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Sample records for onchocerciasis endemic areas

  1. Eye disease in an onchocerciasis-endemic area of the forest-savanna mosaic region of Nigeria.

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    Umeh, R E; Chijioke, C P; Okonkwo, P O

    1996-01-01

    In a forest-saving mosaic zone of south-eastern Nigeria endemic for onchocerciasis, we identified eye disorders in 65.5% of a randomly selected population sample. Onchocerciasis-related eye disease was present in 13.7% of the study sample and constituted 21% of the total number of eye disorders. A total of 78 (33.2%) of 235 subjects with visual impairment had onchocerciasis-related eye lesions, and of 35 who were blind in both eyes, onchocerciasis-induced eye disease was the cause in 28 (80%). The prevalence of bilateral blindness from all causes in the study area was 4.1%, while that from onchocerciasis-related causes was 3.3%. The commonest onchocerciasis-induced lesions that were responsible for visual impairment and blindness were choroidoretinitis and optic nerve disease. Sclerosing keratitis, an important causative lesion in onchocerciasis-endemic savanna regions, was encountered only one. Eye disease is therefore an important feature of onchocerciasis in the forest-savanna mosaic areas of Nigeria and should be borne in mind when planning and executing control programmes. PMID:8653822

  2. Eye disease in an onchocerciasis-endemic area of the forest-savanna mosaic region of Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Umeh, R. E.; Chijioke, C. P.; Okonkwo, P. O.

    1996-01-01

    In a forest-saving mosaic zone of south-eastern Nigeria endemic for onchocerciasis, we identified eye disorders in 65.5% of a randomly selected population sample. Onchocerciasis-related eye disease was present in 13.7% of the study sample and constituted 21% of the total number of eye disorders. A total of 78 (33.2%) of 235 subjects with visual impairment had onchocerciasis-related eye lesions, and of 35 who were blind in both eyes, onchocerciasis-induced eye disease was the cause in 28 (80%)...

  3. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis

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    Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

  4. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

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    Wanji Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the treatment, 97.5% complied by the end of six weeks. No serious side effect was registered during the six week treatment. Conclusion This study indicates that when empowered the community health implementers can successfully deliver doxycycline for six weeks for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The therapeutic coverage and the compliance treatment rate achieved in this study coupled to the known efficacy of doxycycline on O. volvulus, are indicators that the strategy involving the mass administration of doxycycline can be used to control onchocerciasis in those areas of co-endemicity with loiasis where ivermectin may be contraindicated.

  5. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

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    Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

  6. Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species

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    EC Uttah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual im­pair­ments by qualified medical doctors. Five categories of skin manifestations were observed, namely permanent itching, onchodermatitis, atrophy of skin, leopard skin, and sowda. A total of 1024 individuals were examined. "nResults: The prevalence of the skin manifestations were permanent itching (2.5%, onchoder­ma­titis (3.9%, atrophy of the skin (5.8%, leopard skin (22.1%, and sowda (0.1%. The preva­lence of subcutaneous nodules was 25.3%, but 88.9% among the oldest age group, and mostly found in lower half of body. The majority of cases of visual acuity problems (6.8% overall prev­alence were in the oldest age groups. Among those who were ? 20 years old, the prevalence of visual acuity problems was significantly higher in females than in males (?2-test; P< 0.05. Only two of the examined persons were observed to be blind. "nConclusion: Clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis are perhaps more intense in the area prob­ably because of presence of endemic infections of other filarial species.

  7. Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review

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    Laura Moya Alonso

    2009-01-01

    Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on oncho...

  8. Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America

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    Cristian Lizarazo O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy

  9. Importance of ivermectin to human onchocerciasis: past, present, and the future

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    Cupp EW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas

  10. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?

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    M. Winnen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implications of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

  11. Histochemical enzyme variation in Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae from rain-forest and Sudan-savanna areas of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa

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    Omar, M. S.; Prost, A; Marshall, T. F. de C.

    1982-01-01

    Histochemical staining methods for acid phosphatase were used to study the differences among microfilariae of various West African strains of Onchocerca volvulus in both forest and Sudan-savanna onchocerciasis zones. The results have shown statistically significant differences in the staining patterns of microfilarial populations in the two zones. In the rain-forest areas, where onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense and S. squamosum, there were no sig...

  12. Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review

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    Laura Moya Alonso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost-effective. Priority should be given to the development of new tools to support control programmes and to enable eradication of the disease.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

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    Beatrice Autino

    2012-01-01

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    Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  14. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoiding being bitten by infected blackflies by using insecticides that contain N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) ... Onchocerciasis General Information Onchocerciasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

  15. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Elena Contreras; Marcos De Donato; María Ana Rivas; Hectorina Rodulfo; Robert Mora; María Eulalia Batista; Norka Marcano

    2011-01-01

    In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Pla...

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of three Onchocerca volvulus cloned antigens in diagnosis of onchocerciasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchcerciasis is endemic in three geographical regions in Sudan, and presented with variable clinical reactions. The current diagnosis of onchocerciasis is based on detection of live microflaraie in skin snips in addition to clinical signs and history of living in endemic regions. Different serological diagnostic trials using crude soluble antigens of O. volvulus have shown variable degrees of cross reaction with other nematodes co-endemic in the same area. We have studied the sensitivity and specificity of RAL-2, calreticulin and PDI O. volvulus cloned antigens using the ELISA techniques. Eighty serum samples of Onchocerciasis patients, 20 non endemic normal controls and 42 samples of patients of other endemic deseas including Leishmanoasis, malaria, tuberculosis and shestosomiasis were tested RAL-2 gave the best Ig G response, with 83.75% sensitivity and 91. 66% specificity. PDI sensitivity was 20% and specificity 91.66%, while calreticulum showed sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 73.30%. IgG3 subclasses was not significantly different from controls while IgG4 was significantly higher in patients. The sensitivity of RAL-2 for IgG4 was 90% with a specificity of 100%. For PDI sensitivity was 25% and 100% specificity while calreticulin resulted in sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100%. Low levels of circulating IgE to RAL-2 antigen were detected. For all antigens there was significant correlation with gender, age, microflarial load or presence of nodules. (Author)

  17. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

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    Higazi TB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is also being considered for repurposing as a macrofilaricide to aid in the achievement of eradication. The managerial challenges existing at the population level also need to be addressed; these include drug-distribution fatigue, the need to include noncompliant people, civil unrest in endemic areas, political cross-border issues, restrictions of age and pregnancy, and complications due to integration with other treatment programs. It is likely that a panel of chemotherapeutic options, new and old, supported by strong and effective distribution systems will be the best way to address challenges of treatment and elimination of this infection. Future research should also address management of treatment and control, and consider how new treatment paradigms can be incorporated to meet time lines set for global elimination by 2025.Keywords: mass drug administration, ivermectin, macrofilaricides, challenges

  18. Onchocerciasis in Benue State of Nigeria III: a study of bionomics of Simulium damnosum (Theobald) complex at Manor.

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    Gemade, E I; Dipeolu, O O

    1983-06-01

    Results of a 12-month study (January-December 1981) on the breeding sites, incidence and infection rates of Simulium damnosum in an area of Benue State of Nigeria endemic for human onchocerciasis are given. Natural and artificial breeding sites are described. Permanent and temporary breeding sites were recognized along the rivers in the study area and the intensity of rains was found to be the only factor which determined the permanency or temporary nature of a breeding site. All adult blackflies caught were S. damnosum "sensu lato" Greater numbers were caught during the rains with peak catches corresponding with peak of rainfall in September. The influence of shade temperature on daily biting activity was shown, peak activity being recorded at periods of day when temperature was low. Population density of blackflies increased with increasing distance from the main breeding sites on the river during the normal rains; at the peak of rains, the reverse was observed. April and September were the months of highest and lowest infection rates respectively among the catches while April to July were the most favourable period for onchocerciasis transmission because of the high infective bites per person per day in those months. The infective bites per person per day were estimated at 0.83 which, by comparison with values from endemic areas of Africa, confirmed the endemicity of the study area for human onchocerciasis. Dissected flies carried low number of developing larvae of Onchocerca volvulus with a mean of 3.9. Measurements of larvae are given and the relevance of the results to the epidemiology of human onchocerciasis in the study area is discussed. PMID:6685714

  19. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection

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    Proaño Roberto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Results Over the period 1990–2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round. Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. Conclusion The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries.

  20. Information for onchocerciasis control

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    Adrian Hopkins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I

  1. Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes

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    Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km²). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the northern part of the Prepuna can be defined as two partly overla

  2. Revisión epidemiológica de la Oncocercosis en América Latina / Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America

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    Guadalupe C, Rodríguez C; Cristian, Lizarazo O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La oncocercosis es una enfermedad exclusiva del ser humano, caracterizada por prurito intenso, lesiones dérmicas y daño ocular que puede llegar a la ceguera. Las regiones endémicas están limitadas a zonas con latitud, relieve, temperatura y humedad relativa óptimas para el desarrollo del parásito y [...] el insecto vector. Estas zonas se encuentran en el oeste de África, Yemen y algunos países de América latina. El parásito es transmitido a través de la mordedura de una mosca del género Simulium, que al alimentarse de sangre deposita larvas del parásito. En América se creó el Programa de Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), cuya estrategia es la administración de ivermectina y la nodulectomía para eliminar la oncocercosis como amenaza de salud pública en la región. Abstract in english The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Th [...] ose zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (OEPA) was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy.

  3. Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2010-09-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099

  4. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrey Mauricio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  5. Concurrence of dermatological and ophthalmological morbidity in onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, L E; Fobi, G; Ozoh, G; Bissek, A C; Nlatté, B O; Enyong, P; Olinga, J M Olinga; Zouré, H G M; Habbema, J D F; Stolk, W A; de Vlas, S J; Boussinesq, M; Noma, M

    2012-04-01

    Prevalence of skin and eye disorders in African onchocerciasis (river blindness) is well documented. However, less is known about their joint occurrence. Information on concurrence may improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and is required to estimate the disease burden of onchocerciasis. We analysed data from 765 individuals from forest villages in the Kumba and Ngambe Health districts, Cameroon. These data were collected in 1998, as baseline data for the evaluation of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Concurrence of symptoms was assessed using logistic regression. Onchocerciasis was highly endemic in the study population (63% nodule prevalence among males aged ?20). Considerable overall prevalences of onchocercal visual impairment (low vision or blindness: 4%), troublesome itch (15%), reactive skin disease (19%), and skin depigmentation (25%) were observed. The association between onchocercal visual impairment and skin depigmentation (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.9-20.8) was partly explained by age and exposure to infection (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.7). The association between troublesome itch and reactive skin disease was hardly affected by adjustment (adjusted OR 6.9, 95% CI 4.2-11.1). Concluding, there is significant concurrence of morbidities within onchocerciasis. Our results suggest a possible role of host characteristics in the pathogenesis of depigmentation and visual impairment. Further, we propose a method to deal with concurrence when estimating the burden of disease. PMID:22342170

  6. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  7. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronald H., Guderian; Anthony J., Shelley.

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989) conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with [...] those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

  8. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald H. Guderian

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989 conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

  9. Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JR, Coura; RS, Amaral.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease d [...] istribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.

  10. Impact of ivermectin on onchocerciasis transmission: assessing the empirical evidence that repeated ivermectin mass treatments may lead to elimination/eradication in West-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, Gerard JJM; Boatin, Boakye A; Nagelkerke, Nico JD; Agoua, Hyacinthe; Akpoboua, Komlan LB; Alley, E William Soumbey; Bissan, Yeriba; Renz, Alfons; Yameogo, Laurent; Remme, Jan HF; Habbema, J Dik F

    2003-03-24

    BACKGROUND: The Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa has been closed down at the end of 2002. All subsequent control will be transferred to the participating countries and will almost entirely be based on periodic mass treatment with ivermectin. This makes the question whether elimination of infection or eradication of onchocerciasis can be achieved using this strategy of critical importance. This study was undertaken to explore this issue. METHODS: An empirical approach was adopted in which a comprehensive analysis was undertaken of available data on the impact of more than a decade of ivermectin treatment on onchocerciasis infection and transmission. Relevant entomological and epidemiological data from 14 river basins in the OCP and one basin in Cameroon were reviewed. Areas were distinguished by frequency of treatment (6-monthly or annually), endemicity level and additional control measures such as vector control. Assessment of results were in terms of epidemiological and entomological parameters, and as a measure of inputs, therapeutic and geographical coverage rates were used. RESULTS: In all of the river basins studied, ivermectin treatment sharply reduced prevalence and intensity of infection. Significant transmission, however, is still ongoing in some basins after 10-12 years of ivermectin treatment. In other basins, transmission may have been interrupted, but this needs to be confirmed by in-depth evaluations. In one mesoendemic basin, where 20 rounds of four-monthly treatment reduced prevalence of infection to levels as low as 2-3%, there was significant recrudescence of infection within a few years after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ivermectin treatment has been very successful in eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem. However, the results presented in this paper make it almost certain that repeated ivermectin mass treatment will not lead to the elimination of transmission of onchocerciasis from West Africa. Data on 6-monthly treatments are not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:12769825

  11. Sibling species distributions of the Simulium damnosum complex in the west African Onchocerciasis Control Programme area during the decade 1984-93, following intensive larviciding since 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, D A; Back, C; Fiasorgbor, G K; Sib, A P; Coulibaly, Y

    1998-10-01

    During the decade from 1984 to 1993, nine species of the Simulium damnosum complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were identified from the area covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. These were S. damnosum s.s., S. dieguerense, S. konkourense, S. leonense, S. sanctipauli, S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, S. squamosum, and S. yahense. Some of these species were found to consist of two chromosomal variant populations. These were S. konkourense 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms, S. sanctipauli sensu stricto and 'Djodji' form, S. soubrense 'Chute Milo' and 'Beffa' forms. The distribution of these twelve cytological taxa was assessed in relation to the two main vegetation zones of West Africa (forest and savanna), topography, river size and other factors. The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement and river water level. The most widely distributed species were S. sirbanum and S. damnosum s.s., associated with savanna areas, recorded from all river basins. Simulium dieguerense was restricted mainly to Western Mali on the Rivers Bafing and Bakoye in the Senegal River basin. Simulium squamosum was identified from rivers draining mountainous areas in both the forest and savanna zones. Simulium yahense was found in small permanent rivers along a wide forested band parallel to the coast and was absent from the plains of Togo and Benin. Members of the S. sanctipauli subcomplex had restricted distributions except for S. sanctipauli s.s., which was widespread in large rivers of the forest zone from Sierra Leone to the Volta Lake in Ghana. Simulium soubrense 'Beffa' form occurred in Togo and Benin, S. soubrense 'Chutes Milo' form in Guinea, both 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms of S. konkourense occurred predominantly in Guinea and S. leonense in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the distribution maps and the importance of the data bank to vector control larvicidal operations are discussed. PMID:9824818

  12. Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil / Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanini Evelim, Coelho; João Batista F., Vieira; Marco Tulio A., García-Zapata; Joana Claudete M., Schuertz.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemioló [...] gicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas. Abstract in english In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified. [...

  13. Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanini Evelim Coelho

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  14. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ?850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s.l. within individual ribosomal DNA variation and thus the first evidence that the species is not subject to the normal effects of concerted evolution. Collectively, these data illustrate the need for diverse sampling in the development of robust molecular tools for vector identification and suggest that ribosomal DNA might be able to assist with resolving S. guianense s.l. species substructuring that C01 barcoding has hitherto failed to. PMID:24200838

  15. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko; Cook, Jackie; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Soto, Veronica; Gamboa, Dionicia; Pozo, Edwar; Ponce, Oscar J; Pereira, Mayne O; Soares, Irene S; Theisen, Michael; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools.

  16. Pulmonary strongyloidiasis following renal transplantation without travel to an endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala, Ravi; Wasielewski, Joseph; Biman, Birubi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an immunosuppressed individual occurring in a non-endemic area. Geographic risk is not sufficient to rule out Strongyloidiasis in susceptible individuals presenting with severe pulmonary disease.

  17. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D; Gyan, B A; Goka, B Q; Troye-Blomberg, M; Akanmori, B D; Kurtzhals, J A L; Dodoo, D; Consolini, R; Linde, A; Wahlgren, M; Bejarano, M T

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase in the number of EBV-carrying B cells in the circulation. To further understand the potential influence of malarial infection on the EBV persistence in children living in malaria-endemic areas, we studied the o...

  18. Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

  19. Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

  20. Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

  1. The Future of Onchocerciasis Control in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkin, C.; Molyneux, D. H.; Abiose, A.; Philippon, B; Reich, M.R.; Remme, J.H.; Thylefors, B.; Traore, M.; Grepin, K

    2007-01-01

    The complex issues related to onchocerciasis control that must be addressed over the next decade were identified. Onchocerciasis control in Africa since 1974 has been one of the most successful health and development activities in terms of public health achievement, partnership development, sustained donor support, and social and economic development. The group reviewed The landscape of international health has changed much since the inception of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Contr...

  2. Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Program Coordinating Committee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan® has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the process leading up to interruption of transmission as well as the critical period following cessation of mass drug administration to document that there is no recrudescence of transmission. This is called the posttreatment surveillance (PTS period. This report describes the aims, phases, and methodology of PTS as operationalized by the endemic countries and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. Successful completion of the PTS period without signs of recrudescence leads to a country request for certification of elimination by the World Health Organization. As elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas proceeds and emphasis in Africa switches from control to elimination, the PTS guide should prove invaluable to those programs going forward.Keywords: Onchocerca volvulus, onchocerciasis, ivermectin, Mectizan®, recrudescence, surveillance

  3. Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazdins Janis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

  4. Towards cross-border natural resource management and economic development : linking communities and institutions in the onchocerciasis-freed zone of Burkina Faso and Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waveren, E.; Mariez-Currena, V.; Issaka, B.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The eradication of river blindness, or Onchocerciasis, has opened up substantial areas of land along rivers for more intensive use, facilitating economic development. Many of these so-called Onchocerciasis Freed Zones (OFZ) lie across international borders and interventions in one country could thus affect neighbouring countries. For that reason a coordinated international development approach has been called for. The Socio Economic Development Programme for the Transborder Onchocerciasis Fre...

  5. Malaria situation in an endemic area, southeastern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Fekri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006-2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%.Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness.

  6. Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamarozzi Francesca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its implementation to compliment existing control strategies for onchocerciasis, where needed.

  7. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupationa...

  8. Iodine determination in water samples from endemic goitrous areas using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and simple method for the determination of iodine from water is described which is based on preconcentration of iodine with 0.1M solution of 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine in benzene or carbon tetrachloride from 1-2M HNO3 followed by neutron irradiation and gamma-ray activity measurements. A clinical survey of endemic goitrous area was also made to find a possible correlation between endemic goiter and iodine deficiency in water. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano Fernandes, Pereira; Andrei Leite, Gazzaneo; Roberta Maria Pereira Albuquerque de, Melo; Hugo Cabral, Tenório; Darlan Silva de, Oliveira; Maria Sonia Correia, Alves; Danielle Correia, Gama; Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes, Wyszomirska.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL) is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classificat [...] ion of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique and the diagnosis was based on the reading of two microscopic slides for each sample. The patients whose examinations were positive for schistosomiasis mansoni were submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection. Based on this examination, 8.11% of the study population were positive for schistosomiasis. The medium parasite load was 79.1 ± 174.3 eggs. The intestinal (90.57%) and hepatointestinal (9.43%) forms were found at statistically significant levels (p

  10. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 ?g/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 ?g/g) and the girls (0.222 ?g/g) in the studied KBD areas (P?children in KBD endemic areas in Lhasa likely have improved Se status as a result of high Se content staple food substitution with the enforcement of Free Education Policy and Nutrition Improvement Plan in Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa. PMID:25910897

  11. Malaria during pregnancy in an area of unstable endemicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nosten, F; ter Kuile, F; Maelankirri, L; Decludt, B; White, NJ

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study of malaria during pregnancy was conducted between September 1986 and December 1989 in an area of unstable (mesoendemic) malaria transmission on the Thai-Burmese border. Antenatal clinics were set up in camps for displaced persons of the Karen ethnic minority and 1358 pregnant women were enrolled at a mean estimated gestational age of 23 weeks (standard deviation 5.7 weeks) and were followed weekly until delivery. Malaria developed in 505 women (37.2%); 80.2% of infections ...

  12. Dog Bites in Humans and Estimating Human Rabies Mortality in Rabies Endemic Areas of Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Tenzin; Dhand, Navneet K; Gyeltshen, Tashi; Firestone, Simon; Zangmo, Chhimi; Dema, Chimi; Gyeltshen, Rawang; Ward, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. We conducted a hospital based questionnaire survey and described the incidence and risk factors for human dog bites in Bhutan. We also estimated the human death rate attributable to rabies in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. Our study shows that dog bites incidents in humans are common in the survey areas. There were significant gender and age differences in bite incidents; males and the children are affected the most. The ma...

  13. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Lei Huang; Ge-Xia Qiao; Fu-Min Lei

    2010-01-01

    Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs) for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs). The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s...

  14. Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

  15. Circulating immune complexes in onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, R; Ngu, J L; Levinsky, R J

    1980-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes were detected in sera of patients with both localized and generalized onchocerciasis by a 125I-Clq binding assay but not by the IgG latex agglutination inhibition method. Gel filtration of sera demonstrated high molecular weight Clq-reactive material(greater than 2 x 10(6) Daltons) which contained IgM but no IgG. Antibody titres to Onchocerca volvulus antigen were higher in patients with generalized disease than in those with the localized form. The lack of correlation between antibody titres and levels of immune complexes suggests that these immune complexes contain antigens other than those derived exclusively from the parasite. Although few of the symptoms of this disease are likely to be due to deposition of circulating immune complexes, the depression of delayed hypersensitivity reactions to the parasite found in patients with generalized onchocerciasis may be due to IgM immune complexes exerting an immuno-regulatory role on T cell function. PMID:7379329

  16. High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

    2009-07-15

    Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

  17. Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta G, Cavalcanti; Margareth MI, Gonçalves; Magali M, Barreto; Aline Helen da, Silva; Kalil, Madi; José Mauro, Peralta; Ricardo P, Igreja.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. ma [...] nsoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

  18. Thyroid nodules in Graves? disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra A; Mishra S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves? disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves? disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves? disease (1990-1999). Out of these 35 (26.9&#...

  19. Incidence of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in freshwater fishes in the endemic area of Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rab, Abdul; AFZAL, M.; Akhtar, N; Barlas, A.; QAYYUM, M

    2001-01-01

    Incidence of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) has been recorded for the first time in freshwater fishes in the endemic area of Punjab, Pakistan. Survey of private fish farms, hatchery and natural water bodies was conducted in a radius of 14 Km from around river Ravi near Lahore (Punjab Province) Pakistan. Out Of 1628 fishes belonging to 18 genera, 517 fishes of 10 genera were found affected with EUS. The incidence of EUS in culturable fishes was higher in Cirrhina mrigala (1...

  20. Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires; Luciane Marinoni

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Prim...

  1. Acute seizures attributable to falciparum malaria in an endemic area on the Kenyan coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, SM; Ikumi, M; Ojal, J; Sadarangani, M; Idro, R.; Olotu, A; Bejon, P.; Berkley, JA; Marsh, K.; Newton, CR

    2011-01-01

    Falciparum malaria is an important cause of acute symptomatic seizures in children admitted to hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa, and these seizures are associated with neurological disabilities and epilepsy. However, it is difficult to determine the proportion of seizures attributable to malaria in endemic areas since a significant proportion of asymptomatic children have malaria parasitaemia. We studied children aged 0–13 years who had been admitted with a history of seizures to a rural Kenya...

