A; Matinella, L; Morales C, G

1999-01-01

96

Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines  

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Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

97

Pattern of cause-specific childhood mortality in a malaria endemic area of Burkina Faso  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable mortality data are a prerequisite for planning health interventions, yet such data are often not available in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Demographic surveillance systems (DSS implementing the verbal autopsy (VA method are the only possibility to observe cause-specific mortality of a population on a longitudinal basis in many countries. Methods This paper reports all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates in children under the age of five years from 1999 until 2003 in a malaria holoendemic area of north-western Burkina Faso. The DSS of the Nouna Health Research Centre, in which VA data were analysed, covers a rural population of about 30,000 (41 villages and an urban population of about 25,000 (Nouna town. Results A total of 1,544 deaths were analysed, 87 (6%, 225 (14%, 317 (21% and 915 (59% of which occurred in the periods Conclusion Malaria is the most important cause of death in this remote area of SSA, even considering the low specificity of malaria diagnosis in young children. Strengthening the existing malaria control tools is of prime importance to reduce the high childhood mortality in the endemic areas of SSA.

Kynast-Wolf Gisela

2006-06-01

98

American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent a [...] ntibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

DA, Cerino; J, Veloso; TF, Perles; PD, Zanzarini; MVC, Lonardoni; TGV, Silveira.

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Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasi [...] te distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

Sérgio Luiz Bessa, Luz; James Lee, Crainey; Anthony John, Shelley; Miguel, Rubio.

100

Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasi [...] te distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

Sérgio Luiz Bessa, Luz; James Lee, Crainey; Anthony John, Shelley; Miguel, Rubio.

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

2014-07-01

102

Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

Luz, Sergio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

2014-01-01

103

Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India  

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Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

2012-12-01

104

African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost  

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Background Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. Methods and Findings With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Conclusions Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future. PMID:23383355

Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Zoure, Honorat G. M.; Veerman, J. Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J.; Amazigo, Uche V.

2013-01-01

105

Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.  

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The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 ?g g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 ?g g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 ?g g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 ?g g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 ?g g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 ?g g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 ?g g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 ?g g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 ?g g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 ?g g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils. PMID:22638723

Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

2013-02-01

106

Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoen­demic Communities  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assess­ing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nige­ria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder were taken from 1024 individu­als examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population. An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Win­dows package was used for entering and analysis of data.Results: Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females. The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip than females (14 mf/skin snip (p < 0.01. A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.90; p < 0.01, and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities.Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

EC Uttah

2010-06-01

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Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina  

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A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 1dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

108

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

109

Detection of malaria parasites in mosquitoes from the malaria-endemic area of Chakaria, Bangladesh.  

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Malaria is one of the major public health problems of Bangladesh. We investigated the mosquito populations infected with malaria parasites in a malaria-endemic area Chakaria, Bangladesh, where Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus are the principal vectors. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected with a CDC miniature light trap from inside households in June 2007. A total of 868 mosquitoes were collected, among which females numbered 669 (77.1%). The species of female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified morphologically, and 651 were A. minimus and the remaining 18 were other Anopheles species. Malaria parasite DNA from individual female mosquitoes was extracted and distinguished using the microtiter plate hybridization (MPH) technique targeting the 18S rRNA of human malaria parasites. Nineteen mosquitoes were malaria parasite positive: 12 for Plasmodium falciparum, 1 for Plasmodium vivax, and 6 for both P. falciparum and P. vivax. This is the first time that the MPH technique was used for distinguishing malaria parasites in mosquitoes and the first report from Chakaria. Our results may contribute to planning and assessing malaria control strategies in Chakaria. PMID:18379066

Tangin, Akter; Komichi, Yuka; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Rashidul, Haque; Wataya, Yusuke; Kim, Hye-Sook

2008-04-01

110

Extraction of arsenic from a soil in the blackfoot disease endemic area with ionic liquids  

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Speciation of arsenic extracted with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) ([bmim][BF{sub 4}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [bmim][PF{sub 6}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)) from an As-humic acid (As-HA) complex contaminated soil (As-HA/soil) in a blackfoot disease endemic area has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. About 45% of arsenic in the As-HA/soil can be extracted with [bmim][BF{sub 4}] while the relatively less hydrophilic [bmim][PF{sub 6}] extracts 25% of arsenic. The extracted arsenic in the [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [bmim][PF{sub 6}] from the As-HA/soil possesses mainly As(III) species, suggesting that at least two reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) splitting of As-HA and (2) reduction of As(V) to As(III). The refined EXAFS spectra also indicate that the As(III) extracted in the RTILs possesses the AsO{sub 2}{sup -} structure, which has the As-O bond distances of 1.77-1.79 A and coordination numbers of 4.0-4.2.

Liao, Chang-Yu [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Peng, Ching-Yu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Wang, Hong-Chung [Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81362, Taiwan (China); Kang, Hsu-Ya [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Paul Wang, H., E-mail: wanghp@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-01

111

Extraction of arsenic from a soil in the blackfoot disease endemic area with ionic liquids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Speciation of arsenic extracted with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) ([bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [bmim][PF6] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)) from an As-humic acid (As-HA) complex contaminated soil (As-HA/soil) in a blackfoot disease endemic area has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. About 45% of arsenic in the As-HA/soil can be extracted with [bmim][BF4] while the relatively less hydrophilic [bmim][PF6] extracts 25% of arsenic. The extracted arsenic in the [bmim][BF4] and [bmim][PF6] from the As-HA/soil possesses mainly As(III) species, suggesting that at least two reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) splitting of As-HA and (2) reduction of As(V) to As(III). The refined EXAFS spectra also indicate that the As(III) extracted in the RTILs possesses the AsO2- structure, which has the As-O bond distances of 1.77-1.79 A and coordination numbers of 4.0-4.2.

112

Morphology and Histology Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Oil Palm Roots in Ganoderma boninense Endemic Area  

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Full Text Available Endophytic fungi defined as fungi that colonize internal plant tissues without causing visible damage to their host plant. As they are internal colonisers, therefore more able to compete within the vascular systems with capacity to arrest the spread of pathogens such as Ganoderma boninense causal agent of Basal Stem Rot (BSR disease in oil palm. Endophytic microbes acted against plant pathogen by antibiosis mechanism, nutrient and space competition, and induce plant pathogen resistance by producing metabolites. The objective of the present study was to identify endophytic fungi from oil palm roots in G. boninense endemic area Padang Halaban Estate, North Sumatera, based on morphological and histological character. At each site, five random palms were sampled. Seventy five endophytic fungi had been isolated and selected from BSR symptomless palm root. Identification of fungal endophytes were carried out by observing the reproductive structures (sexual and asexual under a light-field microscope with camera attachment. Seventy five isolates were classified to eight genera, consisting of Trichoderma (20, Fusarium (10, Aspergillus (5, Penicillium (5, Gliocladium (4, Phoma (4, Alternaria (4, and Curvularia (3. Twenty others were unidentified due to sterile mycelia.

ELIZABETH CAROLINE SITUMORANG

2014-05-01

113

Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Mo [...] st of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6%) asymptomatic and 17 acute (65.4%) including 5 (19.2%) fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

Octavio E, Sousa; Franklyn, Samudio; Corina de, Juncá; José E, Calzada.

2006-06-01

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Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10??g/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1??g/mL after 48?h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100??g/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10??g/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

2014-01-01

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Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10??g/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1??g/mL after 48?h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100??g/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10??g/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araujo-Junior, Joao Xavier; de Araujo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flavia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

2014-01-01

116

Hypothyroidism in women above 35 years in an endemic area recently under iodine supplementation: preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of greater Mymensingh is known of iodine endemicity. Association of IDD with hypothyroidism is well established phenomenon. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to thyroid dysfunction. 150 consecutive female patients of 35 plus years, who attended the Resident Physician of Mymensingh Medical College were invited to assay free T3, free T4 and TSH in CNMU, Mymensingh. Residencies of these patients were in the various districts of greater Mymensingh. 150 volunteers were offered to give their blood for the study. 134 attended CNMU, Mymensingh. Mean age was 45.03 + 6.65 y (mean + STD). Age ranged from 35 to 60 years. 24 (17.91%) had overt or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Full blown hypothyroidism with low FT3, FT4 and high TSH were seen in 6 (4.48%) cases. 18 (13.43%) showed elevated TSH level with normal FT4 and T3, suggesting sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is high in this area. (author) 1 fig., 23 refs

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Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.  

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The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-09-01

118

Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?  

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The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. PMID:24018199

Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2013-08-01

119

Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 ?g/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

120

Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Geographic Information System for Detecting Spatial Connectivity Brown Planthopper Endemic Areas Using a Combination of Triple Exponential Smoothing - Getis Ord  

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Full Text Available This study aims to develop a GIS application to detect the possible formation of brown planthoppers (BPH (Nilaparvata lugens.Stal endemic areas based on spatial trend, hierarchical effects and risks areas caused of spatial connectivity in a particular area. The study was conducted through five stages: (1 the collection and preprocessing of research data, (2 database development, (3 the creation of the component class Exponential Smoothing, Weight Metrics and Getis Ord, (4 development of a Early Warning class and GIS applications, and (5 information visualization in the form of graphs, maps and tables. The results show that the software component in this study; the class prediction engine; Getis Ord class and class early detection function optimally generate predictive, endemic regions and early warning information on the period ahead.

Sri Yulianto J. P.

2014-08-01

122

The supplementation of levothyroxine among indigenous people in endemic goitre areas: The impact of therapy.  

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In order to study the effect of levothyroxine in the treatment of endemic goitre, a longitudinal study was conducted among the Aborigines in Lanai Post and Sinderut Post, situated in an iodine-deficient area located in the district of Kuala Lipis, Pahang. All subjects in the treatment group (Lanai Post) were given 100 µg of levothyroxine per day and were followed for 1 1/2 years. A total of 311 subjects were examined at baseline, 323 on the first, 256 on the second, 239 on the third and 184 on the fourth visit following levothyroxine supplementation. Goitre prevalence, thyroid hormones, thyroid volume, nutritional status, urinary iodine levels, arterial blood pressure and mental performance were determined. Following the intervention, goitre prevalence was significantly reduced in the treatment group (baseline 42.8% vs final visit 13.0%, p<0.0001); however, no significant difference was noted in the control group. Total T4 levels were increased in the treatment group (p<0.0001), while a significant reduction was noted in the control group (p<0.0001). Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels increased significantly in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. As for the thyroid volume, both groups showed a significant increment following the intervention (p<0.0001). With respect to the nutritional status, the treatment group showed a significant increase in body weight following the intervention (p<0.05). In addition, the mid-arm circumference and body mass index also increased after 1 year of intervention. However, the control group showed a reduction in the waist-hip ratio (p<0.0001). Although there was no statistical difference in the waist-hip ratio in the treatment group, there has been a significant reduction observed after 1 year of intervention. At 1 year, a reduction in skinfold thickness was noted in the treatment group while only the triceps and subscapular were increased in the control group. The body fat was decreased in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention (p<0.0001). No particular trend was noted in the urinary iodine excretion in the treatment group, but surprisingly, the levels were increased in the control group (p<0.0001). A significant increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention, but the controls showed a reduction in the systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001). Both groups showed a remarkable increase in mental performance, with a more pronounced effect in the treatment group (p<0.05). The correction of iodine deficiency by levothyroxine supplementation has a short-term beneficial effect in reducing the prevalence of goitre and improving the mental ability among the Aborigines in endemic areas; however, proper monitoring and close supervision are needed to maintain compliance. PMID:24393641

Zaleha, M I; Osman, A; Iskandar, Z A; Sazali, S; Ali, M M; Roslan, I; Khalid, B A

1998-06-01

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Trypanosoma brucei: comparison of circulating strains in an endemic and an epidemic area of a sleeping sickness focus.  

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Human sleeping sickness in East Africa is characterized by periods of long-term endemicity interspersed with short-term epidemics. The factors generating these huge changes are largely uncharacterized but probably reflect complex interactions among socioeconomic factors, ecological factors, and the movement and diversity of trypanosome strains. To investigate the role of trypanosome strains in the generation of these epidemics, we addressed two important questions. (1) Are the trypanosome strains circulating within a focus the same during times of endemicity and during an epidemic? (2) How stable are trypanosome strains within a single animal reservoir host? Using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of repetitive DNA, we have examined the relationship between Trypanosoma brucei isolates, taken from the Busoga focus of human sleeping sickness, during an endemic period (Busia, Kenya, 1993-1994) and stocks isolated during an epidemic period (Tororo, Uganda, 1988-1990). We show that similar strains, including human infective strains, are circulating in domestic cattle (the most significant animal reservoir) in both epidemic and endemic areas of the Busoga focus. Furthermore, we show the important finding that individual animals harbor the same genotype of T. brucei for a period of time and may be clonal for a given parasite strain. PMID:9603485

Hide, G; Angus, S D; Holmes, P H; Maudlin, I; Welburn, S C

1998-05-01

124

Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in a malaria-endemic area in Hainan, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria incidence in China's Hainan province has dropped significantly, since Malaria Programme of China Global Fund Round 1 was launched. To lay a foundation for further studies to evaluate the efficacy of Malaria Programme and to help with public health planning and resource allocation in the future, the temporal and spatial variations of malaria epidemic are analysed and areas and seasons with a higher risk are identified at a fine geographic scale within a malaria endemic county in Hainan. Methods Malaria cases among the residents in each of 37 villages within hyper-endemic areas of Wanning county in southeast Hainan from 2005 to 2009 were geo-coded at village level based on residence once the patients were diagnosed. Based on data so obtained, purely temporal, purely spatial and space-time scan statistics and geographic information systems (GIS were employed to identify clusters of time, space and space-time with elevated proportions of malaria cases. Results Purely temporal scan statistics suggested clusters in 2005,2006 and 2007 and no cluster in 2008 and 2009. Purely spatial clustering analyses pinpointed the most likely cluster as including three villages in 2005 and 2006 respectively, sixteen villages in 2007, nine villages in 2008, and five villages in 2009, and the south area of Nanqiao town as the most likely to have a significantly high occurrence of malaria. The space-time clustering analysis found the most likely cluster as including three villages in the south of Nanqiao town with a time frame from January 2005 to May 2007. Conclusions Even in a small traditional malaria endemic area, malaria incidence has a significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the finer spatial and temporal scales. The scan statistics enable the description of this spatiotemporal heterogeneity, helping with clarifying the epidemiology of malaria and prioritizing the resource assignment and investigation of malaria on a finer geographical scale in endemic areas.

Wang Yong

2011-04-01

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Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria g [...] roups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

Hossein, Nahrevanian; Jafar, Gholizadeh; Mahin, Farahmand; Mehdi, Assmar.

2008-02-01

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Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria g [...] roups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

Hossein, Nahrevanian; Jafar, Gholizadeh; Mahin, Farahmand; Mehdi, Assmar.

127

Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP and nitric oxide (NO are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman and Northwestern (NW provinces (Ardabil. The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection. The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

Hossein Nahrevanian

2008-02-01

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Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamics in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy.  

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A 2-year survey was carried out from May to November 2008 and 2009 to study the sand fly species composition, its seasonal phenology and density in Apulia region (southern, Italy). The study was conducted in a dog shelter located in a new residential urban district where Leishmania infantum is endemic. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps from May to November, at about 7-day intervals. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily. In December 2008, general environmental improvements (e.g., the ground was covered with gravel and the vegetation present inside the cages was removed to facilitate cleaning) were made in the study area. The most diffused species during the whole study period were Phlebotomus perniciosus (2008, n=248, 49.4%; 2009, n=254, 50.6%) followed by Phlebotomus neglectus (2008, n=76, 39.8%; 2009, n=115, 60.2%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (2008, n=5, 50.0%; 2009, n=5, 50.0%). Four specimens of Phlebotomus perfiliewi were collected only in the first year. The number of Sergentomyia minuta specimens collected increased considerably in the second (n=548, 86.2%) in comparison to the first year (n=88, 13.8%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in July and August when a mean temperature from 27.09 to 28.02°C and mean relative humidity from 47.28 to 56.36% were recorded. The variations in phlebotomine sand fly species diversity and abundance recorded in this study were related to climatic and environmental factors. Data here presented confirm that sand flies easily adapt to the urban environments and that the may represent a public health concern for L. infantum and other pathogen transmission also in similar urban environment of southern Europe. PMID:20816927

Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

2010-12-01

129

Effects of the application of trichinellosis control program in an endemic area in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals, caused by a parasite from the Trichinellidae family and Trichinella genus. Humans get infected by consuming infected and inadequately thermally treated meat from domestic or wild animals containing cocooned infective larvae of T. spiralis. Aside from health problems caused by trichinellosis as a zoonosis, there is no doubt that it represents a serious economic problem for swine meat producers. The research in this paper has been performed in Serbia, in a region which is located at the confluence of two large rivers, and it is the geographical location which makes it an endemic area for the presence of T. spiralis. Epidemiological data pertains to the period of 1995-2003, but also to the period 2003-2009, when the implementation of the program for control and eradication of trichinellosis was complete. The diagnostic testing of cadavers of slaughtered swine for the presence of T. spiralis in the period of 1995-2003 included 41.04% of the slaughtered swine, out of which 0.4281% were positive, and the amount of economic loss was 95301000 dinars or about one million EUR. The infection was confirmed in 432 patients during the research period. The preparation of the program for the control and eradication of trichinellosis has been made in accordance with applicable laws and technological standards, with a clear determination of input and output using a cost-benefit analysis. The effects of its application show a reduction in the number of swine which are positive for the presence of T. spiralis by a factor of three times (p<0.01, and the present net value (PNV and the benefit/cost ratio (B/C show economic and epidemiological justification.

Teši? M.

2011-01-01

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Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?  

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Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized me...

Gonc?alves-coe?lho, Thiago D.; Coe?lho, Matheus D. G.

1996-01-01

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Patterns of endemism and species richness in Malagasy cophyline frogs support a key role of mountainous areas for speciation.  

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Cophyline narrow-mouthed frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) are a diverse endemic radiation of Madagascar. Cophylines contain a high proportion of range restricted species and constitute a good model system to understand patterns of evolutionary diversification in tropical ecosystems. We combine spatial and phylogenetic analyses for a near-complete taxon sample to test competing explanations for patterns of species richness (SR) and endemism. Our reconstruction of the phylogeny of cophylines indicates the presence of 22 new species and several instances of nonmonophyly. We found a strong historical signal in current cophyline ranges indicating a high degree of spatial niche conservatism in clade diversification, with clades occurring in the North of Madagascar constituting the most derived in the phylogeny. We identified six positively correlated centers of SR and endemism that can neither be explained by stochastic models such as elevational or latitudinal mid-domain effect, nor by low-elevation river catchments. Instead, the locations of these centers in areas spanning a high altitudinal range in combination with specific climatic parameters support a key role of mountainous areas for speciation of these anurans, although we cannot exclude an influence of habitat loss due to human impact. High conservation priority is ascribed to these areas. PMID:18485110

Wollenberg, Katharina C; Vieites, David R; van der Meijden, Arie; Glaw, Frank; Cannatella, David C; Vences, Miguel

2008-08-01

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Autoimmune reactivity against precursor form of desmoglein 1 in healthy Tunisians in the area of endemic pemphigus foliaceus  

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Background Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), the pemphigus foliaceus (PF) antigen, is produced as a precursor (preDsg1) and is transported to the cell surface as the mature form (matDsg1). Recent studies show that B cells from North American individuals without pemphigus can potentially produce anti-preDsg1 IgG antibodies, but ELISA screening of large numbers of normal people in North America and Japan hardly ever shows circulating antibodies against preDsg1 or matDsg1. In contrast, in Tunisia, where PF is endemic, anti-Dsg1 IgGs are frequently detected in healthy individuals. Objective To characterize these anti-Dsg1 antibodies from normal individuals in Tunisia. Methods Sera from 16 healthy individuals and 9 PF patients in the endemic PF area in Tunisia, and sera from Japanese non-endemic PF patients were analyzed by immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting using recombinant proteins of preDsg1, matDsg1, and domain-swapped Dsg1/Dsg2 molecules. Results Sera from normal Tunisian individuals reacted to preDsg1 alone (8/16) or more strongly to preDsg1 than to matDsg1 (7/16), while those from all Tunisian PF patients and Japanese non-endemic PF patients reacted similarly to preDsg1 and matDsg1, or preferentially to matDsg1. The epitopes recognized by anti-Dsg1 IgGs from normal Tunisian individuals were more frequently found in the C-terminal extracellular domains (EC3 to EC5), while those in Tunisian endemic PF patients were more widely distributed throughout the extracellular domains, suggesting IgGs against EC1 and EC2 developed during disease progression. Conclusions These findings indicate that IgG autoantibodies against Dsg1 are mostly raised against preDsg1 and/or C-terminal domains of Dsg1 in healthy Tunisians in the endemic area of PF. PMID:23489520

Toumi, Amina; Saleh, Marwah Adly; Yamagami, Jun; Abida, Olfa; Kallel, Maryem; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Makni, Sondes; Turki, Hamida; Hachiya, Takahisa; Kuroda, Keiko; Stanley, John R.; Masmoudi, Hatem; Amagai, Masayuki

2013-01-01

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Human onchocerciasis in Brazil: an overview  

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Full Text Available Human onchocerciasis was recently discovered in Brazil among Yanomámi Indians living along the border region with Venezuela in the States of Amazonas and Roraima. The article reports on the history of the disease's discovery, its distribution, and incrimination of vector simuliid species. The literature that has been generated on the parasite, its vectors, and control of the disease is critically analyzed as well as the organization of epidemiological surveys and the control program developed by the Brazilian government and an international agency. Suggestions for future work are made.