  2. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  3. Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

  4. Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amanda Ciprandi, Pires; Luciane, Marinoni.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of [...] two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

  5. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not at all.

  6. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not at all.

  7. Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?

    OpenAIRE

    Achille P. Raselimanana; Daniel Rakotondravony; Gilbert Razafimanjato; The Seing Sam; Tolojanahary R. A. Andriamalala; Marius Rakotondratsima; Russell Thorstrom; Lily-Arison Rene de Roland; Jeanneney Rabearivony; Michel Rakotoson

    2010-01-01

    The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar). These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha) and Mandrozo (15,145 ha) in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha) in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles...

  8. Genital Schistosomiasis Leading to Ectopic Pregnancy and Subfertility: A Case for Parasitic Evaluation of Gynaecologic Patients in Schistosomiasis Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Tieru Dassah; Atta Owusu-Bempah; Alexander Tawiah Odoi

    2013-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a significant risk factor for ectopic pregnancy and infertility in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. A case of one previous ectopic pregnancy and subsequent obstruction of the contralateral tube in a secondary subfertility patient with chronic genital schistosomiasis is presented, emphasizing the need for a detailed history and parasitic evaluation of patients presenting with ectopic pregnancy or subfertility in areas where the disease is endemic.

  9. O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima / The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Augusto Pinto de, Moraes; Anthony J., Shelley; Antonio Paulino A. Luna, Dias.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da per [...] iferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela. Abstract in english A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located [...] at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

  10. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  11. Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, ... while WHO headquarters provides administrative, technical and operational research support. Through the OEPA partnership, WHO collaborates with ...

  12. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

  13. The Case for Mass Treatment of Intestinal Helminths in Endemic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joan Hamory; Kremer, Michael; Miguel, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Two articles published earlier this year in the International Journal of Epidemiology [1,2] have re-ignited the debate over the World Health Organization's long-held recommendation of mass-treatment of intestinal helminths in endemic areas. In this note, we discuss the content and relevance of these articles to the policy debate, and review the broader research literature on the educational and economic impacts of deworming. We conclude that existing evidence still indicates that mass deworming is a cost-effective health investment for governments in low-income countries where worm infections are widespread. PMID:26492528

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar; Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel; Leonidas M. Deane

    1986-01-01

    In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistema...

  15. Is the incidence of malaria decreasing in endemic area of Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Nurittin; Tanyuksel, Mehmet; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Araz, Engin

    2005-07-01

    Much international business and tourism travels occur, as well as the deployment of soldiers to other places. The aim of this study was both to determine incidence of malaria in the military hospital, Diyarbakir, southeast region of Turkey, and to point out the incidence of this disease. During the study period (1997-2004), 609 cases were found in a military hospital, which is in an endemic area for vivax malaria. This article review trends in current malaria status as well as possible factors for the decreasing prevalence throughout the study period. PMID:16240702

  16. Lyme arthritis in Southern Norway - an endemic area for Lyme Borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haugeberg, Glenn; Hansen, Inger Johanne W.; Skarpaas, Tone; Noraas, Sølvi; Kjelland, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite Southern Norway is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis there is a lack of data on Lyme arthritis (LA). In the literature controversies exist if acute LA can develop into chronic arthritis. Our objective was to identify and characterize patients with LA in Southern Norway and explore disease course after antibiotic treatment.Methods: Patients aged 20 years or older with arthritis and a positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi infection (IgG and/or IgM) suspected of havin...

  17. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 ?g per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 ?g for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 ?g/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 ?g/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 ?g/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the community level in Thailand.

  18. How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?

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    B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

  19. Risk factors for Leishmania chagasi infection in an endemic area in Raposa, State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Barreto Ponte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infection with Leishmania chagasi is the most common clinical presentation for visceral leishmaniaisis in endemic areas. The municipality of Raposa is an endemic area in State of Maranhão, Brazil, and have had registration cases of visceral leishmaniasis disease. For this reason, a cross- sectional study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for infection with L. chagasi detected by Montenegro skin test. METHODS: The sample comprised 96% of the inhabitants of the villages of Maresia, Pantoja, and Marisol located in the municipality of Raposa, corresponding to 1,359 subjects. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association between the variables studied and infection of L. chagasi. RESULTS: The variables associated with infection upon nonadjusted analysis were a straw roof, mud walls, floors of beaten earth, presence of sand flies inside or outside of the dwelling, and bathing outdoors. Adjusted analysis showed that the presence of sand flies inside/outside the dwelling was a risk factor, and age younger than 10 years was a protective factor against asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the extent to which precarious living conditions of the population strengthen the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

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    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  1. Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

  2. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilana Mirian Almeida, Felipe; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Oliver, Kuppinger; Max Diego Cruz, Santos; Maurício Eduardo Salgado, Rangel; David Soeiro, Barbosa; Aldina, Barral; Guilherme Loureiro, Werneck; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. [...] infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  3. Imaging of parathyroid adenomas with (99)mTc-Sestamibi in an endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) has been introduced into parathyroid imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MIBI scan in an endemic goiter area. 25 patients with primary and 9 with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) underwent a MIBI scan one day prior to surgical exploration of the neck. Cervicothoracic planar scintigraphy was performed 5, 15 and 120 min after i.v. injection of 444 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The MIBI scan correctly detected 20 of 25 adenomas in 25 patients with pHPT. In only 6 of 9 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia a focal uptake was found. The cause of one false-positive result in the control group was an increased MIBI uptake by a follicular adenoma of the thyroid. Parathyroid scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestamibi as a single radiopharmaceutical is as sensitive in detecting and localizing parathyroid adenomas as the Tl/Tc-scintigraphy. Due to a high prevalence of thyroid adenomas in an endemic goiter area a higher rate of falsely positive results may be expected. (orig.)

  4. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence survey of asymptomatic dogs in an endemic area of northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Zarei, Zabiholah

    2015-06-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health problem that is endemic in tropical and sub tropical countries and is fatal in humans and dogs. In addition to symptomatic dogs, asymptomatic ones seem as source of Leishmania infantum infection. Thus surveillance and control programs of reservoir hosts are essential. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic domestic dogs from in an endemic area of north west, Iran. A cross sectional study was carried out in Meshkin-Shahr district during 2011-2012. Blood samples collected from 508 asymptomatic domestic dogs were tested by direct agglutination test. In this study 508 dogs (397 males and 111 females, mean age, 3.24 years) from western and eastern parts of the Meshkin-Shahr were examined. A total of 508 dogs examined 119 dogs (23.4 %) had antibodies (titers of ?1:320) against L. infantum. Statistically significance was occurred between male (25.4 %) and female (16.2) sero-prevalence (P = 0.042). No statistically significance was observed between age groups (P = 0.22). Compared with previous studies it seems to increase sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in the studied areas caused by ecological changes. High proportion of asymptomatic but seropositive dogs emphasizes the importance of dogs without clinical signs in the epidemiology of zoonotic leishmaniasis. Thus, the necessity of using serological tests in asymptomatic dogs is recommended for disease control strategy. PMID:26064004

  5. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Mirian Almeida Felipe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8% out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881, only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  6. Farming on the edge: farmer attitudes to bovine tuberculosis in newly endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, G; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Hinchliffe, S; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Elgin, R; Ashton, A; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Goodchild, T; Brunton, L; Broughan, J

    2015-10-31

    Defra's recent strategy to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB) establishes three spatial zones: high-risk areas (HRAs) and low-risk areas, and an area referred to as 'the edge', which marks the areas where infection is spreading outwards from the HRA. Little is known about farmers in the edge area, their attitudes towards bTB and their farming practices. This paper examines farmers' practices and attitudes towards bTB in standardised epidemiologically defined areas. A survey was developed to collect data on farmer attitudes, behaviours, practices and environmental conditions as part of an interdisciplinary analysis of bTB risk factors. Survey items were developed from a literature review and focus groups with vets and farmers in different locations within the edge area. A case-control sampling framework was adopted with farms sampled from areas identified as recently endemic for bTB. 347 farmers participated in the survey including 117 with bTB, representing a 70per cent response rate. Results show that farmers believe they are unable to do anything about bTB but are keen for the government intervention to help control the spread of bTB. PMID:26494770

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  8. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline TANURE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1% and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%. Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6% in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  11. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for the majority of the cases.

  12. Effects of ethiodol on T3 kinetics in endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T3 kinetics were carried out in 32 children (11-15 years old) of a mild endemic goiter area. The incidence of goiter of the whole school population was 19% (Ia or Ib degree of the WHO). The mean urinary iodine was 84 ? g/d+-3. Six months before this investigation, 10 of the children received 2 ml of ethiodol by mouth and the other 22 (control group-CG) a placebo. The kinetics studies were carried out using less than 0,5 ? Ci of I-125 per Kg b.w. and the single injection method, non compartimental analysis. The CG shows, distribution volumen (V) 20.1+-0.6; serum T3 (sT3) 1.55 ng/ml+-0.03; plasma T3 T1/2 21.6+-0.6 and production rate (PR) 27.4? g/d+-1.2. The treated group (TG): V, 17.3+-0.6; sT3 1.48 ng/ml+-0.09; T1/2 17.6+-0.6 and PR 25.9? g/d+-1.4. The TG, after 6 months of ethiodol administration, showed a decrease of the distribution volume and a slight reduction in serum T3 values. As a consequence a significant diminution on the T3 extrathyroidal pool and an increase on the T3 plasma clearance (0.68 l/h+-0.01 in CG versus 0.73+-0.3 in TG) were observed. The production ratewas similar in both groups. These results indicate that the administration of ethiodol to children of a not severe endemic goiter area, produces moderate changes in the different parameters of T3 peripheral metabolism, which compensate each other and lead to similar final values on T3-PR, that were previously normal in these cases. This mechanism reflects the role of thyroid homeostasis in maintaining euthyroidism in these children of an endemic goiter area with decreased iodine supply. (Author)

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  14. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa, Luz; James Lee, Crainey; Anthony John, Shelley; Miguel, Rubio.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasi [...] te distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  15. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  16. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

  17. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  18. Study of the incidence and etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in an endemic goiter area after treatment with iodine enriched salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed in a severe endemic goiter area, Chengde district including 7 counties, after treatment with Iodine enriched salt, and Beijing city as a control area. From May 1985 to Sep. 1991, 26570 newborns in Beijing city and 16227 in Chengde were screened. The incidence of primary hypothyroidism in Beijing city was 1/8800 and that in Chengde 1/8100. Of all the 5 Ch detected, 3 from Beijing city and 2 from Chengde, were thyroid dysgenesis. Not a single case of endemic goiter cretinism (including both myxedematous and neurological cretinism) was found in our study. We conclude that Iodine deficiency is the only cause of endemic cretinism and this problem can be solved by Iodine enriched salt treatment

  19. Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoen­demic Communities

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    EC Uttah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assess­ing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nige­ria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder were taken from 1024 individu­als examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population. An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Win­dows package was used for entering and analysis of data.Results: Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females. The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip than females (14 mf/skin snip (p < 0.01. A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.90; p < 0.01, and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities.Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

  20. Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

  1. Pattern of cause-specific childhood mortality in a malaria endemic area of Burkina Faso

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    Kynast-Wolf Gisela

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable mortality data are a prerequisite for planning health interventions, yet such data are often not available in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Demographic surveillance systems (DSS implementing the verbal autopsy (VA method are the only possibility to observe cause-specific mortality of a population on a longitudinal basis in many countries. Methods This paper reports all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates in children under the age of five years from 1999 until 2003 in a malaria holoendemic area of north-western Burkina Faso. The DSS of the Nouna Health Research Centre, in which VA data were analysed, covers a rural population of about 30,000 (41 villages and an urban population of about 25,000 (Nouna town. Results A total of 1,544 deaths were analysed, 87 (6%, 225 (14%, 317 (21% and 915 (59% of which occurred in the periods Conclusion Malaria is the most important cause of death in this remote area of SSA, even considering the low specificity of malaria diagnosis in young children. Strengthening the existing malaria control tools is of prime importance to reduce the high childhood mortality in the endemic areas of SSA.

  2. Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City

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    Heni Prasetyowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

  3. Modelling canine leishmaniasis spread to non-endemic areas of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, L A; Costard, S; Zagmutt, F J

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of sandflies and increasing pet travel have raised concerns about canine leishmaniasis (CanL) spread to new areas of Europe. This study aimed to estimate the probability of CanL introduction and persistence following movements of infected dogs. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the probabilities of (1) CanL infection during travels or imports of infected dogs (P inf and P infCA, respectively), (2) CanL persistence in a dog network with sandflies after introduction of an infected dog (P per), and (3) persistence in a CanL-free region (P per region) for N dogs moving between endemic and free regions. Different mitigation measures (MMs) were assessed. P inf [7.8%, 95% predictive interval (PI) 2.6-16.4] and P per (72.0%, 95% PI 67.8-76.0) were reduced by use of repellent, vaccine, prophylactic medication, and insecticide, in decreasing order of effectiveness. Testing and exclusion of positive dogs was most effective in reducing P per region for a small N. The spread of CanL to CanL-free areas with sandflies is thus likely, but can be reduced by MMs. PMID:25345963

  4. Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Sandra Costa Drummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected for this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US, and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%, twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%, eight were in Group 3 (2.1%, and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%. A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p<0.01. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (platelet count <143,000/mm3, the sensitivity was greater than 92% in all groups, and the specificity varied from 44.4% to 75%. Conclusions We concluded that in endemic areas, thrombocytopenia demonstrates good sensitivity for detecting HSS and may be used as a screening tool to identify patients with HSS.

  5. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1?×?1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed. PMID:23942550

  6. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  7. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Stolk, Wilma A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  8. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotneva, Stanimira P; Coffeng, Luc E; Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G M; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V; de Vlas, Sake J; Stolk, Wilma A

    2015-09-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  9. Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area

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    Daniela Farias Laranjeira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21 or without (AP-, n = 36 Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52 or without (SP-, n = 25 parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%, whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%. The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%, IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%, IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%, and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%. CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L. infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs.

  10. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  11. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Jr, Alberto A.; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K. C.; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H.; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  12. Effect of Environmental Disturbance on the Population of Sandflies and Leishmania Transmission in an Endemic Area of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Nieves; Luzmary Oraá; Yorfer Rondón; Mireya Sánchez; Yetsenia Sánchez; Masyelly Rojas; Maritza Rondón; Maria Rujano; Nestor González; Dalmiro Cazorla

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of new wilderness areas with crops is increasing and traditional crop substitution has been modified by new more productive crops. The results show the anthropogenic disturbance effect on the sandflies population and Leishmania transmission in endemic areas of Venezuela. Three agroecosystems with variable degrees of ecological disturbance, forest (conserved), cacao (fragmented), and orangery (disturbed), were selected. Four methods to sandfly capture were used; the specimens ...

  13. Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

  14. Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Octavio E, Sousa; Franklyn, Samudio; Corina de, Juncá; José E, Calzada.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Mo [...] st of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6%) asymptomatic and 17 acute (65.4%) including 5 (19.2%) fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

  15. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  16. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  17. Epidemiology of theileriosis in calves in an endemic area of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, G; Lohding, A; Young, A S; Leitch, B L

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-one calves born into five Maasai zebu cattle herds over a period of 1 month in the Trans-Mara Division of Kenya, endemic for theileriosis, were recruited for an intensive study of theileriosis. No calves up to 6 months of age died but all developed Theileria infections as judged by slide examination and serology. Parasitosis by T. mutans schizonts in lymph node smears was usually higher than that of T. parva. The T. mutans schizonts usually occurred at an earlier age but persisted at a patent level for a shorter time than those of T. parva. Serological findings using the indirect fluorescent antibody test confirmed the parasitological findings. It was evident that colostral transfer of Theileria antibodies was frequent. Theileria piroplasm parasitaemia had developed in all calves by 111 days of age. The earlier parasitosis by T. mutans reflected the higher infection rates in Amblyomma spp. than in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The mean number of R. appendiculatus on the ears of calves during the observations was 9.1 adults and 1.5 nymphs. Clinical episodes of T. mutans and T. parva infection were associated with febrile responses, enlarged lymph nodes, anaemia and other symptoms and about 80% of calves had poor weight gains or weight losses during either clinical infection. It would appear that theileriosis is one of the most important factors in the stunting of calf development in the area. PMID:3085323

  18. Maintenance of Theileria parva parva infection in an endemic area of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A S; Leitch, B L; Newson, R M; Cunningham, M P

    1986-08-01

    The maintenance of Theileria parva parva infection in an endemic area of Kenya on the shore of Lake Victoria was studied in the field and laboratory. High prevalences of antibodies against T. parva and T. mutans and intra-erythrocytic piroplasms were detected in local zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. The mean infection rate of Theileria parasites in the tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, in field collections was 1.1%. Most of the infection was attributed to T. parva parva by application of field ticks to susceptible cattle. Five cattle, all about 1.5 years old, were purchased from local owners and transported to the laboratory. All five had oscillating antibody titres against T. parva and T. mutans and had patent theilerial infections during the subsequent 13 months. Uninfected R. appendiculatus nymphs were applied to cattle at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 13 months after transport to Muguga, and 18 out of 23 batches transmitted T. parva parva infection to cattle when 100 resultant R. appendiculatus adults were applied. Infection rates in the tick batches were usually low, with 1 salivary gland acinus infected/tick. Hence, a frequent carrier state of naturally infected cattle has been demonstrated for T. parva parva for the first time, and it is likely that this carrier state is of great importance in maintenance of T. parva parva infection in the field. PMID:3092172

  19. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 ?g/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  20. Biogeography of freshwater fishes from the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion: distribution, endemism, and area relationships

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila, Camelier; Angela M., Zanata.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ecorregião Mata Atlântica Nordeste (NMAF) inclui parte das drenagens costeiras do leste do Brasil, tem alto grau de endemismo de peixes e grande significado biogeográfico. Um levantamento taxonômico da ictiofauna de água doce de 25 drenagens da ecorregião NMAF e uma análise biogeográfica utilizand [...] o o método de Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismo (PAE) foram realizados. Um total de 192 espécies nativas foi listado. O método PAE foi aplicado a 24 bacias e 37 espécies, resultando em cinco diagramas de áreas igualmente parcimoniosos. O diagrama de consenso estrito indica a existência de dois grupos de bacias principais ao longo da ecorregião NMAF. Estes grupos foram denominados: Grupo Norte e Grupo Centro-Sul. O Grupo Centro-Sul apresenta uma politomia basal composta por dois grupos (Grupo Centro e Grupo Sul) mais a bacia do rio Itapemirim. O Grupo Norte é formado por oito drenagens entre o rio Sergipe e o rio Paraguaçu, o Grupo Centro por cinco drenagens entre o rio Cachoeira e o rio Jequitinhonha e o Grupo Sul por nove drenagens entre o rio Buranhém e rio Doce. Comentários sobre a distribuição das espécies e a fauna compartilhada com ecorregiões adjacentes são fornecidos. Apresentamos também uma comparação da hipótese de relação aqui obtida com filogenias publicadas para alguns táxons relevantes ao presente estudo. Abstract in english The Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion (NMAF) includes part of the eastern Brazilian coastal drainages, has high level of fish endemism and great biogeographic significance. A taxonomic inventory of freshwater fishes from 25 drainages of the NMAF ecoregion and a biogeographic analysis [...] using the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) method were carried out. A total of 192 native species was listed. The PAE method was applied to 24 basins and 37 species, resulting in five equally parsimonious area diagrams. The strict consensus diagram indicates the existence of two main groups of basins throughout the NMAF ecoregion. These groups were denominated: North Group and Central-South Group. The Central-South Group shows a basal polytomy composed by two Groups (Central Group and South Group) plus the rio Itapemirim basin. The North Group is composed by eight drainages from the rio Sergipe to the rio Paraguaçu, the Central Group by five drainages from the rio Cachoeira to the rio Jequitinhonha, and the South Group by nine drainages from the rio Buranhém to the rio Doce. Comments about the species distribution and the fish fauna shared with adjacent ecoregions are provided. We also present a comparison of the hypothesis of river relationships proposed herein with published phylogenetic hypotheses that include taxa relevant to this study.

  1. Oncocercose entre os índios Yanomámi / Onchocerciasis among Yanomámi Indians

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário A. P., Moraes.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os dados até agora obtidos sobre o foco brasileiro de oncocercose. Esse foco, localizado no extremo norte do país, envolve principalmente indígenas do grupo Yanomámi, antigos habitantes do local. Em algumas aldeias, a infecção é encontrada em cerca de 80% dos adultos. Aspectos interess [...] antes, como a origem do foco, as características da doença nos indígenas e os principais vetores de Onchocerca volvulus, são abordados. Por fim, é feita uma análise a respeito do comportamento da endemia e da possível disseminação da doença para outras regiões do Brasil - em áreas de garimpo. Sugerem-se medidas de controle, entre elas o uso de larvicidas, método que poderia ser adotado em lugares restritos - com população já estabilizada -, dentro da zona onde mais forte é a prevalência. Abstract in english The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that ha [...] s lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of environmental Legionella pneumophila isolates from an endemic area (Alcoy, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Olmos, María Piedad; Camaró, María Luisa; Adrián, Francisco; Calafat, Juan Miguel; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Environmental surveillance of Legionella pneumophila is a key component of the control measures established in urban settlements to ensure water safety and quality, with the aim of minimizing and limiting opportunistic infections in humans. In this work, we present results on the detection and genetic characterization of these bacteria in the outbreak-recurrent region of Alcoy (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) using water and biofilm samples. We were particularly interested in studying the presence and distribution of L. pneumophila in the absence of outbreak or sporadic cases of legionellosis and in comparing the efficacy of culturing from water samples with a biofilm-based detection procedure using molecular amplification. To this end, water samples were taken from 120 sites distributed all around the city and its surroundings, as well as 60 biofilm swabs from half of the sampling sites. L. pneumophila could be isolated from water in just 4 of the locations. Touchdown PCR was applied to DNA extracted from water and also biofilm swabs, as a rapid method for both routine and outbreak investigations. L. pneumophila was detected by this method in 14 of the sites in which both water and biofilms were taken, although 13 of them tested positive using only the biofilm samples. These results show a ten-fold increase in the success rate of Legionella detection over water samples. The application of this method to study the presence of L. pneumophila in the water-supply system and risk facilities of Alcoy revealed different strains distributed in different areas of the city. Sequence Type ST578, endemic in the area and responsible for most clinical cases, was detected in one of the sampling sites. The number of positive samples correlated with water temperature but not with chlorine levels. The direct analysis of biofilm swabs improves the detection rate and genetic characterization of L. pneumophila and can complement analyses based on bacterial culture. PMID:25511251

  3. Tuberculous anal fistulas - prevalence and clinical features in an endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Douglas, Stupart; Paul, Goldberg; Anthony, Levy; Dhiren, Govender.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in anal fistulas at a referral hospital in Cape Town, and to document the clinical features and course of patients with tuberculous anal fistulas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of all patien [...] ts who underwent surgery for anal fistulas at the Colorectal Surgery Unit at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, from 2004 to 2006. Tissue was submitted for histopathological examination, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and TB culture. The patients with proven TB were followed up until January 2008. RESULTS: During the 3-year study period, 117 operations were performed on 96 patients. TB was diagnosed in 7 of the 96 patients (7.3%). In 5 of these 7 cases, the diagnosis of TB could be proven on histological examination and ZN staining, while in 2 cases the diagnosis could only be made on TB culture. None of the 7 patients had systemic features suggestive of TB, and only 1 had evidence of TB on a chest radiograph. Five patients were HIV-negative, and 2 declined testing. After a median follow-up of 2 years, 5 of 7 patients had evidence of recurrent or persistent fistulas, despite having completed 6 months of TB treatment. CONCLUSION: At a referral hospital in an endemic area, TB was present in 7.3% of anal fistulas. Histopathological examination including ZN staining was inadequate to make the diagnosis in a third of these patients. Tissue from anal fistulas should therefore routinely be sent for TB culture as well as histopathological examination and ZN staining in areas where TB is prevalent.

  4. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  5. Association between Dioxin and Diabetes Mellitus in an Endemic Area of Exposure in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Jung-Wei; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Wu, Jin-Shang; Lee, Ching-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dioxin has been recognized as an environmental endocrine disruptor, but epidemiology studies of its effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) found inconsistent results, especially in men. Therefore, we conducted a study in Taiwan to evaluate the association between exposure to dioxin and DM. We recruited participants in an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. Using 20 and 64?pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid as the cut-offs, we categorized participants into 3 groups according to the level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the serum. We defined DM as a fasting plasma glucose level more than 126?mg/dl or an existing diagnosis. Of the 2898 participants, 425 patients of DM were identified, and we observed positive associations between dioxin and DM. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), we found that a high serum dioxin level was an independent risk factor for DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] associated with 20–63?pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid?=?2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.5–2.9; AOR for ?64?pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid?=?3.2, 95% CI 2.1–4.8). The findings are compatible with those in previous studies of PCDD/Fs. When we stratified the participants by sex, the serum dioxin level remained an independent risk factor for DM in both men and women. Exposure to dioxin is a risk factor for DM, independent of age and BMI in both men and women. Therefore, screening and intervention programs should be considered in endemic areas of exposure to dioxin. PMID:26496286

  6. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.A, Otubanjo; G.O, Adeoye; C.A, Ibidapo; B, Akinsanya; P, Okeke; T, Atalabi; E.T, Adejai; E, Braide.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con [...] reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC). Abstract in english Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa [...] loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

  7. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A Otubanjo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%, edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%, erupciones cutáneas (3% y debilidad (2%; dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC.

  8. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hossein, Nahrevanian; Jafar, Gholizadeh; Mahin, Farahmand; Mehdi, Assmar.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria g [...] roups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

  9. Changing Pattern of Hepatitis A Virus Epidemiology in an Area of High Endemicity

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    Marcello Campagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous assessment of hepatitis A virus (HAV seroepidemiology is a useful tool to control the risk of infection.Objectives:This study aimed to evaluate the changing patterns of anti-HAV seroprevalence in a population,which isgenerally considered to be anarea ofhigh endemicity.Patients and Methods: Overall, the results of 3349 sera collected during the period 2005-2008 from patients attending the University Hospital of Cagliari, Italy were studied; their mean age was 52.7 years, (s + 16.22. Patients with liver disease were excluded from the study. Age specific seroprevalence results were compared with those observed in similar previous studies carried out in the same area.Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HAV was 74.6% with consistently lower values in subjects younger than 40 years (17.5%; P < 0.0001 particularly in those under 30 years of age (8.9%, CI 5.8-11.9. A significant declining trend in age specific seroprevalence has been foundin people under 30 years;61% in 1988, 33% in 1995 and 8.9% in 2005-2008.Conclusions: Our findings show that a significant decline inherd immunity has occurred in the last 20 years as a consequence of lower HAV circulation due to improvementsin socio-economical and hygienic conditions. Adolescents and young adults are becoming increasingly susceptible to HAV infections, as recent outbreaks of acute HAV hepatitis have occurred. Persistent environmental monitoring and the implementation of prevention measures must be considered in order to contain the risk related to this epidemiological shift..

  10. Isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from armadillos (Dasypus noveminctus) captured in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagagli, E; Sano, A; Coelho, K I; Alquati, S; Miyaji, M; de Camargo, Z P; Gomes, G M; Franco, M; Montenegro, M R

    1998-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), was first isolated from armadillos from the Amazonian region where the mycosis is uncommon. In the present study, we report on the high incidence of PCM infection in armadillos from a hyperendemic region of the disease. Four nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were captured in the endemic area of Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, killed by manual cervical dislocation and autopsied under sterile conditions. Fragments of lung, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes were processed for histology, cultured on Mycosel agar at 37 degrees C, and homogenized for inoculation into the testis and peritoneum of hamsters. The animals were killed from week 6 to week 20 postinoculation and fragments of liver, lung, spleen, testis, and lymph nodes were cultured on brain heart infusion agar at 37 degrees C. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was isolated from three armadillos both by direct organ culture and from the liver, spleen, lung, and mesenteric lymph nodes of hamsters. In addition, one positive armadillo presented histologically proven PCM disease in a mesenteric lymph node. The three armadillos isolates (Pb-A1, Pb-A2, and Pb-A4) presented thermodependent dimorphism, urease activity, and casein assimilation, showed amplification of the gp43 gene, and were highly virulent in intratesticularly inoculated hamsters. The isolates expressed the gp43 glycoprotein, the immunodominant antigen of the fungus, and reacted with a pool of sera from PCM patients. Taken together, the present data confirm that armadillos are a natural reservoir of P. brasiliensis and demonstrate that the animal is a sylvan host to the fungus. PMID:9574800

  11. Imported malaria in the UK: advice given by general practitioners to British residents travelling to malaria endemic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Harry

    1987-01-01

    General practitioners are in a key position to provide advice to those travelling to malaria endemic areas. A study of at-risk travellers revealed that 54% visited their general practitioner before their intended trip overseas and of these 79% were given advice about antimalarial precautions. Of those advised 98% carried antimalarial tablets with them on their trip but only 46% had any knowledge of other methods of personal protection against malaria. Fewer non-white than white British reside...

  12. Accumulation of iodine-123 in thyroid and urinary excretion of iodine in an area of endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid radioiodine uptakes decreased from 52.4% (1982, 24-hours, 131J) to 30.5% (1981, 123J). The severity of scintigraphic findings decreased as well, although the incidence of nodules remains definitely high. The excretion of iodine was found to be 53.28 ?g/g creatine and is low compared with the present uptakes. It characterizes an area of endemic goitre degree I, borderline to degree II. (orig.)

  13. Phylogeography of var gene repertoires reveals fine-scale geospatial clustering of Plasmodium falciparum populations in a highly endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Sofonias K; Monk, Stephanie L; Schultz, Mark B; Tavul, Livingstone; Reeder, John C; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major global health problem that is being targeted for progressive elimination. Knowledge of local disease transmission patterns in endemic countries is critical to these elimination efforts. To investigate fine-scale patterns of malaria transmission, we have compared repertoires of rapidly evolving var genes in a highly endemic area. A total of 3680 high-quality DBL?-sequences were obtained from 68 P. falciparum isolates from ten villages spread over two distinct catchment areas on the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Modelling of the extent of var gene diversity in the two parasite populations predicts more than twice as many var gene alleles circulating within each catchment (Mugil = 906; Wosera = 1094) than previously recognized in PNG (Amele = 369). In addition, there were limited levels of var gene sharing between populations, consistent with local parasite population structure. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrate that while neutrally evolving microsatellite markers identified population structure only at the catchment level, var gene repertoires reveal further fine-scale geospatial clustering of parasite isolates. The clustering of parasite isolates by village in Mugil, but not in Wosera was consistent with the physical and cultural isolation of the human populations in the two catchments. The study highlights the microheterogeneity of P. falciparum transmission in highly endemic areas and demonstrates the potential of var genes as markers of local patterns of parasite population structure. PMID:25482097

  14. Reduction of spleen size in a child with Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS treated outside the Brazilian endemic area of malaria with only one course of quinine

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    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical picture, treatment and evolution of a child with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly treated outside the endemic area of malaria. The patient presented gross splenomegaly, proceeded from an area where malaria is endemic, showed increased immunoglobulins levels, high antimalarial antibody titres and hepatic sinusoidal lymphocytosis. The child did not return to an area where malaria is endemic and showed a favorable response to only one course of quinine. The response of this patient to limited antimalarial therapy suggests the importance of reinfection with malaria in the development and maintenance of this syndrome.

  15. Changes in thyroid function following iodine-containing contrast administration in patients in an endemic goitre area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study of thyroid function after the administration of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media was carried out on 119 patients from an area where goitres are endemic. Eighteen patients had a negative TRH test after 28 days. 27.9% of patients after oral cholecystography, 15.1% of patients after intravenous cholangiography and 5.3% of patients after infusion urography, showed hyperthyroid function. In these patients, thyroxin and triiodothyronin levels were higher than in euthyroid patients. Thyroid stimulating antibodies could not be demonstrated. Induction of hyperthyroidism by iodine is considered to be due to autonomy of the thyroid gland parenchyma. For this reason the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is greater in patients from a goitre endemic region (by a factor of 1.3 to 17.1). (orig.)

  16. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID:25996946

  17. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  18. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID:25996946

  19. Kashin-Beck Disease: evaluation of mineral intake in young Tibetan children from endemic areas

    OpenAIRE

    DERMIENCE, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Kashin-Beck disease is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy. This disease principally occurs in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. Although many studies have already been conducted and many others are still underway, its ethiology remains unknown. A multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed: selenium deficiency, high concentration of organic matters in drinking water (fulvic acids) and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals. T...

  20. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana Mirian Almeida Felipe; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de Aquino; Oliver Kuppinger; Max Diego Cruz Santos; Maurício Eduardo Salgado Rangel; David Soeiro Barbosa; Aldina Barral; Guilherme Loureiro Werneck; Arlene de Jesus Mendes Caldas

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmani...

  1. The vector control operations in the onchocerciasis control programme in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchocerciasis is a dermal filariasis transmitted to man by a blood sucking blackfly belonging to the Simulium genus. The most serious manifestations of the disease are blindness and debilitating skin lesions. Africa is by far the most affected continent both in terms of distribution and severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. That is the reason why an ambitious regional onchocerciasis control project, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), was launched in 1974 (Molyneux 1995). The objective is to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem and as an obstacle to socio-economic development and to ensure that the countries are in a position to maintain these achievements. Seven countries were concerned at the beginning of the programme), delimiting the 'initial area' (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo). In 1988, the OCP began operations in the 'western extension', an additional four countries in the West (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone) and extended operations into the 'southeastern extension' (south Benin, Ghana and Togo). The rationale for these extensions related to findings that the vectors were able to migrate and hence re-invade controlled areas over several hundred kilometres (Garms et al. 1979). Until 1989, in the absence of a non-toxic drug which could be used on a wide scale to kill the adult worm, the vector control strategy was the only method to interrupt the transmission of the blinding form of the parasite until the adult worm in the human body was eliminated (the maximum duration of the adult worm is estimated to be about fourteen years). In the late 1980s, ivermectin, a microfilaricide which is the only drug available to date, became an integral part of the OCP control strategy (Webbe 1992). In the extension areas, larviciding is still going on with satisfaction, combined with the distribution of ivermectin. In pursuing this combined therapeutic and vector control strategy, the whole of the basins treated should be freed from blinding onchocerciasis by the year 2002 at the latest, which is the end point of the programme activities

  2. Final report of the Conference on the eradicability of Onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dadzie, Yankum; Neira, Maria; Hopkins, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-four experts from a variety of disciplines attended a Conference on the Eradicability of Onchocerciasis at The Carter Center, in Atlanta GA, held January 22-24, 2002. The Conference, which was organized by The Carter Center and the World Health Organization, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, addressed the question: "Is onchocerciasis (River Blindness) eradicable with current knowledge and tools?" Former US President Jimmy Carter attended part of the final plenary pr...

  3. Canine Leishmaniasis in Brazil: Serological Follow-Up of a Dog Population in an Endemic Area of American Visceral Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Araujo Carreira; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Daniela de Pita Pereira; Adelzon Assis de Paula; Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2009-01-01

    We performed a serological, clinical, and parasitological follow-up of a dog population in an endemic area of American Visceral Leishmaniasis estimated by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and western blot (WB). After twelve months, the results obtained from IFA demonstrated that 50% were seropositive and two serological profiles were observed: the first one ranging from 1/40 to 1/80 and the second ?1/160. By WB, it was observed that the same percentage and sera from positive dogs presen...

  4. Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals? 1.5 m height and ? 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of the studied population preferred fruit trees while 5% wereinterested in some medicinal plants. Preference of this nature indicates that in the future, the plantdiversity in these home gardens is likely to decline considerably. This might even lead to theextinction of rare, endemic plant species. Therefore, people in northern flank encouraged toincorporate multipurpose endemic plants and plants with less IVI values in their home gardens inorder to maintain high diversity and to conserve endemic and relatively rare plants while gainingsubstantial income through their home gardens.Keywords: Northern Flank, Home gardens, Conservation, Woody-perennials, Endemic species

  5. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danillo de Souza, Pimentel; Rafael Antonio Nascimento, Ramos; Marília de Andrade, Santana; Carina Scanoni, Maia; Gílcia Aparecida de, Carvalho; Hernande Pereira da, Silva; Leucio Câmara, Alves.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600), and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with [...] positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (S7(r)Biogene). RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600) presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  6. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo de Souza Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600, and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (S7(rBiogene. RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600 presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Costa de, Carvalho; Letícia Helena dos Santos, Marques; Luciana Inácia, Gomes; Ana, Rabello; Luiz Cláudio, Ribeiro; Kezia Katiane Gorza, Scopel; Sandra Helena Cerrato, Tibiriçá; Elaine Soares, Coimbra; Clarice, Abramo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample [...] from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

  9. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa? / Le traitement de masse par l'ivermectine peut-il éliminer l'onchocercose en Afrique ? / ¿Es posible eliminar la oncocercosis en África mediante la administración masiva de ivermectina?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Winnen; A.P., Plaisier; E.S., Alley; N.J.D., Nagelkerke; G., van Oortmarssen; B.A., Boatin; J.D.F., Habbema.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar las condiciones en que el tratamiento masivo con ivermectina reduciría la transmisión de Onchocerca volvulus en la medida suficiente para poder eliminar la infección en una comunidad de África. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un modelo de microsimulación de la transmisión de la oncocercosis [...] (ONCHOSIM) para analizar el efecto de diferentes intervalos de tratamiento, niveles de cobertura y niveles de endemicidad preintervención en la probabilidad de eliminación. RESULTADOS: Las simulaciones indican que las estrategias basadas exclusivamente en la administración masiva de ivermectina permitirían eliminar la oncocercosis. La duración del tratamiento requerido para eliminar la infección depende en gran medida del programa de tratamiento y de la endemicidad preintervención. En las zonas con niveles medios/altos de infección se necesitarían al menos 25 años de tratamiento anual masivo con una cobertura del 65%. Las predicciones del modelo muestran asimismo que en una situación de gran heterogeneidad en la exposición a las picaduras del vector, y grandes diferencias individuales por tanto en lo concerniente al recuento de microfilarias, el tratamiento debería prolongarse más de 35 años. Si el intervalo de tratamiento se redujera de 12 a 6 meses, la duración del programa podría reducirse a menos de la mitad y se podría lograr la eliminación en zonas de hiperendemicidad, siempre que cada tratamiento tuviera el mismo efecto que el tratamiento anual. Sin embargo, es dudoso que puedan mantenerse niveles altos de cobertura durante el tiempo suficiente para erradicar la enfermedad a escala mundial. CONCLUSIÓN: La eliminación de la oncocercosis de los focos más endémicos de África parece un objetivo alcanzable. Ahora bien, las condiciones para ello en lo tocante a la duración, cobertura y frecuencia del tratamiento pueden ser prohibitivas en las zonas de alta endemicidad. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implicatio [...] ns of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

  10. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species. PMID:26115482

  11. Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela / Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexis, Fernández; Jaime, Ramírez-Pérez; Harland, Shuler; Noris, Rodríguez.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las már [...] genes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the [...] proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. and the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

  12. Comparison of mineral intake between children from endemic and non-endemic areas for Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet Autonomous Region: Pilote study

    OpenAIRE

    DERMIENCE, Michael; Maesen, Philippe; Mathieu, Françoise; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Lognay, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. The etiology remains unclear, although a multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed (selenium/iodine deficiency; high concentration of organic matters in drinking water; and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals). The rural population is almost exclusive...

  13. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection. It has been a major public health problem in India. The Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis was launched by the WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating Lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by the year 2020. For the effective control of filariasis >65% population of endemic areas should be covered by single dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6mg/kg (DEC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration in the selected District and to make independent assessment with respect to process and out - come indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A community based cross sectional study through house to house survey method in selected clusters was adopted. An independent evaluation was done and the outcome was assessed as the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration. RESULTS: In both Damoh and Sagar Districts of Madhya Pradesh, the coverage level for DEC was > 80% in all the Blocks. CONCL USION: The mass drug administration was aimed only to distribute the drug and the issues related to compliance, proper health education and side effects management were not given enough attention. These issues are important to make programme effective.

  14. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  15. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jyotsna; Mark, Olivia; Weltman, Helena; Barcelo, Nicolas; Lo, Wai; Wronska, Danuta; Kakkilaya, Srinivas; Rao, Aravinda; Bhat, Shalia T.; Sinha, Ruchi; Omar, Sabah; Moro, Manuel; Gilman, Robert H.; Harris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3% and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively. PMID:26333092

  16. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  17. Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aparecida Maria, Fontes; Simone, Kashima; Ricardo, Bonfim-Silva; Rochele, Azevedo; Kuruvilla Joseph, Abraham; Sérgio Roberto Lopes, Albuquerque; José Orlando, Bordin; Dante Mário, Langhi Júnior; Dimas Tadeu, Covas.

    Full Text Available Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies o [...] f single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn b allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn b and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

  18. Human ocular infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an area endemic for canine dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-06-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilariasis is endemic. The nematode was morphologically and molecularly identified and surgical removal of the parasite was documented. The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. PMID:21633041

  19. Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4% showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40% serum and 5 (4.4% fluid samples. All five fluid antigen positive cases were positive for antibodies and showed microfilaria in blood. These findings emphasize the use of circulating filarial antigen detection and alternative usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filariasis.

  20. Changes of thyroid hormones, thyrotropin, and prolactin after application of iodinated radiographic media in patients of an endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the frequencies of iodine aggravated or induced hyperthyrodism in a susceptible population, patients of an endemic goiter area near Stuttgart in Southern Germany were studied prospectively before and after the application of iodinated radiographic media. The examinations with the radiographic media were carried out because of suggested diseases of the gall bladder, bile ducts, kidney and urinary tract. Patients with clinical signs of hyperthyroidism or Graves-Basedow disease and pituitary diseases were excluded from the study. 7 and 28 day blood samples for hormone measurements were obtained for 114 patients. 15 patients were found to have developed hormonal hyperthyroidism and a higher risk of hyperthyroidism is suggested after ingestion of iopodate. The data obtained is reported and discussed

  1. The Right Tool for the Job: Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Areas Co-endemic for Other Helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, Maria V.; Diniz, Renata C.; Pinto, Simone A.; Yakovleva, Anna; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Diemert, David J.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the recent increased use of the McMaster (MM) fecal egg counting method for assessing benzimidazole drug efficacy for treating soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, the aim of the current study was to determine the operational value of including the MM method alongside the Kato-Katz (KK) fecal thick smear to increase the diagnostic sensitivity when STHs are co-endemic with trematode helminths (e.g., Schistosoma mansoni). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-aged children aged 4-18 years in the northeastern region of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil), where Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni are co-endemic. One fecal sample from each participant was collected and transported to the field laboratory for analysis. Coprological diagnosis was performed on each fecal sample by three different methods: Formalin-Ether Sedimentation (FES), KK and the MM technique. The diagnostic sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of each technique was calculated using the combination of all three techniques as the composite standard. In order to determine the agreement between the three techniques Fleiss´ kappa was used. Both the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) were calculated using the two quantification techniques (i.e., the MM and KK). Results Fecal samples from 1260 children were analyzed. The KK had higher diagnostic sensitivity than the MM for the detection of both A. lumbricoides (KK 97.3%, MM 69.5%) and hookworm (KK 95.1%, MM 80.8%). The CR of a single dose of mebendazole varied significantly between the KK and MM for both A. lumbricoides (p = 0.016) and hookworm (p = 0.000), with lower rates obtained with the KK. On the other hand, the FECR was very similar between both techniques for both A. lumbricoides and hookworm. Conclusion The MM did not add any diagnostic value over the KK in areas where both STHs and trematodes were co-endemic. The lower sensitivity of the MM would have an important impact on the administration of selective school-based treatment in this area since if only the MM were used, 36 (13.9%) children diagnosed with A. lumbricoides would have gone untreated. PMID:26241329

  2. Frequency of Infection of Lutzomyia Phlebotomines with Leishmania braziliensis in a Brazilian Endemic Area as Assessed by Pinpoint Capture and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Miranda; Eliana Reis; Albert Schriefer; Marilda Gonçalves; Mitermayer Galvão Reis; Lucas Carvalho; Octavio Fernandes; Manoel Barral-Netto; Aldina Barral

    2002-01-01

    Leishmania infected of Lutzomyia spp. are rare in endemic areas. We tested the hypothesis that there is clustering of infected vectors by combining pinpoint capture with sensitive L. braziliensis kDNA minicircle specific PCR/dot blot in an endemic area in the State of Bahia. Thirty out of 335 samples (10 to 20 sand flies/sample; total of 4,027 female sand flies) were positive by PCR analysis and dot blot leading to a underestimated overall rate of 0.4% positive phlebotomines. However, 83.3% o...

  3. Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carabin Hélène

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae, and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86% villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.

  4. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  5. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  6. RANTES in onchocerciasis: changes with ivermectin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P J; Guderian, R H; Prakash, D; Remick, D G; Espinel, I; Nutman, T B; Taylor, D W; Griffin, G E

    1996-12-01

    Adverse reactions are seen relatively frequently after treatment of onchocerciasis patients with ivermectin. The chemokines RANTES and IL-8, which have both chemotactic and activation properties for eosinophils and neutrophils, respectively, may have a role in the pathogenesis of post-treatment reactions. Circulating levels of the chemokines and the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 were measured in the plasma of 22 Onchocerca volvulus-infected subjects. Peaks of mean circulating levels of RANTES and TNF-alpha were seen at 6 h after ivermectin administration. Peripheral eosinophil counts declined at 36 h post-treatment and an early peak in RANTES levels was associated with a delay in peripheral eosinopenia. RANTES levels were negatively correlated with severity of rash (P < 0.001) and lymphoedema (P < 0.05), suggesting that high circulating levels of RANTES may inhibit eosinophil sequestration. No changes in circulating levels of IL-8 were seen. These findings suggest a possible role of circulating RANTES in modulating eosinophil sequestration in vivo. PMID:8973613

  7. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq M Zahirul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in particular the range of spatial autocorrelation, reflect differences in the mode of transmission of cholera and dysentery. Our risk maps for cholera and dysentery incidences should help identifying putative factors of increased disease incidence, leading to more effective prevention and remedial actions in endemic areas.

  8. Serology of typhoid fever in an area of endemicity and its relevance to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, D; Wain, J; Ho, V A; Diep, T S; Chinh, N T; Bay, P V; Vinh, H; Duc, M; Parry, C M; Dougan, G; White, N J; Hien, T T; Farrar, J J

    2001-03-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of > or =0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P < or = 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available. PMID:11230418

  9. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Cakabay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years, primary school period (7-12 years and secondary school period (13-14 years. Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14. The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5 but differed by gender (P < 0.001. The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1 The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2 HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3 Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4 We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

  10. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

  11. Epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica em área de baixa endemicidade / Epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Candido de S., Dias; Carmem M., Glasser; Oswaldo, Marçal Jr.; Patrícia Ivana P., Bonesso.