Shelley Anthony J.

2002-01-01

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Assay of fipronil efficacy to prevent canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in endemic areas.  

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Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil for the prevention of Ehrlichia canis transmission to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus in two endemic areas situated in Africa (Dakar and Djibouti). We carried out controlled trials in kennels for 1 year on 248 dogs, mainly police dogs and military working dogs. Eight groups were studied in a multi-centre study. Fifty five fipronil treated dogs were located in two separated kennels (G3, 37 dogs in Djibouti and G8, 18 dogs in Dakar). G1 (66 dogs) and G2 (60 dogs) were untreated control groups located in Djibouti, whereas G4 (32 dogs), G5 (13 dogs), G6 (18 dogs) and G7 (4 dogs) were the control groups located in Dakar. The epidemiological status of each group is known. G1 and G2 dogs were not kept in kennels, whereas G3, G4, G5, G6, G7, G8 dogs were housed in equivalent kennels. Tick infestation, clinical status and Ehrlichia seroprevalence were assessed during 1 year (duration of the study). Dog treated with fipronil showed neither canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) nor tick infestations. In all groups of untreated control animals, R. sanguineus tick infestations were frequent, particularly in kennels (G5, G6 and G7) as well as morbidity and mortality due to CME. E. canis infection rates were low for fipronil treated animals: 2.7% (1/37) for G3 and 5.5% (1/18) for G8 group. Among control animals, seroprevalence was maximum (100%) in dogs kept in kennels (G5, G6 and G7 groups) and high among native dogs in Djibouti (G1 group): 69.7% (46/66) and in Dakar (G4 group): 50% (16/32). Dogs belonging to expatriate citizens (G2 group) were less likely to be infected: 21.7% (13/60). The comparison of serological results among French army dogs and French citizen dogs that were introduced in Djibouti for an average of 10 months shows a statistically significant (Pacaricide product is recommended. PMID:12581587

Davoust, B; Marié, J L; Mercier, S; Boni, M; Vandeweghe, A; Parzy, D; Beugnet, F

2003-02-28

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The 2000 Tularemia Outbreak: A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors in Disease-Endemic and Emergent Areas, Sweden  

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A widespread outbreak of tularemia in Sweden in 2000 was investigated in a case-control study in which 270 reported cases of tularemia were compared with 438 controls. The outbreak affected parts of Sweden where tularemia had hitherto been rare, and these “emergent” areas were compared with the disease-endemic areas. Multivariate regression analysis showed mosquito bites to be the main risk factor, with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.8. Other risk factors were owning a cat (OR 2.5) and farm work...

Eliasson, Henrik; Lindba?ck, Johan; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Arneborn, Malin; Giesecke, Johan; Tegnell, Anders

2002-01-01

136

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

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Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Anayansi Valderrama

2011-12-01

137

Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this s [...] pecies has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

Anayansi, Valderrama; Mara Garcia, Tavares; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

138

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

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Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infect...

Rosana Gentile; Costa-neto, So?crates F.; Ml, Margareth Gonc?alves; Bonecker, Simone T.; Fernandes, Fabiano A.; Garcia, Juberlan S.; Barreto, Magali G. M.; Soares, Marisa S.; Andrea, Paulo S. D.; Peralta, Jose? M.; Luis Rey

2006-01-01

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Filaria associated clinical manifestations in children in an endemic area and morbidity control by immunomonitoring and optimal DEC therapy: Sevagram experience  

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Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem in India with 412 million people living in bancroftian endemic areas and is a major cause of clinical morbidity. Twenty million people are reported to suffer from chronic disease manifestations such as lymphoedema, hydrocele or elephantiasis. At least twice the number have been shown to suffer from acute and occult filarial infections in an endemic area without diagnosis. Due to non-availability of suitable diagnostic test for confirming f...

Harinath, B. C.; Reddy, M. V. R.; Bhunia, B.; Bhandari, Y. P.; Mehta, V. K.; Chaturvedi, P.; Prajapati, N. C.; Gupta, R. K. C.

2000-01-01

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Identification of a New Borrelia Species among Small Mammals in Areas of Northern Spain Where Lyme Disease Is Endemic  

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The role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where Lyme disease is endemic in northern Spain. A low rate of infestation by Ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato to I. ricinus larvae that fed on them. In contrast, questing ticks collected at the same ti...

Gil, Horacio; Barral, Marta; Escudero, Raquel; Garci?a-pe?rez, Ana L.; Anda, Pedro

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species  

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Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals? 1.5 m height and ? 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of the studied population preferred fruit trees while 5% wereinterested in some medicinal plants. Preference of this nature indicates that in the future, the plantdiversity in these home gardens is likely to decline considerably. This might even lead to theextinction of rare, endemic plant species. Therefore, people in northern flank encouraged toincorporate multipurpose endemic plants and plants with less IVI values in their home gardens inorder to maintain high diversity and to conserve endemic and relatively rare plants while gainingsubstantial income through their home gardens.Keywords: Northern Flank, Home gardens, Conservation, Woody-perennials, Endemic species

D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

2013-04-01

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The vector control operations in the onchocerciasis control programme in West Africa  

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Onchocerciasis is a dermal filariasis transmitted to man by a blood sucking blackfly belonging to the Simulium genus. The most serious manifestations of the disease are blindness and debilitating skin lesions. Africa is by far the most affected continent both in terms of distribution and severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. That is the reason why an ambitious regional onchocerciasis control project, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), was launched in 1974 (Molyneux 1995). The objective is to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem and as an obstacle to socio-economic development and to ensure that the countries are in a position to maintain these achievements. Seven countries were concerned at the beginning of the programme), delimiting the 'initial area' (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo). In 1988, the OCP began operations in the 'western extension', an additional four countries in the West (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone) and extended operations into the 'southeastern extension' (south Benin, Ghana and Togo). The rationale for these extensions related to findings that the vectors were able to migrate and hence re-invade controlled areas over several hundred kilometres (Garms et al. 1979). Until 1989, in the absence of a non-toxic drug which could be used on a wide scale to kill the adult worm, the vector control strategy was the only method to interrupt the transmis the only method to interrupt the transmission of the blinding form of the parasite until the adult worm in the human body was eliminated (the maximum duration of the adult worm is estimated to be about fourteen years). In the late 1980s, ivermectin, a microfilaricide which is the only drug available to date, became an integral part of the OCP control strategy (Webbe 1992). In the extension areas, larviciding is still going on with satisfaction, combined with the distribution of ivermectin. In pursuing this combined therapeutic and vector control strategy, the whole of the basins treated should be freed from blinding onchocerciasis by the year 2002 at the latest, which is the end point of the programme activities

143

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

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The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

144

Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?  

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Full Text Available The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar. These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha and Mandrozo (15,145 ha in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles, 54 amphibians, 104 birds, 23 smallmammals, 17 lemurs and one fish. Of these 243 species, 30 are threatened taxa comprising two Critically Endangered (CR, 11 Endangered (EN and 17 Vulnerable (VU species. The long term ecological viability of these sites has been shown by population stability of the two Critically Endangered flagship species, the Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides in Manambolomaty and Mandrozo and the recently rediscovered Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata in Bemanevika. Other threatened species and high biological diversity also justifies their inclusion into Madagascar’s SAPM.

Achille P. Raselimanana

2010-06-01

145

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

Saeed Amir

2011-04-01

146

Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus infection: improved detection of patients with onchocerciasis.  

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Definitive diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus (Ov) infection requires the identification of the parasite in either the skin or subcutaneous nodules. These parasitologic approaches suffer from poor sensitivity. To assess the efficacy and utility of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis for Ov infection, skin snips were examined from 94 persons in an Ov-endemic region of Ecuador, and results were compared in a blinded fashion with those of a PCR assay based on the Onchocerca-specific repetitive DNA sequence, O-150. All 60 patients microfilaria-positive on skin snip examination were positive in the PCR-based assay. In addition, 13 of 34 who were microfilaria-negative by skin snips were positive in the PCR assay. This suggests that the PCR-based assay is significantly more sensitive than current methods and overcomes many deficiencies of parasitologic and serologic methodologies in diagnosing active onchocerciasis. PMID:8158053

Zimmerman, P A; Guderian, R H; Aruajo, E; Elson, L; Phadke, P; Kubofcik, J; Nutman, T B

1994-03-01

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Feeding sources and trypanosome infection index of Rhodnius pallescens in a Chagas disease endemic area of Amador County, Panama.  

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The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3% of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4%) for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4%. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90%). Between 47-51% of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51%) were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic. PMID:18488091

Pineda, Vanessa; Montalvo, Edilma; Alvarez, Dayra; Santamaría, Ana María; Calzada, Jose Eduardo; Saldaña, Azael

2008-01-01

148

Can equids be a reservoir of Leishmania braziliensis in endemic areas?  

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In this study, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in equids living in endemic regions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To determine the role of these animals in the Leishmania cycle, we used two approaches: serological and molecular methods. Antibodies to the parasite were assayed using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood samples were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the positive products were sequenced. The results showed that 11.0% (25/227) of the equids were seropositive for Leishmania sp, and 16.3% (37/227) were PCR positive. Antibodies were detected in 20 horses, 3 donkeys, and 2 mules, and the parasite DNA was detected in 30 horses, 5 donkeys, and 2 mules. Sequencing the amplified DNA revealed 100% similarity with sequences for Viannia complex, corroborating the results of PCR for L. braziliensis. Our results show that equids are infected with L. braziliensis, which could be food sources for phlebotomines in the peridomiciliary environment and consequently play a role in the cutaneous leishmaniasis cycle. PMID:24721908

Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Otomura, Flavio; Teodoro, Ueslei; Massafera, Rubens; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Catarino, Carolina Motter; Dalagrana, Luana; Costa Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

2014-01-01

149

Revisiting tuberculous pleurisy: pleural fluid characteristics and diagnostic yield of mycobacterial culture in an endemic area  

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Background Tuberculous pleurisy is traditionally indicated by extreme lymphocytosis in pleural fluid and low yield of effusion culture. However, there is considerable inconsistency among previous study results. In addition, these data should be updated due to early effusion studies and advances in culture methods. Methods From January 2004 to June 2009, patients with tuberculous pleurisy were retrospectively identified from the mycobacteriology laboratories and the pathology and tuberculosis registration databases of two hospitals in Taiwan where tuberculosis is endemic. Pleural fluid characteristics and yields of mycobacterial cultures using liquid media were evaluated. Results A total of 382 patients with tuberculous pleurisy were identified. The median lymphocyte percentage of total cells in pleural fluids was 84% (IQR 64–95%) and 17% of cases had a lymphocyte percentage of <50%. The lymphocyte percentage was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99). The diagnostic yields were 63% for effusion culture, 48% for sputum culture, 79% for the combination of effusion and sputum cultures, and 74% for histological examination of pleural biopsy specimens. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte predominance in tuberculous pleurisy was lower than was previously thought. The lymphocyte percentage in pleural fluid was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture. With the implementation of a liquid culture method, the sensitivity of effusion culture was much higher than has been previously reported, and the combination of effusion and sputum cultures provided a good diagnostic yield. PMID:22436167

Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chien, Jung-Yien; Huang, Chun-Ta; Kuo, Yao-Wen; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen J

2012-01-01

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Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela / Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las már [...] genes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the [...] proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. and the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

Alexis, Fernández; Jaime, Ramírez-Pérez; Harland, Shuler; Noris, Rodríguez.

151

Effectiveness of polio vaccination coverage in reducing the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in a highly endemic area of Bombay city.  

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Full Text Available 100% oral polio vaccine coverage was sought through household visits by health center personnel in a slum area in northwestern Bombay. Children up to and including 3 years of age comprised the target population. In the 2 1/2-year period following initiation of the vaccination campaign in September 1980, 83% of children in the target population were covered and no cases of paralytic poliomyelitis were reported from the area. This coverage rate of 83% stands in contrast with the 64% rate obtained in Bombay?s Ward B, a residential area for middle and upper-income people, and the 70% rate in Ward E, another slum district where household visits were not conducted. This experience demonstrates that it is possible to abolish paralytic poliomyelitis through adequate vaccination coverage even in slum areas located in the middle of highly endemic areas. Experience further demonstrated that it is not necessary to withhold oral polio vaccine from children with minor illnesses such as diarrhea or immediately before or after breastfeeding. These 2 contraindications have in the past increased the difficulty of obtaining adequate vaccine coverage rates among young children.

Desai V

1984-01-01

152

Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

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Full Text Available Complement receptor 1 (CR1 gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn b allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn b and KAM+ that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

Aparecida Maria Fontes

2011-01-01

153

Reposição de cães em área endêmica para leishmaniose visceral Dog replacement in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou estimar a reposição de cães em área endêmica para leishmaniose visceral, onde a eutanásia de animais soropositivos é indicada como medida de controle, e avaliar os motivos que levaram a aquisição ou não de novos animais. Houve a reposição em 44,5% dos casos, principalmente devido à necessidade de companhia ou guarda. O principal motivo para a não-reposição foi o temor da leishmaniose visceral.This study aimed to estimate the dog replacement rate in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, in which slaughter of seropositive animals was indicated as a control measure, and to evaluate the reasons why new animals were or were not acquired. The animals were replaced in 44.5% of the cases, and this was done mainly because of the need for a companion or guard dog. The main reason for not replacing the dog was fear of visceral leishmaniasis.

Andréa Maria Andrade

2007-10-01

154

Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.  

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American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antônio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2012-01-01

155

Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis  

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Full Text Available This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4% showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40% serum and 5 (4.4% fluid samples. All five fluid antigen positive cases were positive for antibodies and showed microfilaria in blood. These findings emphasize the use of circulating filarial antigen detection and alternative usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filariasis.

Shah A

2007-01-01

156

Trypanosoma cruzi: biological characterization of a isolate from an endemic area and its susceptibility to conventional drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe some biological and molecular characteristics of a Trypanosoma cruzi isolate derived from a Triatomine captured in Nicaragua. PCR based typification showed that this isolate, named Nicaragua, belonged to the lineage Tc I. Nicaragua infected culture cells were treated with allopurinol, showing different behavior according to the cellular compartment, being cardiomyocyte primary cultures more resistant to this drug. The course of the infection in a mice experimental model and its susceptibility to benznidazole and allopurinol was analyzed. In benznidazole treatment, mice reverted the high lethal effect of parasites during the acute infection, however, a few parasites were detected in the heart of 88% of mice 1 year post-infection. Since T. cruzi is a heterogeneous species population it is important to study and characterize different parasites actually circulating in humans in endemic areas. In this work we show that T. cruzi Nicaragua isolate, is sensitive to early benznidazole treatment. PMID:20493848

Grosso, Noelia L; Bua, Jacqueline; Perrone, Alina E; Gonzalez, Mariela N; Bustos, Patricia L; Postan, Miriam; Fichera, Laura E

2010-10-01

157

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

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Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-01

158

Genetic epidemiology of fecal egg excretion during Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There is considerable variation in the level of fecal egg excretion during Schistosoma mansoni infections. Within a single endemic area, the distribution of egg counts is typically overdispersed, with the majority of eggs excreted coming from a minority of residents. The purpose of this study was to [...] quantify the influence of genetic factors on patterns of fecal egg excretion in a rural study sample in Brazil. Individual fecal egg excretions, expressed in eggs per gram of feces, were determined by the Kato-Katz method on stool samples collected on three different days. Detailed genealogic information was gathered at the time of sampling, which allowed assignment of 461 individuals to 14 pedigrees containing between 3 and 422 individuals. Using a maximum likelihood variance decomposition approach, we performed quantitative genetic analyses to determine if genetic factors could partially account for the observed pattern of fecal egg excretion. The quantitative genetic analysis indicated that between 21-37% of the variation in S. mansoni egg counts was attributable to additive genetic factors and that shared environment, as assessed by common household, accounted for a further 12-21% of the observed variation. A maximum likelihood heritability (h²) estimate of 0.44 ± 0.14 (mean ± SE) was found for the 9,604 second- and higher-degree pairwise relationships in the study sample, which is consistent with the upper limit (37%) of the genetic factor determined in the variance decomposition analysis. These analyses point to the significant influence of additive host genes on the pattern of S. mansoni fecal egg excretion in this endemic area.

J, Bethony; A, Gazzinelli; A, Lopes; W, Pereira; LF, Alves-Oliveira; S, Willams-Blangero; J, Blangero; PT, LoVerde; R, Corrêa-Oliveira.

159

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

160

Serology of Typhoid Fever in an Area of Endemicity and Its Relevance to Diagnosis  

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Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of ?0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P ? 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available. PMID:11230418

House, Deborah; Wain, John; Ho, Vo A.; Diep, To S.; Chinh, Nguyen T.; Bay, Phan V.; Vinh, Ha; Duc, Minh; Parry, Christopher M.; Dougan, Gordon; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae, and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86% villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.

Carabin Hélène

2003-01-01

162

Current status of onchocerciasis in Colombia.  

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To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries were surveyed; 655 adults underwent physical examinations and skin biopsies. Infected individuals were found almost exclusively in the community of Naiciona, where prevalence of infection was 40% (36 of 91). Polymerase chain reaction detection of onchocercal DNA in skin snips correlated with the skin-snip biopsy results. The prevalence of punctate keratitis, the only ocular manifestation found, was 33%. A rapid entomologic assessment demonstrated Simulium exiguum infected with Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first finding in Colombia of naturally infected black flies and confirms S. exiguum as a vector species. These data will be used for implementing a control program using periodic ivermectin distribution. PMID:9598447

Corredor, A; Nicholls, R S; Duque, S; Munoz de Hoyos, P; Alvarez, C A; Guderian, R H; Lopez, H H; Palma, G I

1998-05-01

163

Blackfly vectors of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan.  

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Studies of blackfly vectors of Onchocerca dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), a parasite of wild boar implicated in the aetiology of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and six other zoonotic Onchocerca species of this country are reviewed. Molecular identification of infective larvae found in wild-caught female blackflies showed that Simulium bidentatum (Shiraki) (Diptera: Simuliidae) is a natural vector of O. dewittei japonica, and also Onchocerca sp. sensu Fukuda et al., another parasite of wild boar. Inoculation experiments demonstrated that Simulium arakawae Matsumura and four other Simulium species are putative vectors. Similarly, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum and Simulium oitanum (Shiraki) are putative vectors of Onchocerca eberhardi Uni & Bain and Onchocerca skrjabini Rukhlyadev, parasites of sika deer. Morphometric studies of infective larvae indicated that Onchocerca lienalis Stiles, a bovine species, is transmitted by S. arakawae, Simulium daisense (Takahasi) and Simulium kyushuense Takaoka, and that Onchocerca sp. sensu Takaoka & Bain, another bovine species, is transmitted by S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. daisense and S. oitanum. Prosimulium sp. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Simulium japonicum Matsumura are suspected vectors of Onchocerca suzukii Yagi, Bain & Shoho and O. skrjabini [Twinnia japonensis Rubtsov (Diptera: Simuliidae) may also transmit the latter], parasites of Japanese serow, following detection of the parasites' DNA genes in wild-caught blackflies. PMID:22827756

Takaoka, H; Fukuda, M; Otsuka, Y; Aoki, C; Uni, S; Bain, O

2012-12-01

164

Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in particular the range of spatial autocorrelation, reflect differences in the mode of transmission of cholera and dysentery. Our risk maps for cholera and dysentery incidences should help identifying putative factors of increased disease incidence, leading to more effective prevention and remedial actions in endemic areas.

Haq M Zahirul

2006-10-01

165

Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of patients infected with brucellosis compared to a control population from the same geographic region. The quality of life of brucellosis positive and brucellosis negative individuals from rural and urban areas of Mexico was evaluated using the Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. This survey is a generic measure of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Brucellosis patients had lower overall quality of life compared with the controls. Brucellosis patients from rural areas had lower overall quality of life (P < 0.05 compared with brucellosis patients from urban areas. In conclusion, human brucellosis affects quality of life, with patients living in rural areas most severely impacted. This may be due to the lack of local public policies and programs for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of brucellosis.

Guillermina García-Juárez

2012-09-01

166

An Immunomics Approach to Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures of Naturally Resistant and Chronically Infected Individuals from Endemic Areas  

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Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an immunomics approach to the discovery of schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. We selected mostly surface-derived proteins, produced them using an in vitro rapid translation system and then printed them to generate the first protein microarray for a multi-cellular pathogen. Using well-established Brazilian cohorts of putatively resistant (PR) and chronically infected (CI) individuals stratified by the intensity of their S. mansoni infection, we probed arrays for IgG subclass and IgE responses to these antigens to detect antibody signatures that were reflective of protective vs. non-protective immune responses. Moreover, probing for IgE responses allowed us to identify antigens that might induce potentially deleterious hypersensitivity responses if used as subunit vaccines in endemic populations. Using multi-dimensional cluster analysis we showed that PR individuals mounted a distinct and robust IgG1 response to a small set of newly discovered and well-characterized surface (tegument) antigens in contrast to CI individuals who mounted strong IgE and IgG4 responses to many antigens. Herein, we show the utility of a vaccinomics approach that profiles antibody responses of resistant individuals in a high-throughput multiplex approach for the identification of several potentially protective and safe schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. PMID:24675823

Gaze, Soraya; Driguez, Patrick; Pearson, Mark S.; Mendes, Tiago; Doolan, Denise L.; Trieu, Angela; McManus, Donald P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Nakajima, Rie; Jasinskas, Al; Hung, Chris; Liang, Li; Pablo, Jozelyn; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Felgner, Philip L.; Loukas, Alex

2014-01-01

167

Spatial risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area in Côte d'Ivoire  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to identify demographic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors and spatial patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area of Africa, and to specify how this information can facilitate improved malaria control at the district level. Methods A questionnaire was administered to about 4,000 schoolchildren in 55 schools in western Côte d'Ivoire to determine children's socioeconomic status and their habit of sleeping under bed nets. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images, digitized ground maps and a second questionnaire addressed to school directors. Finger prick blood samples were collected and P. falciparum parasitaemia determined under a microscope using standardized, quality-controlled methods. Bayesian variogram models were utilized for spatial risk modelling and mapping of P. falciparum parasitaemia at non-sampled locations, assuming stationary and non-stationary underlying spatial dependence. Results Two-thirds of the schoolchildren were infected with P. falciparum and the mean parasitaemia among infected children was 959 parasites/?l of blood. Age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, coverage rate with bed nets and environmental factors (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, land surface temperature and living in close proximity to standing water were significantly associated with the risk of P. falciparum parasitaemia. After accounting for spatial correlation, age, bed net coverage, rainfall during the main malaria transmission season and distance to rivers remained significant covariates. Conclusion It is argued that a massive increase in bed net coverage, particularly in villages in close proximity to rivers, in concert with other control measures, is necessary to bring malaria endemicity down to intermediate or low levels.

Yapi Ahoua

2009-11-01

168

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years, primary school period (7-12 years and secondary school period (13-14 years. Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14. The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5 but differed by gender (P < 0.001. The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1 The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2 HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3 Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4 We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

Bahri Cakabay

2010-01-01

169

A Bayesian approach to study the space time variation of leprosy in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In leprosy endemic areas, patients are usually spatially clustered and not randomly distributed. Classical statistical techniques fail to address the problem of spatial clustering in the regression model. Bayesian method is one which allows itself to incorporate spatial dependence in the model. However little is explored in the field of leprosy. The Bayesian approach may improve our understanding about the variation of the disease prevalence of leprosy over space and time. Methods Data from an endemic area of leprosy, covering 148 panchayats from two taluks in South India for four time points between January 1991 and March 2003 was used. Four Bayesian models, namely, space-cohort and space-period models with and without interactions were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. Cohort effect, period effect over four time points and spatial effect (smoothed were obtained using WinBUGS. The spatial or panchayat effect thus estimated was compared with the raw standardized morbidity (leprosy prevalence rate (SMR using a choropleth map. The possible factors that might have influenced the variations of prevalence of leprosy were explored. Results Bayesian models with the interaction term were found to be the best fitted model. Leprosy prevalence was higher than average in the older cohorts. The last two cohorts 1987–1996 and 1992–2001 showed a notable decline in leprosy prevalence. Period effect over 4 time points varied from a high of 3.2% to a low of 1.8%. Spatial effect varied between 0.59 and 2. Twenty-six panchayats showed significantly higher prevalence of leprosy than the average when Bayesian method was used and it was 40 panchayats with the raw SMR. Conclusion Reduction of prevalence of leprosy was 92% for persons born after 1996, which could be attributed to various intervention and treatment programmes like vaccine trial and MDT. The estimated period effects showed a gradual decline in the risk of leprosy which could be due to better nutrition, hygiene and increased awareness about the disease. Comparison of the maps of the relative risk using the Bayesian smoothing and the raw SMR showed the variation of the geographical distribution of the leprosy prevalence in the study area. Panchayat or spatial effects using Bayesian showed clustersing of leprosy cases towards the northeastern end of the study area which was overcrowded and population belonging to poor economic status.

Gupte Mohan D

2008-07-01

170

Polymerase Chain Reaction Pool Screening Used To Compare Prevalence of Infective Black Flies in Two Onchocerciasis Foci in Northern Sudan  

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Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infectious stage L3 larvae by usin...

Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Mohamed, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank

2011-01-01

171

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  

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Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cel...

Olger Calderón-Arguedas; Adriana Troyo; Solano, Mayra E.; Adrián Avendaño; Beier, John C.

2009-01-01

172

Effect of School Based Treatment on the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Endemic Area in Yemen  

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Background: Schistosomiasis and soil transmitted infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries including Yemen. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Yemen established in 2002 a programme for Schisto­somal, soil transmitted infection control that aimed to reduce morbidity and prevalence rates of Schistosomiasis, and Soil transmitted helminthes to less than 5% by 2015. The study was conducted to assess t...

Shibani, K.; Saleh Saleh, S.; Algobati, F.; Salem, A.; Abdulrab, A.; Albuthigi, R.

2013-01-01

173

Epidemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.  

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The study was carried out in the central part of the Islamic Republic of Iran over a 12-month period in 1991-92 in Borkhar, a rural district lying north of Isfahan city. The objective was to determine the ecology of natural reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis for possible future field trials of leishmania vaccine. The main reservoir host in this area is Rhombomys opimus, the great gerbil, followed by Meriones libycus, the Libyan jird, and Hemiechinus auritis, the long-eared hedgehog. Of the 179 small mammals examined in the Borkhar area, the great majority were R. opimus (82.1%), then M. libycus (15.7%), and last H. auritis (2.2%). The highest rate of infection of R. opimus was in September (90.5%), the rate varying between 22.2% and 80.4% in different villages. The average infection rate of M. libycus was 17.9%. These rodents probably play an important role as reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in this area. Sixteen domestic and stray dogs appeared to be uninfected because examination showed no active lesion or scar. PMID:9060218

Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M. R.; Javadian, E.

1996-01-01

174

Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distributio [...] n of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Everton Falcão de, Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e, Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Antonio Conceição, Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo, Gamarra; Alisson André, Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira.

2012-05-01

175

Determination of chemical forms of arsenic in environmental water for endemic arsenism disease area of Azuoqi by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas of endemic arsenic disease in the Azuoqi belong to the drinking water type arsenism disease area. A simple and sensitive method to identify the chemical forms of As was presented. In-organic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were separated by the use of coprecipitation and cation exchange chromatography combined with neutron activation analysis. Separation of inorganic and organic arsenic (MMA and DMA) was based on coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3, inorganic arsenic was coprecipitated quantitatively, but MMA and DMA was not coprecipitated at all. Experiments showed that MMA and DMA in solution were adsorbed on cation exchange resin in pH 2. MMA was eluted by 60 mL of 0.5 mol/L acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7) and then 60 mL of 3 mol/L NH3·H2O was used to strip the DMA. The recovery of MMA and DMA was 96% and 103%, respectively

176

Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Everton Falcão de Oliveira

2012-05-01

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Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region  

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Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

2012-01-01

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Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?  

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Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, precedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old. Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraíba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.Neurocisticercose é a infestação do sistema nervoso central pelo Cysticercus cellulosae, a forma larval da Taenia solium. É relacionada a hábitos higiênicos e sanitários precários; embora o Nordeste seja a Região mais pobre do Brasil, foi sempre considerada área não-endêmica para neurocisticercose. Depois da instalação de um serviço de tomografia computadorizada (TC, a incidência da neurocisticercose começou a crescer nos serviços de neurologia em Campina Grande PB, cidade para onde confluem pessoas de todo o interior paraibano à procura de serviços médicos especializados. Analisamos 5.883 TC realizadas no Serviço TomoHPI de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I de agosto de 1993 até dezembro de 1995 e 1,02% foram diagnosticadas como sugestivas de neurocisticercose e classificadas de acordo com idade e sexo, procedência e condições sócio-econômicas. A distribuição dos casos de acordo com a idade é homogênea até os 50 anos de idade (média: 28,36 anos. Homens e mulheres são afetados igualmente. Procedentes de áreas urbanas representam 83.33%. Residentes em Campina Grande representam 48.33% do total; 48,34% residem em cidades ao redor de Campina Grande (até 50 Km de distância ou em outras cidades da Paraíba. Cincoenta e oito pacientes são dependentes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Concluimos que a neurocisticercose parece ser endêmica em nosso Estado, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados para que tal assertiva possa ser confirmada.

Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho

1996-12-01

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Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: An entomological survey was conducted to determine the relationshipbetween malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus intwo inland villages along the Kenyan coast.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses by pyrethrum spray sheet collection (PSC. In thelaboratory, the mosquitoes were sorted to species, dissected for examination of filarial infection andthe anophelines later tested for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by an enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: From a total of 2,032 female mosquitoes collected indoors, An. gambiae s.l constituted 94.4%while the remaining 5.6% comprised of An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus. None of the Cx.quinquefasciatus was positive for filarial worms. P. falciparum sporozoite rate for An. gambiae s.l.from both villages was significantly higher than Wuchereria bancrofti infectivity rate. Similarly, theentomological inoculation rate for An. gambiae s.l. was significantly higher than the corresponding W.bancrofti infective biting rate and transmission potential for both the villages. Mass treatment of peoplewith filaricidal drugs in Shakahola in the ongoing global elimination of lymphatic filariasis campaignseemed to have reduced the indices of filariasis transmission but had no effect on malaria transmission.Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate the intensity of malaria transmission by anophelinesto be much higher than that of lymphatic filariasis in areas where both diseases co-exist and re-emphasisethe need to integrate the control of the two diseases in such areas.

Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles M. Mbogo, Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Charles Mwandawiro, Robert J. Novak & John C. Beier

2006-06-01

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Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com níveis distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109; média endemicidade (n = 255 e alta endemicidade (n = 190. Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000. Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas.OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endemicity levels: low (n = 109, medium (n = 255 and high endemicity (n = 190. The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000 protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index, most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

Leticia Martins Azeredo

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas / Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com nívei [...] s distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109); média endemicidade (n = 255) e alta endemicidade (n = 190). Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000). Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência) mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endem [...] icity levels: low (n = 109), medium (n = 255) and high endemicity (n = 190). The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000) protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index), most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

Leticia Martins, Azeredo; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Maria Cristina Carvalho do, Espírito Santo; Maria Cristina, Chammas; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Aluizio, Prata; Carlos Mauricio Figueiredo, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci; Giovanni Guido, Cerri.

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Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be optimized, based on endemic areas with supporting data on G6PD variants. Larger sample size from different malaria endemic is required to obtain accurate genetic mapping of G6PD variants in Burmese and Thai population residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand.

Phompradit Papichaya

2011-12-01

183

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; howeve [...] r, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

Anderson B, Leite; Ana RV de, Lima; Renata B, Leite; Rafael V, Santos; Johnathan EL, Gonçalves; Eliana MM, Rocha; Gilberto, Fontes.

184

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; however, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood. As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

Anderson B Leite

2010-04-01

185

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la [...] otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis celdas (100x100m) fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales). La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii). La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y localidades fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Chi-cuadrado (?=0.05). Ocho de los tipos de larvas encontrados fueron identificados a nivel de especie (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. interrogator, C. nigripalpus, C. corniger, C. tarsalis, Limatus durhamii, Toxorhynchites theobaldi) y dos se identificaron a nivel de género (Culex sp., y Uranotaenia sp). A aegypti fue la especie más frecuente en la Gran Puntarenas. C. quinquefasciatus fue la segunda en frecuencia. Algunas localidades como Carrizal mostraron una importante diversidad de ambientes acuáticos que promovieron la ocurrencia de diferentes especies de culícidos. La distribución de los contenedores positivos por localidad en función de las especies encontradas no mostró homogeneidad (p>0.05). Aunque A. aegypti es el único vector documentado en la zona, otros mosquitos como C. quinquefasciatus y otras especies de Culex podrían ser potenciales vectores de otros agentes etiológicos (virus del Nilo occidental, virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, virus de la encefalitis equina del este). Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad considerar la presencia y la ecología de todas las especies de mosquitos en las campañas preventivas por dengue en el área, y en la vigilancia epidemiológica por otras enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Abstract in english Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry seaso [...] n. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.

Olger, Calderón-Arguedas; Adriana, Troyo; Mayra E, Solano; Adrián, Avendaño; John C, Beier.

1223-12-01

186

Absence of Asymptomatic Malaria Infection in Endemic Area of Bashagard District, Hormozgan Province, Iran  

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Background A successful malaria elimination program calls for enough attention to parasite carriers, especially asymptomatic malaria, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases. Asymptomatic malaria is an infection that patients do not show any symptom; thus, these patients play critical role in the concept of an elimination program. The current investigation was conducted to evaluate the presence of these cases in Bashagard District, formerly a high malaria transmission area in Hormozgan Province, Iran. Methods Blood samples (n = 500) were collected from symptomless individuals residing in Bashagard to evaluate Plasmodium infection by using microscopic, serological and nested-PCR techniques. Results Regarding the microscopic and nested-PCR analysis, no asymptomatic infection was detected among studied individuals. Totally, 1% of the studied population (5 of 500) had anti PvMSP-119-specific IgG antibody; however, only 0.2% (1 of 500) of the individuals was seropositive to recombinant PfMSP-119, using ELISA. Conclusion This study showed no asymptomatic malaria infection in the studied population; hence malaria elimination is feasible and can be successfully carried out in this region. PMID:23133470

Turki, H; Zoghi, S; Mehrizi, A A; Zakeri, S; Raeisi, A; Khazan, H; Haghdoost, AA

2012-01-01

187

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene Bosch

1996-02-01

188

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fluorescent (acridine orange) microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis) and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS) were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bol [...] ivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48%) showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene, Bosch; Carmen, Bracho; Hilda A, Pérez.

189

Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

190

[Seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and associated factors in an endemic area of Venezuela].  

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This study investigated risk factors associated with positive serological status for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 26 rural communities including 905 households, 2,156 humans, and 333 dogs in Lara State, Venezuela. Serology was performed with ELISA and MABA. Data were obtained from entomological, demographic, and clinical surveys. Risk factors were determined through binary logistic regression. Seroprevalence was 7.24% in humans and 6.9% in canines. Positive serological status was positively associated with the Rhodnius prolixus vector, age, maternal history of Chagas disease, tobacco chewing, presence of mammals and birds in the household, household disarray, mud-and-wattle outbuildings, and animal nests and burrows in the peridomicile, and negatively associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, history of cancer, and storage deposits in the peridomile. In conclusion, Chagas disease in this rural area is an old phenomenon transmitted by R. prolixus or by the transplacental route, associated with socio-cultural habits related to poverty, sylvatic surroundings, and the host's medical history. PMID:22031196

Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Rodríguez-Bonfante, Claudina; Vielma, Belkys Oviol; García, Douglas; Saldivia, Alexander Mogollón; Aldana, Elis; Curvelo, Juan Luis Concepción

2011-10-01

191

Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

2014-04-01

192

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fluorescent (acridine orange) microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis) and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS) were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bol [...] ivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48%) showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene, Bosch; Carmen, Bracho; Hilda A, Pérez.

1996-02-01

193

Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

Rawlani Sudhir

2010-01-01

194

Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.  

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Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite. PMID:23725822

Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guedon, Gérald; Boué, Franck

2013-10-18

195

Endemic mansonellosis in Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria: human parasitaemia and Culicoides biting patterns  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonellaperstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance,circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector.Methods: Thick smear of 50 ?l finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in across-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of thevector biting patterns, carried out between July 2005 and August 2006.Results: Of 1486 individuals examined, 11.2% of both males and females were positive for M. perstansmicrofilaraemia. Microfilaraemia appeared early in life. The overall geometric mean intensity among those withpositive microfilaraemia was 117 mf/ml (121 mf/ml for males and 113 mf/ml for females. The differences ingeometric mean intensity between different age groups were statistically significant (one-way analysis of variance;p <0.05, being highest in the oldest age group (266 mf/ml. A total of 1183 female Culicoides sp were caughtfrom September 2005 to August 2006. The abundance of Culicoides sp was seasonal. The circadian bitingactivity had a broad peak between 0700 and 1200 hrs. The monthly biting rates ranged from zero bite per personper month in January 2006 to 1151 bites per person per month in June 2006. The annual biting rate was 7382bites per person per year.Conclusion: Majority of those with positive microfilaraemia were poor socioeconomically, underscoring theneed for health education and application of effective control measures against Culicoides biting midges inEmohua.

E.C. Uttah, S. Etim, C. Okonofua & O.E. Effiom

2011-03-01

196

Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China  

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Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2?, 5-dichloro-4?-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

Jing Xia

2014-10-01

197

Cystic hydatid disease: pitfalls in diagnosis in the Middle East endemic area.  

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Ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) have made a significant contribution to accurately localizing focal lesions. Such imaging techniques have been found useful in assessing a hydatid aetiology of cystic lesions. However, we present 23 cases which demonstrate that these modalities in isolation are not adequate in diagnosing hydatid cysts, as claimed from this geographic area. Simple, congenital, choledochal and pancreatic pseudocysts were cystic lesions misinterpreted as hydatid cysts, as were infective disorders such as amoebiasis and tuberculosis. The appearance of a lipoma and an ovarian intra-abdominal cystadenoma and an intra-hepatic haematoma were among other conditions that were labelled as hydatid cysts on US/CT. However, in all the cyst/mass lesions that were misdiagnosed, counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), with an antigen that elicits an arc-5 in immunoelectrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes as a substrate, did not detect any anti-Echinococcus antibodies in patients' sera. This was in contrast to the classic indirect haemagglutination test which was equivocal in some cases. The CIEP was specific and excluded hydatidosis though such a diagnosis was ventured on US and/or CT. We therefore conclude that a specific and sensitive serological test is mandatory for confirming a preoperative diagnosis of CHD. When surgery is not immediate, a negative serological test such as the CIEP would in addition indicate US or CT-guided aspiration of cyst fluid for cytological evaluation and/or enzyme immunoassay, thereby avoiding the cost and morbidity of laparotomy. Furthermore, chemotherapy is now a viable alternative provided the diagnosis is unequivocal. This may be a prudent protocol before a further decision on management is envisaged. PMID:8254715

Hira, P R; Shweiki, H M; Francis, I

1993-12-01

198

Evaluating the effect of a novel molluscicide in the endemic schistosomiasis japonica area of china.  

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Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

2014-01-01

199

The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We fo [...] und remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

Carlos F. D., Rocha; Carla da C., Siqueira; Cristina V., Ariani.

200

The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities  

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Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

Carlos F. D. Rocha

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan  

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Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

202

Genotyping of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum in wild caught Anopheles minimus mosquitoes in a malaria endemic area of Assam, India.  

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We validated the feasibility of using Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite, DNA present in wild caught vector mosquitoes for the characterization of chloroquine resistance status. House frequenting mosquitoes belonging to Anopheles minimus complex were collected from human dwellings in a malaria endemic area of Assam, Northeast India and DNA was extracted from the head-thorax region of individual mosquitoes. Anopheles minimus complex mosquitoes were identified to species level and screened for the presence of Plasmodium sp. using molecular tools. Nested PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping of P. falciparum based on K76T mutation in the chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene. Three of the 27 wild caught An. minimus mosquitoes were harbouring P. falciparum sporozoites (positivity 11.1%) and all 3 were had 76T mutation in the pfcrt gene, indicating chloroquine resistance. The approach of characterizing antimalarial resistance of malaria parasite in vector mosquitoes can potentially be used as a surveillance tool for monitoring transmission of antimalarial drug resistant parasite strains in the community. PMID:25382483

Sarma, D K; Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharyya, D R; Mahanta, J; Prakash, A

2014-09-01

203

Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies o [...] f single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn b allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn b and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

Aparecida Maria, Fontes; Simone, Kashima; Ricardo, Bonfim-Silva; Rochele, Azevedo; Kuruvilla Joseph, Abraham; Sérgio Roberto Lopes, Albuquerque; José Orlando, Bordin; Dante Mário, Langhi Júnior; Dimas Tadeu, Covas.

204

Clinical epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Pokot endemic area of Uganda and Kenya.  