    1994-07-26

    Full Text Available Discutem se padrões epidemiológicos da esquistossomos mansônica em áreas brasileiras de baixa endemicidade que possuem prevalência inferior a 10%, menos de 96 ovos por grama de fezes (epg) e onde os infectados são assintomáticos. Apresentam-se dados do município de Pedro de Toledo (Vale do Ribeira, [...] SP) área de baixa endemicidade cujos resultados foram obtidos de amostragem aleatória devida à agregação de Schistosoma mansoni. Sugere-se substituição de métodos parasitológicos por técnicas sorológicas com maiores sensibilidade e especificidade. O principal fator de risco é o lazer. A infecção predomina nos grupos etários de 10-14, 15-19 e 20-24. A intensidade de infecção foi baixa, com 58,5 epg (média geométrica). Há boa correlação (rs = 0,745) entre intensidade de infecção e prevalência. Os mais altos índices de potencial de contaminação ocorreram nas idades de 5 a 20 anos (57,6%). Os casos autóctones mantêm íntimo contato com Biomphalaria tenagophila, com infecção inferior a 2%. Os padrões de prevalência, de incidência e de intensidade de infecção são semelhantes aos de áreas de moderada e alta endemicidade. Questões sócio-culturais merecem estudo para visão global da epidemiologia. Abstract in english We discuss the epidemiological patterns of schistosomiasis mansoni in areas with low transmission in Brazil. We define as areas of low endemicity those where the prevalence is less than 10%, the number Schistosoma mansoni eggs per gram of feces (epg) is less than 96, and carriers are asymptomatic. D [...] ata are from the county of Pedro de Toledo in the Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State) and were collected randomly according to the aggregate pattern of S. mansoni within the hosts. We suggest the replacement of parasitological methods by more sensitive and specific serological techniques. The main risk factor for infection is type of leisure activity. Infection is more frequent in the 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24-year age brackets. Geometric mean epg is 58.5. Intensity of infections correlates well (rs = 0.745) with prevalence. The highest index of potential contamination is in the 5-20-year age bracket (57.6%). Autochthonous cases show close association with Biomphalaria tenagophila, which has a low infection rate (2%). Prevalence, incidence, and intensity of infection patterns are similar to those of moderate and high endemic areas. Social and cultural aspects must be studied in order to obtain a global epidemiological view of schistosomiasis.

  12. Usefulness of serology for the evaluation of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in endemic areas of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chuit

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen communities from 7 Argentinian provinces were selected for the evaluation of serology as an indicator of transmission of Chagas disease. Of the communities appraised, 6 did not have a history of previous treatment with insecticides and 7 had received sporadic or continuous insecticide treatment. The inhabitants of 20% of the houses of each locality were studied by serology. The samples were obtained byfinger pricking and 50 fil of blood were mixed with 150?l of 50% glycerine solution in tissue culture media to be assayed by Indirect Hemagglutination and Indirect Immunofluorescence tests. In untreated areas, the prevalence of infection in infants 0-4 years old was 17.5%, reaching to over 22% for the 5-9 year old group, and to 33.3% in 10-14 year old individuals. The prevalence in treated and surveyed areas was 2.6% in 0-4 year old children, 5.4% in 5-9 year old and 6,2% in 10-14 year old youngsters. The differences between both areas were statistically significant (p < 0.005. This study favors serology as a valid indicator for the evaluation of transmission of Chagas disease in rural areas.

  13. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, visceral leishmaniasis, a major public health problem, has been spreading from the rural to urban areas in many areas of Brazil, including Aracaju, the capital of the State of Sergipe. However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year. METHODS: Phlebotomine sandflies were collected from a rural area of Aracaju from September 2007 to July 2009. Modified CDC ultra-violet (UV light traps were used to evaluate sandfly monthly distribution and their presence in the domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4% followed by Evandromyia lenti (9.6%. A chicken shed trap site had the highest proportion of L. longipalpis (51.1% and large numbers of L. longipalpis were also collected in the houses closest to the chicken shed. There was a positive correlation between monthly rainfall and L. longipalpis abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant species and is probably the main vector of the visceral leishmaniasis agent in the rural area of Aracaju. An increase in L. longipalpis frequency was observed during the rainy season. The peridomicile-intradomicile observations corroborate the importance of chicken sheds for the presence of L. longipalpis in the peridomestic environment. The great numbers of L. longipalpis inside the houses confirm the endophilic behaviour of this species and the possibility of visceral transmission in the intradomicile.

  14. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Wolff, Machado; Pedro Fernando da Costa, Vasconcelos; Eliana Vieira Pinto, Silva; João Barberino, Santos.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases we [...] re present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  15. Determination of chemical forms of arsenic in environmental water for endemic arsenism disease area of Azuoqi by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The areas of endemic arsenic disease in the Azuoqi belong to the drinking water type arsenism disease area. A simple and sensitive method to identify the chemical forms of As was presented. In-organic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were separated by the use of coprecipitation and cation exchange chromatography combined with neutron activation analysis. Separation of inorganic and organic arsenic (MMA and DMA) was based on coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3, inorganic arsenic was coprecipitated quantitatively, but MMA and DMA was not coprecipitated at all. Experiments showed that MMA and DMA in solution were adsorbed on cation exchange resin in pH 2. MMA was eluted by 60 mL of 0.5 mol/L acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7) and then 60 mL of 3 mol/L NH3·H2O was used to strip the DMA. The recovery of MMA and DMA was 96% and 103%, respectively

  16. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everton Falcão de, Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e, Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Antonio Conceição, Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo, Gamarra; Alisson André, Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distributio [...] n of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

  17. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies. PMID:22510836

  18. Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas / Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia Martins, Azeredo; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Maria Cristina Carvalho do, Espírito Santo; Maria Cristina, Chammas; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Aluizio, Prata; Carlos Mauricio Figueiredo, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci; Giovanni Guido, Cerri.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com nívei [...] s distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109); média endemicidade (n = 255) e alta endemicidade (n = 190). Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000). Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência) mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endem [...] icity levels: low (n = 109), medium (n = 255) and high endemicity (n = 190). The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000) protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index), most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

  19. Vegetation of the Sileza Nature Reserve and neighbouring areas, South Africa, and its importance in conserving the woody grasslands of the Maputaland Centre of Endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Matthews

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the plant communities of the Sileza Nature Reserve and surrounding areas (± 4 124 ha is presented. The study area falls within the Maputaland Centre o f Endemism, which is part ot the Maputaland-Pondoland Region, a centre of plant diversity rich in endemic plants and animals. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 12 distinct, mainly grassland plant communities. A hierarchical classification, description and ecological interpretation ot these communities are presented. The level o f the water table, either directly, or indirectly through its role in soil formation, is the deciding factor in defining plant communities on the geologically young sandy substrate. Fire is an essential factor, particularly in maintaining the woody grasslands, a rare vegetation type rich in geoxylic suffrutices. and unique to the Maputaland Centre. A comparison between the endemic complement in the subtropical coastal grasslands of Maputaland and the high-altitude Afromontane grasslands of the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism shows marked differences in grow th form and vegetation type partitioning between the two centres. This can probably be ascribed to the relative youth (Quaternary of the Maputaland coastal plain and its associated plant communities. Notable for their richness in Maputaland Centre endemic/near-endemic taxa. the conservation of sand forest and woody grasslands should receive high priority. Afforestation with alien trees is the most serious threat to the biodiversity of the Maputaland coastal grasslands, not only because of habitat destruction, but also through its expected negative effect on the hydrology of the region

  20. Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderson B, Leite; Ana RV de, Lima; Renata B, Leite; Rafael V, Santos; Johnathan EL, Gonçalves; Eliana MM, Rocha; Gilberto, Fontes.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; howeve [...] r, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

  1. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rohani; Ali Wan NWM; Nor Zurainee M; Ismail Zamree; Hadi Azahari A; Ibrahim Mohd N; Lim Lee H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite im...

  2. Knowledge of Malaria and Implications for Control in an Endemic Urban Area of North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    V.I. Chukwuemeka; I.M. Bello; Mohammed, A. Z.; V.A. Ayanwale; O.M. Mustapha; S.O. Abolarinwa; Omalu, I.C.J.; I.K. Olayemi

    2012-01-01

    In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the peoples knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the peoples knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, ...

  3. [Reliability of clinical studies in the diagnosis of malaria fever in West African endemic areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, D; Gazin, P; Galaup, B; Pellotier-Guinart, E; Picq, J J

    1988-01-01

    We have studied 930 febrile cases in a savanna area of Burkina Faso. We have diagnosed malarial fevers according to the only clinical data in 333 cases and it was confirmed in 154 cases by parasitological study; for 597 cases a non malaria reason was given according to the only clinical data and it was confirmed in 507 cases by biological studies. On the whole the error rate was of 28% on the clinical examination alone and this proportion was equal or superior whatever the parasitological threshold was. The clinical examination is not allow by it self to diagnose a malaria fever case. PMID:3043136

  4. Cystic echinococcosis in Spain: current situation and relevance for other endemic areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco A; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Francos-Von Hunefeld, Marcelo; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Alamo-Sanz, Rufino; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Brunetti, Enrico; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians. PMID:21283615

  5. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    B.O. Rikhotso; Stoltsz, W. H.; J. E. M. Sommerville; Bryson, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis) and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale) in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were ...

  6. Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

  7. Usefulness of serology for the evaluation of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in endemic areas of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chuit

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen communities from 7 Argentinian provinces were selected for the evaluation of serology as an indicator of transmission of Chagas disease. Of the communities appraised, 6 did not have a history of previous treatment with insecticides and 7 had received sporadic or continuous insecticide treatment. The inhabitants of 20% of the houses of each locality were studied by serology. The samples were obtained byfinger pricking and 50 fil of blood were mixed with 150?l of 50% glycerine solution in tissue culture media to be assayed by Indirect Hemagglutination and Indirect Immunofluorescence tests. In untreated areas, the prevalence of infection in infants 0-4 years old was 17.5%, reaching to over 22% for the 5-9 year old group, and to 33.3% in 10-14 year old individuals. The prevalence in treated and surveyed areas was 2.6% in 0-4 year old children, 5.4% in 5-9 year old and 6,2% in 10-14 year old youngsters. The differences between both areas were statistically significant (p Treze comunidades de 7 províncias argentinas foram escolhidas para avaliação de sorologia como indicador da transmissão da Doença de Chagas. Das comunidades mencionadas, seis não tinham história prévia de tratamento com inseticidas e sete tinham recebido tratamento esporádico ou continuado. Vinte por cento dos moradores das casas de cada localidade foram estudados por sorologia. As amostras foram obtidas por punção da ponta do dedo e 50 microlitros de sangue foram misturadas com 150 microlitros de uma solução conservadora de glicerina a 50% em meio de cultivo, para serem estudados por hemaglutinação indireta, e imunofluorescência indireta. Nas áreas não tratadas a prevalência da infecção em crianças de 0-4 anos foi de 17,5% chegando a mais de 22% para as de 5-9 anos e a 33,3% no grupo 10-14 anos. A prevalência nas áreas tratadas e sob vigilância foi de 2.6% em crianças de 0-4 anos, 5,4% anos de 5-9 anos e de 6,2% em jovens de 10-14 sendo as diferenças entre os dois tipos de áreas estatisticamente significativas (< 0,005. Este estudo propõe a sorologia como um indicador válido para a avaliação da transmissão da Doença de Chagas em áreas rurais.

  8. Usefulness of serology for the evaluation of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in endemic areas of Chagas' disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Chuit; Elisabet, Subias; Analia C., Pérez; Irene, Paulone; Cristina, Wisnivesky-Colli; Elsa L., Segura.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Treze comunidades de 7 províncias argentinas foram escolhidas para avaliação de sorologia como indicador da transmissão da Doença de Chagas. Das comunidades mencionadas, seis não tinham história prévia de tratamento com inseticidas e sete tinham recebido tratamento esporádico ou continuado. Vinte po [...] r cento dos moradores das casas de cada localidade foram estudados por sorologia. As amostras foram obtidas por punção da ponta do dedo e 50 microlitros de sangue foram misturadas com 150 microlitros de uma solução conservadora de glicerina a 50% em meio de cultivo, para serem estudados por hemaglutinação indireta, e imunofluorescência indireta. Nas áreas não tratadas a prevalência da infecção em crianças de 0-4 anos foi de 17,5% chegando a mais de 22% para as de 5-9 anos e a 33,3% no grupo 10-14 anos. A prevalência nas áreas tratadas e sob vigilância foi de 2.6% em crianças de 0-4 anos, 5,4% anos de 5-9 anos e de 6,2% em jovens de 10-14 sendo as diferenças entre os dois tipos de áreas estatisticamente significativas ( Abstract in english Thirteen communities from 7 Argentinian provinces were selected for the evaluation of serology as an indicator of transmission of Chagas disease. Of the communities appraised, 6 did not have a history of previous treatment with insecticides and 7 had received sporadic or continuous insecticide treat [...] ment. The inhabitants of 20% of the houses of each locality were studied by serology. The samples were obtained byfinger pricking and 50 fil of blood were mixed with 150?l of 50% glycerine solution in tissue culture media to be assayed by Indirect Hemagglutination and Indirect Immunofluorescence tests. In untreated areas, the prevalence of infection in infants 0-4 years old was 17.5%, reaching to over 22% for the 5-9 year old group, and to 33.3% in 10-14 year old individuals. The prevalence in treated and surveyed areas was 2.6% in 0-4 year old children, 5.4% in 5-9 year old and 6,2% in 10-14 year old youngsters. The differences between both areas were statistically significant (p

  9. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lyda, Osorio; Marcela, Uribe; Gloria Ines, Ardila; Yaneth, Orejuela; Margarita, Velasco; Anilza, Bonelo; Beatriz, Parra.

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical d [...] iagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  10. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lyda, Osorio; Marcela, Uribe; Gloria Ines, Ardila; Yaneth, Orejuela; Margarita, Velasco; Anilza, Bonelo; Beatriz, Parra.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical d [...] iagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  11. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Lyda; Uribe, Marcela; Ardila, Gloria Ines; Orejuela, Yaneth; Velasco, Margarita; Bonelo, Anilza; Parra, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors. PMID:25993399

  12. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elba R.S. de, Lemos; Raimundo D., Machado; José R., Coura; Maria A.A., Guimarães; Nicolau M. Serra, Freire; Marinete, Amorim; Gilberto Salles, Gazeta.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994) em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, A [...] nocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato. Abstract in english Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994) in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nit [...] ens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.

  13. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos F. D., Rocha; Carla da C., Siqueira; Cristina V., Ariani.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We fo [...] und remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  14. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

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    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  15. Comparative evaluation of Strongyloides ratti and S. stercoralis larval antigen for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in an endemic area of opisthorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamudomkarn, Chatanun; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The use of Strongyloides ratti as heterologous antigen for serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis is preferable to Strongyloides from humans due to the ease and safety of antigen preparation. In Southeast Asia where Opisthorchis viverrini coexists with Strongyloides stercoralis, there has been no report in using S. ratti for serodiagnosis of S. stercoralis. In this study, performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on S. ratti was compared with that based on S. stercoralis for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in areas where O. viverrini is co-endemic in Thailand. Of the 107 individuals, 50 (46.7 %) were positive for S. stercoralis by agar culture method and by ELISA; 82 (76.6 %) and 81 (75.7 %) were seropositive using S. ratti and S. stercoralis antigens, respectively. The levels of parasite-specific IgG to S. ratti and S. stercoralis antigen were significantly proportionally correlated (P?stercoralis antigen and provide a basis for effective control strategies for strongyloidiasis. PMID:25877389

  16. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994 em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato.

  18. Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

  19. The role of cattle in the epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus in an endemic area of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Veneziano, V; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Cringoli, S

    2008-06-01

    An epidemiological and molecular survey was conducted to investigate the role of cattle in the transmission chain of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Campania region of southern Italy. Out of a total of 434 cattle examined for CE, 45 (10.4%) were found infected. A total of 363 cysts were collected from the infected animals: 239 in the liver and 124 in the lungs. The cysts were either sterile (42.7%) or calcified/caseous (57.3%); no fertile cysts were found. Most of the cysts had sizes buffalo G3 (n=17 cysts) strains, which constitute the species Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. The findings reported in the present study show that CE is widespread in cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. However, the absence of fertile cysts and of the cattle strain (G5, E. ortleppi) suggests that cattle would not have any role in the persistence of this important zoonosis but rather a role as indicators of CE infection in this endemic area. PMID:18338180

  20. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

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    Lyda Osorio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5% were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5 were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  1. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olger, Calderón-Arguedas; Adriana, Troyo; Mayra E, Solano; Adrián, Avendaño; John C, Beier.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la [...] otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis celdas (100x100m) fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales). La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii). La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y localidades fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Chi-cuadrado (?=0.05). Ocho de los tipos de larvas encontrados fueron identificados a nivel de especie (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. interrogator, C. nigripalpus, C. corniger, C. tarsalis, Limatus durhamii, Toxorhynchites theobaldi) y dos se identificaron a nivel de género (Culex sp., y Uranotaenia sp). A aegypti fue la especie más frecuente en la Gran Puntarenas. C. quinquefasciatus fue la segunda en frecuencia. Algunas localidades como Carrizal mostraron una importante diversidad de ambientes acuáticos que promovieron la ocurrencia de diferentes especies de culícidos. La distribución de los contenedores positivos por localidad en función de las especies encontradas no mostró homogeneidad (p>0.05). Aunque A. aegypti es el único vector documentado en la zona, otros mosquitos como C. quinquefasciatus y otras especies de Culex podrían ser potenciales vectores de otros agentes etiológicos (virus del Nilo occidental, virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, virus de la encefalitis equina del este). Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad considerar la presencia y la ecología de todas las especies de mosquitos en las campañas preventivas por dengue en el área, y en la vigilancia epidemiológica por otras enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Abstract in english Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry seaso [...] n. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.

  2. Performance of V3-based HIV-1 sero subtyping in HIV endemic areas

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    Lara Tavoschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 serosubtyping based on reactivity to peptides from the V3 region of gp120 is a low-cost and easy to perform procedure often used in geographical areas with high prevalence and incidence of HIV infection. We evaluated the performance of V3-based serotyping on 148 sera from 118 HIV-1-infected individuals living in Uganda, with estimated dates of seroconversion. Of the 148 tested samples, 68 (46.0% specifically reacted with only one of the V3 peptides included in the test (SP, 64 (43.2% did not react with any peptide (NR and 16 (10.8% reacted with two or more peptides (CR. According to the estimated seroconversion date, the large majority of samples collected early after infection belonged to the NR group. These samples had also a low Avidity Index. In contrast, samples collected later after infection belonged mainly to CR and SP groups and had also a higher avidity index. These results indicate that the performance of V3-based assays depends on maturation of HIV-specific immune response and can be significantly lowered when these tests are carried out on specimens collected from recently infected individuals.

  3. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

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    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  4. Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

  5. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

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    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2?, 5-dichloro-4?-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  6. Knowledge of Malaria and Implications for Control in an Endemic Urban Area of North Central Nigeria

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    V.I. Chukwuemeka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the peoples knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the peoples knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, the frequency at which they experience episodes of the disease. The results revealed that 80.95% of the respondents correctly associated malaria with clinical symptoms of the disease, while the remaining 19.05% attributed non-malaria conditions, especially, stomach pain (4.50%, influenza (2.74%, diarrhea (2.36%, etc., to the disease. About 97% of the respondents had experienced malaria, with 49.16% of them having an episode in the three months preceding this survey. Though, all the respondents claimed to know the cause of malaria, only 89.47% correctly mentioned mosquito bites while, the remaining 10.53% gave spurious answers including, changes in weather conditions (3.09%, onset of teething in infants (2.75%, dirty environment (1.66%, etc. Almost all the respondents (96.53% knew an appropriate method of preventing malaria, with the use of mosquito coils/aerosols (33.69% and bed nets (27.30% been the most preferred options. The epidemiological implications of these results were highlighted and discussed and it was concluded that the findings will serve as an impetus for re-designing anti-malaria behavioural change communication messages.

  7. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

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    Magalhães Ricardo J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role in the small-scale geographical variation of malaria risk in northern Angola. The results presented in this study can be used by provincial malaria control programme managers to help target the delivery of malaria control resources to priority areas in the Dande municipality.

  8. Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. PMID:25108786

  9. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

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    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  10. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina / Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego E., Cargnelutti; María Cristina, Salomón.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de [...] Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas. Abstract in english Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. [...] We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  11. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

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    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  12. Lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer in the arseniasis-endemic area of Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Yen; Hsu, Ling-I.; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic in drinking water has been shown to increase the risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer. However, the lifetime risk of developing urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by exposure to arsenic in drinking water has not been reported. This study aimed to assess the lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by arsenic exposure from drinking water and cigarette smoking habit for residents living in the arseniasis-endemic area in Northeastern Taiwan. We recruited 8086 residents in 1991-1994 and monitored them for their newly developed types of cancers, identified by computerized linkage with the national cancer registry profile. There were 37 newly diagnosed urothelial carcinoma cases and 223 new lung cancer cases during the follow-up period (until 2007). The lifetime (35-85 years old) cumulative risk of developing urothelial carcinoma from an arsenic concentration in the drinking water of cancer. Cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer, showing the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.48 (1.27-4.82) and 3.44 (2.00-5.90) after adjusting for the arsenic concentration in drinking water. After adjusting for cigarette smoking, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing urothelial carcinoma caused by the arsenic concentration in drinking water of figures were 1.0 (the reference group), 1.14 (0.80-1.61), 1.84 (1.28-2.65) for lung cancer. Synergistic effects on the development of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer existed between the arsenic exposure level and cigarette smoking. It is suggested that people who have had a high exposure to arsenic in drinking water should stop smoking cigarettes to lower their lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer.

  13. Severe Anemia in Papua New Guinean Children from a Malaria-Endemic Area: A Case-Control Etiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Michon, Pascal; Aipit, Susan; Bona, Cathy; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few detailed etiologic studies of severe anemia in children from malaria-endemic areas and none in those countries with holoendemic transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined associates of severe anemia in 143 well-characterized Papua New Guinean (PNG) children aged 0.5–10 years with hemoglobin concentration <50 g/L (median [inter-quartile range] 39 [33]–[44] g/L) and 120 matched healthy children (113 [107–119] g/L) in a case-control cross-sectional study. A range of socio-demographic, behavioural, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory (including genetic) variables were incorporated in multivariate models with severe anemia as dependent variable. Consistent with a likely trophic effect of chloroquine or amodiaquine on parvovirus B19 (B19V) replication, B19V PCR/IgM positivity had the highest odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 75.8 (15.4–526), followed by P. falciparum infection (19.4 (6.7–62.6)), vitamin A deficiency (13.5 (5.4–37.7)), body mass index-for-age z-score <2.0 (8.4 (2.7–27.0)) and incomplete vaccination (2.94 (1.3–7.2)). P. vivax infection was inversely associated (0.12 (0.02–0.47), reflecting early acquisition of immunity and/or a lack of reticulocytes for parasite invasion. After imputation of missing data, iron deficiency was a weak positive predictor (6.4% of population attributable risk). Conclusions/Significance These data show that severe anemia is multifactorial in PNG children, strongly associated with under-nutrition and certain common infections, and potentially preventable through vitamin A supplementation and improved nutrition, completion of vaccination schedules, and intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment using non-chloroquine/amodiaquine-based regimens. PMID:23272266

  14. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.; Bigendako, M. J.; De Cannière, C.; Svenning, J.-C.; Bogaert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution...