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Between 2000 and 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières diagnosed and treated 4,831 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Pokot region straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya. A retrospective analysis of routinely collected clinical data showed no marked seasonal or annual fluctuations. Males between 5 and 14 years of age were the most affected group. Marked splenomegaly and anemia were striking features. An rK39 antigen-based rapid diagnostic test was evaluated and found sufficiently accurate to replace the direct agglutination test and spleen aspiration as the first-line diagnostic procedure. The case-fatality rate with sodium stibogluconate as first-line treatment was low. The VL relapses were rare and often diagnosed more than 6 months post-treatment. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis was rare but likely to be underdiagnosed. The epidemiological and clinical features of VL in the Pokot area differed markedly from VL in Sudan, the main endemic focus in Africa. PMID:24218406

Mueller, Yolanda K; Kolaczinski, Jan H; Koech, Timothy; Lokwang, Peter; Riongoita, Mark; Velilla, Elena; Brooker, Simon J; Chappuis, François

2014-01-01

205

[The Queixadinha Project: morbidity and control of schistosomiasis in an endemic area in the northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil].  

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In an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil 516 individuals have been submitted to clinical and laboratory examination, ultrasonography of the abdomen and dopplerecocardiography in order to define the morbidity of schistosomiasis before and after treatment. A high prevalence of schistosomiasis (66.3%) and of severe disease (9.5% with palpable spleens) were recorded. Ultrasonography classified liver periportal fibrosis as light (19.4%), moderate (27.6%) and intense (6.8%), and 46.0% presented no periportal fibrosis. Twenty one out of the 53 individuals (39.6%) with palpable spleens did not present liver fibrosis on ultrasound. Periportal lymph nodes were described in 33.8% of the population and anti-KLH antibodies were found in the serum of 40.7%. Urinary alterations compatible with the glomerulopathy of schistosomiasis were observed in 4.5% of the population, and 11.7% of the individuals examined by dopplerecocardiography had pulmonary hypertension. Twelve months after treatment for schistosomiasis the prevalence of the disease dropped from 66.3% to 25.0%. In Queixadinha, a profile of the morbidity of schistosomiasis has just been established. PMID:8713604

Lambertucci, J R; Gerspacher-Lara, R; Pinto-Silva, R A; Barbosa, M M; Teixeira, R; Barbosa, H F; Serufo, J C; Rezende, D F; Drummond, S C; Rayes, A A

1996-01-01

206

Relationship between exposure to Fasciola hepatica in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and cattle extensively reared in an endemic area.  

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The aim of this work is to know the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in 301 roe deer and in 676 beef cattle kept in an endemic area. Detection of antibodies was determined in roe deer using a homemade ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens (FhES) and a recombinant protein (FhrAPS). None of the deer passed eggs by faeces and none flukes in their livers were found. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 29% using FhES, with significantly higher values in the oldest ones (36%). Twenty-eight percent of the samples were positive to FhrAPS. Twenty-three percent of the cows eliminated eggs of F. hepatica and the seroprevalence was 67% using FhrAPS. No relationship between the seropositivity values of deer and cattle was demonstrated. The role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of F. hepatica is discussed. We encourage the use of ELISA to know the possibility of exposure to trematodes in wild ruminants. PMID:23993660

Arias, M S; Piñeiro, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Suárez, J L; Hillyer, G V; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A; Morrondo, P

2013-12-01

207

Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

2010-07-01

208

Envelope sequence variation and phylogenetic relations of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from endemic areas of Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HTLV-1 envelope gene of 12 TSP/HAM patients from two endemic areas of southwest Colombia (Tumaco and Buenaventura) was amplified by nested PCR, sequenced, and compared with previously reported HTLV-1 envelope sequences from isolates worldwide. In general, the sequence divergences among all Colombian samples ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. Some amino acid substitutions, referring to the ATK-1 prototype strain in the surface domain gp46 and in p21, were highly prevalent in southwest Colombia, suggesting a geographical clustering of mutations in the envelope gene. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Colombian isolates belong to the HTLV-1a lineage with minor subgroups. The genetic distance between Colombian and Japanese isolates ranged from 0.1 to 1.8%; in comparison, the genetic distance between Colombian and Caribbean isolates ranged from 0.4 to 2.2%. Our results strongly suggest that the actual quasispecies populations in southwest Colombia have been generated by separate, differently timed introductions of virus. PMID:12201912

Dominguez, Martha C; Castillo, Andres; Cabrera, Jesus; Eizuru, Yoshito; Garcia-Vallejo, Felipe

2002-08-10

209

Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control  

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Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’ of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6% respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of respondents and the measures they take to prevent malaria (?2 = 58.7; df = 16; p < 0.001. The findings clearly suggest that the majority of the respondents had adequate knowledge and enviable health seeking behaviour. However, still a sizable faction had misconception and undesirable health seeking behaviour. It’s a major barrier to implement effective malaria control strategies in the resource- limited settings particularly in country like Ethiopia. In this context, appropriate communication strategies apparently inevitable. Therefore, appropriate communication strategies should be designed to promote the knowledge and health seeking behaviour of vulnerable section of the society in this vicinity.

Abdi Kumera

2010-06-01

210

Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain  

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Abstract Background International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles at...

Mas-Coma Santiago; Fuentes Marius; Masià Montserrat; Escosa Raul; Latorre Jose; Sainz-Elipe Sandra; Bargues Maria

2010-01-01

211

Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. PMID:25108786

Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

2014-10-01

212

Efficacy of DEET and non-DEET-based insect repellents against bites of Simulium damnosum vectors of onchocerciasis.  

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Coping strategies including smoke screens are used against nuisance bites of Simulium damnosum Theobald (Diptera:Simuliidae) in onchocerciasis endemic communities. To find more effective alternatives, the efficacy of commercially available N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) products with active concentrations of 9.5, 13, 25, 50 and 98.1-100% and 'NO MAS,' (active component: para-menthane-3,8-diol and lemon grass oil) were tested at Bui-Agblekame, Ghana. A Latin square study design was implemented using eight groups of two vector collectors each, who used repellents (treatment), mineral oil or nothing each day until the end of the study. Flies were caught and their numbers each hour recorded using the standard methods for onchocerciasis transmission studies. T-tests were used to compare the mean duration of protection and a one-way analysis of variance controlling for catchers and repellents was performed. Tukey's test was used to compare protection by repellents and mineral oil. The highest percentage protection was 80.8% by NO MAS and the least 42.5% by the 13% DEET product. The period of absolute protection was 5 h by NO MAS and 1 h by 50% DEET product. No significant increase in protection was offered beyond 25% active DEET products and no significance was observed in terms of catcher × repellent effect (F = 1.731, d.f. = 48, P = 0.209). PMID:23167529

Wilson, M D; Osei-Atweneboana, M; Boakye, D A; Osei-Akoto, I; Obuobi, E; Wiafe, C; Kiszewski, A

2013-06-01

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A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.  

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Khodutka geothermal area is located near Khodutka and Priemysh volcanoes and is one of the largest geothermal areas of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Vakin (2003) described geological, geochemical and geothermic conditions of this geothermal area in detail. The main thermal water sources have temperatures up to 87°C and a discharge of approximately 150 l×sec.-1 are flows out into the warm lake with dimensions of ca. 250 m length and 80 m width. This warm river is ca. 20 m in width beginning from the lake and flows to the Bolshaya Khodutka River basin. Two local endemic Radix species were described from this geothermal area, especially Lymnaea (Radix) hadutkae Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 and L. (R.) thermokamtschatica Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Kruglov 2005). These species were separated using proportions of shell and reproductive system (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Starobogatov et al. 2004). According to the diagnosis, L. (R.) hadutkae differs in the ear-shape shell, a form of the provaginal duct with cylindrical distal part and conical proximal part, and larger value of the index of the copulatory apparatus (ICA: proportion of the preputium to phallotheca is 1.27) from other species within the section Thermoradix Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989. The last whorl is large, 0.86-0.89 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.15-0.16 of the aperture height. L. (R.) thermokamtschatica has the cylindrical provaginal duct, relatively short bursa duct (1.5X longer than the bursa copulatrix diameter) and very long phallotheca (ICA is 0.77). The last whorl is large, 0.85-0.87 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.2-0.25 of the aperture height. In accordance with an identification key (Starobogatov et al. 2004), the main diagnostic feature is an excess of the last whorl over the shell aperture, which has ?0.78 and ?0.80 of the penultimate whorl width in the first and second species, respectively. In the present paper, we revised these taxa using newly collected topotypes and additional Radix spp. specimens from other areas of the Russian Far East.  PMID:25283942

Bolotov, Ivan; Bespalaya, Yulia; Aksenova, Olga; Aksenov, Andrey; Bolotov, Nikita; Gofarov, Mikhail; Kondakov, Alexander; Paltser, Inga; Vikhrev, Ilya

2014-01-01

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Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role in the small-scale geographical variation of malaria risk in northern Angola. The results presented in this study can be used by provincial malaria control programme managers to help target the delivery of malaria control resources to priority areas in the Dande municipality.

Magalhães Ricardo J

2012-11-01

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Humic substances and the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in groundwater of the Blackfoot Disease endemic area, southwestern Taiwan  

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Blackfoot Disease (BFD) is a peripheral vascular disease that is endemic to the Chianan Plain area on the southwestern coast of Taiwan. The disease has been linked to long term ingestion of arsenic-contaminated groundwater derived from deep (>100 m) wells that were drilled in the region during the early 1900’s. Victims of BFD typically exhibit symptoms that include ulceration and gangrene in the extremities, which are unique compared to cases of arsenic toxicosis arising in other As-impacted areas. While the exact etiology of BFD is still a subject of some debate, many workers suggest that elevated arsenic in combination with high concentrations of dissolved fluorescent humic compounds in the region’s groundwater are primary causative factors. Despite considerable research over the past 30 years into the occurrence and distribution of As in the region’s groundwater, few studies have been conducted to investigate the geochemical and microbiological processes that influence the element’s speciation and mobility in this aquifer. We measured the concentration and speciation of As associated with sediments and groundwater from wells drilled in the BFD endemic area and conducted sediment microcosm bioassays to investigate the potential for reductive desorption and mobilization of As from the aquifer sediments by endogenous populations of As(V)-reducing bacteria. Samples from 100 -120 m depth were characterized by the highest As concentrations in sediment (1.4 mg/kg) and water (175.4 ?g/L). Sediment-adsorbed As was present primarily as As(V) (>87%), whereas ground water samples contained no measurable aqueous As(V). Instead, arsenic in the groundwater samples was present in organo-arsenic complexes and was detectable by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrophotometry only after oxidative treatments to convert all As to As(V). Biological As(V) reduction was observed in live slurries of aquifer sediment from 120 and 140 m sediment depth. Microbial As(V) reduction in these sediments was not stimulated by amendment with lactate, or when hydrogen was supplied as a possible electron donor. However, As(V)-reduction was stimulated by the addition of the reduced humics analogue AHQDS, demonstrating that reduced humic substances in the aquifer can serve as electron donors for biological As(V) reduction. These findings suggest that the population of As(V) reducing bacteria in the aquifer are well suited to use endogenous organic compounds as heterotrophic electron donors and that this process is not electron-donor limited at in-situ conditions. The potential for reduced humic compounds to serve as electron donors for microbiological As(V) reduction may have considerable environmental significance with respect to the mobilization of adsorbed As from sediments in aquifers that are rich in dissolved organic matter. Further work should focus on identifying the precise nature of arsenic-organic matter interaction in the aquifer and the predominant As species that is associated with these compounds.

Kulp, T. R.; Jean, J.

2009-12-01

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Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.  

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For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination program. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ were associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) were also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts. PMID:24060539

Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Eisaku; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Itoh, Makoto

2014-02-01

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Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? / Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neurocisticercose é a infestação do sistema nervoso central pelo Cysticercus cellulosae, a forma larval da Taenia solium. É relacionada a hábitos higiênicos e sanitários precários; embora o Nordeste seja a Região mais pobre do Brasil, foi sempre considerada área não-endêmica para neurocisticercose. [...] Depois da instalação de um serviço de tomografia computadorizada (TC), a incidência da neurocisticercose começou a crescer nos serviços de neurologia em Campina Grande PB, cidade para onde confluem pessoas de todo o interior paraibano à procura de serviços médicos especializados. Analisamos 5.883 TC realizadas no Serviço TomoHPI de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I de agosto de 1993 até dezembro de 1995 e 1,02% foram diagnosticadas como sugestivas de neurocisticercose e classificadas de acordo com idade e sexo, procedência e condições sócio-econômicas. A distribuição dos casos de acordo com a idade é homogênea até os 50 anos de idade (média: 28,36 anos). Homens e mulheres são afetados igualmente. Procedentes de áreas urbanas representam 83.33%. Residentes em Campina Grande representam 48.33% do total; 48,34% residem em cidades ao redor de Campina Grande (até 50 Km de distância) ou em outras cidades da Paraíba. Cincoenta e oito pacientes são dependentes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Concluimos que a neurocisticercose parece ser endêmica em nosso Estado, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados para que tal assertiva possa ser confirmada. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of co [...] mputed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, precedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraíba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

Thiago D., Gonçalves-Coêlho; Matheus D. G., Coêlho.

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Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina / Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de [...] Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas. Abstract in english Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. [...] We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

Diego E., Cargnelutti; María Cristina, Salomón.

2012-02-01

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A high resolution melting real time PCR for mapping of filaria infection in domestic cats living in brugian filariosis-endemic areas.  

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We present here a real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for determining the prevalence and distribution of filarial species in domestic cats residing in brugian filariosis endemic areas of Narathiwat province, Thailand. Filarial species can be clearly distinguished in a single well using a single pair of primers. Blood samples were taken from a total of 2039 domestic cats living in endemic areas. Microfilariae were detected in 5.7% of the sample, while the overall prevalence of filaria infection by HRM analysis was 6.6%. The filariae species found in the infected cats were Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens as well as Acanthocheilonema (Dipetalonema) reconditum. This is the first report of A. reconditum infection from Thailand. The study also observed an overlapping of the distribution areas of animal and human filariae. From a public health perspective, the distribution and prevalence of these nematodes warrant an appropriate drug-based prophylaxis to be administered to cats in the endemic areas to reduce the number of diseased carriers. Furthermore, this molecular approach is more sensitive than microfilariae detection, enables species identification and greatly facilitates the collection of epidemiological data. Thus, the present study may help to bridge human-animal interface by coordinating research outcomes with the control of zoonoses that is vitally important for human and veterinary public health. PMID:24462253

Wongkamchai, Sirichit; Nochote, Hathai; Foongladda, Suporn; Dekumyoy, Paron; Thammapalo, Suvit; Boitano, John J; Choochote, Wej

2014-03-17

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An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

Kumar Pradeep

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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[Asymptomatic infections in man: a Trojan horse for the introduction and spread of mosquito-borne arboviruses in non-endemic areas?].  

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In mosquito-borne arbovirus infections in man the asymptomatic cases are much more frequent than the symptomatic ones, but their true role in the introduction and subsequent spread of such diseases in non-endemic areas remains to be clarified. We have collected pertinent data from English and French literature from 1952 to 2010 through Pubmed and other bibliographic sources. Data were analysed to assess if viremia in asymptomatic human arbovirus infections might be sufficient to represent a true risk for introduction in non-endemic areas. During dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks, humans are believed to be the only vertebrate hosts. Since a very large number of individuals are infected and since viremic levels are known to vary by many orders of magnitude in symptomatic patients, it is reasonable to augur that a proportion of asymptomatic cases might reach levels of viremia sufficient to infect competent mosquitoes. Moreover, in both dengue and chikungunya fever, nosocomial infections have been identified representing an alternative opportunity for virus introduction in non-endemic areas. In zoonotic mosquito-borne arbovirus infections such as Japanese encephalitis or West Nile infection, the situation is quite different since humans are considered as "dead-end" hosts. However, the very large number of asymptomatic cases arising during outbreaks and the existence of newly recognised ways of contamination (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental way etc.) may also ensure their introduction and subsequent spread in new areas. PMID:21701863

Chastel, C

2011-08-01

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T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor [...] resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10) production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma) and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10). The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10) and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma), leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

Rita C, Bittar; Ricardo S, Nogueira; Ricardo, Vieira-Gonçalves; Vanessa, Pinho-Ribeiro; Marise S, Mattos; Manoel Paes, Oliveira-Neto; Sergio G, Coutinho; Alda M, Da-Cruz.

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Survey of domestic cattle for anti-Leishmania antibodies and Leishmania DNA in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by an intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent, is considered to be anthroponotic. The role of domestic animals in its transmission is still unclear. Although cattle are the preferred blood host for Phlebotomus argentipes, the sandfly vector of VL in the Indian subcontinent, very little information is available for their role in the disease transmission. In this study, we examined domestic cattle for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection in a VL-endemic area in Bangladesh. Blood samples from 138 domestic cattle were collected from houses with active or recently-treated VL and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients. The presence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in serum was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and then with direct agglutination tests (DAT. Nested PCR (Ln PCR was performed to amplify the ssu-rRNA gene using the DNA extracted from Buffy coat. Recently-developed molecular assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP was also performed for further sensitive detection of parasite DNA. Results In this study, 9.4% (n = 13 of the cattle were found to be positive by ELISA. Of the 13 ELISA-positive cattle, only four (30.8% were positive in DAT. Parasite DNA was not detected in either of the molecular assays (Ln PCR and LAMP. Conclusions The study confirmed the presence of antibodies against Leishmania parasite in cattle. However, the absence of Leishmania DNA in the cattle indicates clearly that the cattle do not play a role as reservoir host. Similar study needs to be undertaken in the Indian subcontinent to determine the role of other domestic animals on which sandflies feed.

Itoh Makoto

2011-06-01

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Prevalence of malaria as co-infection in HIV-infected individuals in a malaria endemic area of southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: The present study was conducted on the prevalence of malaria as co-infectionamongst ‘asymptomatic HIV’ and ‘symptomatic HIV’ subjects to see if such prevalence deviatedfrom that commonly reported in apparently health individuals in same locality.Methods: A prospective study that involved 196 participants grouped according to their HIV statusas: ‘asymptomatic HIV seropositive group’ (n = 101; ‘symptomatic HIV seropositive group’ (n =48 and ‘control HIV-seronegative group (n = 47. Blood samples collected from the participantswere used for double HIV screening by rapid immunoassay technique and immunochromatographictechnique, and for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using rapid P. falciparum antigendetection method.Results: The result showed that the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria as a co-infection amongst theasymptomatic HIV seropositive group was 12 (11.8% and amongst the symptomatic HIV seropositivegroup was 16 (33.3%. However, the prevalence rate of P. falciparum malaria amongst the controlHIV seronegative group was 5 (10.6% and the combined burden of P. falciparum malaria amongstboth groups of HIV seropositives was 28 (18.9%.Interpretation & conclusion: The present study observed different prevalence rates of P. falciparummalaria amongst the three groups. The prevalence was tripled in symptomatic HIV seropositive group.This shows a clear departure from possible obtainable prevalence of malaria infection alone in thismalaria endemic area. Due to the mortality rates associated with malaria infection in an endemicarea, it may be necessary that routine malaria screening be adopted as part of the management policyto check the co-infection.

C.C. Onyenekwe, N. Ukibe, S.C. Meludu, A. Ilika, N. Aboh, N. Ofiaeli, M. Ezaeni & A. Onochie

2007-12-01

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Evaluation of infection and treatment methods in immunization of improved cattle against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya.  

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Five experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of immunization against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya using artificial infection with a mixture of stabilates of Theileria parva stock or natural infection and treatment with parvaquone or several formulations of oxytetracyclines. For the first four experiments, introduced, susceptible Sahiwal/Friesian crosses were used and in the fifth, calves of Boran/Maasai zebu crosses born on the site. Cattle were infected either artificially with sporozoite stabilates of local isolates of T. parva parva derived from cattle and T. parva lawrencei derived from African buffalo or exposed to natural tick challenge on the ranch mostly derived from buffalo. The cattle were then given various treatment regimens using either parvaquone or long- and short-acting formulations of oxytetracycline. Treatment of natural infections, although it can be effective, was not considered a practical method on a large scale because of the need for intensive monitoring in the case of parvaquone treatment and the possibility of cattle not becoming infected in the case of prolonged application of long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline. Both methods were relatively expensive. Artificial infection treatment proved more practical and methods were developed where the monitoring of cattle was not required during the immunization procedure. Out of a total of 16 drug regimens investigated, one (consisting of two treatments of a short-acting formulation of oxytetracycline at 10 mg kg-1 body weight on Days 0 and 3 or 4 after infection) was found to be the most efficacious and the cheapest, and has now been used on a routine basis. This method can be used successfully on calves greater than 1 month of age. PMID:2343540

Young, A S; Leitch, B L; Dolan, T T; Mbogo, S K; Ndungu, S G; Grootenhuis, J G; De Castro, J J

1990-03-01

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Contents, Species of Soil Selenium in Kashin-beck Disease-endemic Area, Ruoergai Wetland, Sichuan, China  

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Full Text Available This study studied that the amounts, species of Se in four kinds of soil (sandy soil, meadow soil, bog soil and peat soil by a method of successive extraction in order to accumulate scientific data for preventing and curing the selenium response symptom of people and livestock in Ruoergai wetland. The results showed that the content range of Total Se (T-Se in surface soil layer was 65-260 ?g/kg in ten sampling sites and the low Se circumstance existed because of soil Se deficiency. Among several kinds of Se forms, Water soluble Se (W-Se, Exchangeable Se (E-Se and Organic Se (O-Se accounted for 1.12-3.08%, 2.91-6.03% and 10.28-45.6% of total Se respectively, unavailable Se including Acid soluble Se (A-Se, Sulfidic Se (S-Se and Residual Se (R-Se accounted for more than 60% of total Se. Of the soil O-Se, 57.84% (on average was associated with the Humic Acid fraction (HA-Se and 42.16% with the Fulvic Acid fraction (FA-Se, the range of C/Se in soil organic matter was 0.65×106-7.28×106 (on average 2.96×106 in surface soil layer. The soil organic matter was the most important factor affecting the content of soil T-Se and O-Se, the rich soil organic matter was helpful to the accumulation of soil T-Se and O-Se. It was clear that the lower utilization ratio of Se due to the low content of soil T-Se, the higher portion of O-Se and HA-Se were the possible reason for a deficiency of selenium in Kashin-Beck Disease-endemic area, Ruoergai wetland, Sichuan, China.

Ying-bing Tian

2013-04-01

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Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses at a travel medicine centre in Rio de Janeiro, a non-endemic area in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a potentially severe disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Clinically, the progression of the disease can be life-threatening if it is not promptly diagnosed and properly treated. Through treatment, the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection can be achieved, thus preventing potential relapses and the emergence of new cases outside the Amazon region in Brazil. Surveillance for therapeutic failure in non-endemic areas is advantageous, as it is unlikely that recurrence of the disease can be attributed to a new malaria infection in these regions. Methods An observational study of 53 cases of P. vivax and mixed (P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was conducted at a travel medicine centre between 2005 and 2011 in Rio de Janeiro and a descriptive analysis of the potential factors related to recurrence of P. vivax malaria was performed. Groups with different therapeutic responses were compared using survival analysis based on the length of time to recurrence and a set of independent variables thought to be associated with recurrence. Results Twenty-one relapses (39.6% of P. vivax malaria were observed. The overall median time to relapse, obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 108?days, and the survival analysis demonstrated an association between non-weight-adjusted primaquine dosing and the occurrence of relapse (p? Conclusions A known challenge to individual cure and environmental control of malaria is the possibility of an inappropriate, non-weight-based primaquine dosing, which should be considered a potential cause of P. vivax malaria relapse. Indeed, the total dose of primaquine associated with non-occurrence of relapses was higher than recommended by Brazilian guidelines.

Pedro Renata S

2012-07-01

228

Validation of an Excretory/Secretory Antigen Based-Elisa for the Diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus Infection in Humans from Low Trematode Endemic Areas  

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Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis...

Go?mez-morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

2013-01-01

229

Serological, Hematologic, and PCR Studies of Cattle in an Area of Switzerland in Which Tick-Borne Fever (Caused by Ehrlichia phagocytophila) Is Endemic  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal variations in seroprevalence to Ehrlichia phagocytophila in cattle pastured during the summer months in an area where tick-borne fever is endemic. The study was performed during a 1-year period from April 1996 to March 1997 and involved 34 cows, 22 pregnant heifers, and 14 calves. Blood samples, collected from all 70 cattle once a month, were used to determine serum immunoglobulin G titers by indirect immunofluorescence. In addition, blood...

Pusterla, Nicola; Pusterla, Jeannine Berger; Braun, Ueli; Lutz, Hans

1998-01-01

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Cross-sectional and evolutive studies of schistosomiasis mansoni in untreated and mass treated endemic areas in the southeast and northeast of Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cross-sectional and evolutive studies on schistosomiasis mansoni were carried out before and after mass treatment in the endemic areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso, state of Minas Gerais, Riachuelo, state of Sergipe, Alhandra, state of Paraíba, and Aliança, Alegre and Coroatá, lowland of the state of Maranhao, Brazil, in the last eighteen years. The studies included clinical and fecal examination by the Kato-Katz quantitative technique, skin testfor Schistosoma mansoni infection, ...

José Rodrigues Coura; Maria José Conceição; Mozart Lima dos Santos; Zélia Goes de Mendonça; Raimundo Nonato Martins Cutrim

1992-01-01

231

The Effect of Removing Potentially Infectious Dogs on the Numbers of Canine Leishmania infantum Infections in an Endemic Area with High Transmission Rates  

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To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated ...

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloi?sio

2012-01-01

232

Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh. PMID:22701164

Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Kato, Hirotomo; Fukushige, Mizuho; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Itoh, Makoto

2012-01-01

233

Reduction of spleen size in a child with Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS treated outside the Brazilian endemic area of malaria with only one course of quinine  

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Full Text Available We report the clinical picture, treatment and evolution of a child with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly treated outside the endemic area of malaria. The patient presented gross splenomegaly, proceeded from an area where malaria is endemic, showed increased immunoglobulins levels, high antimalarial antibody titres and hepatic sinusoidal lymphocytosis. The child did not return to an area where malaria is endemic and showed a favorable response to only one course of quinine. The response of this patient to limited antimalarial therapy suggests the importance of reinfection with malaria in the development and maintenance of this syndrome.Relatamos o caso clínico, tratamento e evolução de uma criança com a síndrome da esplenomegalia hiperreativa da malária tratada fora da área endêmica para a malária. A criança apresentava importante esplenomegalia, era procedente de área endêmica para malária, os níveis de imunoglobulinas e de anticorpos antimaláricos estavam elevados e observou-se linfocitose sinusoidal hepática. A criança não voltaria mais para a área endêmica de malária, pelo que foi tratada com apenas um curso de quinino apresentando resposta clínica favorável. Esta resposta a um único curso de terapia curativa antimalárica sugere a importância da reinfecção com o parasitada malária no desenvolvimento e na manutenção desta síndrome.

Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

1992-12-01

234

Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Leishmania donovani infection in two villages in an endemic area in eastern Sudan.  

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We conducted a longitudinal study in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in eastern Sudan to compare the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of Leishmania donovani infection in two populations differing in ethnic background and duration of residence in the area. The study took place in two villages from April 1994 to April 1996. In Um-Salala village, which is inhabited by members of the Masaleet tribe, half of the villagers had previous exposure to cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmaria major) before moving there. The population of the second village, Mushrau Koka, belong to the Hausa tribe and most were born there. The incidence of VL was 20.4/1000 person-years in 1994/1995 and increased sharply to 38.3/1000 person-years in 1995/1996 in Um-Salala. A rise in the incidence of VL was also observed in Mushrau Koka but with a lower incidence, 3.3/1000 person-years to 4.6/1000 person-years. The incidence rate of confirmed VL reflects only a limited part of the total infection rate which includes various forms of subclinical infection. The ratio of clinical to subclinical infection in Um-Salala was 1.2 : 1 in 1994/1995 compared with 2.6 : 1 in 1995/1996. This ratio was 1 : 11 in 1994/1995 and 1 : 2.5 in 1995/1996 in Mushrau Koka. In both villages the mean age of subclinical cases was higher, but in Mushrau Koka the mean age of subclinical cases also was higher than that of subclinical cases in Um-Salala. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was positive in 56% of individuals in Um-Salala and in 33% in Mushrau Koka. VL only occurred in leishmanin-negative individuals. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) followed in 58% of confirmed VL patients in Um-Salala; the low incidence of VL for Mushrau Koka did not permit to estimate a PKDL rate. The clinical manifestations resulting from exposure to L. donovani range from subclinical infection to VL and PKDL. No firm conclusion as to the difference in incidence of VL between the two villages could be reached but differences in exposure to VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as well as other factors such as ethnic background and differences in nutritional status may play a role. PMID:11851953

Khalil, E A G; Zijlstra, E E; Kager, P A; El Hassan, A M

2002-01-01

235

Validation of parasite transmission models: the example of onchocerciasis.  

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Most parasites have complex life cycles; and mathematical models can help in targeting interventions and predicting disease-control efforts. For actual applications, quantification and validation of models is a key issue. We illustrate the process of validation by presenting a (re)analysis of fly-feeding experiments carried out by the Onchocerciasis (river blindness) Control Programme (OCP/WHO) in West Africa, with the objective to validate ONCHOSIM, an onchocerciasis transmission model. In these experiments flies were fed on human patients and dissected to count the number of microfilariae they had ingested. To assess microfilarial skin densities, skin snips (biopsies) were taken and examined. Originally, the resulting curve was interpreted as showing saturation and considered the main regulating (density-dependent) mechanism of onchocerciasis transmission in the model. Taking into account measurement errors in the skin microfilarial density of human subjects (on whom the flies were fed) we now conclude that the relationship is essentially linear. This prompts us to requantify ONCHOSIM. Possible alternative density-dependent mechanisms are discussed. PMID:12430590

Nagelkerke, N J D; de Vlas, S J; Alley, E S

2002-08-01

236

Low prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala-azar endemic areas of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health problem in Bangladesh with the highest disease burden in the Mymensingh District. The disease is transmitted by sand fly bites, but it may also be transmitted through blood transfusions. No information is available about the prevalence of Leishmania infection among blood donors in Bangladesh; therefore we aimed to investigate this question. Methods The study was carried out in the Blood Transfusion Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. One thousand one hundred and ninety five adult healthy blood donors attending in this department were enrolled in the study from August 2010 to April 2011. After obtaining written consent, socio-demographic data and a detailed health history were collected. The medical officer in the unit performed a complete physical examination to exclude any acute or chronic diseases, which was followed by sero-diagnosis for exposure to Leishmania by rK39 strip test using finger prick blood. Blood donors with a positive rK39 strip test underwent a PCR test for detection of leishmania DNA in their peripheral blood buffy coat. Results Eighty two percent of enrolled blood donors were male (n=985 and 18% (n=210 were female. The mean age of blood donors was 27 years (SD, 7.95 years. The majority of donors were literate and had mid-to-higher socioeconomic condition reflected by household conditions reported by the subject. Only 2.6% had a family member with VL in the past. Three blood donors were positive for leishmania infection by rK39 strip test (0.3%, 95%CI, 0.05%-0.73%. None of these 3 had active leishmania infection as demonstrated by PCR analysis. During six months of follow up, neither rK39 positive (n=3 nor rK39 negative (n=1192 donors developed VL. Conclusion The prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among blood donors attending the Blood Transfusion Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital was very low. Therefore the chance for transmission of VL through blood transfusion is negligible. We believe that the National VL Elimination Program does not need set up routine screening for Leishmania donovani infection in blood transfusion departments located in VL endemic areas of Bangladesh.

Huda M Mamun

2013-02-01

237

A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

2013-02-01

238

[Human onchocerciasis and "sowda" in the Republic of Yemen].  

Science.gov (United States)

The geophysics of the north Yemen, associating a north-south directed mountainous fish bone (rising in more of 2,000 meters), to numerous rivers or "wadis" is convenient to the development of simulium shelters, main vectors for cutaneous filariasis to Onchocerca sp. Following several missions of bio-clinical and epidemiological evaluations in neighbouring villages of wadis, it has been possible to study different clinical aspects: one reminding the classical african onchocerciasis with generalized and diffused dermatitis, and, on an other hand, a hyperreactive dermatitis on one side of the body and associated with a collateral lymphatic ganglion. This disease is well known for local populations as "aswad" meaning "black" or "sowda". Clinically whatever the studied focus, coexists the two types of onchodermatitis (uni or bilateral). Yhe sowda patients are proportionally less numerous than those touched by the generalized type. Frequent eye lesions of the West African onchocerciasis are not found in sowda cases. In classical optical microscopy, microfilaria is morphologically indifferenciable between sowda and onchocerciasis clinical aspects. Skin snips were carried out on patients of both groups. Identification of microfilaria by molecular biology through the study of the DNA genome was done out of 5 skin snips. Microfilaria was kept dry between laminas and the DNA extracted from rehydrated microfilaria. DNA was intensified with specific primers of Onchocerca type (O150PCR). This phase was followed by hybridisation of amplification products by PCR to specific stains: OVS-2 for Onchocerca volvulus species, OCH for Onchocerca ochengi, PFS1 and PSS1-BT respectively for the forest strain and the savannah strain of Onchocerca volvulus as described previously. We can distinguish 2 kinds of answers based on the clinical origin of the snip-tests: the first one concern 3 patients with numerous dermal microfilariae but without any clinical sowda and corresponding to microfilaria O. volvulus type but different from the forest or savannah strains found in sub-Saharan Africa. The second one corresponds to 2 patients with less than 5 microfilaria in their snip-test. They show the typical clinical picture of sowda. They are identified as microfilaria type Onchocerca but they do not belong to species volvulus, or to species ochengi. It seems quite probable that the clinical picture of sowda be the result of developing onchocerciasis of animal origin and not identified as to day. The ivermectin, therapeutic of choice for African onchocerciasis in annual unique cure seems less effective in the coverage of sowda. In that case rehearsal of cures every 3 months would be necessary for mass campaigns to limit the transmission of this filariasis. PMID:11974966

Richard-Lenoble, D; al Qubati, Y; Toe, L; Pisella, P J; Gaxotte, P; al Kohlani, A

2001-01-01

239

Isolation and Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Strains in an Area of Italy Where Lyme Borreliosis Is Endemic  

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Between 1993 and 1998, we isolated Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from 55 of the 119 patients with clinically diagnosed Lyme borreliosis who were admitted to “San Martino” Hospital in Belluno, Veneto, an Adriatic region in northeastern Italy where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. Upon hospitalization, all patients presented erythema migrans. Isolates were typed using ribosomal DNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer. Of the 41 isola...

Ciceroni, Lorenzo; Ciarrochi, Simonetta; Ciervo, Alessandra; Mondarini, Valeria; Guzzo, Francesco; Caruso, Giuseppe; Murgia, Rossella; Cinco, Marina

2001-01-01

240

Optimized nuclear techniques, thyroid function studies of newborns in iodine deficient areas and assessment of severity of iodine deficiency of endemic goitre areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cord blood samples, as a sera (n 4753) and as dried blood spots (n 5041) were obtained from subjects in Bangkok and iodine deficient districts in northern Thailand to study for T4 and TSH. The nuclear techniques were optimized by the use of NETRIA bulk reagents and in-house methods were developed and adapted for cost reduction, conveniences and precision/accuracy. The biochemical findings with cut-off values at 50 mIU/L for TSH as confirmed by <1 ng/dl for FT4 showed 0.34% (n16) of neonatal chemical hypothyroidism (NCH) varying in different provinces from 0.18 to 1.6% of 2253 cases of Phase I and 0.34-1.45% of 2500 cases of Phase II. Out of the total 4753 cases, 1.12% (n53) might be benefited by thyroxine administration. In this research project, the screening indicated moderate degree of IDD severity. It is useful for epidemiological evaluations, surveillance and for advocacy of the IDD control programme. Follow-up studies were undertaken in the available three subjects with abnormal serum findings in which all of them appeared to have transient neonatal hypothyroidism to assess the IDD severity. Further studies of dried cord blood spots (n 5041) demonstrated that the percentages of TSH above 5, 20 and 50 mIU/L and of T4 under 3, 5 and 10 ug/dl could be used for follow-up to compare the severity of different districts at the same time intervals and to assess the severity of the same district in different years. By this way, the severity of individual districts and its progress, could be evaluated for the IDD control in any endemic areas

 
 
 
 
241

Characterization of overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among HTLV-1 positive healthy carriers in the Northeast of Iran; AN HTLV-I endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, no studies have provided data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence among asymptomatic, healthy human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) positive carriers. This sero- and molecular epidemiology study was performed on patients in the Northeast of Iran, which is an endemic area for HTLV-I infection. A total of 109 sera were collected from HTLV-I positive healthy carriers who were admitted to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad City. All were tested for HBV serology and subsequently, real time PCR was carried out on the samples, regardless of the results of the serology. Standard PCR and direct sequencing were applied on positive samples. All cases were negative for HBsAg, Anti-HBc, and anti-HBs were positive in 34 (31.1%), and 35 (32%) individuals, respectively. There were 19 (17.4%) cases that were positive only for anti-HBs, and they had already received HBV vaccine. 16 (15%) were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, indicating a past-resolved HBV infection. 18 (16.5%) were isolated as anti-HBc, and 56 (51.3%) were negative for all HBV serological markers. Only one subject (0.9%) had detectable HBV DNA (2153?copy/ml), and assigned as being an occult HBV infection. The low prevalence of HBsAg, despite the high percentage of anti-HBc positive cases, might be related to the suppression effect of HTLV-I on surface protein expression. The low prevalence of HBV infection among HTLV-I positive healthy carriers from an endemic region, indicates that the epidemiology of HTLV-I and HBV coinfection is related to the endemicity of HBV in that region, rather than HTLV-I endemicity. PMID:25132488

Chenari, Maryam; Norouzi, Mehdy; Ghalichi, Leila; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Yari, Atefe; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

2014-11-01

242

Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2.10-19.29] are positive predictors of compliance to ivermectin. Conclusion Interventions to improve compliance in the area should focus on health education using epidemiological data in order to increase risk perception and dispelling misconceptions. Motivation and continued support to improve CDD's performance including training and incentives are crucial.

Wondafrash Mekite

2010-06-01

243

Onchocerca ochengi infections in cattle as a model for human onchocerciasis: recent developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi is a nodule-dwelling filarial nematode, closely related to O. volvulus, the causal agent of human River Blindness, and, sharing with it, the same vector. This brief review, based on a presentation at the BSP Autumn Symposium 1999, describes recent work supported by the WHO Drug Development Research Macrofil programme and the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation vaccine development programme, to research the chemotherapy and immunology of onchocerciasis utilising this model system, with experimental infections in Liverpool and field infections in northern Cameroon. In a series of chemotherapeutic trials involving 10 compounds in 20 treatment regimes, the comparability of drug efficacy against O. ochengi with that described against O. volvulus has been demonstrated. Repeated, long-term treatment with oxytetracycline has been shown to be macrofilaricidal and the effect is hypothesized to be related to action on Wolbachia endobacteria, abundant in O. ochengi. Avermectins/milbemycins are not macrofilaricidal (even in high and repeated long-term treatments) but induce sustained abrogation of embryogenesis. In prospective, field exposure experiments with naive calves, prophylactic treatments with ivermectin and moxidectin prevented the development of adult worm infection, raising the possibility that drug-attenuated larval challenge infections may induce immunity. Putatively immune adult cattle exist in endemically exposed populations, and these have been shown to be significantly less susceptible to challenge than age-matched naive controls, whereas radically drug-cured, previously patently-infected cattle were not. Experimental infections with O. ochengi have revealed the kinetics of the immune response in relation to parasite development and demonstrate analogous responses to those reported in O. volvulus infection in humans and chimpanzees. In an immunization experiment with irradiated L3 larvae, cattle were significantly protected against experimental challenge--the first such demonstration of the experimental induction of immunity in a natural Onchocerca host-parasite system. Taken collectively, these studies not only demonstrate the similarity between the host-parasite relationships of O. ochengi in cattle and O. volvulus in humans, but promise to advance options for the control of human onchocerciasis. PMID:10874716

Trees, A J; Graham, S P; Renz, A; Bianco, A E; Tanya, V

2000-01-01

244

Parameters of thyroid function in the endemic goitre of Akungba and Oke-Agbe villages of Akoko area of southwestern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parameters of thyroid function were determined in Akungba and Oke-Agbe communities of Akoko area, where goiter is endemic and compared to a control population of Erinmo and Ifewara in Ijesha area, both areas being in southwestern Nigeria. The two study areas have similar physical and geological settings. However, while the main carbohydrate source of the control population are yam and/or bread-fruit, the Akoko population derives her carbohydrates mainly from cassava which could lead to increased serum thiocyanate, a goitrogen. The serum level of tetraiodothyronine (T4) was significantly (P Ifewara (11.0) and Erinmo (11.8) compared to Akungba (7.1) and Oke-Agbe (8.8[symbol: see text]micrograms/dL). The triiodothyronine (T3) was significantly (P Ifewara (193) than Erinmo (133) and also significantly (P Ifewara (4.5) and Erinmo (3.3). T3/T4 ratio above 25, indicative of hypothyroidism and endemic goiter, was 14, 7, 4 and 0% from Akungba, Oke-Agbe, Ifewara and Erinmo, respectively. The results of the present study clearly explain the Akoko goiter endemia in the light of modification (s) of thyroid metablism. PMID:10497657

Akindahunsi, A A; Grissom, F E; Adewusi, S R; Afolabi, O A; Torimiro, S E; Oke, O L

1998-01-01

245

Cross-sectional and evolutive studies of schistosomiasis mansoni in untreated and mass treated endemic areas in the southeast and northeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cross-sectional and evolutive studies on schistosomiasis mansoni were carried out before and after mass treatment in the endemic areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso, state of Minas Gerais, Riachuelo, state of Sergipe, Alhandra, state of Paraíba, and Aliança, Alegre and Coroatá, lowland of the [...] state of Maranhao, Brazil, in the last eighteen years. The studies included clinical and fecal examination by the Kato-Katz quantitative technique, skin testfor Schistosoma mansoni infection, evaluation of man-water contact and other epidemiological investigations such as infection rate and dynamic of the snail population. Results showed: (1) Higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection, greater egg load elimination and higher and earlier morbidity of the chronic froms of the disease in the southeast areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso; (2) The incidence of hepatosplenic form is higher in some family clusters, in whites and mullattos in all the endemic areas but develop earlier in the southeast; (3) The prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis are decreasing both in the mass treated northeast and in the untreated southeast areas; (4) The mass treatment reduces rapidily the prevalence of the infection and the morbidity of the disease but can not control it because of the frequent reinfections due to the intensity of man-water contact.