  15. Meningitis associated with strongyloidiasis in an area endemic for strongyloidiasis and human T-lymphotropic virus-1: a single-center experience in Japan between 1990 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Y; Taniguchi, T.; Kinjo, M; McGill, R. L.; McGill, A. T.; Tsuha, S.; Shiiki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Meningitis caused by enteric flora is a known complication of strongyloidiasis, and human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) predisposes individuals to severe strongyloidiasis. We reviewed the clinical features of bacterial meningitis associated with strongyloidiasis seen at a single center in subtropical Japan, in an area endemic for both strongyloidiasis and HTLV-1. We found 33 episodes in 21 patients between 1990 and 2010. The results were remarkable for the high incidence of meningitis due t...

  16. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso; Rosemere Duarte; José Carlos Miranda; Lindenbergh Caranha; Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positiv...

  17. A Study on the Awareness Observed Among Individuals Living in Endemic Area on the Spread, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention of Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter George*, D Souza Leon A.V., Narasimha Hegde and Smitha Saldhana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to determine, the awareness, among individuals living in endemic area on the spread, symptoms, treatment and prevention of malaria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done among individuals, above 18 years, to determine their awareness on malaria. The subjects were interviewed at health exhibition counter and at the out-patient facility (as accompanying persons), of a tertiary medical facility, and the responses were documented and...

  18. Canine Skin and Conjunctival Swab Samples for the Detection and Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA in an Endemic Urban Area in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Ferreira, Sidney; Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Souza, Daniel Menezes; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; MELO Maria Norma

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered the most lethal manifestation among the diseases caused by genus Leishmania. The main control measures for VL are: diagnosis and early treatment of human cases, insecticide vector control, and euthanasia of seropositive dogs. Although these strategies have been continuously applied in Brazil, the number of VL cases has increased and this disease still poses as a serious public health problem. Belo Horizonte is an endemic urban area in Brazil and it is...

  19. Dengue vaccine trial guidelines and role of large-scale, post proof-of-concept demonstration projects in bringing a dengue vaccine to use in dengue endemic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Letson, G. William; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Fernandez, Eduardo; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Amador, Juan Jose; Margolis, Harold S; Edelman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we consider the issues impacting conduct and design of dengue vaccine trials with reference to the recently published world Health Organization “Guidelines for Conduct of Clinical Trials of Dengue vaccines in endemic Areas.” We discuss logistic, scientific and ethical challenges concerning evaluation and introduction of dengue vaccines; these range from randomized trials that establish “proof of concept” of vaccine efficacy, to post-“proof of concept” trials, particularly demo...

  20. Projecting dynamic trends for HIV/AIDS in a highly endemic area of China: Estimation models for Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Luan, Rongsheng; YANG, Wen; Zhang, Linglin; ZHANG, JIANHUA; Nan, Lei; HUANG Jun; Hu, Ying; Mao, Guangyu; Feng, Liao; Gong, Yuhan; VERMUND, Sten H.; Jia, Yujiang

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the current situation and projects dynamic trends for HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China, Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Epidemiological, behavioral, and population census data from multiple sources were analyzed to extract input for an Asian Epidemic Model (AEM). Fitting curves to historical trends in HIV prevalence were used as a baseline, and future intervention scenarios were explored using the AEM. For 2007, modeled data suggested ?0.5% adult H...

  1. Reduction of spleen size in a child with Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS) treated outside the Brazilian endemic area of malaria with only one course of quinine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Imaculada, Muniz-Junqueira; Mário A. P., Moraes; Philip Davis, Marsden.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso clínico, tratamento e evolução de uma criança com a síndrome da esplenomegalia hiperreativa da malária tratada fora da área endêmica para a malária. A criança apresentava importante esplenomegalia, era procedente de área endêmica para malária, os níveis de imunoglobulinas e de antic [...] orpos antimaláricos estavam elevados e observou-se linfocitose sinusoidal hepática. A criança não voltaria mais para a área endêmica de malária, pelo que foi tratada com apenas um curso de quinino apresentando resposta clínica favorável. Esta resposta a um único curso de terapia curativa antimalárica sugere a importância da reinfecção com o parasitada malária no desenvolvimento e na manutenção desta síndrome. Abstract in english We report the clinical picture, treatment and evolution of a child with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly treated outside the endemic area of malaria. The patient presented gross splenomegaly, proceeded from an area where malaria is endemic, showed increased immunoglobulins levels, high antimalar [...] ial antibody titres and hepatic sinusoidal lymphocytosis. The child did not return to an area where malaria is endemic and showed a favorable response to only one course of quinine. The response of this patient to limited antimalarial therapy suggests the importance of reinfection with malaria in the development and maintenance of this syndrome.

  2. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Higazi TB; Geary TG; Mackenzie CD

    2014-01-01

    Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical ...

  3. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250?kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200?mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18?months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36?months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36?months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6.5% in untreated and 11% in no net villages. PI in LN villages was 16.4 in comparison to 24.8 and 44.2 in untreated polyester net and no net villages respectively. In surveys carried out after three years of initial distribution, 78.7% (737/936 nets were still in possession with the households, of which 68% were used every night. An. culicifacies mortality was >80% in cone bioassays done on LNs washed up to 20 times in laboratory. Mean alpha-cypermethrin content was 43.5?±?31.7?mg/m2 on Interceptor LNs withdrawn after three years of household use against the baseline specification of 200?mg/m2. A gradual increase in the proportion of holed nets was observed with the increased period of usage. Conclusion Interceptor nets were highly effective in reducing vector densities as well as malaria incidence in the study villages. Availability of 78% nets with the households in usable condition clearly indicated durability of Interceptor LNs up to three years in the rural setting of India. The nets were found to contain an effective concentration of alpha-cypermethrin against malaria vector after three years of household use.

  4. Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubinstein; Blanca Marticorena; Diana Masih; Noemi Borletto; Raul Vega; Haydee Varengo; Ricardo Negroni

    1989-01-01

    The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia) and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores). In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples fr...

  5. Evaluation of rK-39 strip test using urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Rashidul

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by demonstration of parasites in tissue smears obtained from bone marrow, spleen or lymph nodes is risky, painful, and difficult. The rK-39 strip test is widely used for the diagnosis of VL using blood/serum samples in endemic countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rK-39 strip test using urine sample as a non-invasive means for the diagnosis of VL. The rk-39 strip test was performed using urine from 100 suspected VL cases along with 25 disease control (malarial febrile cases and 50 healthy control (from endemic and non-endemic areas. All the VL suspected cases were positive with the rK-39 strip test using serum. The sensitivity and specificity of the rK-39 strip test using urine samples was 95% and 93.3%, respectively, compared to serum based rK-39 test. The findings suggest that the urine based rK-39 test could be a practical and efficient tool for the diagnosis of VL patients in rural areas, particularly where resources are limited.

  6. Primera descripción del hábitat acuático de Simulium guianense s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) en el área endémica de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela / First description of the Simulium guianense s.l. larval habitat in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis, southern Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nestor, Villamizar; José, Cortez; Oscar, Noya Alarcón; Marisela, Escalona; Carlos, Botto; María Eugenia, Grillet.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulium guianense sensu lato es el vector de Onchocerca volvulus en el foco amazónico de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela. En esta nota presentamos la primera identificación geográfica, caracterización ecológica y descripción del paisaje del hábitat acuático de las formas pre-adultas de este compl [...] ejo de especies, en el área de transmisión de esta parasitosis. Las larvas y pupas de esta especie fueron muestreadas sobre plantas Podostemaceas presentes en un raudal de aguas claras (pH= 7, conductividad = 158 umhos/cm, y caudal = 0.12 m³/s) del río Orinoquito, en el área de la Reserva de Biosfera del Alto Orinoco-Casiquiare. El paisaje del área de muestreo correspondió a un bosque húmedo ombrófilo macrotérmico y el raudal del río estudiado fluye sobre una planicie aluvial de sustrato de arena y gravas de cuarzo. El presente hallazgo contribuirá con la estratificación epidemiológica de la endemia y orientará las medidas de eliminación de la oncocercosis al sur de Venezuela. Abstract in english Simulium guianense sensu lato is the main vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, southern Venezuela. Here, we present the first report of the pre-adult aquatic habitat spatial distribution as well as the landscape and the habitat ecological characterization of this spec [...] ies complex within the endemic area. Larvae and pupae were collected on submerged aquatic plants (Podosteamaceas) located in a waterfall (pH = 7, conductivity = 158 umhos/cm, discharge = 0.12 m3/s) of the Orinoquito river, in the Upper Orinoco-Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve. These results will help with the epidemiological stratification and control program of the onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela.

  7. [Human onchocerciasis and "sowda" in the Republic of Yemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Lenoble, D; al Qubati, Y; Toe, L; Pisella, P J; Gaxotte, P; al Kohlani, A

    2001-01-01

    The geophysics of the north Yemen, associating a north-south directed mountainous fish bone (rising in more of 2,000 meters), to numerous rivers or "wadis" is convenient to the development of simulium shelters, main vectors for cutaneous filariasis to Onchocerca sp. Following several missions of bio-clinical and epidemiological evaluations in neighbouring villages of wadis, it has been possible to study different clinical aspects: one reminding the classical african onchocerciasis with generalized and diffused dermatitis, and, on an other hand, a hyperreactive dermatitis on one side of the body and associated with a collateral lymphatic ganglion. This disease is well known for local populations as "aswad" meaning "black" or "sowda". Clinically whatever the studied focus, coexists the two types of onchodermatitis (uni or bilateral). Yhe sowda patients are proportionally less numerous than those touched by the generalized type. Frequent eye lesions of the West African onchocerciasis are not found in sowda cases. In classical optical microscopy, microfilaria is morphologically indifferenciable between sowda and onchocerciasis clinical aspects. Skin snips were carried out on patients of both groups. Identification of microfilaria by molecular biology through the study of the DNA genome was done out of 5 skin snips. Microfilaria was kept dry between laminas and the DNA extracted from rehydrated microfilaria. DNA was intensified with specific primers of Onchocerca type (O150PCR). This phase was followed by hybridisation of amplification products by PCR to specific stains: OVS-2 for Onchocerca volvulus species, OCH for Onchocerca ochengi, PFS1 and PSS1-BT respectively for the forest strain and the savannah strain of Onchocerca volvulus as described previously. We can distinguish 2 kinds of answers based on the clinical origin of the snip-tests: the first one concern 3 patients with numerous dermal microfilariae but without any clinical sowda and corresponding to microfilaria O. volvulus type but different from the forest or savannah strains found in sub-Saharan Africa. The second one corresponds to 2 patients with less than 5 microfilaria in their snip-test. They show the typical clinical picture of sowda. They are identified as microfilaria type Onchocerca but they do not belong to species volvulus, or to species ochengi. It seems quite probable that the clinical picture of sowda be the result of developing onchocerciasis of animal origin and not identified as to day. The ivermectin, therapeutic of choice for African onchocerciasis in annual unique cure seems less effective in the coverage of sowda. In that case rehearsal of cures every 3 months would be necessary for mass campaigns to limit the transmission of this filariasis. PMID:11974966

  8. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

  9. Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doannio Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In order to bridge the gap between possession and use of bednets, concerted efforts are required to change behaviour by providing accurate information, most particularly by convincing people that mosquitoes are the only source of malaria, whilst recognising that there are other diseases with similar symptoms, caused in other ways. The medical message must underline the seriousness of malaria and the presence of the malaria vector in the dry season as well as the wet, in order to encourage the use of bednets whenever transmission can occur. Communities would benefit from impregnated bednets and other vector control measures being better adapted to their homes, thus reducing the inconvenience of their use.

  10. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2.10-19.29] are positive predictors of compliance to ivermectin. Conclusion Interventions to improve compliance in the area should focus on health education using epidemiological data in order to increase risk perception and dispelling misconceptions. Motivation and continued support to improve CDD's performance including training and incentives are crucial.

  11. CARPATHIANS ENDEMIC TAXA IN ARGE? COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Alexiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Arge?, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Arge? County.

  12. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A.; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for mode...

  13. Detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Areas in Switzerland Where Tick-Borne Fever Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive.

  14. Natural recovery of genetic diversity by gene flow in reforested areas of the endemic Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis

    OpenAIRE

    Navascues, Miguel; Emerson, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The endemic pine, Pinus canariensis, forms one of the main forest ecosystems in the Canary Islands. In this archipelago, pine forest is a mosaic of natural stands (remnants of past forest overexploitation) and artificial stands planted from the 1940's. The genetic makeup of the artificially regenerated forest is of some concern. The use of reproductive material with uncontrolled origin or from a reduced number of parental trees may produce stands ill adapted to local conditi...

  15. Prevalence of Deletional Alpha Thalassemia and Sickle Gene in a Tribal Dominated Malaria Endemic Area of Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Prasanta; Dehury, Snehadhini; Patel, Siris; Patel, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Inherited hemoglobin disorders like alpha thalassemia and sickle gene are common in the Indian subcontinent. These disorders in the heterozygous state act as malaria resistance genes and influence the susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. There is inadequate knowledge about the epidemiology of these malaria resistance genes in the tribal dominated malaria endemic region of the state of Odisha in eastern India. A cross sectional prevalence study was undertaken in 594 subjects in fiv...

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi: chemotherapy with benznidazole in mice inoculated with strains from Paraná State and from different endemic areas of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Jean de Ornelas TOLEDO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi from different geographical areas have shown different levels of susceptibility to trypanocidal drugs. The susceptibility in vivo to benznidazole was investigated in eighteen strains of T. cruzi. Twelve were isolated from chronic chagasic patients from different Chagas’ disease endemic areas. The other six strains were isolated from the northwestern region of Paraná state; two of them from patients three from triatomines (Triatoma sordida and one from wild reservoir (Didelphis sp.. To test drug the infected mice were divided into two groups of twenty. One group was treated with benznidazole for twenty consecutive days and the other group was used as untreated control. The treatment began after detection of the infection by direct blood examination or haemoculture. The control of cure was done through haemoculture and indirect immunofluorescence test. The drug eliminated the inflammatory lesions of the skeletal muscle of mice considered cured and from the heart of most of them. Moreover, the inflammatory lesions were reduced in treated but not cured animals. The T. cruzi strains studied showed a gradient of drug susceptibility that varied from 0% to 100%. Ten strains were considered sensitive to the treatment (61 to 100% of cure, one strain was partially sensitive (50% of cure and seven strains were considered resistant to the treatment (0 to 40% of cure. This variation was observed both in strains of T. cruzi isolated from domestic and sylvatic cyclesCepas de Trypanosoma cruzi de diferentes áreas geográficas têm mostrado diferentes graus de suscetibilidade a drogas tripanocidas. A suscetibilidade in vivo ao benzonidazol foi investigada em 18 cepas de T. cruzi. Doze foram isoladas de pacientes chagásicos crônicos de diferentes áreas endêmcias da doença de Chagas. Seis cepas foram procedentes da região Noroeste do Paraná: 2 isoladas de humanos, 3 de triatomíneos da espécie Triatoma sordida e 1 do reservatório silvestre do parasito Didelphis sp. No teste da droga, camundongos inoculados foram divididos em 2 grupos de 20. Um grupo foi tratado com benzonidazol por 20 dias consecutivos e o outro grupo foi utilizado como controle não tratado. O tratamento dos animais foi iniciado após constatação da infecção, feita através de exame direto do sangue ou hemocultura. O controle de cura foi feito utilizando a hemocultura e a imunofluorescência indireta, realizadas respectivamente, 30 e 180 dias após o término do tratamento. A droga eliminou as lesões inflamatórias do músculo esquelético dos camundongos considerados curados e do coração da maioria destes animais e as diminuiu naqueles animais tratados não curados. As cepas de T. cruzi estudadas apresentaram um gradiente de suscetibilidade a droga que variou de 0% a 100%. Dez cepas foram consideradas sensíveis ao tratamento (61 a 100% de cura, uma cepa foi parcialmente sensível (50% de cura e 7 cepas foram consideradas resistentes (0 a 40% de cura. Esta variação foi observada tanto com as cepas isoladas do ciclo doméstico quanto com aquelas isoladas do ciclo silvestre

  17. Optimized nuclear techniques, thyroid function studies of newborns in iodine deficient areas and assessment of severity of iodine deficiency of endemic goitre areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cord blood samples, as a sera (n 4753) and as dried blood spots (n 5041) were obtained from subjects in Bangkok and iodine deficient districts in northern Thailand to study for T4 and TSH. The nuclear techniques were optimized by the use of NETRIA bulk reagents and in-house methods were developed and adapted for cost reduction, conveniences and precision/accuracy. The biochemical findings with cut-off values at 50 mIU/L for TSH as confirmed by <1 ng/dl for FT4 showed 0.34% (n16) of neonatal chemical hypothyroidism (NCH) varying in different provinces from 0.18 to 1.6% of 2253 cases of Phase I and 0.34-1.45% of 2500 cases of Phase II. Out of the total 4753 cases, 1.12% (n53) might be benefited by thyroxine administration. In this research project, the screening indicated moderate degree of IDD severity. It is useful for epidemiological evaluations, surveillance and for advocacy of the IDD control programme. Follow-up studies were undertaken in the available three subjects with abnormal serum findings in which all of them appeared to have transient neonatal hypothyroidism to assess the IDD severity. Further studies of dried cord blood spots (n 5041) demonstrated that the percentages of TSH above 5, 20 and 50 mIU/L and of T4 under 3, 5 and 10 ug/dl could be used for follow-up to compare the severity of different districts at the same time intervals and to assess the severity of the same district in different years. By this way, the severity of individual districts and its progress, could be evaluated for the IDD control in any endemic areas

  18. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  19. The origin of unique diversity in deglaciated areas: traces of Pleistocene processes in north-European endemics from the Galium pusillum polyploid complex (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolá?, Filip; Píšová, So?a; Záveská, Eliška; Fér, Tomáš; Weiser, Martin; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The role of glacial oscillations in shaping plant diversity has been only rarely addressed in endemics of formerly glaciated areas. The Galium pusillum group represents a rare example of an ecologically diverse and ploidy-variable species complex that exhibits substantial diversity in deglaciated northern Europe. Using AFLP and plastid and nuclear DNA sequences of 67 populations from northern, central, and western Europe with known ecological preferences, we elucidate the evolutionary history of lineages restricted to deglaciated areas and identify the eco-geographic partitioning of their genetic variation. We reveal three distinct endemic northern lineages: (i) diploids from southern Sweden + the British Isles, (ii) tetraploids from southern Scandinavia and the British Isles that show signs of ancient hybridization between the first lineage and populations from unglaciated central Europe, and (iii) tetraploids from Iceland + central Norway. Available evidence supports a stepwise differentiation of these three lineages that started at least before the last glacial maximum by processes of genome duplication, interlineage hybridization and/or allopatric evolution in distinct periglacial refugia. We reject the hypothesis of more recent postglacial speciation. Ecological characteristics of the populations under study only partly reflect genetic variation and suggest broad niches of postglacial colonizers. Despite their largely allopatric modern distributions, the north-European lineages of the G. pusillum group do not show signs of rapid postglacial divergence, in contrast to most other northern endemics. Our study suggests that plants inhabiting deglaciated areas outside the Arctic may exhibit very different evolutionary histories compared with their more thoroughly investigated high-arctic counterparts. PMID:25678149

  20. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with STh and STp Genotypes Is Associated with Diarrhea Both in Children in Areas of Endemicity and in Travelers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bölin, Ingrid?; Wiklund, Gudrun; Qadri, Firdausi; Torres, Olga; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Savarino, Stephen; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea among children in developing countries and in travelers to areas of ETEC endemicity. ETEC strains isolated from humans may produce a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and two types of the heat-stable enterotoxin STa, called STh and STp, encoded by the estA gene. Two commonly used assay methods for the detection of STa, the infant mouse assay or different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are unable to distinguish between t...

  1. Short Report: Prevalence of Antimalarial Drug Resistance Mutations in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from a Malaria-Endemic Area of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khatoon, Lubna; Baliraine, Frederick N.; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; SALMAN A. MALIK; Yan, Guiyun

    2009-01-01

    To study drug resistance in Bannu district, a malaria-endemic area in Pakistan, molecular-based analyses were undertaken. In Plasmodium vivax, antifolate resistance mutations were detected in pvdhfr gene codons 57, 58, and 117, with a 117N mutation frequency of 93.5%. All P. falciparum isolates exhibited double 59R + 108N mutations in pfdhfr, whereas the triple mutant 59R + 108N + 437G haplotype was found in 31.8% isolates. Furthermore, all (100%) P. falciparum isolates exhibited the key chlo...

  2. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira; Elvira Maria Saraiva; Edna Aoba Yassui Ishikawa; Adelson Alcimar Almeida de Sousa; Edilene Oliveira da Silva; Ivoneide Maria da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflie...

  3. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:25022923

  4. Frequency of Infection of Lutzomyia Phlebotomines with Leishmania braziliensis in a Brazilian Endemic Area as Assessed by Pinpoint Capture and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos, Miranda; Eliana, Reis; Albert, Schriefer; Marilda, Gonçalves; Mitermayer Galvão, Reis; Lucas, Carvalho; Octavio, Fernandes; Manoel, Barral-Netto; Aldina, Barral.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infected of Lutzomyia spp. are rare in endemic areas. We tested the hypothesis that there is clustering of infected vectors by combining pinpoint capture with sensitive L. braziliensis kDNA minicircle specific PCR/dot blot in an endemic area in the State of Bahia. Thirty out of 335 sample [...] s (10 to 20 sand flies/sample; total of 4,027 female sand flies) were positive by PCR analysis and dot blot leading to a underestimated overall rate of 0.4% positive phlebotomines. However, 83.3% of the positive samples were contributed by a single sector out of four sectors of the whole studied area. This resulted in a rate of 1.5% Leishmania positive phlebotomines for this sector, far above rates of other sectors. Incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases for this sector was about twice that for other sectors. Our results show that there is a non-homogeneous distribution of Leishmania-infected vectors. Such a clustering may have implications in control strategies against leishmaniasis, and reinforces the necessity of understanding the ecological and geographical factors involved in leishmanial transmission.

  5. Frequency of Infection of Lutzomyia Phlebotomines with Leishmania braziliensis in a Brazilian Endemic Area as Assessed by Pinpoint Capture and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda José Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infected of Lutzomyia spp. are rare in endemic areas. We tested the hypothesis that there is clustering of infected vectors by combining pinpoint capture with sensitive L. braziliensis kDNA minicircle specific PCR/dot blot in an endemic area in the State of Bahia. Thirty out of 335 samples (10 to 20 sand flies/sample; total of 4,027 female sand flies were positive by PCR analysis and dot blot leading to a underestimated overall rate of 0.4% positive phlebotomines. However, 83.3% of the positive samples were contributed by a single sector out of four sectors of the whole studied area. This resulted in a rate of 1.5% Leishmania positive phlebotomines for this sector, far above rates of other sectors. Incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases for this sector was about twice that for other sectors. Our results show that there is a non-homogeneous distribution of Leishmania-infected vectors. Such a clustering may have implications in control strategies against leishmaniasis, and reinforces the necessity of understanding the ecological and geographical factors involved in leishmanial transmission.