José Rodrigues, Coura; Maria José, Conceição; Mozart Lima dos, Santos; Zélia Goes de, Mendonça; Raimundo Nonato Martins, Cutrim.

246

Cross-sectional and evolutive studies of schistosomiasis mansoni in untreated and mass treated endemic areas in the southeast and northeast of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cross-sectional and evolutive studies on schistosomiasis mansoni were carried out before and after mass treatment in the endemic areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso, state of Minas Gerais, Riachuelo, state of Sergipe, Alhandra, state of Paraíba, and Aliança, Alegre and Coroatá, lowland of the state of Maranhao, Brazil, in the last eighteen years. The studies included clinical and fecal examination by the Kato-Katz quantitative technique, skin testfor Schistosoma mansoni infection, evaluation of man-water contact and other epidemiological investigations such as infection rate and dynamic of the snail population. Results showed: (1 Higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection, greater egg load elimination and higher and earlier morbidity of the chronic froms of the disease in the southeast areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso; (2 The incidence of hepatosplenic form is higher in some family clusters, in whites and mullattos in all the endemic areas but develop earlier in the southeast; (3 The prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis are decreasing both in the mass treated northeast and in the untreated southeast areas; (4 The mass treatment reduces rapidily the prevalence of the infection and the morbidity of the disease but can not control it because of the frequent reinfections due to the intensity of man-water contact.

José Rodrigues Coura

1992-01-01

247

[Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops". PMID:24001641

Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

2013-05-01

248

Rabies and bats in a rabies-endemic area of southern Africa : application of two commercial test kits for antigen and antibody detection  

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In southern Africa, isolates of rabies-related viruses (i.e. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus) have been made from insectivorous and frugivorous bats. As no recent formal bat virus survey has been reported in southern Africa, a survey of bats in rabies-endemic areas was undertaken. Five hundred and forty seven bats (13 species) were collected from 21 localities in the Orange Free State, Lesotho and the northern Cape Province. None of the 190 bat sera tested using the "Trousse P...

Oelofsen, M. J.; Smith, M. S.

1993-01-01

249

Human autoantibody to defensin: disease association with hyperreactive onchocerciasis (sowda).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic hyperreactive onchodermatitis (sowda) is a severe form of onchocerciasis observed in a subset of individuals infected with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses of O. volvulus adult worm extracts were used to characterize the antigens of the marked antibody response of sowda patients. One 2.5-kD antigen was recognized by sera from all 35(100%) sowda patients that were studied. In comparison, only 7 of 44 (16%) patients with generalized onchocerciasis and 11 of 21 (52%) of exposed individuals with no microfilariae in skin snips and no signs of disease showed reactivity to this antigen. Microfilaricidal treatment of sowda patients with improvement of the clinical status was associated with a decrease or disappearance of antibodies to the 2.5-kD antigen. Amino acid sequencing of the antigen indicated identity to human defensins 1-3 of neutrophils. Defensin was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining in onchocercal nodules on the surface of adult filariae and in the surrounding tissue. A similar staining pattern was observed for other proteins present in neutrophils such as myeloperoxidase, elastase, and the L-1 protein complex (MRP 8/MRP 14), indicating that neutrophils, macrophages, and their proteins predominate in the environment adjacent to the worms. These results demonstrate an association between the presence of autoantibodies to defensins and an infectious disease of known etiology. The association with a particular form of onchocerciasis, sowda, suggests a link between formation of autoantibodies to defensin and enhanced immune reactivity towards the parasite. PMID:7790822

Gallin, M Y; Jacobi, A B; Büttner, D W; Schönberger, O; Marti, T; Erttmann, K D

1995-07-01

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Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. PMID:22285010

Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

2012-06-01

251

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease. PMID:17308757

Gentile, Rosana; Costa-Neto, Sócrates F; Gonçalves, Margareth M L; Bonecker, Simone T; Fernandes, Fabiano A; Garcia, Juberlan S; Barreto, Magali G M; Soares, Marisa S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Peralta, José M; Rey, Luis

2006-09-01

252

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

Rosana Gentile

2006-10-01

253

Negligible risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) endemic area  

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To assess the risk of transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from an area where the virus is endemic, 240 freshly eviscerated fish (225-500 g) exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities were tested for IHNV by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Commercially produced rainbow trout, approximately 1-year-old, that exhibited spinal deformities were considered to have had a high likelihood of having survived an outbreak of IHN. Serological analysis of fish exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities for anti-IHNV antibodies resulted, in 71 and 50% of the serum samples, respectively, with detectable neutralization activity suggesting previous infection with IHNV. A portion of the skin and muscle in the area of the deformity was collected, as well as brain tissue from each commercially processed fish. Tissue homogenates were tested for IHNV using the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line pretreated with polyethylene glycol and the chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line using standard methods. Nested, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for the detection of IHNV used the central 1231 bp portion of the glycoprotein (G) challenge studies and is suggested as a mechanism responsible for virus clearance. These results provide scientific information that can be used to assess the risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout from an IHNV endemic area.

Lapatra, S. E.; Batts, W. N.; Overturf, K.; Jones, G. N.; Shewmaker, W. D.; Winton, J. R.

2001-01-01

254

HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil  

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Full Text Available An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87% and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU. Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

Priscilla Alexandrino-de-Oliveira

2010-08-01

255

Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Blue Nile valley of western Ethiopia.  

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A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003

Jira, C

1993-01-01

256

Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae): are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis), all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential. PMID:25166318

Winck, G R; Almeida-Santos, P; Rocha, C F D

2014-05-01

257

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas. PMID:24402156

Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

2013-01-01

258

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic ar [...] eas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

Rosana, Gentile; Sócrates F, Costa-Neto; Margareth ML, Gonçalves; Simone T, Bonecker; Fabiano A, Fernandes; Juberlan S, Garcia; Magali G M, Barreto; Marisa S, Soares; Paulo S, D' Andrea; José M, Peralta; Luis, Rey.

2006-10-01

259

Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais  

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Full Text Available The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp, ompA (457-bp, and ompB (720-bp. The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks.The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

Elizângela Guedes

2005-12-01

260

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 [...] of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

Teiliane Rodrigues, Carneiro; Regina Helena Saramago, Peralta; Marta Cristhiany Cunha, Pinheiro; Sara Menezes de, Oliveira; Jose Mauro, Peralta; Fernando Schemelzer Moraes, Bezerra.

2013-12-06

 
 
 
 
261

HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was [...] to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

Priscilla, Alexandrino-de-Oliveira; Joanna Reis, Santos-Oliveira; Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Dorval; Francisco das Chagas Brandão, Da-Costa; Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite, Pereira; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha; Anamaria Mello Miranda, Paniago; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz.

262

A study of onchocerciasis with severe skin and eye lesions in a hyperendemic zone in the forest of southwestern Cameroon: clinical, parasitologic, and entomologic findings.  

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Prior to the initiation of an onchocerciasis control program based on the mass administration of ivermectin in the rain forest of southwestern Cameroon, a preliminary baseline study of the area was conducted. The results of this study showed that onchocerciasis was hyperendemic in the area. Skin symptoms and signs were observed including pruritus (67.4% of the population examined), onchocerca nodules (51.6%), skin depigmentation (18.5%), and hanging groins (5.7%). Except for pruritus, the prevalence of these symptoms increased with age. Of the eyes examined, 44.9% had microfilariae in the anterior chamber, 33.5% had choroidoretinitis, 28.0% had punctate keratitis, 8.3% had papillary abnormalities, and 3.6% had sclerosing keratitis. Vision in 10.5% of the eyes examined was classified as blind or very poor (visual acuity = 0-0.10), in 15.7% as poor (visual acuity = 0.11-0.39), and in 73.8% as good (visual acuity = 0.4-1.00). Unlike previous reports that have linked serious ocular damage mainly to savanna onchocerciasis, the present study showed that forest onchocerciasis also caused significant ocular pathology, including blindness. Parasitologically, positive skin snips were recorded for 92.7% of the persons examined, with both sexes being equally infected. The parasite load, expressed as the geometric mean number of microfilariae per skin snip, was 53.6, and was much higher in males than in females. The flv vector, Simulium squamosum, had a high infection rate of 7.5% infective females in Bakumba and 6.8% infective females in Ngbandi, the two fly-catching points. The transmission potential was 266 infective larvae per person per month in Bakumba and 189 in Ngbandi. PMID:8427383

Somo, R M; Enyong, P A; Fobi, G; Dinga, J S; Lafleur, C; Agnamey, P; Ngosso, A; Ngolle, E M

1993-01-01

263

Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood m [...] eal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

Carla, Maia; Lidia, Dionisio; Maria Odete, Afonso; Luis, Neto; Jose Manuel, Cristovao; Lenea, Campino.

264

Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood m [...] eal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

Carla, Maia; Lidia, Dionisio; Maria Odete, Afonso; Luis, Neto; Jose Manuel, Cristovao; Lenea, Campino.

2013-06-01

265

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

Castellucci, Léa Cristina; Almeida, Lucas Frederico de; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-06-01

266

Awareness about kala-azar disease and related preventive attitudes and practices in a highly endemic rural area of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to assess the extent of community awareness and related practices about kala-azar undertaken by them to control the disease, in an highly endemic focus of Bihar, India. A household-based cross-sectional knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) survey consisting of quantitative components on knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning kala-azar was administered to heads-of-household through a semi-structured questionnaire. Data indicated that 61% respondents were illiterate, 4% had correct knowledge that sandfly bites caused kala-azar, 26% do not know any specific transmission agents for kala-azar. A majority (72%) of respondents were not able to recognize sandfly, 33% had no specific knowledge about the symptoms. All of them (100%) believed that this disease could affect his or her family income. Nearly all (95%) were positive that the kala-azar cases could be reduced with implementation of proper health measures. A few (11%) suggested isolation of patients to avoid contacting kala-azar while a high proportion (93%) of respondents favored specific allopathic medicine, and a majority (72%) favored the utilization of the services offered by primary health centers or government hospitals. Just over half (66%) of the respondents were not using any prevention measures to avoid contacting disease. These results could prove to be useful for health planners in developing suitable control strategies. PMID:20578475

Siddiqui, N A; Kumar, Narendra; Ranjan, A; Pandey, K; Das, V N R; Verma, R B; Das, P

2010-01-01

267

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

2014-06-01

268

Prevalence and risks for fishborne zoonotic trematode infections in domestic animals in a highly endemic area of North Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are endemic in humans and cultured fish in Vietnam but little is known about FZT in domestic animals. A study was designed to determine FZT prevalence and species diversity, and risk factors for infection, in dogs, cats and pigs. Faecal samples from 186 dogs, 94 cats and 168 pigs belonging to 132 households in Nghia Hung district, Nam Dinh province, were examined for small trematode eggs; those were trematode eggs with length less than 50 microm. Prevalence of FZT varied significantly between cats (70.2%), dogs (56.9%) and pigs (7.7%). Forty-nine of the egg-positive animals (25 dogs, 20 cats and 4 pigs) were necropsied to obtain adult trematodes for identification. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, and 11 species of intestinal flukes including Haplorchis, Stellantchasmus, Stictodora and Centrocestus were recovered from the infected animals. The practice of feeding raw fish to the animals was a significant risk factor for infection; this risk was reduced if the animals were periodically treated with anthelmintics. Based on the high prevalence of FZT and certain risky husbandry practices, domestic animals are likely to be major contributors of FZT eggs to the environment. Therefore, education of farmers to avoid feeding raw fish and to perform regular anthelmintic treatment of dogs, cats and pigs is needed in integrated FZT control programs. PMID:19660428

Nguyen, Thi Lan Anh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong; Johansen, Maria Vang; Murrell, K Darwin; Phan, Thi Van; Dalsgaard, Anders; Luong, To Thu; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

2009-11-01

269

Urine Turbidity and Microhaematuria as Rapid Assessment Indicators for Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School Children in Endemic Areas  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Urinary schistosomiasis is highly endemic in Nigeria and for effective control measure, an efficient, quick and yet cheap diagnosis should be integrated. This will ensure the proper management of infection due to Schistosoma haematobium in low resource communities of Nigeria. Approach: This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 456 (252 males, 204 females school children aged 3-20 years between November 2010 and June 2011. Urine samples were examined macroscopically for turbidity and subsequently screened for microhaematuria using diagnostic reagent strips. The microscopic examination of urine samples for schistosome eggs was used as the standard for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of S. haematobium and geometric mean intensity of infection were 54.8% and 13.9 ± 0.67 eggs/10 mL of urine respectively. The age and sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis showed no significant differences (p>0.05. The prevalences of urine turbidity and microhaematuria were 37.1 and 53.9% respectively and these varied significantly across age groups (p0.05 with their corresponding specificities 80.2 and 65.8% respectively. Intensity of infection was significantly correlated with the indirect diagnostic methods, urine turbidity (r = 0.203, pConclusion: The possible use of urine turbidity as an indicator for rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in low resource communities is implied.

Hassan Adesola

2012-01-01

270

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

Castellucci, Lea Cristina; de Almeida, Lucas Frederico; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; de Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-01-01

271

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

2014-05-27

272

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

273

Nigeria's war on terror: fighting dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis at the grassroots.  

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Africa's populous country, Nigeria, contains or contained more cases of dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis than any other African nation and ranks or ranked first (dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis) or third (lymphatic filariasis) in the world for the same diseases. After beginning village-based interventions against dracunculiasis 20 years ago and confronting onchocerciasis a few years later, Nigeria has nearly eliminated dracunculiasis and has provided annual mass drug administration for onchocerciasis to over three quarters of that at-risk population for 7 years. With assistance from The Carter Center, Nigeria began treating lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis in two and three states, respectively, over the past decade, while conducting pioneering operational research as a basis for scaling up interventions against those diseases, for which much more remains to be done. This paper describes the status of Nigeria's struggles against these four neglected tropical diseases and discusses challenges and plans for the future. PMID:19407107

Njepuome, Ngozi A; Hopkins, Donald R; Richards, Frank O; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N; Pearce, Patricia Ogbu; Jibril, Mustapha Muhammed; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Sofola, Olayemi T; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Miri, Emmanuel S; Eigege, Abel; Emukah, Emmanuel C; Nwobi, Ben C; Jiya, Jonathan Y

2009-05-01

274

Detection of areas of endemism on two spatial scales using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE): the Neotropical region and the Atlantic Forest / Detecção de áreas de endemismo em duas escalas espaciais utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos: região Neotropical e Mata Atlântica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um dos principais desafios para este século reside em impedir a perda de biodiversidade. A biogeografia é o campo das ciências biológicas que busca desvendar os padrões de distribuição dos organismos. Um conceito básico em biogeografia diz respeito à existência de áreas de endemismo, caracterizadas [...] pela presença de espécies de distribuição restrita. Áreas de endemismo são definidas como unidades históricas de congruência distribucional entre dois ou mais táxons monofiléticos, provavelmente formadas por fatores históricos não aleatórios que definem condições específicas para elevadas taxas de especiação. Conseqüentemente, a delimitação de áreas de endemismo possui importantes implicações para a eficácia dos esforços conservacionistas. Até o momento, a maioria dos estudos tem delimitado estas áreas por meio da sobreposição de mapas de distribuição das espécies. Entretanto, esta abordagem pode acarretar delimitações arbitrárias quando analisado um amplo conjunto de dados distribucionais. No presente estudo foi utilizado método da Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos (PAE) baseada em quadrículas georeferenciadas a fim delimitar áreas de endemismo. Este método é importante devido a sua natureza empiricamente testável, além da possibilidade de inferência dos relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas. O método foi aplicado aos dados distribucionais de 19 táxons não relacionados, de modo a definir os padrões gerais de endemismo na região de Neotropical e na Mata Atlântica utilizando diferentes tamanhos de quadrícula. Foram encontradas 13 áreas endêmicas Neotropicais, situadas sobre as regiões do Panamá, norte dos Andes e Mata Atlântica, sendo esta última composta por dois componentes distintos (Norte e Sul). As áreas de endemismo delimitadas na Mata Atlântica por meio de quadrículas menores devem ser consideradas prioritárias para conservação, uma vez que demonstraram endemismo tanto em escala regional quanto local. Os resultados foram comparados a outros estudos utilizando deferentes táxons e metodologias. Considerações gerais sobre escala de análise e perspectivas futuras são apresentadas. Abstract in english An important biological challenge today is the conservation of biodiversity. Biogeography, the study of the distribution patterns of organisms, is an important tool for this challenge. Endemism, the co-occurrence of several species unique to the same area, has important implications for the preserva [...] tion of biodiversity, since many areas of endemism are also areas with large human impact. More rigorously defined, areas of endemism are historical units of distributional congruence of monophyletic taxa. These areas often assumed to be due to nonrandom historical events that favored conditions associated with high rates of speciation. Thus, understanding endemism and the delimitation of endemic areas has important implications for conservation. Today, most studies delimit areas of endemism by superimposing maps of distribution for various species. This approach suffers from arbitrary delimitations, however, when a great distributional data is used. In this paper we used the method of Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on georeferenced quadrats in order to delimit areas of endemism. This modality of the method is important due to its testable nature and can also be used to infer area relationships. We applied the method to raw distributional data from 19 unrelated taxa to delimit general patterns of endemism in the Neotropical Region and in the Atlantic forest domain using different grid scales. Neotropical areas found are comprised over the Panama region, northern Andean region and the Atlantic forest. Atlantic forest showed a major division into two distinct components (northern x southern). Endemic areas delimited using smaller scale grids on the Atlantic forest should be considered for conservation priorities once they showed endemism a

Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

275

THE CONTROL OF ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOS BY THE SPRAYING OF DELTAMETHRIN ON RAFFIA CURTAINS USED IN MINERS' HUTS IN AREAS ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA  

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Full Text Available The residual potential of an aqueous solution of Deltamethrin (FW 25 mg i.a./m2 was evaluated on raffia curtains. These are sheets of synthetic material used in the construction of huts to house miners. Experiments were conducted during 420 days and the curtains were always rolled up in the daytime and unrolled in late afternoon. Data analyzed by logarithmic regression indicated that raffia treated with Deltamethrin had higher mortality indices than that covered with DDT. The residual capacity of Deltamethrin on raffia was high. The mortality percentage was above 85% after 360 days and dropped to about 50% at 420 days. The effect of DDT was reduced after 180 days and reached zero by the end of the experiment. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that Deltamethrin be used to spray raffia curtains in mining regions and other areas that are endemic for malaria.

FIGUEIREDO Regina

1998-01-01

276

High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including [...] 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture). Results T. cruzi I (TcI) was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1%) subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands); however, high similarities (80-100%) among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

Sandra Maria, Alkmim-Oliveira; Henrique Borges, Kappel; Cristiane Pontes, Andrade; Aluízio, Prata; Luis Eduardo, Ramirez; Dalmo, Correia; Eliane, Lages-Silva.

2014-09-26

277

Multiple intracranial space-occupying lesions in a renal transplant recipient from an area endemic for tuberculosis (TB): TB vs. toxoplasmosis.  

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Renal transplant recipients may present with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs) due to infections as well as a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Here, we discuss a renal transplant recipient who presented with neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed multiple focal SOLs. Tuberculosis (TB), toxoplasmosis, nocardiosis, fungal infections, and PTLD were considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI spectroscopy was suggestive of an infectious cause, such as toxoplasmosis or TB. Serologic tests using Toxoplasma were negative. A brain biopsy followed by immunohistochemical staining using Toxoplasma antibody demonstrated multiple intravascular cysts of toxoplasma. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma in an immunocompromised patient with multiple focal brain lesions, especially in areas where TB is endemic. PMID:25040057

Bagchi, S; Sachdev, S S; Nalwa, A; Das, C J; Sinha, S; Suri, V; Mahajan, S; Bhowmik, D; Agarwal, S

2014-10-01

278

Infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum of 0 to 18-Month-old children living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil.  

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The diagnosis of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection in children from birth may serve as a reference for the early identification of cases that would progress to classical visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. This study prospectively evaluated newborns of mothers living in the municipality of Paracatu, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The infants were followed up at 6-month intervals by clinical examination, serological tests (immunofluorescence [IIF] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with rK39 [ELISA-rK39]) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) until they had completed 18 months of age. A total of 166 pregnant women were included to evaluate the possible transfer of antibodies or even congenital transmission. Twenty-two of the women tested positive by IIF, four by ELISA-rK39, and one by PCR. Three infants of the 25 women with some positive test results were also positive in the first test (one by IIF, one by ELISA-rK39, and the third by ELISA-rK39 and PCR). One hundred and sixty infants were included in the study; of these, 43 had at least one positive sample over time. However, agreement between tests was low. Follow-up of children with a positive result in the tests studied revealed no progression to classical disease within a period of 18 months. In contrast, two children with negative IIF, PCR, and ELISA-rK39 results developed classical VL at 9 and 12 months of age. In conclusion, a positive test result was variable and sometimes temporary and agreement between tests was low. Therefore, the early diagnosis of Leishmania infection was not associated with the early identification of cases that would progress to classical VL in the endemic area studied. PMID:24935952

Maciel, Danielle Borges; Silva, Thaís Almeida M; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; de Oliveira, Edward; Tibúrcio, Monique Gomes Salles; de Oliveira, Rafael Faria; Avelar, Daniel; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Furtado, Eliana; Rabello, Ana; Silva, Luciana de Almeida

2014-08-01

279

Evaluation of the acquired immune responses to Plasmodium vivax VIR variant antigens in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas of Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The naturally-acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax variant antigens (VIR was evaluated in individuals exposed to malaria and living in different endemic areas for malaria in the north of Brazil. Methods Seven recombinant proteins representing four vir subfamilies (A, B, C, and E obtained from a single patient from the Amazon Region were expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. The different recombinant proteins were compared by ELISA with regard to the recognition by IgM, IgG, and IgG subclass of antibodies from 200 individuals with patent infection. Results The frequency of individuals that presented antibodies anti-VIR (IgM plus IgG during the infection was 49%. The frequencies of individuals that presented IgM or IgG antibodies anti-VIR were 29.6% or 26.0%, respectively. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against recombinant VIR proteins was significantly lower than the prevalence of antibodies against the recombinant proteins representing two surface antigens of merozoites of P. vivax: AMA-1 and MSP119 (57.0% and 90.5%, respectively. The cellular immune response to VIR antigens was evaluated by in vitro proliferative assays in mononuclear cells of the individuals recently exposed to P. vivax. No significant proliferative response to these antigens was observed when comparing malaria-exposed to non-exposed individuals. Conclusion This study provides evidence that there is a low frequency of individuals responding to each VIR antigens in endemic areas of Brazil. This fact may explain the host susceptibility to new episodes of the disease.

Soares Irene S

2006-10-01

280

Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

Nadle Joelle

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

A new focus of onchocerciasis in Mwanza District, Malawi.  

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Anecdotal information suggested that a new focus of onchocerciasis had recently developed in Mwanza in Malawi, a district not contiguous with Thyolo, the only district in Malawi with recognized autochthonous transmission. We carried out a survey of the northern half of Mwanza district, randomly selecting 62 villages for assessment. Two iliac crest skin snips were taken from 2215 residents over the age of 15 years; one-quarter had Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae. Prevalence increased with age and was higher overall among men than women. The age-adjusted prevalence among migrants from Thyolo was 31%. Among residents who had never been outside Mwanza, the gender-specific prevalences and microfilarial loads were similar. The intensity of infection was low. Autochthonous transmission of O. volvulus has thus been demonstrated in Mwanza and illustrates the possibility of the spread of the disease to new foci in Malawi and the surrounding countries, due to significant population shifts. PMID:7747302

Courtright, P; Johnston, K; Chitsulo, L

1995-01-01

282

Conflict of interest: use of pyrethroids and amidines against tsetse and ticks in zoonotic sleeping sickness endemic areas of Uganda  

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Background Caused by trypanosomes and transmitted by tsetse flies, Human African Trypanosomiasis and bovine trypanosomiasis remain endemic across much of rural Uganda where the major reservoir of acute human infection is cattle. Following elimination of trypanosomes by mass trypanocidal treatment, it is crucial that farmers regularly apply pyrethroid-based insecticides to cattle to sustain parasite reductions, which also protect against tick-borne diseases. The private veterinary market is divided between products only effective against ticks (amidines) and those effective against both ticks and tsetse (pyrethroids). This study explored insecticide sales, demand and use in four districts of Uganda where mass cattle treatments have been undertaken by the ‘Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness’ programme. Methods A mixed-methods study was undertaken in Dokolo, Kaberamaido, Serere and Soroti districts of Uganda between September 2011 and February 2012. This included: focus groups in 40 villages, a livestock keeper survey (n?=?495), a veterinary drug shop questionnaire (n?=?74), participatory methods in six villages and numerous semi-structured interviews. Results Although 70.5% of livestock keepers reportedly used insecticide each month during the rainy season, due to a variety of perceptions and practices nearly half used products only effective against ticks and not tsetse. Between 640 and 740 litres of insecticide were being sold monthly, covering an average of 53.7 cattle/km2. Sales were roughly divided between seven pyrethroid-based products and five products only effective against ticks. In the high-risk HAT district of Kaberamaido, almost double the volume of non-tsetse effective insecticide was being sold. Factors influencing insecticide choice included: disease knowledge, brand recognition, product price, half-life and mode of product action, product availability, and dissemination of information. Stakeholders considered market restriction of non-tsetse effective products the most effective way to increase pyrethroid use. Conclusions Conflicts of interest between veterinary business and vector control were found to constrain sleeping sickness control. While a variety of strategies could increase pyrethroid use, regulation of the insecticide market could effectively double the number of treated cattle with little cost to government, donors or farmers. Such regulation is entirely consistent with the role of the state in a privatised veterinary system and should include a mitigation strategy against the potential development of tick resistance. PMID:23841963

2013-01-01

283

Use of bioassay and microplate assay to detect and measure insecticide resistance in field populations of Culex pipiens from filariasis endemic areas of Egypt.  

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Insecticide and resistance bioassays and microplate assays were performed on Culex pipiens mosquitoes to determine the level and mechanisms of resistance. Culex pipiens larvae were collected from three filariasis-endemic areas of Egypt and reared to adults for subsequent production and testing of F1 generation larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using World Health Organization (WHO) methods with the diagnostic doses of 6 organophosphate insecticides for larvae and 1 organochlorine (OC), 4 pyrethroid, 2 organophosphate, and 2 carbamate insecticides for adults. Microplate assays were performed to measure levels of beta esterase, acetylcholinesterase, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes. Larval bioassay results showed clear indications of resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Adult bioassays also showed widespread, significant resistance to many insecticides from all four classes, including the OC, DDT. The Qalubiya larval population was susceptible only to malathion, whereas Sharkiya larvae were susceptible to malathion, temephos, and chlorpyrifos. On the other hand, larval specimens from Assiut were resistant to all insecticides tested. Larval bioassay results were supported by those of microplate assays in showing elevated levels of glutathione S-transferase in populations from all three areas. In general, microplate results confirmed patterns of resistance observed using bioassays, and mechanisms of resistance were evident for all three areas sampled. Mechanisms of resistance are discussed in relation to microplate and bioassay results for the areas sampled and pesticides used. PMID:17067049

Zayed, Abdel Baset B; Szumlas, Daniel E; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Fryauff, David J; Mostafa, Azza A; Allam, Kamilia M; Brogdon, William G

2006-09-01

284

Spatial analysis and mapping of malaria risk in an endemic area, south of Iran: a GIS based decision making for planning of control.  

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Bashagard district is one of the important malaria endemic areas in southern Iran. From this region a total of 16,199 indigenous cases have been reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the situation of the disease and provide the risk map for the area. ArcGIS9.2 was used for mapping spatial distribution of malaria incidence. Hot spots were obtained using evidence-based weighting method for transmission risk. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, altitude, slope and distance to rivers were combined by weighted multi criteria evaluation for mapping malaria hazard area at the district level. Similarly, risk map was developed by overlaying weighted hazard, land use/land cover, population density, malaria incidence, development factors and intervention methods. Our results reveal that the disease mainly occurs in north and east of the study area. Consequently the district is divided into three strata. Appropriate interventions are recommended for each stratum based on national malaria policy. Malaria hazard and risk map, stratification based on relevant information and data analyzing provide a useful method preparedness and early warning system for malaria control, although regular updating is required timely. PMID:22245147

Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Charrahy, Z; Haghdoost, A A; Zamani, G; Abedi, F; Sedaghat, M M; Soltani, M; Shahi, M; Raeisi, A

2012-04-01

285

Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. Methods The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1 climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2 monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3 ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; 4 evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Results Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. Conclusions The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour transmission. The temperature increase has favoured a widening of the monthly potential transmission window with respect to when malaria was endemic. The combined application of modified climate diagrams and GMR index, together with spatial characterization conforms a useful tool for assessing potential areas at risk of malaria resurgence. NDVI is a good marker when dealing with a rice field area.

Mas-Coma Santiago

2010-07-01

286

The control of endemic treponematoses.  

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In the 1950s and 1960s, following a decision by the Second World Health Assembly in 1949, mass treatment campaigns against the endemic treponematoses were undertaken with the support of the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. The control policy was based on recognition of the importance of screening at least 90% of the target population; of conducting periodic resurveys and treating missed, new, and imported cases; of treating the entire treponemal reservoir (including latent cases and contacts); and of using adequate dosages of long-acting penicillin (minimal dosages were recommended). Later, policies on the extent of contact treatment at different levels of endemicity were established. During these mass campaigns, approximately 50 million clinical and latent cases and contacts were treated; prevalence of endemic treponematoses was reduced dramatically. The major reasons for resurgence of yaws and endemic syphilis in some areas are discussed. One important factor has been the failure of many countries to integrate active control measures into local health services after the mass campaigns. Yaws and pinta are continuing to decline to very low levels in the Americas. In West Africa, especially, incidence of yaws and endemic syphilis have returned to high levels. Few significant endemic areas remain in Asia except in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. PMID:4012161

Antal, G M; Causse, G

1985-01-01

287

Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas  

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Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo.In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

Gerusa Dreyer

2006-08-01

288

Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança / Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancr [...] oftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas) e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo. Abstract in english In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for ban [...] croftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

Gerusa, Dreyer; Joaquim, Norões; Denise, Mattos.

2006-08-01

289

Reaching the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases Goals for Onchocerciasis: An Economic Evaluation of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Treatment in Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Background.?Recently, there has been a shift in onchocerciasis control policy, changing from prevention of morbidity toward elimination of infection. Switching from annual to biannual ivermectin distribution may accelerate progress toward the elimination goals. However, the settings where this strategy would be cost effective in Africa have not been described. Methods.?An onchocerciasis transmission framework (EpiOncho) was coupled to a disease model in order to explore the impact on disability-adjusted life years averted, program cost, and program duration of biannual ivermectin treatment in different epidemiological and programmatic scenarios in African savannah. Results.?While biannual treatment yields only small additional health gains, its benefit is pronounced in the context of the elimination goals, shortening the time frames for and increasing the feasibility of reaching the proposed operational thresholds for stopping treatment. In settings with high precontrol endemicity (and/or poor coverage and compliance), it may not be possible to reach such thresholds even within 50 years of annual ivermectin, requiring adoption of biannual treatment. Our projections highlight the crucial role played by coverage and compliance in achieving the elimination goals. Conclusions.?Biannual ivermectin treatment improves the chances of reaching the 2020/2025 elimination goals, potentially generating programmatic cost savings in settings with high precontrol endemicity. However, its benefit and cost are highly sensitive to levels of systematic noncompliance and, in many settings, it will lead to an increase in costs. Furthermore, it may not always be feasible to implement biannual treatment, particularly in hard-to-reach populations. This highlights the continued need for a macrofilaricide. PMID:24944228

Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Churcher, Thomas S.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Hopkins, Adrian; Prichard, Roger K.; Basanez, Maria-Gloria

2014-01-01

290

Fifty years of Balkan endemic nephropathy: daunting questions, elusive answers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has remained a geographically constant endemic for 50 years. Despite extensive research, its etiology remains unknown. In the current issue, in a study in one of the earliest sites where the endemic was first recognized, Dimitrov et al. confirm the persistance of the endemic into a new generation and also identify a maternal link in the pathogenesis of BEN. This intriguing finding needs to be confirmed in other endemic areas. PMID:16467889

Batuman, V

2006-02-01

291

Arsenic in drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcome in a arseniasis-endemic area in northeastern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The well water in Lanyang Basin, which is located in the northeaster portion of Taiwan island, was found to have high levels of arsenic rangin from undetectable levels (<0.15 ppb) to 3.59 ppm. We performed a study to compare the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery an birthweight) between an area with historic high well water arsenic level (arsenic-exposed area (AE)) and a comparison area with no historic evidence of arsenic water contamination (non-arsenic-exposed area (NAE)). The mea birth weight in the AEs and NAEs were 3132.6 and 3162.6 g, respectively Babies born in AEs were on average 30 g lighter than those born in NAEs. AE had a higher rate of preterm delivery than NAEs (3.74% vs 3.43%). The result of this study suggest that, after adjustment for potential confounders arsenic exposure from drinking well water was associated, although not significantly, with the risk of preterm delivery, with an odds ratio of 1.1 (0.91-1.33). The estimated reduction in birth weight was 29.05 g (95 CI=13.55-44.55). The findings from this investigation provide evidence for potential role for arsenic exposure through drinking water in increasing th risk of low birthweight

292

Onchocerciasis in Malawi. 1. Prevalence, intensity and geographical distribution of Onchocerca volvulus infection in the Thyolo highlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin snips from 23,373 persons living in the Thyolo (formerly Cholo) highlands focus of southern Malawi showed infection with Onchocerca volvulus to be unevenly distributed within the highland area. In the centre of the focus most adults were infected, though intensity of infection was light, not exceeding a geometric mean of 8 microfilariae per mg of skin. It was estimated that 327,000 persons live in areas where prevalence of infection exceeds 10% and, of these, 94,500 persons over the age of one year are infected with O. volvulus. There is a significant relationship between infection with O. volvulus and bilateral blindness in the Thyolo focus, although the number of persons blind from onchocerciasis is probably less than 300. PMID:1755058

Burnham, G M

1991-01-01

293

Evaluation of alternate methods of rapid assessment of endemicity of Onchocerca volvulus in communities in southern Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential diagnostic indicators of onchocerciasis (subcutaneous nodules, depigmentation or leopard skin, microfilaruria, diethylcarbamazine patch test positivity, excoriations, and pruritus) were evaluated in a rain forest region of southern Cameroon for usefulness in rapid assessment of onchocerciasis endemicity in communities. Thirty-two study villages were selected, representing high, intermediate, and low prevalence levels, and 846 adult male residents of these communities 20 or more years of age were examined according to a defined protocol. Skin snips (from each iliac crest) served as the reference standard. Skin snip positivity was 75.5%; the effect of age was minimal. Leopard skin and nodules showed the strongest correlation with both the skin snip prevalence and community microfilarial load, as reflected by the adult male study population. We selected > or = 20% nodules or > or = 20% leopard skin as the most appropriate local criteria for assigning a community to high priority for control, which corresponds to a > or = 90% skin snip prevalence in adult males. While this criteria should not be applied to regions with savannah onchocerciasis, we believe the methodology can and should be used to determine appropriate diagnostic indicators for rapid assessment of Onchocerca volvulus endemicity in regions with different dynamics of transmission and clinical expression of disease. PMID:7573705

Kollo, B; Mather, F J; Cline, B L

1995-09-01

294

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

295

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

2013-05-01

296

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil / Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares) entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a def [...] inição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR) não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95%) foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81), hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46), contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48) e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98). Abstract in english A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs) was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The ca [...] se definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR), with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81), housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46), contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48), and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98) were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda, D' Amaral; Maria Regina Alves, Cardoso; Norma Helen, Medina; Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm, Cunha; Eliseu Alves, Waldman.

297

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a definição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95% foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81, hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46, contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48 e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98.A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The case definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI, were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81, housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46, contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48, and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98 were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda D'Amaral

2005-12-01

298

Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil / Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares) entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a def [...] inição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR) não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95%) foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81), hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46), contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48) e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98). Abstract in english A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs) was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The ca [...] se definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR), with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, belonging to the poorest social stratum (OR = 8.21; 95%CI: 1.50-44.81), housing people from endemic areas (OR = 2.44; 95%CI: 1.10-5.46), contact with another case in the family (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 0.98-6.48), and facial hygiene habits (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.98) were independently associated with trachoma.

Rosa Kazuye Koda, D' Amaral; Maria Regina Alves, Cardoso; Norma Helen, Medina; Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm, Cunha; Eliseu Alves, Waldman.

299

A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental intermediate hosts such as humans. The disease, human alveolar echinococcosis, is fatal in untreated patients and results in reduced survival rates in continuously treated patients. Finland, Ireland, Malta, UK and mainland Norway consider themselves free from Em. The first case of Em was reported in Sweden in 2011.These countries therefore require dogs, cats and ferrets to be treated with an appropriate drug to prevent accidental introductions. Ireland, UK and Malta requires dogs to be treated 24-48 hours before entry, while Sweden and Finland allow treatment up to 10 and 30 days respectively prior to entry. Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel to be administrated 10 and 30 days prior to entering Sweden and Finland respectively. Because the drug is only effective 24 hours after oral intake, these strategies leaves 9 and 29 days for the dogs to be reinfected in endemic areas. The lifespan of the worms is only 90 days and the maximum prevalence is therefore reached after 90 days exposure. A reinfection period of e.g. 9 days will thus allow for 10% of the maximum prevalence to be reached in the period between treatment and crossing the border. In the worst case the Swedish and the Finnish strategies only reduce the probability of importing an infected dog with 90% and 68 % respectively. EFSA therefore recommended that pet animals are treated with a single dose of Praziquantel 24 to 48 hours prior to departure. The EFSA risk assessment model defines risk as the probability of introducing a dog with an Em infection. However, I suggest Em may not be so contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern is establishing the parasite ina free area rather than the risk of importing an infected dog, I propose risk should be defined as the number of eggs excreted in a non-endemic area. Furthermore I suggest that the probability of establishing the parasite in a free area is linearly proportional to the number of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing or still in the immature stage or whether the worm are young or old and thus likely to have a long or short remaining lifespan. I here present an alternative deterministic mathematical model which calculates the average number of eggs excreted in a free country by a dog exposed in an endemic area. The model quantifies the risk as the cumulative number of eggs excreted by a dog in the free country. In order to calculate the number of eggs excrete

BØdker, Rene

300

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand f [...] lies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C, Dorval; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha.

 
 
 
 
301

Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate wit...

Ahmadipour, F.; Parvizi, P.

2011-01-01

302

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - ...

Flávio França; Lago, Ednaldo L.; Marsden, Philip D.

1996-01-01

303

Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

Pfeffer Martin

2008-11-01

304

The nature of serpentine endemism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

Anacker, Brian L

2014-02-01

305

Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B.) Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the ave [...] rage annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third stream (C) remained untreated for negative control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of 100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides. Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated

Nelymar M, Mendes; Maurício C, Vasconcellos; Darcilio F, Baptista; Roberto S, Rocha; Virginia T, Schall.

306

Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B. Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third stream (C remained untreated for negative control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of 100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides. Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated

Mendes Nelymar M

1997-01-01

307

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

1996-01-01

308

Evolutive pattern of schistosomiasis and life-span of S. mansoni in patients living in non-endemic area in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Entre 2.484 portadores de esquistossomose estudados no Rio de Janeiro, 1.197 estavam afastados da área endêmica, permanentemente, de um a 30 anos. Apesar disso mais de 55% deles ainda estavam com infecção ativa após 6 anos de afastamento, 26,5% permaneciam infectados por mais de 10 anos e mais de 10 [...] % ainda estavam infectados depois de 15 anos de afastamento da área endêmica, o que demonstra a longa sobrevida e permanência da postura do S. mansoni no organismo humano, no Brasil, ao contrário das observações de Hairston (5) no Egito, que avaliou o tempo médio da fecundidade (postura) da fêmea do S. mansoni em 3 anos e meio. Dos 1.197 pacientes estudados 90,1% eram da forma intestinal ou hepatointestinal e 9,9% da forma hepato-esplênica. Nenhum paciente de forma intestinal ou hepato-intestinal desenvolveu a forma hepato-esplênica, durante o período de observação fora da área endêmica o que demonstra uma parada na evolução da doença, possivelmente pela redução progressiva da carga parasitária. Os pacientes da forma hepato-esplênica com baços não muito aumentados, tiveram uma evolução muito lenta e agravamento discreto e pouco freqüente durante o periodo de observação, enquanto que os hepato-esplênicos com baços muito grandes (grau IV) tiveram hemorragias freqüentes. O padrão evolutivo dos portadores de esquistossomose fora da área endêmica parece diferente daquele observado na área endêmica (7, 8). Abstract in english Out of 2484 patients harboring S. mansoni seen in Rio de Janeiro, 1197 had been living permanently out of endemic area frorn one to 30 years, without any possibility of reinfection; 90.1% of these 1197 patients were first seen with, hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis and only 9.9% with hepatosplenic [...] form. 55% of thern still had S. mansoni active infection 6 years or more after they had left the endemic area and 26.5% remained infected for more than 10 years. The patients with intestinal or hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis did not develop the most severe form whether they had been treated or not, and the hepatosplenic patients had a long time to deteriorate.

J. Rodrigues, Coura; Bodo, Wanke; Norton de, Figueiredo; C.A., Argento.

309

Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores. In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8% and cryptococcin (31.9% in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. immitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores. En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%.