  6. Two endemic foci of heterophyids and other intestinal fluke infections in southern and western coastal areas in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Song, Tae-Eui; Han, Eun-Taek; Guk, Sang-Mee; Park, Yun-Kyu; Choi, Min-Ho; Lee, Soon-Hyung

    1998-01-01

    Two endemic foci of heterophyid infections were discovered in coastal villages of Puan-gun, Chollabuk-do, and Sachon-gun. Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. Fecal examinations were performed on 153 inhabitants of Puan-gun and 138 of Sachon-gun, using cellophane thick smear and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The helminth egg and/or protozoan cyst positive rate was 21.5% (33/153) in Puan-gun and 39.1% (54/138) in Sachon-gun. In Puan-gun, the egg positive rate of heterophyids was the highest, 17.6...

  7. Evaluation of the tick bites in a Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic area in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    EROL, Serpil; YEN?SOLAK, Ahmet; TOROS, Göknur YAPAR; Albayrak, Ay?e

    2011-01-01

    After the first description of a CCHF outbreak in Turkey, tick bites became an increasing cause of visits to health-care facilities. In this study, we evaluated tick bites in a CCHF endemic region. Materials and methods: The study included cases of tick bites that were referred to 2 hospitals in Erzurum between June and October 2008. All cases were followed-up for 10 days for the results of CCHF. Results: During the study period, 161 patients were admitted for a tick bite. The majority (56...

  8. The relationship between dental fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentration - a study in an endemic area - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DF severity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a good predictor/indicator of DF severity.

  9. HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscilla, Alexandrino-de-Oliveira; Joanna Reis, Santos-Oliveira; Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Dorval; Francisco das Chagas Brandão, Da-Costa; Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite, Pereira; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha; Anamaria Mello Miranda, Paniago; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was [...] to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

  10. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizângela, Guedes; Romário C, Leite; Márcia CA, Prata; Richard C, Pacheco; David H, Walker; Marcelo B, Labruna.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeti [...] ng a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp), ompA (457-bp), and ompB (720-bp). The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks).The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

  11. Alternative PCR protocol using a single primer set for assessing DNA quality in several tissues from a large variety of mammalian species living in areas endemic for leishmaniasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo C, Ferreira; Célia M, Gontijo; Israel, Cruz; Maria Norma, Melo; Aristóbolo M, Silva.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish a modified pre-diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol using a single primer set that enables successful amplification of a highly conserved mammalian sequence in order to determine overall sample DNA quality for multiple mammalian species that inhab [...] it areas endemic for leishmaniasis. The gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), but not other conserved genes, was efficiently amplified in DNA samples from tail skin, ear skin, bone marrow, liver and spleen from all of the species tested. In tissue samples that were PCR-positive for Leishmania, we found that DNA from 100%, 55% and 22% of the samples tested resulted in a positive PCR reaction for the IRBP, beta-actin and beta-globin genes, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of an IRBP amplicon resolved any questions regarding the taxonomical classification of a rodent, which was previously based simply on the morphological features of the animal. Therefore, PCR amplification and analysis of the IRBP amplicon are suitable for pre-diagnostically assessing DNA quality and identifying mammalian species living in areas endemic to leishmaniasis and other diseases.

  12. An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosana, Gentile; Sócrates F, Costa-Neto; Margareth ML, Gonçalves; Simone T, Bonecker; Fabiano A, Fernandes; Juberlan S, Garcia; Magali G M, Barreto; Marisa S, Soares; Paulo S, D' Andrea; José M, Peralta; Luis, Rey.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic ar [...] eas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

  13. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teiliane Rodrigues, Carneiro; Regina Helena Saramago, Peralta; Marta Cristhiany Cunha, Pinheiro; Sara Menezes de, Oliveira; Jose Mauro, Peralta; Fernando Schemelzer Moraes, Bezerra.

    2013-12-06

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 [...] of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

  14. Detection of active schistosome infection by cell-free circulating DNA of Schistosoma japonicum in highly endemic areas in Sorsogon Province, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Hayashi, Naoko; Leonardo, Lydia R; Arevalo, Napoleon L; Tagum, Ma Nerissa B; Apin, James; Agsolid, Lea M; Chua, James C; Villacorte, Elena A; Kirinoki, Masashi; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Haruki, Kosuke; Chigusa, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    The current status of schistosomiasis in highly endemic areas is difficult to determine by ovum detection because of the superficially low parasite load after mass drug administration, whereas the parasite transmission rates are still high. Cell-free parasite DNA is fragments of parasite-derived DNA existing in the host's body fluids. We conducted population-based studies to test the presence of cell-free schistosome DNA in endemic areas of Sorsogon Province, the Philippines. Schistosome DNA in the serum and urine of Kato-Katz (KK)-positive subjects was detected by PCR (100% sensitivity). Schistosome DNA was also detected from KK-negative subjects (9/22 serum and 10/41 urine samples). Schistosome DNA was found to be network echogenic pattern (NW)-positive (serum 53.3%, urine 42.9%) or NW-negative (serum 25.5%, urine 20.8%) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive (serum 47.1%, urine 40%) or ELISA-negative (serum 33.3%, urine 13.3%). These results indicate that cell-free schistosome DNA is a promising diagnostic marker for active schistosome infection in the case of light infection. PMID:24836919

  15. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets. PMID:26078028

  16. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joy R, Guderian; Mariela, Anselmi; Mauricio, Espinel; Carlos, Sandoval; Philip J, Cooper; Gonzalo, Rivadeneira; Ronald H, Guderian.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected [...] in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology), Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology), La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology), and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology). A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

  17. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guderian Joy R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology, Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology, La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology, and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology. A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

  18. Rickettsioses emergentes e reemergentes numa região endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil / Emerging and reemerging rickettsiosis in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio A. M., Galvão; Joel A., Lamounier; Elido, Bonomo; Margarete S., Tropia; Eliane G., Rezende; Simone B., Calic; Chequer B., Chamone; Mirtes C., Machado; Márcia E. A., Otoni; Romário C., Leite; Camila, Caram; Cláudio L., Mafra; David H., Walker.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve um inquérito sorológico para rickettsioses em escolares e cães de Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 1998. Trezentos e trinta e um escolares pertenciam a uma área endêmica e 142 a uma área não endêmica do município. Trinta e nove (10,1%) soros foram reativos à Reação de Imun [...] ofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) para Rickettsia rickettsiino título de 1:64, sendo que dentre esses reativos, 35 eram de estudantes de escolas de área endêmica. Dentre os 73 cães analisados quanto à presença de anticorpos anti R. rickettsii, anti Ehrlichia chaffeensise anti Ehrlichia canisà RIFI no título de 1:64, 3 (4,11%), 11 (15,07%) e 13 (17,81%) desses animais foram reativos respectivamente aos antígenos testados. Conclui-se que, a sororeatividade para R. rickettsiiem indivíduos sadios sem história prévia de febre maculosa brasileira, uma doença marcante por sua alta letalidade, e a presença de sororeatividade para Ehrlichiacom potencial patogênico para o homem em cães, nos leva a indagar sobre a transmissão ao homem de outras espécies da família Rickettsiae na área estudada. Abstract in english This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the co [...] unty. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clinical symptoms of Brazilian spotted fever prior to the serological survey. Some 35 children in the endemic area were reactive to Rickettsia rickettsiiby indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) with a titer of 1:64, corresponding to 10.6%. Sera from 73 dogs were tested, showing seroreactivity (IFA 1:64) to Rickettsia rickettsi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canisin 3 (4.11%), 11 (15.07%), and 13 (17.81%), respectively. The results in schoolchildren and the presence of canine seroreactivity to Ehrlichiaspecies that are potentially pathogenic to humans suggests the risk of transmission of other Rickettsiaein the study area.

  19. Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Program Coordinating Committee; OEPA staff

    2012-01-01

    Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan®) has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the pro...

  20. Wolbachia-Induced Neutrophil Activation in a Mouse Model of Ocular Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)

    OpenAIRE

    Gillette-Ferguson, Illona; Amy G. Hise; McGarry, Helen F.; Turner, Joseph; Esposito, Andrew; Sun, Yan; Diaconu, Eugenia; Taylor, Mark J.; Pearlman, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria are abundant in the filarial nematodes that cause onchocerciasis (river blindness), including the larvae (microfilariae) that migrate into the cornea. Using a mouse model of ocular onchocerciasis, we recently demonstrated that it is these endosymbiotic bacteria rather than the nematodes per se that induce neutrophil infiltration to the corneal stroma and loss of corneal clarity (Saint Andre et al., Science 295:1892-1895, 2002). To better understand the role of...

  1. Detection of areas of endemism on two spatial scales using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE): the Neotropical region and the Atlantic Forest / Detecção de áreas de endemismo em duas escalas espaciais utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos: região Neotropical e Mata Atlântica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais desafios para este século reside em impedir a perda de biodiversidade. A biogeografia é o campo das ciências biológicas que busca desvendar os padrões de distribuição dos organismos. Um conceito básico em biogeografia diz respeito à existência de áreas de endemismo, caracterizadas [...] pela presença de espécies de distribuição restrita. Áreas de endemismo são definidas como unidades históricas de congruência distribucional entre dois ou mais táxons monofiléticos, provavelmente formadas por fatores históricos não aleatórios que definem condições específicas para elevadas taxas de especiação. Conseqüentemente, a delimitação de áreas de endemismo possui importantes implicações para a eficácia dos esforços conservacionistas. Até o momento, a maioria dos estudos tem delimitado estas áreas por meio da sobreposição de mapas de distribuição das espécies. Entretanto, esta abordagem pode acarretar delimitações arbitrárias quando analisado um amplo conjunto de dados distribucionais. No presente estudo foi utilizado método da Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos (PAE) baseada em quadrículas georeferenciadas a fim delimitar áreas de endemismo. Este método é importante devido a sua natureza empiricamente testável, além da possibilidade de inferência dos relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas. O método foi aplicado aos dados distribucionais de 19 táxons não relacionados, de modo a definir os padrões gerais de endemismo na região de Neotropical e na Mata Atlântica utilizando diferentes tamanhos de quadrícula. Foram encontradas 13 áreas endêmicas Neotropicais, situadas sobre as regiões do Panamá, norte dos Andes e Mata Atlântica, sendo esta última composta por dois componentes distintos (Norte e Sul). As áreas de endemismo delimitadas na Mata Atlântica por meio de quadrículas menores devem ser consideradas prioritárias para conservação, uma vez que demonstraram endemismo tanto em escala regional quanto local. Os resultados foram comparados a outros estudos utilizando deferentes táxons e metodologias. Considerações gerais sobre escala de análise e perspectivas futuras são apresentadas. Abstract in english An important biological challenge today is the conservation of biodiversity. Biogeography, the study of the distribution patterns of organisms, is an important tool for this challenge. Endemism, the co-occurrence of several species unique to the same area, has important implications for the preserva [...] tion of biodiversity, since many areas of endemism are also areas with large human impact. More rigorously defined, areas of endemism are historical units of distributional congruence of monophyletic taxa. These areas often assumed to be due to nonrandom historical events that favored conditions associated with high rates of speciation. Thus, understanding endemism and the delimitation of endemic areas has important implications for conservation. Today, most studies delimit areas of endemism by superimposing maps of distribution for various species. This approach suffers from arbitrary delimitations, however, when a great distributional data is used. In this paper we used the method of Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on georeferenced quadrats in order to delimit areas of endemism. This modality of the method is important due to its testable nature and can also be used to infer area relationships. We applied the method to raw distributional data from 19 unrelated taxa to delimit general patterns of endemism in the Neotropical Region and in the Atlantic forest domain using different grid scales. Neotropical areas found are comprised over the Panama region, northern Andean region and the Atlantic forest. Atlantic forest showed a major division into two distinct components (northern x southern). Endemic areas delimited using smaller scale grids on the Atlantic forest should be considered for conservation priorities once they showed endemism at regional and local scales. The results were also compar

  2. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  3. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Maia; Lidia, Dionisio; Maria Odete, Afonso; Luis, Neto; Jose Manuel, Cristovao; Lenea, Campino.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood m [...] eal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  4. Prevalence and distribution of ocular onchocerciasis in three ecological zones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, R E; Mahmoud, A O; Hagan, M; Wilson, M; Okoye, O I; Asana, U; Biritwum, R; Ogbu-Pearce, P; Elhassan, E; Yaméogo, L; Braideo, E I; Seketeli, A

    2010-12-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsored a baseline study in Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 on the prevalence and distribution of Onchocerciasis. The randomly selected 1,064 subjects in the baseline study underwent detailed eye examination in Cross River (rain forest), Taraba (savanna) and Kogi (forest-savanna) States. This paper compares and contrasts the public health significance of ocular onchocerciasis in these ecological zones. A blindness prevalence of 2.4% was recorded in the study, onchocerciasis being responsible for 30.2% of the bilaterally blind subjects. Onchocerciasis-induced blindness prevalence was relatively high in the rain forest and forest savanna zones of Cross River and Kogi States, Cross River having the highest site-specific prevalence (50.0%), followed by Kogi (41.7%). Taraba recorded only 27.3%. Other conditions identified included glaucoma, optic nerve disease and cataract rates of which were also found to be high among the population (6.9%, 6.5 % and 8.9% respectively). Anterior segment onchocercal lesions, punctate and sclerosing keratitis were the predominant features of the infection in the savanna zone (14.1% and 6.3% respectively), while posterior segment lesions were much more common in the forest zone. The need to sustain the present efforts to control onchocerciasis through mass ivermectin treatment is recommended. PMID:21735992

  5. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzal, José M; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; De Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2012-01-01

    At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay. PMID:22634883

  6. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  7. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Cristina Castellucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA, northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  8. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Venzal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  9. Host immune response to Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides in a highly endemic area: evidence of parasite co-immunomodulation properties influencing the outcome of both infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian MG Bahia-Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and ascaridiasis evoke polar Th-1 and Th-2 host immune responses, respectively. A study to investigate the specific cytokine profile production by in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals living under precarious sanitary conditions in a highly endemic area for the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides was conducted. High levels of both IFN-³ (Th-1 and IL-13 (Th-2 were observed in groups of co-infected individuals presenting toxoplasmic ocular lesions. Significantly lower IL-10 and TGF-² levels were produced by co-infected individuals in comparison with groups of individuals not infected with A. lumbricoides and either positive or negative for T. gondii living under good sanitary conditions (control groups. The possible influence of co-parasitism on the clinical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis is discussed.

  10. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Angélica Finger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02 and flooding (p = 0.03. Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study.

  11. High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alkmim-Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture. Results T. cruzi I (TcI was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1% subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands; however, high similarities (80-100% among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

  12. High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Maria, Alkmim-Oliveira; Henrique Borges, Kappel; Cristiane Pontes, Andrade; Aluízio, Prata; Luis Eduardo, Ramirez; Dalmo, Correia; Eliane, Lages-Silva.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including [...] 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture). Results T. cruzi I (TcI) was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1%) subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands); however, high similarities (80-100%) among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

  13. [The functional status of circulating lymphoid and phagocytic cells in patients with tropical malaria, living in the endemic areas of Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulava, G V; Danilkin, B K; Malinina, N P; Kulibali, M; Keita, M S; Keita, V M

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of immunological parameters in the indigenous adult population of an endemic area of Guinea in tropical malaria of varying severity and the time course of changes in these parameters in different phases of the disease during delagil treatment. Examination of 101 patients has established that tropical malaria in re-infected patients is not accompanied by severe immunosuppression though there is a clear tendency towards lymphocytic immunodeficiency in patients with higher parasitemia and a severe course of the disease. The greatest manifestations of immunosuppression coincide with the high oxygen metabolism of phagocytes, which confirms their important role in the pathogenesis of immune disorders and common syndrome in malaria. PMID:15689129

  14. A phase III trial of efficacy of the FML-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of Brazil (São Gonçalo do Amaranto, RN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, V O; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Correia Pontes, N N; de Souza, E P; Luz, K G; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2000-12-01

    Protection against canine kala-azar was investigated in naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area, vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmania donovani. A total of 97% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and 100% showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 7 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls (ANOVA, P<0.0001). After 2 years, 92% (chi(2)=6.996; P<0.0025) protection was achieved: only 8% of vaccinees showed mild signs of kala-azar with no deaths while 33% of controls developed clinical or fatal disease. The FML-vaccine induced a significant, long-lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field. PMID:11137242

  15. Rickettsia in synanthropic and domestic animals and their hosts from two areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Barcelos, Rafael M; Gomes, Gabriel G; Montandon, Carlos E; Pena, Dárlen C H; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B; Bouyer, Donald H; Freitas, Renata N; Walker, David H; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvao, Márcio A M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  16. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akter Jasmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few studies on the genetic diversity of P. falciparum have been performed in Bangladesh. Anderson et al. performed a study in Khagrachari, northern Chittagong Hill Tracts in 2002 on 203 patients and found that parasites had a multiplicity of infection of 1.3 by MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genotyping. A total of 94% of the isolates had the K76T Pfcrt chloroquine resistant genotype, and 70% showed the N86Y Pfmdr1 genotype. Antifolate drug resistant genotypes were high with 99% and 73% of parasites having two or more mutations at the dhfr or dhps loci. Methods Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were used to genotype P. falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Results The analysis of polymorphic and drug resistant genotype on 33 paired recrudescent infections after drug treatment in the period 2004 to 2008 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which is just prior to countrywide provision of artemisinin combination therapy. Overall the multiplicity of infection for MSP-1 was 2.7 with a slightly smaller parasite diversity post-treatment. The 13 monoclonal infections by both GLURP and MSP-1 were evenly divided between pre- and post-treatment. The MSP-1 MAD block was most frequent in 66 of the samples. The prevalence of the K76T PfCRT chloroquine resistant allele was approximately 82% of the samples, while the resistant Pfmdr1 N86Y was present in 33% of the samples. Interestingly, the post-treatment samples had a small but significantly higher frequency of the sensitive PfCRT alleles by RT-PCR. Conclusion The parasite population retains high population diversity despite hypo-endemic transmission with retention, but decrease in the chloroquine-resistant allele and Pfmdr1 resistant alleles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

  17. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

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    Nadle Joelle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

  18. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano-Gallego Laia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1% including one female, (2.0% and 12 males (15.2%, and in only five dogs (12.2%. Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.

  19. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Valero, M Adela; Peixoto, Raquel V; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. In any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infection must always be considered the starting point before implementing any control measure. Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of different epidemiological, pathological and control characteristics depending on the endemic area and the causal agent, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciolagigantica. Classically it has been accepted that F. hepatica is present worldwide, while the distribution of the two species overlaps in many areas of Africa and Asia. Fascioliasis caused by F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms is present in Guilan province, a complicated epidemiological situation where the highest human infection rates have been described in Iran. Morphometric tools were used to analyse the possible relationship between liver-fluke metric traits and geographical and altitudinal distribution. This is the first study in which a detailed distribution of both Fasciola species is analysed in a human fascioliasis endemic area with a zonal overlap transmission pattern. An accurate analysis was conducted to phenotypically discriminate between fasciolids from naturally infected livestock (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats). The distribution of the % F. hepatica-like (F.h.) and F. gigantica-like (F.g.) flukes detected in each liver versus altitude (m) in each group was analysed. The presence of F.g. specimens mainly in locations below sea level (average: 11.23% F.h., 88.77% F.g.), the presence of both species with similar intensity at 1-99m (average: 56.95% F.h., 43.05% F.g.) and the presence of F.h. specimens mainly from 100 to 999m (average: 71.69% F.h., 28.31% F.g.) as well as in locations with an altitude above 1000m (average: 97.48% F.h., 2.52% F.g.) are noteworthy. A significant positive correlation was obtained between altitude and % F.h., and a significant negative correlation was obtained between altitude and % F.g. The results show that F.g. populations in cattle, buffaloes and sheep share larger size values, but smaller specimens are present mainly in lowland populations located below sea level, independently of the host species (cattle, buffalo). F.g. from lowland cattle presented larger worm size variability. Four different fascioliasis transmission areas may be distinguished in Guilan: (a) lowland coastal areas neighbouring the Caspian Sea shore, below sea level, where basically F. gigantica-like specimens are found; (b) a coastal plain with an altitude between 1 and 100m where both species co-exist; (c) areas with altitude values of 100-999m where mainly F. hepatica-like specimens are found; (d) highland mountainous areas, where basically F. hepatica-like specimens are found. The study of the influence of the host species on the liver fluke was also carried out by a size-out analysis. This is the first report concerning the decisive influence exercised by the host species on the metric traits of F. gigantica adults. PMID:25602718

  20. Kala-azar in Ethopia I: Leishmanin skin test in Setit Humera, a kala-azar endemic area in northwestern Ethopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G K; Lemma, A; Haile, T; Atwood, C L

    1976-06-01

    Leishmannin skin test surveys were carried out on 1057 farmers and non-farmers in the low-lying Setit Humera area of northwest Ethiopia, a region known to be endemic for kala-azar. The population of the Humera area is composed mainly of new migrants, and the mean time of residence for the entire population is only 4-4 years. The corresponding periods for the urban and farm-owning population are 6-3 years and migrant farm labourers 2-6 years. Most of the population comes from the highland provinces of Begemdir, Tigre, and Wollo, areas where kala-azar is virtually unknown except for two recent cases (Ashford et al., 1973b). 45-6% of farmers were skin test positive, but only 8-3% of non-farmers. Women in this area are only rarely involved in farming, hence there is a concommitant marked sex difference. The skin test results seem to be correlated with the results for sex, age, and occupation of known kala-azar patients. The percentage of skin test positivity increases with age and, particularly among farmers, with the length of time spent in the Humera lowlands. This correlation is lacking among non-farmers. The annual rate of infection to Leishmania sufficient to result in skin test conversion is around 7% per annum in agricultural workers in the Humera area, but less than 1% per annum in the non-farming population. The infection rate for farm workers to Leishmania prior to coming to Humera is around 2%, compared to less than 1% for the non-farmers. There appears (significant at 10%) to be a weak correlation between the induration of positive skin test and the length of time spent in Humera, suggesting that the degree of induration is related to the degree of exposure to Leishmania. The positive skin test in kala-azar endemic areas is probably the result of (a) nonpathogenic Leishmania species, (b) L. donovani of low virulence and/or (c) human host resistance to L. donovani. PMID:938122

  1. Two pathogens and one disease: detection and identification of flea-borne Rickettsiae in areas endemic for murine typhus in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeeva, Marina E; Karpathy, Sandor E; Krueger, Laura; Hayes, Erica K; Williams, Ashley M; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Bennett, Stephen; Cummings, Robert; Tilzer, Art; Velten, Robert K; Kerr, Nelson; Dasch, Gregory A; Hu, Renjie

    2012-11-01

    Results of an environmental assessment conducted in a newly emergent focus of murine typhus in southern California are described. Opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, infested with cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis Buché, in the suburban area were abundant. Animal and flea specimens were tested for the DNA of two flea-borne rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis. R. felis was commonly detected in fleas collected throughout this area while R. typhi was found at a much lower prevalence in the vicinity of just 7 of 14 case-patient homes identified. DNA of R. felis, but not R. typhi, was detected in renal, hepatic, and pulmonary tissues of opossums. In contrast, there were no hematologic polymerase chain reaction findings of R. felis or R. typhi in opossums, rats, and cats within the endemic area studied. Our data suggest a significant probability of human exposure to R. felis in the area studied; however, disease caused by this agent is not recognized by the medical community and may be misdiagnosed as murine typhus using nondiscriminatory serologic methods. PMID:23270180

  2. Multiplicative synergistic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among hepatitis B and C co-infected subjects in HBV endemic area: a community-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been limited study on the effect of infection with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic regions of Asia. Hazard ratios of HCC development were estimated for HBV and HCV co-infected subjects among a community-based prospective cohort. HCV genotype was determined in HCV RNA-positive samples. Incident HCC cases were identified through linkage to the cancer registry. HCC incidence was 79 per 100,000 person-years in the study population (50 incident cases among 6,694 individuals within 63,170 person-years with an average of 9.4 years of follow-up); seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 5.2% and 5.6%. Adjusted hazard ratios of HCC by HBsAg positivity and anti-HCV positivity were 13.3 (CI: 7.3-24.4) and 6.7 (CI: 3.6-12.6). HRs of HBV and HCV monoinfection, and HBV/HCV coinfection were 17.1 (CI: 8.4-34.8), 10.4 (CI: 4.9-22.1) and 115.0 (CI: 32.5-407.3). Multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk was also observed (synergy index: 4.5, CI: 1.3-15.5). Infection with HCV genotype 1 (HR: 29.7, CI: 13.6-46.8) and mixed infection with genotype 1 and 2 (HR: 68.7, CI: 16.4-288.4) significantly elevated HCC risk, much higher than HBV infection. The effect of differences in HCV genotype and the multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk shown in the present study underline the need for comprehensive identification of hepatitis infection status in order to prevent and control HCC in this HBV endemic area

  3. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  4. Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Dreyer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo.In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

  5. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Davi Marcos Souza de, Oliveira; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Edna Aoba Yassui, Ishikawa; Adelson Alcimar Almeida de, Sousa; Edilene Oliveira da, Silva; Ivoneide Maria da, Silva.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandf [...] lies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%), which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25%) and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  6. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  7. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

  8. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elizabeth C Dorval; Geucira Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da Rocha; Tulia Peixoto Alves; Murilo Andrade Alves; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species h...