Héctor Rubinstein

1989-02-01

310

Human fascioliasis infection: gender differences within school-age children from endemic areas of the Nile Delta, Egypt.  

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Several studies have reported a higher prevalence of infection for human fascioliasis among girls than among boys. To investigate this aspect further a sufficiently large data set was assembled comprising of 21,477 subjects with 932 positive cases. Subjects were primary school children covered by a control programme implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population in the Nile Delta from 1988 to 2002. Stool analyses were performed by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique for a quantitative diagnosis on the intensity of infection. Both prevalence and intensity of infection, indirectly measured as mean number of eggs per gram of faeces, were significantly higher among girls than boys. The higher level of infection in girls was consistent across different years and in different survey areas. Co-infection with Schistosoma mansoni was present and associated with fascioliasis, but schistosomiasis was significantly more prevalent among boys. In Egypt rural girls are often involved in household and farm work and are exposed more than boys to infected foci. The lower school attendance for girls in rural areas appears to be an important factor increasing risk of infection. The precise mode of transmission and behavioural risk factors for human infection need to be investigated further to identify those related to gender. PMID:16890257

Curtale, Filippo; Hassanein, Yehia Abdel Wahab; Barduagni, Paolo; Yousef, Mohamed Mostafa; Wakeel, Aly El; Hallaj, Zuhair; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2007-02-01

311

Pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.  

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Pemphigus refers to a group of human autoimmune blistering diseases involving skin and/or mucous membranes. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF), or fogo selvagem is an organ-specific autoimmune blistering disease, first reported in the beginning of the 20th century in rural areas of Brazil. The disease follows the course of streams and creeks, and vanishes after urbanization of the endemic areas. The auto-antigen related to EPF is desmoglein 1, a 160 kDa glycoprotein of the desmossomal core, targeted by in situ and circulating IgG autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG4 subclass. PMID:21605806

Aoki, Valeria; Sousa, Joaquim Xavier; Diaz, Luis A

2011-07-01

312

Association of weather and anthropogenic factors for transmission of Japanese encephalitis in an endemic area of India.  

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Weather and anthropogenic factors are important determinants for Japanese encephalitis (JE) transmission. During 2008-2010, an increasing trend of JE was observed in Dibrugarh district of Northeast India. The JE cases were found to be clustered between June to October in each year. Monthly minimum temperature and rainfall were significantly associated with JE transmission at 1 and 2 months lagged. However, the relationship was more prominent at a lag of 1 month than that of two. Regression analysis suggested that rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, and relative humidity at 6:00 h are significant predictors (P sty/cattle shed around and lower part of the houses and proximity of rice field to the dwelling houses (P < 0.05) were also found to be predictors for JE occurrence. Meteorological and anthropogenic risk factors can be used to forecast JE outbreaks in Assam which in turn can help the local health authorities to protect communities in JE prone areas. PMID:23709014

Borah, Jani; Dutta, Prafulla; Khan, Siraj A; Mahanta, Jagadish

2013-06-01

313

Molecular characterization of Fasciola samples, collected from different host species coming from the endemic area of Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical animal breeding programs are important for achieving maximum gain, and any factors resulting in economical loss should be minimized or eliminated. An organism of concern is the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, which causes decreased yield and even death in sheep and dairy cattle. In an effort to eliminate or minimize the detrimental effect of this parasite in animals, it is important to understand the genetic diversity within the liver flukes and the relationship between this parasite and the host in the particular geographic area. The aim of this study was to explore genetic diversity by analyzing the mitochondrial ND1 and cyt b genes and Ribosomal ITS1-2 regions. With these analyses, the individual differences, the host animal differences and combined effects of these factors on genetic relationships have been determined. PMID:24881270

Dosay-Akbulut, Mine; Köse, Mustafa; Erdo?an, Metin; U?uz, Cevdet; Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Lenger, Omer F

2014-01-01

314

Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regar [...] ding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and significance was determined using chi-square (?2) and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032). Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

Kalidia Felipe de Lima, Costa; Sthenia Santos Albano, Amóra; Camila Fernandes de Amorim, Couto; Celeste da Silva Freitas de, Souza; Luanna Fernandes, Silva; Luiz Ney, d' Escoffier; Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de, Sousa; Thais Aparecida, Kazimoto.

2014-10-01

315

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b), na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usa [...] das para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae) usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae) 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae) 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae) 2%. Abstract in english This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to trea [...] t skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae.) 2%.

Flávio, França; Ednaldo L., Lago; Philip D., Marsden.

316

Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

F Ahmadipour

2011-05-01

317

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

Flávio França

1996-06-01

318

Evaluation of fresh and stored rainwater quality in fluoride and arsenic endemic area of Thar Desert, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current study, the chemistry of fresh and stored rainwater of Thar Desert, Pakistan, was estimated during two consecutive monsoon periods. The present research deals with the variation in physicochemical parameters, total arsenic (As(t)), inorganic arsenic species (As(i), As(V), As(III)), and fluoride (F(-)) in stored rainwater (SRW) at different time intervals (1 week to 3 months). The pH of fresh rainwater (FRW) samples showed slightly acidic to neutral in nature (6.08-7.06) which were inconsistent with the reference pH value (5.6) of rainwater. The resulted data indicated that As(t) and F(-) levels in SRW were enhanced with time duration. The levels of As(t) and F(-) in SRW after different time intervals were found in the range of 194-683 ?g/L and 10-35.4 mg/L, respectively. The values of As(t) and F(-) were 20-70 and 7-24 times higher than those of WHO permissible limits, 10 ?g/L and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. The As(III) was dominant species in SRW, which corresponds to >60 % of As(i). The characteristics of the SRW revealed an unacceptable quality to consume for drinking and agricultural purposes in the studied area. PMID:25223532

Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Rafique, Tahir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Ullah, Naeem; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Salma

2014-12-01

319

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b), na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usa [...] das para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae) usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae) 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae) 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae) 2%. Abstract in english This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to trea [...] t skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae.) 2%.

Flávio, França; Ednaldo L., Lago; Philip D., Marsden.

1996-06-01

320

A comparison of newer tests for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of human serum, skin and urine, collected in Cameroon, were used to assess the value of some newer methods for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis. Parasite DNA was detected in skin snips and urine by PCR, and parasite antigen was detected in serum and urine by immunoblotting. Serum concentrations of IgG4 antibodies reacting with recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigens (OC3.6 and OC9.3) were also measured, using an ELISA. The PCR-based tests of skin snips and the serological tests for antigen and antibody tests showed higher sensitivities (90%-100%) than the urine PCR (14%) or the urine antigen test (68%). Although antibody detection is much easier to perform than tests based on PCR or antigen detection, the latter have an advantage in that they are only positive in people with current infections. Thus, antibody testing may be more useful for screening populations for infection or exposure to O. volvulus, whereas PCR and antigen testing are potentially more useful for diagnosis of infections in individuals and for monitoring the success of therapy. PMID:10884870

Vincent, J A; Lustigman, S; Zhang, S; Weil, G J

2000-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

"SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IRRITABILITY LEVELS OF MAIN MALARIA VECTORS TO SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS IN THE ENDEMIC AREAS OF IRAN"  

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Full Text Available The rational use of insecticides largely depends on a broad knowledge of the susceptibility and irritability levels of malaria vectors to currently used insecticides especially pyrethroids. In this study the susceptibility and irritability levels of Anopheles stephensi and An.culicifacies to DDT 4%,malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.025%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%, cyfluthrin 0.1% and permethrin 0.25% were determined. Susceptibility and irritability tests on adult mosquitoes were carried out according to WHO methods. The results showed that An.stephensi was resistant to DDT 4% and mortality rates to this insecticide in Gavdary and Abtar areas were 64.2%±3.9 and 61.8%±4.36, respectively. An.stephensi was assumed susceptible to other insecticides. An.culicifacies was found susceptible to all the tested insecticides. The irritability tests carried out with pyrethroids exhibited that permethrin 0.25% had the highest irritancy effect against both species. Lambdacyhalothrin 0.1% and deltamethrin 0.025% had the least irritancy effect against An.stephensi and An.culicifacies, respectively. Average numbers of take offs/females/minute of An.stephensi to permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin were 6.64±1.04, 3.11±0.67, 2.73±0.61 and 2.57±0.67, respectively. These figures for An.culicifacies were 2.24±0.37, 1.44±0.38, 1.59±0.35 and 1.46±0.5, respectively. Irritancy effect of pyrethroids should come in consideration while they are used for control of malaria vectors.

H. Vatandosst N. Borhani

2004-09-01

322

The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment isparticularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge aboutantimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use ofantimalarials and improve adherence to the government’s malaria drug policy. Results of a study onthe knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka,mostly in malarious areas are presented.Methods: Data on awareness of government’s malaria drug policy, practice of issuing antimalarials,knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs were collected from the drug vendors using pretestedquestionnaire in vernacular language. Data were statistically analysed using Stata 8.2. Chisquaretest was carried out for individual explanatory variables and a logistic regression model wasapplied taking all response variables as binary outcome.Results: Vendors’ knowledge on antimalarials was poor with 58% of the vendors being unaware ofthe government malaria drug policy in the country. Also, the advice provided to customers buyingantimalarials was limited. However, the majority of the private vendors emphasised that they wereaware of the importance of case confirmation before treatment as stressed in the national policy.Although, the vendors did not have a high awareness of national drug policies they were only foundselling chloroquine and primaquine as recommended by the Ministry of Health.Interpretation & conclusion: In recent years Sri Lanka, as a whole, has experienced very littlemalaria. The reduction in demand for antimalarials due to low incidence levels may have influencedthe knowledge and awareness on antimalarials and government drug policies. However, since lowlevels of malaria do not guarantee that epidemics will not occur, attempts to educate private drugvendors as a part of an organised control programmes are of major importance.

R.S. Rajakaruna, M. Weerasinghe, M. Alifrangis, P.H. Amerasinghe & F. Konradsen

2006-06-01

323

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibodyresponse induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-a may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco, Cesare

2011-01-01

324

Knowledge about sandflies in relation to public and domestic control activities of kala-azar in rural endemic areas of Bihar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) control is a global cause of concern. To identify the gaps in People's knowledge/awareness about sand flies and control activities of kala-azar in rural endemic areas of Bihar, this study consisting of 450 respondents with 288 male and 162 female was carried out. The result showed that 95% respondents had heard about the disease up to some extent, but majority respondents were neither aware about the vector of kala-azar, nor they had any idea about transmission of the disease. About 61% had wrong impression that mosquitoes were causing kala-azar. Regarding knowledge about breeding and resting sites of vectors, 20% reported cattle shed, 16% crevices in the household followed by 15% damp dark places. The attitude of respondents towards vector control programme was poor, as 99% lost faith in the DDT spraying because of ineffectiveness, like no reduction in mosquito nuisance. Bed net was considered the best protection method against sand fly or mosquito nuisance but the cost was considered the major constraint in its use. Proper health education programme in Simple and local language along with visual demonstration should be promoted to enhance the awareness and co-operation at community level. PMID:22010501

Kumar, Narendra; Siddiqui, N A; Verma, R B; Das, P

2009-06-01

325

Dispersion and colonization of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in artificial environments in a semiarid region of a Chagas disease endemic area in Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

The colonization capacity and dispersal of sylvatic populations of Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce were investigated by means of experimental chicken coops installed within the semiarid region in the Department of El Progreso, Guatemala. In the four artificial habitats a total of 672 T. ryckmani was found as well as two males of T. dimidiata (Latreille). Triatomine densities were not the same in the four chicken coops. From one chicken coop 53.4% (359) of the triatomines were collected. Full colonization, i.e. all stages from egg to adult found at the same time, took place in the fourth month after the first female's arrival. High dispersal and colonization capacity of T. ryckmani was evident; adult dispersal occurs mainly during the dry and coolest season (November-February). The overall female/male sex ratio was 2:1; more females than males were found throughout the year. Most of the triatomines in the shelter inside the chicken coops were found on the northern (43%; with less heat and sunlight) and eastern side (35%; more windy). This is the first report on the colonization capacity and population dynamics of T. ryckmani in artificial habitats in a Chagas disease endemic area of Central America. PMID:15234663

Monroy, Carlota; Marroquin, Ricardo; Rodas, Antonieta; Rosales, Regina; Jaenson, Thomas G T

2004-07-01

326

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

2013-03-01

327

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

328

Socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Montenegro skin test positivity in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

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Full Text Available In Marocco, many aspects of human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL still have to be clarified and little information is available about the factors that predispose individuals to asymptomatic infection. A prospective study was carried out in 889 healthy children under the age of 15 years living in two provinces in the endemic area in northern Morocco (the provinces of Taounate and My Yacoub from April to May 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the socio-economic and environmental characteristics associated with infection by Leishmania infantum. The Montenegro skin test (MST was used to detect asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of transmission of infection was 11.4% and approximately 2 times higher in Taounate than in My Yacoub, as measured by MST. Asymptomatic infection was associated with gender, age, presence of familial links, proximity to chickens, and the number of people in the house and locality, but it was not associated to education status, presence of dogs, livestock waste, sewage disposal, water supply system or use of insecticides

Hamid Amarouch

2012-01-01

329

Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.  

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Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

Fish, D; Dowler, R C

1989-05-01

330

Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

2013-09-01

331

The effect of removing potentially infectious dogs on the numbers of canine Leishmania infantum infections in an endemic area with high transmission rates.  

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To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B; Ferreira, Adelson L; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-06-01

332

Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

333

Risk factors for seroconversion by Leishmania infantum in a cohort of dogs from an endemic area of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has recently emerged in various urban and peri-urban areas of Brazil and other countries. Understanding the urbanization of VL requires identification of risk factors associated with human and canine infection. To determine the predictors of risk for canine VL, a survey was conducted of 1,443 dogs, from which a cohort was selected (n = 455) and evaluated for approximately 26 months. Serology was conducted with two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA): one conducted in the Laboratory of Zoonosis of the Belo Horizonte Health Department (LZOON) and the other in the Laboratory of Immunopathology of the Federal University of Ouro Preto (LIMP). A molecular diagnostic method (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism) and a structured questionnaire were also used. To identify the factors associated with seroconversion, two time-dependent Cox regression models were performed with different sensitivities (model 1, seroconversion by ELISA/LZOON; model 2, seroconversion by ELISA/LIMP). The overall incidences of seroconversion were 6.5/1000 dogs-months and 11.2/1000 dogs-months for ELISA/LZOON and ELISA/LIMP, respectively. Increased risk of seroconversion was associated with short fur (model 1: hazard ratio [HR] 1.9), the presence of dry leaves (model 1: HR 2.8) or manure (model 1: HR 3.5) in the backyard, dogs sleeping predominantly in the backyard (model 2: HR 2.1), the presence of symptoms (model 2: HR 2.0), and positive molecular results during follow-up (model 2: HR 1.5). Decreased risk was associated with insecticide spraying in the house (model 2: HR 0.5). These results indicate that more-vulnerable domiciles, certain dog behaviors, lack of vector control measures, and positive molecular results were associated with the occurrence of canine VL. Furthermore, it is important to emphasize that PCR-positive dogs should be monitored, owing to the possibility of seroconversion. Identifying risk factors for seroconversion in dogs is crucial for developing adequate strategies for VL prevention and control. PMID:23990996

Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Leal, Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Carneiro, Mariângela

2013-01-01

334

Behaviour and population dynamics of the major anopheline vectors in a malaria endemic area in southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheline mosquitoes consist of a large number of species each of whichdiffers from another in population, resting and feeding behaviour in relation to the prevailing conditionsin the locality. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the population dynamics, restingand feeding behaviour of the major anopheline species found in a rain forest zone of Nigeria.Methods: Mosquitoes resting and biting indoors were collected using WHO standard techniques andsupplemented with outdoor-biting collections in the study areas between January and December2004. Samples were sorted and identified microscopically for morphological features while molecularidentification was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques.Results: PCR-based tests showed that both indoor and outdoor collections constitute three groups ofAnopheles mosquitoes, An. gambiae s.l. Giles (68.6%, An. funestus Giles (30.7% and An. mouchetiEvans (0.7%. Of the 1,342 female Anopheles mosquitoes collected indoors, 799 were caught restingand 543 were caught biting. The outdoor-biting population accounted for 28.8% of the total collections(n =1885. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the biting activities (indoors and outdoorsof these species in four villages. However, An. arabiensis and An. moucheti were more exophagicwith >60% of their biting occurring outdoors while An. gambiae and An. funestus were moreendophagic with >55% of their biting occurring indoors. The human-vector contact with An. gambiaeand An. funestus (indoors was about 73.3 and 66.7%, respectively as against 27.7% in An. arabiensisand 25.3% in An. moucheti. This gave the corresponding man-biting rates (MBR of 17.5 bites/man/night for An. gambiae, 14.6 bites/man/night for An. funestus, 6.7 bites/man/night for An. arabiensisand 4.3 bites/man/night for An. moucheti. Moreover, the number of An. gambiae and An. funestuscaught resting indoors was significantly higher than the other two species (p <0.05. The wet seasoncollections showed that An. gambiae caught were more than 67% of the total catch while An. arabiensiswas predominant in the dry season (?2 = 75.44, df = 3, p <0.01.Interpretation & conclusion: The present study highlights some aspects of the behaviour ofanopheline mosquitoes in southern Nigeria which is an important component of epidemiologicalstudy of malaria. This information provides basis to the understanding of the role played by theidentified anopheline species in malaria transmission and a baseline to formulate malaria controlprogramme.

I.O. Oyewole

2007-03-01

335

Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) / Áreas de endemismo del Océano Austral: un re-análisis basado en datos adicionales de hidroides bentónicos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia biogeográfica de la fauna del océano Antártico (OA) es compleja y está poco estudiada, principalmente en relación a las áreas de endemismo. Se ha reanalizado los datos de Marques & Peña Cantero (2010) junto con otros registros geográficos de hidrozoos bentónicos endémicos de la zona abaj [...] o de los 45°S. Una Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE) a partir de una matriz de 5° latitud por 5° longitud con 61 especies, obtuvo ocho áreas de endemismo. Se discute los resultados tomando en cuenta diferentes hipótesis sobre la evolución de la fauna del OA y los patrones biogeográficos de la literatura. Abstract in english The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO) fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010), along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) [...] based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

Thaís P, Miranda; Álvaro L, Peña Cantero; Antonio C, Marques.

336

Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) / Áreas de endemismo del Océano Austral: un re-análisis basado en datos adicionales de hidroides bentónicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia biogeográfica de la fauna del océano Antártico (OA) es compleja y está poco estudiada, principalmente en relación a las áreas de endemismo. Se ha reanalizado los datos de Marques & Peña Cantero (2010) junto con otros registros geográficos de hidrozoos bentónicos endémicos de la zona abaj [...] o de los 45°S. Una Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE) a partir de una matriz de 5° latitud por 5° longitud con 61 especies, obtuvo ocho áreas de endemismo. Se discute los resultados tomando en cuenta diferentes hipótesis sobre la evolución de la fauna del OA y los patrones biogeográficos de la literatura. Abstract in english The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO) fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010), along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) [...] based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

Thaís P, Miranda; Álvaro L, Peña Cantero; Antonio C, Marques.

1003-10-01

337

The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa.  

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A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis) and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale) in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey. PMID:16642719

Rikhotso, B O; Stoltsz, W H; Bryson, N R; Sommerville, J E M

2005-12-01

338

The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

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Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

B.O. Rikhotso

2012-06-01

339

Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná / Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA), entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresento [...] u lesão, mas 12 (24,0%) tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8%) tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7%) apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença. Abstract in english The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immu [...] nofluorescent test (IIF) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0%) had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8%) out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7%) were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

E., Pittner; E., Voltarelli; T.F., Perles; S.M.A.A., Arraes; T.G.V., Silveira; M.V.C., Lonardoni.

340

Validation of an excretory/secretory antigen based-ELISA for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus infection in humans from low trematode endemic areas.  

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Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis, fibrosis of the periportal system, cholecystitis, and gallstones. Consequently, an early diagnosis prevents chronicity and loss of working days. The detection of specific antibodies has been considered as a complementary tool to the fecal examination to establish the definitive diagnosis of this infection and for the follow up. Therefore the aim of this work was the development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) from O. felineus adult worms to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera. A total of 370 human sera were tested: 144 sera from persons with a confirmed diagnosis of opisthorchiasis, 110 sera from healthy Italian people, and 116 sera from people with other parasitic or non-parasitic infections. Results were analyzed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The accuracy of the test, calculated by the area under curve (AUC), yielded a 0.999 value, indicating the high performance of the test. The sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 97.40% to 100%) and no false-negative sera were detected; the specificity was 99.09% (95% CI: 95.02% to 99.83%). The validated ELISA shows a good performance in terms of sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility, and it is suitable to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera for diagnostic purposes and for the follow up to assess the efficacy of drug treatment. PMID:23671589

Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.  

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Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%. PMID:25431178

Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

2014-01-01

342

Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná / Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA), entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresento [...] u lesão, mas 12 (24,0%) tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8%) tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7%) apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença. Abstract in english The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to Decembe