  9. Adverse reactions following mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine in lymphatic filariasis endemic areas in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Wládia Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched with the goal of eliminating this disease via the annual mass drug administration (MDA of a single dose of antifilarial drugs. Adverse drug reactions following MDA are a major factor of poor treatment adherence in several countries. This study assessed the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs following the first round of mass treatment in two communities treated with different dosages of diethylcarbamazine (DEC in the City of Recife, Brazil. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in a random sample of the population living in both communities (Areas I and II. The dose of DEC recommended by the WHO (6mg/kg was calculated based on the individual's weight-for-age. In Area II, weight differences between the genders were also considered when determining dosage. Data were obtained through interviews conducted in the first 12 to 48h and on the 5th day after MDA during household visits. RESULTS: A total of 487 and 365 individuals were interviewed in Areas I and II, respectively. The prevalence of ADRs in Area I (23.6; 95%CI: 19.1-29.5 was higher than in Area II (16.2; 95%CI:11.9-21.5(p=0.0078. The prevalence of ADRs among females was higher than in males in Area I (p=0.0021. In Area II, no significant difference between the genders was observed (p=0.1840. Age was not associated with ADRs in either area. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting MDA dosage schedules according to weight-for-age and sex may be may contribute to reduce the occurrence of adverse drug reactions in the population.

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  11. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  12. Early and late results of 131I treatment of benign goitres in an endemic area in Southern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the application of 10 000 to 15 000 rd. to 471 patients with benign goitres, mechanical symptoms were relieved in 72 to 82% during a course of six follow-up examinations; the circumference of the neck was reduced by 1.2 to 1.6 cm; the scintigraphic area by 9 to 31% and maximal 131I uptake was reduced by 18 to 31%. Follow-up examinations at 6.4 and 5.5 years in 155 patients showed the best regression of neck circumference (2.2 to 2.6 cm) and of the area of the scintigram (28 to 31%). 50% of the patients had had recurrences from previous goitre removals and 1 to 3% developed post-therapeutic hypothyroidism. There was no significant change in the level of the peripheral thyroid hormones following treatment, but 10 to 20% were within the hypothyroid range for the area of iodine deficiency. (orig.)

  13. A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene

    Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental intermediate hosts such as humans. The disease, human alveolar echinococcosis, is fatal in untreated patients and results in reduced survival rates in continuously treated patients. Finland, Ireland, Malta, UK and mainland Norway consider themselves free from Em. The first case of Em was reported in Sweden in 2011.These countries therefore require dogs, cats and ferrets to be treated with an appropriate drug to prevent accidental introductions. Ireland, UK and Malta requires dogs to be treated 24-48 hours before entry, while Sweden and Finland allow treatment up to 10 and 30 days respectively prior to entry. Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel to be administrated 10 and 30 days prior to entering Sweden and Finland respectively. Because the drug is only effective 24 hours after oral intake, these strategies leaves 9 and 29 days for the dogs to be reinfected in endemic areas. The lifespan of the worms is only 90 days and the maximum prevalence is therefore reached after 90 days exposure. A reinfection period of e.g. 9 days will thus allow for 10% of the maximum prevalence to be reached in the period between treatment and crossing the border. In the worst case the Swedish and the Finnish strategies only reduce the probability of importing an infected dog with 90% and 68 % respectively. EFSA therefore recommended that pet animals are treated with a single dose of Praziquantel 24 to 48 hours prior to departure. The EFSA risk assessment model defines risk as the probability of introducing a dog with an Em infection. However, I suggest Em may not be so contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern is establishing the parasite ina free area rather than the risk of importing an infected dog, I propose risk should be defined as the number of eggs excreted in a non-endemic area. Furthermore I suggest that the probability of establishing the parasite in a free area is linearly proportional to the number of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing or still in the immature stage or whether the worm are young or old and thus likely to have a long or short remaining lifespan. I here present an alternative deterministic mathematical model which calculates the average number of eggs excreted in a free country by a dog exposed in an endemic area. The model quantifies the risk as the cumulative number of eggs excreted by a dog in the free country. In order to calculate the number of eggs excrete

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes scapularis from a Newly Established Lyme Disease Endemic Area, the Thousand Islands Region of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Lisa; Lindsay, L Robbin; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Jardine, Claire M

    2015-10-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are vectors for several important human diseases, including Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), and human babesiosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. The continued northward range expansion of blacklegged ticks and associated pathogens is an increasing public health concern in Canada. The Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario has recently been identified as a new endemic area for Lyme disease in Canada, but the occurrence of other pathogens in ticks in this area has not been fully described. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and B. microti in small mammals and questing ticks in the Thousand Islands area and identify the strains of A. phagocytophilum circulating in ticks in the area. Serum and larval ticks were collected from trapped small mammals, and questing ticks were collected via drag sampling from up to 12 island and mainland sites in 2006, 2009, and 2010. A. phagocytophilum was identified by PCR in 3.4% (47/1388) ticks from eight of 12 sites; the prevalence ranged from 8.9% in 2006 to 3% in 2009. All 365 ticks tested for B. microti were negative. Antibodies to A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8% (17/611) of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at two of 11 sites in 2006, 2009, or 2010. All 34 A. phagocytophilum-positive ticks submitted for strain identification using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene were identified as a variant strain (Ap variant-1), which is not commonly associated with human disease. Our findings suggest that people are at low risk of contracting HGA or human babesiosis due to locally acquired tick bites in the Thousand Islands area. However, continued surveillance is warranted as these pathogens continue to expand their ranges in North America. PMID:26393476

  15. Modifying effect of COMT gene polymorphism and a predictive role for proteomics analysis in children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongliang; Qu, Weidong; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Jiang, Chunyang; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Cumulative fluoride exposure has adverse influences on children's intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with cognitive performance. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of COMT polymorphism and alterations of protein profiles with children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area. We recruited 180 schoolchildren (10-12 years old) from high fluoride exposure (1.40?mg/l) and control areas (0.63?mg/l) in Tianjin City, China. The children's IQ, fluoride contents in drinking water (W-F), serum (S-F), and urine (U-F); serum thyroid hormone levels, COMT Val158Met polymorphism, and plasma proteomic profiling were determined. Significant high levels of W-F, S-F, U-F, along with poor IQ scores were observed in the high fluoride exposure group compared with those in control (all P?IQ (r(s)?=?-0.47, P?IQ due to fluoride exposure. Moreover, the proteomic analysis can provide certain basis for identifying the early biological markers of fluorosis among children. PMID:25556215

  16. Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis / Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Rubinstein; Blanca, Marticorena; Diana, Masih; Noemi, Borletto; Raul, Vega; Haydee, Varengo; Ricardo, Negroni.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia) y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. im [...] mitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores). En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%. Abstract in english The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia) and the previous findings of a high incidence of c [...] occidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores). In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8%) and cryptococcin (31.9%) in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.

  17. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Elizabeth C, Dorval; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand f [...] lies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

  18. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilaria...

  19. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos Fernandes; Antonio Conceição Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo Gamarra; Alisson André Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures w...

  20. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeffer Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

  1. Historical relationships among areas of endemism in the tropical South America using Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA) / Relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas na região tropical da América do Sul utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Brooks (BPA)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Áreas de endemismo são consideradas as menores unidades de análise biogeográfica, podendo ser definidas como regiões de concentração de organismos de distribuição restrita, gerada por fatores históricos. O presente estudo buscou examinar os relacionamentos históricos entre áreas de endemismo na regi [...] ão tropical da América do Sul por meio do método da Análise de Parcimônia de Brooks (BPA). Para tal, foram selecionados 12 taxa filogeneticamente distintos, distribuídos dentro de duas classificações de áreas endêmicas previamente propostas, visando: (1) comparar as classificações de áreas endêmicas; (2) examinar se a Amazônia e a Mata Atlântica são unidades biogeográficas verdadeiras; (3) avaliar se a inclusão de áreas de vegetação aberta influencia os relacionamentos entre áreas florestais vizinhas. Os cladogramas gerais de áreas revelaram uma separação basal entre as áreas Amazônicas e Atlânticas, sugerindo um longo período de isolamento. As áreas endêmicas da Mata Atlântica foram agrupadas em um único grupo, com uma seqüência de eventos vicariantes do norte em direção ao sul. A hipótese de que a Amazônia é uma área composta por unidades históricas distintas foi corroborada. A inclusão do Cerrado e Caatinga, alterou os relacionamentos internos entre áreas Amazônicas, indicando que os esquemas de classificação de áreas endêmicas que incluem tanto áreas florestais quanto abertas devem ser preferidos devido a complementaridade entre as histórias evolucionárias destas áreas. Abstract in english Areas of endemism are the smallest units of biogeographical analysis. One of its definitions is that these areas harbor organisms with restricted distributions caused by non random historical factors. The aim of this study was to examine historical relationships among areas of endemism in the Neotro [...] pics using Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). We applied BPA to 12 unrelated taxa distributed within two sets of endemic areas in order to: (1) compare the proposed endemic area classifications; (2) examine whether Amazonia and Atlantic Forest are true biogeographic units and, (3) examine whether the inclusion of open area formations influence area relationships of the surrounding forests. General area cladograms revealed a basal split between Amazonian and Atlantic forests, suggesting that these areas have been isolated for a long period of time. All Atlantic forest endemic areas formed a monophyletic cluster, showing a sequence of vicariant events from north to south. The hypothesis that Amazonia is a composite area, made up of different historical units, is herein corroborated. When Cerrado and Caatinga (grasslands and savannas) are included, internal area relationships within Amazonia change, indicating that area classification schemes comprising forests and open formations should be preferred given the complementary history of these areas.

  2. Chrysops silacea biting densities and transmission potential in an endemic area of human loiasis in south-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, Samuel; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Esum, Mathias Eyong; Enyong, Peter

    2002-04-01

    We studied the biting densities of Chrysops silacea and the transmission of loiasis over 1 year in a regenerated forest in the south-west province of Cameroon. A total of 3015 flies caught near a wood fire at ground level during rainy and dry seasons were identified morphologically and 1975 caught during the rainy season were dissected to determine their physiological age and infection rate. The prevalence of microfilaraemia in the human population in the study area was determined using the thick blood smear method. Chrysops silacea was the only species caught. The daily and seasonal biting cycle of C. silacea showed two peaks of activities, 9-11 a.m. and 2-4 p.m. The biting cycles of parous and nulliparous flies showed the same trends, but the density of nulliparous flies biting at all time of the day was 2-3 times higher. Chrysops silacea biting density was high during the rainy season (9.06 +/- 6.88 flies/man/h) and lowest during the dry season (0.44 +/- 0.75 flies/man/h). An infection rate of 1.72% and a monthly morning and afternoon transmission potentials of 120769.11 and 139016.64 infective head L3/man were observed, respectively, in the rainy season. Even though few Chrysops carried Loa loa infective larvae (0.7%), their parasite load was high, giving a high level of transmission of L. loa in the area. A total of 20.37% of the people examined for blood microfilariae were positive. These results suggest that the study area is an active focus of loiasis transmission. PMID:11952954

  3. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.

  4. Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina / ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FERNANDO R, NAVARRO; FABIANA, CUEZZO; PABLO A, GOLOBOFF; CLAUDIA, SZUMIK; MERCEDES, LIZARRALDE DE GROSSO; M. GABRIELA, QUINTANA.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar si las areas de endemismo pueden ser caracterizadas cuantitativamente utilizando insectos, los cuales generalmente se encuentran mucho más pobremente muestreados que vertebrados y plantas. La búsqueda de areas de endemismo fue realizada utilizando un [...] criterio de optimalidad sobre aproximadamente 1,100 georreferencias de 288 especies de insectos holometábolos presentes en la región de estudio. Esta corresponde al noroeste de la Argentina, específicamente en las Yungas (un bosque lluvioso montano muy húmedo). El software NDM/VNDM, que aplica dicho criterio de optimalidad, fue usado para buscar areas de endemismo (i.e. conjuntos de celdas definidos por dos o más especies). Se utilizaron cinco tamaños de grilla: tres cuadrados (Iº, 0.5° y 0.25°) y dos rectangulares (0.25° x 0.5° y 0.5° x 0.25°). Los resultados de este estudio indican que las Yungas pueden ser caracterizadas como una unidad biogeográfica con identidad propia y estos resultados concuerdan con propuestas biogeográficas previas. Se obtuvieron 26 areas de endemismo con 23 especies endémicas de insectos (en 14 familias) restringidas a Yungas y 46 especies (en 10 familias) endémicas, presentes en Yungas y hábitats adyacentes. Nuestro análisis sugiere que el uso de insectos puede ser una herramienta poderosa para identificar areas de endemismo, aun considerando lo fragmentario del conocimiento actual de estos grupos en América del Sur. El uso de diferentes tamaños de grilla fue crucial. Tamaños pequeños y medianos son altamente recomendados para identificar patrones diferentes. El método cuantitativo utilizado permitió identificar areas de endemismo difíciles de reconocer con métodos biogeográficos tradicionales, tales como areas disyuntas o parcialmente superpuestas. Abstract in english The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1, [...] 100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest), located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion is implemented with the programs NDM/VNDM, used to evaluate areas of endemism (i.e. a set of cells defined by two or more endemic species). Five grid sizes were used, three square (Iº, 0.5°, and 0.25°) and two rectangular (0.25° x 0.5° and 0.5° x 0.25°). In agreement with the traditional biogeographic proposal, the results of the present study indicate that the Yungas can be characterized as a biogeographic unit with its own identity. Twenty six areas related to Yungas have shown 23 species of insects (in 14 families) as endemic, restricted to Yungas environment, and 46 species (in 10 families) as endemic, present in Yungas and surrounding habitats. Our analysis suggests that the use of insects to identify areas of endemism is a powerful tool, even considering the current fragmentary knowledge of these groups in South América. Given that there is no criterion to choose an optimal grid size, the use of different grid sizes is crucial; medium and small sizes are highly recommended because both identify seemingly different patterns. The quantitative method used here is useful to identify areas of endemism, such as disjoint areas or partially overlapping areas, which are difficult to see with other traditional biogeographic methods.

  5. The Potato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans Mont de Bary as Selection Factor of Phurejas Potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) in Endemic Areas of the Bolivian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Coca-Morante; Ismael Tolín-Tordoya

    2013-01-01

    Phurejas potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) are cultivated in very restricted areas of the Bolivian Andes. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a destructive, endemic disease that affects the survival and cultivation of this crop. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance characteristics of phurejas potato varieties to P. infestans in a traditional area of cultivation. An experimental plot was prepared in the locality of Chojchoni (3200 m) and planted with different ...

  6. Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kalidia Felipe de Lima, Costa; Sthenia Santos Albano, Amóra; Camila Fernandes de Amorim, Couto; Celeste da Silva Freitas de, Souza; Luanna Fernandes, Silva; Luiz Ney, d' Escoffier; Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de, Sousa; Thais Aparecida, Kazimoto.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regar [...] ding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and significance was determined using chi-square (?2) and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032). Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

  7. Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidia Felipe de Lima Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regarding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, and significance was determined using chi-square (?2 and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032. Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of the 121-bp repetitive sequence of Schistosoma mansoni: a highly sensitive potential diagnostic tool for areas of low endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Pérez, F; Bello, I; Bolívar, A; Lares, M; Osorio, A; León, L; Amarista, M; Incani, R N

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, whose diagnosis has limitations, such as the low sensitivity and specificity of parasitological and immunological methods, respectively. In the present study an alternative molecular technique requiring previous standardization was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of a 121-bp highly repetitive sequence for Schistosoma mansoni. DNA was extracted from eggs of S. mansoni by salting out. Different conditions were standardized for the PCR technique, including the concentration of reagents and the DNA template, annealing temperature and number of cycles, followed by the determination of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Furthermore, the standardized PCR technique was employed in DNA extracted, using Chelex®100, from samples of sera of patients with an immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. The optimal conditions for the PCR were 2.5 mm MgCl2, 150 mm deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.4 ?m primers, 0.75 U DNA polymerase, using 35 cycles and an annealing temperature of 63°C. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was 10 attograms of DNA and the specificity was 100%. The DNA sequence was successfully detected in the sera of two patients, demonstrating schistosomiasis transmission, although low, in the community studied. The standardized PCR technique, using smaller amounts of reagents than in the original protocol, is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of DNA from S. mansoni and could be an important tool for diagnosis in areas of low endemicity. PMID:25141275

  9. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  10. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  11. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

  12. Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) / Áreas de endemismo del Océano Austral: un re-análisis basado en datos adicionales de hidroides bentónicos

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    Thaís P, Miranda; Álvaro L, Peña Cantero; Antonio C, Marques.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La historia biogeográfica de la fauna del océano Antártico (OA) es compleja y está poco estudiada, principalmente en relación a las áreas de endemismo. Se ha reanalizado los datos de Marques & Peña Cantero (2010) junto con otros registros geográficos de hidrozoos bentónicos endémicos de la zona abaj [...] o de los 45°S. Una Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE) a partir de una matriz de 5° latitud por 5° longitud con 61 especies, obtuvo ocho áreas de endemismo. Se discute los resultados tomando en cuenta diferentes hipótesis sobre la evolución de la fauna del OA y los patrones biogeográficos de la literatura. Abstract in english The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO) fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010), along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) [...] based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

  13. Brucella spp. infection in large ruminants in an endemic area of Egypt: cross-sectional study investigating seroprevalence, risk factors and livestock owner's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs

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    El-Tras Wael F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is regarded as one of the major zoonotic infections worldwide. It was first reported in Egypt in 1939 and is now endemic, the predominate species of Brucella in cattle and buffalo in Egypt is B. melitensis. The aim of the study was to estimate seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle and buffalo reared in households in an Egyptian village, identify risk factors for animals testing seropositive and to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs of livestock owners with regards to brucellosis. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a village in Menufiya Governorate of Egypt. In June and July 2009, 107 households were selected using systematic sample and all lactating cattle and buffalo present in the household were sampled and tested for antibodies against Brucella spp. In addition, a questionnaire collecting information on potential risk factors for Brucella spp. infection in cattle and buffalo was administered to the household member responsible for rearing the livestock. Between December 2009 and February 2010 households were revisited and a second questionnaire regarding KAPs associated with brucellosis was administered. Results True individual and household seroprevalence were estimated to be 11.0% (95% CI: 3.06% to 18.4% and 15.5% (95% CI: 6.61% to 24.7%, respectively. Cattle and buffalo kept in a household with sheep and goats had 6.32 (95% CI: 1.44 to 27.9 times the odds of testing seropositive for Brucella spp., compared to cattle and buffalo that were not. Most participants in the study stated that livestock owners assist in the parturition of ruminants without wearing gloves and that some farmers sell animals which they suspect are Brucella infected to butchers or at market. Many participants made their livestock's milk into cheese and other dairy products without pasteurising it. Conclusions Brucellosis was endemic at high levels, in the current study. Although livestock owners had good general knowledge of brucellosis, they still appeared to participate in high-risk behaviours, which may contribute to the high seroprevalence in the area. Veterinarians, public health authorities and other community leaders need to collaborate to control the disease in animals and to manage the risk of human exposure.

  14. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

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    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  15. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio, França; Ednaldo L., Lago; Philip D., Marsden.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b), na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usa [...] das para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae) usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae) 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae) 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae) 2%. Abstract in english This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to trea [...] t skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae.) 2%.

  16. Effects of tick infestation on Boran (Bos indicus) cattle immunised against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, J J; Young, A S; Dransfield, R D; Cunningham, M P; Dolan, T T

    1985-11-01

    Boran (Bos indicus) heifers were immunised by infection with local Theileria parva parva, T p lawrencei and T mutans stocks and treated with parvaquone and later exposed to natural tick and tick-borne disease challenge in the Trans-Mara Division of Kenya. The Theileria species parasites in the challenge were maintained in African buffalo and cattle and the tick vectors were supported by several species of wild Bovidae and domestic livestock present in the area. Thirty immune cattle were observed for 30 weeks while grazing on a ranch in the Trans-Mara Division. Of these, 15 were immersed in toxaphene at weekly or twice-weekly intervals while 15 cattle remained without acaricide application. Cattle which became pregnant were withdrawn from the experiment. There was no evidence of any clinical tick-borne disease in either group of cattle during the experiment. Five species of ixodid ticks infested the cattle during the experiment and cattle which were not treated with acaricide had far more ticks. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was the most abundant tick species, with a mean infestation of 46 adults per animal in the undipped cattle. This tick also appeared to be the cause of the observed reduction in weight gains. Major haematological parameters did not differ significantly between the groups. Behavioural studies showed that the undipped cattle spent less time grazing and ruminating. This study has shown that, at the expense of some loss in productivity, zebu cattle, immunised against ticks and theileriosis, can be kept despite tick infestation. PMID:4081331

  17. Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province

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    F Ahmadipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

  18. Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa

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    Conway David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older children.

  19. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

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    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  20. Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, David; Rey, L; Sánchez-Cañizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T

    2013-03-01

    The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. PMID:23290449

  1. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  2. Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State

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    E. Pittner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

  3. Assessment of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in a low endemicity area by using multiplex fluorescent microsphere-based serological assays

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    Sarr Jean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of malaria transmission intensity is a crucial indicator for estimating the burden of malarial disease. In this respect, entomological and parasitological methods present limitations, especially in low transmission areas. The present study used a sensitive multiplex assay to assess the exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infection in children living in an area of low endemicity. In three Senegalese villages, specific antibody (IgG responses to 13 pre-erythrocytic P. falciparum peptides derived from Lsa1, Lsa3, Glurp, Salsa, Trap, Starp, Csp and Pf11.1 proteins were simultaneously evaluated before (June, at the peak (September and after (December the period of malaria transmission, in children aged from 1 to 8 years. Results Compared to other antigens, a high percentage of seropositivity and specific antibody levels were detected with Glurp, Salsa1, Lsa3NR2, and Lsa1J antigens. The seropositivity increased with age for all tested antigens. Specific IgG levels to Glurp, Salsa1, Lsa3NR2, and Lsa1J were significantly higher in P. falciparum infected children compared to non-infected and this increase is significantly correlated with parasite density. Conclusion The multiplex assay represents a useful technology for a serological assessment of rapid variations in malaria transmission intensity, especially in a context of low parasite rates. The use of such combined serological markers (i.e. Glurp, Lsa1, Lsa3, and Salsa could offer the opportunity to examine these variations over time, and to evaluate the efficacy of integrated malaria control strategies.

  4. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    B.O. Rikhotso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  5. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  6. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  7. Environmental infestation and rickettsial infection in ticks in an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever / Infestacao ambiental e infeccao por rickettsias em carrapatos de area endemica para Febre Maculosa Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose, Brites-Neto; Fernanda Aparecida, Nieri-Bastos; Jardel, Brasil; Keila Maria Roncato, Duarte; Thiago Fernandes, Martins; Cecilia Jose, Verissimo; Amalia Regina Mar, Barbieri; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma antropozoonose endêmica no município de Americana/SP, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida pelo carrapato Amblyomma cajennense. Este estudo avaliou a fauna de carrapatos e a infecção por riquétsias em carrapatos de vida livre capturados me [...] nsalmente com armadilhas de CO2, em áreas de risco para FMB de Americana, de julho de 2009 a junho de 2010. Duas espécies foram capturadas, A. cajennense (6.122 larvas; 4.265 ninfas; 2.355 adultos) e Amblyomma dubitatum (7.814 larvas; 3.364 ninfas; 1.193 adultos). Os estágios imaturos de A. cajennense e A. dubitatum apresentaram uma distribuição anual semelhante, com larvas de ambas as espécies sendo coletadas em maior número no período de abril a julho e ninfas de junho a outubro. Maior número de adultos de A. cajennense foi coletado de outubro a dezembro, enquanto que os adultos de A. dubitatum foram coletados em número relativamente semelhante durante todo o ano. A infecção por Rickettsia foi avaliada pela PCR em 1157 carrapatos A. cajennense e 1040 A. dubitatum, com apenas 41 (3,9%) A. dubitatum infectados com Rickettsia bellii. Este estudo demonstrou que as áreas de risco para FMB de Americana são caracterizadas por elevadas infestações ambientais de A. cajennense e A. dubitatum. Abstract in english Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is endemic in the municipality of Americana, southeastern Brazil, where the disease is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma cajennense. This study evaluated the tick fauna and rickettsial infection in free-living ticks that were captured m [...] onthly using dry ice traps in areas endemic for BSF in Americana, from July 2009 to June 2010. Two tick species were captured: A. cajennense (6,122 larvae; 4,265 nymphs; 2,355 adults) and Amblyomma dubitatum (7,814 larvae; 3,364 nymphs; 1,193 adults). The immature stages of A. cajennense and A. dubitatum had similar distribution through the 12-month period, with larvae of both species collected in highest numbers between April and July, and nymphs between June and October. The highest numbers of A. cajennense adults were collected between October and December, whereas A. dubitatum adults were collected in relatively similar numbers throughout the 12-month period. Rickettsial infection was evaluated by means of PCR in 1,157 A. cajennense and 1,040 A. dubitatum ticks; only 41 (3.9%) A. dubitatum were found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. The present study showed that the areas of Americana that are endemic for BSF are characterized by high environmental burdens of A. cajennense and A. dubitatum.

  8. Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Sedimentary microcosm showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). ? Addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but not arsenic. ? An As(V)-reducing bacterium (ARS-3) native to aquifer sediments was isolated. ? ARS-3 showed microbial reduction of As(V) to As(III) in pore water in this aquifer. - Abstract: High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23 ± 0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7 ± 21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27 ± 0.01 mM and 571.4 ± 63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments.

  9. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Leptospira infection in dogs during a one-year period in an endemic urban area in Southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivien Midori, Morikawa; Daniele, Bier; Maysa, Pellizzaro; Leila Sabrina, Ullmann; Igor Adolfo Dexheimer, Paploski; Mariana, Kikuti; Hélio, Langoni; Alexander Welker, Biondo; Marcelo Beltrão, Molento.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dog [...] s in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ?100) of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer) density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6) to 19% (14.1 - 25.2), the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6) to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2), and the global seroincidence density rate of infection was 11% (9.1 - 13.2) per dog-trimester. Canicola and Icterohaemorraghiae were the most frequent incident serogroups observed in all follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-ups with mean trimester intervals were incapable of detecting any increase in seroprevalence due to seroincident cases of canine leptospirosis, suggesting that antibody titers may fall within three months. Further studies on incident infections, disease burden or risk factors for incident Leptospira cases should take into account the detectable lifespan of the antibody.

  10. Seasonality of Ixodes ricinus ticks on vegetation and on rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies diversity in two Lyme borreliosis-endemic areas in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, David; Kneubühler, Yvan; Rais, Olivier; Gern, Lise

    2012-08-01

    We compared Ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis (LB)-endemic areas in Switzerland (Portes-Rouges [PR] and Staatswald [SW]) from 2003 to 2005. There were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. Questing nymphs were globally more abundant at PR than at SW, but the proportion of rodents infested by immature ticks was similar (59.4% and 61%, respectively). Questing tick activity lasted from February to November with a strong decline in June. The seasonal pattern of ticks infesting rodents was different. Ticks infested rodents without decline in summer, suggesting that the risk of being bitten by ticks remains high during the summer. Rodents from SW showed the highest infestation levels (10±21.6 for larvae and 0.54±1.65 for nymphs). The proportion of rodents infested simultaneously by larvae and nymphs (co-feeding ticks) was higher at SW (28%) than at PR (11%). Apodemus flavicollis was the species the most frequently infested by co-feeding ticks, and Myodes glareolus was the most infective rodent species as measured by xenodiagnosis. At PR, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in questing ticks was higher (17.8% for nymphs and 32.4% for adults) than at SW (10.4% for nymphs and 24.8% for adults), with B. afzelii as the dominant species, but B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana were also detected. Rodents transmitted only B. afzelii (at PR and at SW) and B. bavariensis (at SW) to ticks, and no mixed infection by additional genospecies was observed in co-feeding ticks. This implies that co-feeding transmission does not contribute to genospecies diversity. However, persistent infections in rodents and co-feeding transmission contribute to the perpetuation of B. afzelii in nature. PMID:22607074

  11. What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faucher Jean-François

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria attack in children with submicroscopic malaria. Methods PCR data were prospectively collected in the setting of an exposed (with fever/non exposed (without fever study design. All children had a negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT at baseline, were followed up to day 14 and did not receive drugs with anti-malarial activity. The index group was defined by children with fever at baseline and the control group by children without fever at baseline. Children with submicroscopic malaria in these two groups were defined by a positive PCR at baseline. Results PCR was positive in 66 (27% children of the index group and in 104 (44% children of the control group respectively. The only significant factor positively related to PCR positivity at baseline was the clinical status (control group. When definition of malaria attacks included PCR results, no difference of malaria incidence was observed between the index and control groups, neither in the whole cohort, nor in children with submicroscopic malaria. The rate of undiagnosed malaria at baseline was estimated to 3.7% at baseline in the index group. Conclusions Treating all children with fever and a positive PCR would have led to a significant increase of anti-malarial consumption, with few benefits in terms of clinical events. Non malarial fevers do not or do not frequently trigger malaria attacks in children with submicroscopic malaria.

  12. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Leishmania donovani: assessment of leishmanicidal effects of herbal extracts obtained from plants in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubhankar K; Bimal, Sanjiva; Narayan, Shyam; Jee, Chandrawati; Bimal, Devla; Das, P; Bimal, Raageeva

    2011-02-01

    One obstacle faced in the effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the limited number of available treatment options. Furthermore, control efforts have been hindered further by the emergence of Leishmania resistance to many of the available drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-leishmanial properties of 30 medicinally important plants from the VL endemic area of Bihar, India and compared them to two available anti-leishmanial drugs (sodium antimony gluconate and amphotericin B) and two plant lectins (phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A) on Leishmania donovani promastigotes in vitro at 24 and 48 h after initiation of culture. We identified eight plant extracts in addition to phytohemagglutinin and amphotericin B that significantly inhibited the growth of promastigotes (p Piper longum) of the eight plant extracts that induced significant promastigotes killing (p = 0.00098). Effect-based dose finding analysis revealed that the threshold concentration of A. americana required to eliminate L. donovani after 24h was 0.05 mg/ml. A. indica and P. longum plant extracts eliminated L. donovani promastigotes after 48 h at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5mg/ml, respectively. E. alba eliminated the promastigotes at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml within 24h. The axenic amastigote killing response was 1.90-, 2.52- and 1.3-fold higher than the promastigote killing response with A. indica, A. americana and E. alba plant extracts, respectively. A. americana and A. indica, respectively, led to approximate 2.5- and 1.3-fold declines in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity compared with control. E. alba stimulation resulted in an up-regulation of dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.00329). The CSA from P. longum was found to be least cytotoxic; the observed difference in mitochondrial activity was insignificant (p = 0.16314). Further studies may reveal the pharmacological significance of many of the plants with anti-leishmanial properties identified in the present study. PMID:21070771

  14. Long-term survival and predictors for mortality among dialysis patients in an endemic area for chronic liver disease: a national cohort study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Chih-Chiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD are at a higher risk for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (LC and mortality than the general population. Optimal modalities of renal replacement therapy for ESRD patients with concomitant end-stage liver disease remain controversial. We investigated the long-term outcome for chronic liver disease among dialysis patients in an endemic area. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claim data (NHRI-NHIRD-99182, We performed a longitudinal cohort study to investigate the impact of comorbidities on mortality in dialysis patients. We followed up 11293 incident hemodialysis (HD and 761 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients from the start of dialysis until the date of death or the end of database period (December 31, 2008. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors for all-cause mortality. Results Patients receiving PD tended to be younger and less likely to have comorbidities than those receiving HD. At the beginning of dialysis, a high prevalence rate (6.16?% of LC was found. Other than well-known risk factors, LC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.473, 95?% CI: 1.329-1.634 and dementia (HR 1.376, 95?% CI: 1.083-1.750 were also independent predictors of mortality. Hypertension and mortality were inversely associated. Dialysis modality and three individual comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and dementia interacted significantly on mortality risk. Conclusions LC is an important predictor of mortality; however, the effect on mortality was not different between HD and PD patients.

  15. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas; Roberto Costa Peres; Fernando Alves; Mauro Blanco Brandolini

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%). A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and M...

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi among wild and domestic mammals in different areas of the Abaetetuba municipality (Pará State, Brazil), an endemic Chagas disease transmission area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta C C; Gerhardt, Marconny; Silva, Miguel F O; Lima, Valdirene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Jansen, Ana M

    2013-03-31

    The presence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) due to oral transmission is growing and expanding in several South American countries. Within the Amazon basin, the Abaetetuba municipality has been a site of recurrent cases spanning across distinct landscapes. Because Chagas disease is primarily a zoonotic infection, we compared the enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles in three different environmental areas of Abaetetuba to better understand this new epidemiological situation. Philander opossum was the most abundant mammalian species collected (38% of the collected mammals) with a T. cruzi prevalence of 57%, as determined by hemocultures. Didelphis marsupialis was abundant only in the area with the higher level of environmental disturbance (approximately 42%) and did not yield detectable parasitemia. Despite similarities observed in the composition of the small mammalian fauna and the prevalence of T. cruzi infection among the studied areas, the potential of these hosts to infect vectors differed significantly according to the degree of land use (with prevalences of 5%, 41%, and 64% in areas A3, A1 and A2, respectively). Domestic mammals were also found to be infected, and one canine T. cruzi isolate was obtained. Our data demonstrated that the transmission of T. cruzi in the Amazon basin is far more complex than had been previously taught and showed that the probability of humans and domestic mammals coming into contact with infected bugs can vary dramatically, even within the same municipality. The exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection (indicated by positive serology) was the common feature among the studied localities, stressing the importance of selecting domestic mammals as sentinels in the identification of T. cruzi transmission hotspots. PMID:23261089

  17. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Craven

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.

  18. Hyperreactive Onchocerciasis is Characterized by a Combination of Th17-Th2 Immune Responses and Reduced Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katawa, Gnatoulma; Layland, Laura E.; Debrah, Alex Y.; von Horn, Charlotte; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Arriens, Sandra; W. Taylor, David; Specht, Sabine; HOERAUF, ACHIM; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO)/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection a...

  19. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in two different endemic settings: Koulikoro district, along the river and Selingué dam area in the Niger River Basin in order to compare and describe morbidity related to Schistosoma haematobium infection. A total of 667 children aged 7-14 were enrolled in the study. Among these, 333 were from Koulikoro district (175 boys and 158 girls) and 334 from Selingué dam area (169 boys and 165 girls). The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the two areas was 91.5%; Koulikoro (97.0%) and Selingué (85.9%) and this difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. Prevalence of heavy infection (? 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine), 57.6% in Koulikoro and 43.8% in Selingué, did not differ significantly after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. The transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was mainly confined to Selingué dam area (12.5%) and was nearly absent in Koulikoro district (1.1%). Blood in urine was the most frequently reported clinical symptom, more common in Koulikoro (76.8%) than in Selingué (57.6%). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for sex, age group, egg intensity category and clustering within villages, Selingué had higher prevalence of macro-haematuria, urinary tract pathology, upper urinary tract pathology and total pathology than Koulikoro, while micro-haematuria did not differ between the two areas. Morbidity measures increased to some extent with egg intensity category, especially micro-haematuria. The results obtained from this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali.

  20. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal; Keita, Adama D; Traoré, Mamadou S; Landouré, Aly; Doucouré, Aïssata; Madsen, Henry; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in two different endemic settings: Koulikoro district, along the river and Selingué dam area in the Niger River Basin in order to compare and describe morbidity related to Schistosoma haematobium infection. A total of 667 children aged 7-14 were enrolled in the study. Among these, 333 were from Koulikoro district (175 boys and 158 girls) and 334 from Selingué dam area (169 boys and 165 girls). The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the two areas was 91.5%; Koulikoro (97.0%) and Selingué (85.9%) and this difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. Prevalence of heavy infection (? 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine), 57.6% in Koulikoro and 43.8% in Selingué, did not differ significantly after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. The transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was mainly confined to Selingué dam area (12.5%) and was nearly absent in Koulikoro district (1.1%). Blood in urine was the most frequently reported clinical symptom, more common in Koulikoro (76.8%) than in Selingué (57.6%). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for sex, age group, egg intensity category and clustering within villages, Selingué had higher prevalence of macro-haematuria, urinary tract pathology, upper urinary tract pathology and total pathology than Koulikoro, while micro-haematuria did not differ between the two areas. Morbidity measures increased to some extent with egg intensity category, especially micro-haematuria. The results obtained from this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali. PMID:21195046

  1. Serotipo, Patrón de Infección y Dengue Hemorrágico en Área Endémica Colombiana Dengue hemorrhagic fever serotype and infection pattern in a Colombian endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel E Ocazionez

    Full Text Available Objetivo La relación entre serotipo del virus, patrón de infección y dengue hemorrágico es presentada. Métodos Se estudiaron 1 545 pacientes febriles de municipios del Departamento de Santander, Colombia, entre 1998-2004. El dengue se confirmó por ELISA-IgM y el aislamiento viral se hizo en células C6/36. El patrón de infección se estableció investigando anticuerpos IgG en suero agudo. El título de anticuerpos neutralizantes se determinó usando la prueba de neutralización por reducción de placa (PRNT. Resultados Predominancia del DEN-1 en 1998 y re-introducción del DEN-3 en 2001 coincidieron con epidemias. El dengue hemorrágico fue más frecuente en infecciones por virus DEN-2 que DEN-3 (24,5 % vs 11,2 %; pObjective Describing the relationship between viral serotypes, infection pattern and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Methods 1 545 febrile patients were studied from 1998-2004 in the Santander department of Colombia. Dengue infection was confirmed by IgM ELISA and the virus was isolated in C6/36 cells. Infection pattern was established by detecting IgG antibodies in acute serum. Neutralising antibody titres were investigated in dengue cases occurring during years when less (1998 and more (2001 dengue hemorrhagic cases were reported by using PRNT. Results DEN-1 predominance in 1998 and the re-introduction of DEN-3 in 2001 coincided with an epidemic. DEN-2 infection caused more hemorrhagic cases than DEN-3 infection (24,5 % cf 11,2 %; p<0.05. DEN-2 was more associated with secondary infection than DEN-3 (56,8 % cf 15,7 %; p<0.001. An annual decrease of DHF was correlated with decreased DEN-2 dominance (r=0.95; p= 0.01, and secondary infection (r=0.9; p=0.03 and increased DEN-3 predominance (r=-0.91; p=0.03. There were no differences in neutralising antibody titres amongst analysed cases. DEN-1 neutralising antibodies presented the highest titres. Conclusions Change in relative dengue virus serotype abundance was associated with changed infection pattern and DHF frequency. Continuing virological surveillance should become a priority for preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever in endemic areas.

  2. School-based and community-based actions for scaling-up diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis toward its elimination in an endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Tereza C; Pereira, Ana Paula B; Beck, Lilian C N H; Galvão, Aline F; Pieri, Otávio S

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated a school-based and a community-based scheme for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of schistosomiasis mansoni among school-aged children in views of resolution CD49.R19 of the Pan American Health Organization toward the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in the Americas and subsequent commitments endorsed by the Brazilian government. The school-aged population from a representative municipality of the endemic area of Northeastern Brazil was randomly allocated to either school-based or community-based scheme. The two schemes were compared with regard to coverage of diagnosis by the Kato-Katz method (KK) at baseline, treatment of the positives for Schistosoma mansoni with praziquantel, treatment of the positives for soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) with mebendazole, as well as follow-up of treatment efficacy and reinfection assessed respectively at four and 12 months after treatment. Nutritional status of the positives for S. mansoni was assessed at baseline and re-assessed at 12 months after treatment. Coverage of diagnosis and treatment was satisfactory (>75%) in both schemes. Diagnosis coverage at baseline and at 12 months was significantly higher in the community scheme, whereas treatment coverage did not differ significantly between the two schemes either at baseline or at 12 months. The number of children covered per day was significantly higher in the schools than in the community at baseline but not at follow-up, when daily coverage was higher in the community. With regard to S. mansoni, overall treatment efficacy rate at four months was 90.8%, and reinfection rate at 12 months was 21.6%. For STH, overall treatment efficacy was 45.4% and reinfection, 32.8%. The nutritional status of the positives for S. mansoni at baseline did not change significantly at 12 months post-treatment. Actions targeted at this particularly vulnerable high-risk group should combine school-based and community-based interventions as well as preventive measures to reduce transmission. PMID:25940353

  3. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis / Ecologia de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia migonei em uma área endêmica para Leishmaniose Visceral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafaella Albuquerque, Silva; Fabricio Kassio Moura, Santos; Lindemberg Caranha de, Sousa; Elizabeth Ferreira, Rangel; Claudia Maria Leal, Bevilaqua.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O principal vetor de leishmaniose visceral (LV) no Brasil é Lutzomyia longipalpis. Entretanto, a ausência de L. longipalpis em área com casos autóctones de LV demonstra a existência de outras espécies na transmissão dessa doença. Estudo realizado na cidade de La Banda, Argentina, e São Vicente Férre [...] r, Brasil, correlacionou a ausência de L. longipalpis e a presença de Lutzomyia migonei com casos autóctones de LV. Em São Vicente Férrer, foi comprovada a infecção natural de L. migonei por Leishmania infantum chagasi. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ecologia dos flebotomíneos L. longipalpis e L. migonei no município de Fortaleza, área endêmica para LV. A captura de flebotomíneos foi realizada em 22 pontos de coleta distribuídos nas quatro regiões do município de Fortaleza. No total, foram capturados 32.403 flebotomíneos. Destes, 18.166 (56%) eram da espécie L. longipalpis e 14.237 (44%) eram L. migonei. Houve diferença significativa de densidade entre os vetores em cada local de captura (intra e peri) (p Abstract in english The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Fé [...] rrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p

  4. The Risk of Depressive Disorder Among Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a TB-endemic Area: A Population-based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng-Wei; Yen, Yung-Feng; Feng, Jia-Yih; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Kou, Yu Ru; Su, Wei-Juin

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disease may be transmitted to close contacts of index cases, causing physical illness. No studies have investigated the risk of developing depressive disorder among TB contacts in a TB-endemic area.Adult participants with a new diagnosis of TB contact (ICD-9-CM codes V01.1 plus chest radiographic order) since January 1, 2008, were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A control cohort matched for age (±5 y), sex, enrolled years, and income level was selected. These 2 cohorts were followed until December 31, 2012, and observed for the development of depressive disorder. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to examine the difference in cumulative incidences of depressive disorder between groups. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for depressive disorder.The TB contact cohort consisted of 9046 patients and matched controls of 36,184 ones. The mean age of TB contacts was 44.7 years, and 56.0% of them were women. During a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, 127 (1.40%) TB contacts and 521 (1.44%) matched controls developed depressive disorder. TB exposure was found to be an independent risk factor of depressive disorder in women (aHR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.68), but not in men (aHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48-1.06) after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and income levels. The risk of depression was significantly higher for female TB contacts than for matched controls in the first and second years (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.14; and aHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.23, respectively), but not thereafter. Of note, 67 (0.74%) TB contacts and 88 (0.24%) matched controls developed active TB, but none of them had subsequent depressive disorder during follow-up periods.Female TB contacts had an increased risk of depression within the first 2 years after exposure. Clinicians should consider conducting depression evaluations in addition to routine TB contact investigations in this subgroup population. PMID:26512600

  5. Interim strategies to control animal trypanosomiasis in two selected villages along the white volta river in the onchocerciasis free zone of Northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onchocerciasis eradication campaign in the west African subregion was a remarkable success which made formally deserted lands now suitable for settlement. Recent tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys along the White Volta river indicate that livestock development would virtually be impossible in these areas without some form of intervention to contain animal trypanosomiasis. Apparent fly densities are in the order of 5-10 flies/trap/day (biconica traps) with fly infection rate being in the order of 1-8.0%. Trypanosomiasis is particularly prevalent in small ruminants (12-30%) with several reported cases of abortion. In view of the sparse human population in some of these areas, large scale control programmes would not be advisable unless there is a clear land-use plan. In the interim, however, efforts could be made to control the disease at the village level. This paper outlines some village-based strategies that could be adopted by settlers in these areas. (author)

  6. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus still remains unanswered as the data presented here also suggest that S. limbatum found in the savannahs adjacent to, but outside the Amazonia focus (and which represent the only S. limbatum population to be unambiguously incriminated as a host of Onchocerca volvulus), are genetically distinct from those living inside the focus. These findings highlight the need for a clearer picture of the vector taxonomy inside the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. PMID:23545131

  7. Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area / Status sorológico e de infecção canina em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Farias, Laranjeira; Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da, Matta; Thaíse Yumie, Tomokane; Mary, Marcondes; Carlos Eduardo Pereira, Corbet; Márcia Dalastra, Laurenti.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Foi investigado o status sorológico de cães, em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral, e sua correlação com a infecção parasitológica dos animais. MÉTODOS A resposta humoral canina foi avaliada no soro de 134 cães pelo método ELISA e pela imuno-histoquímica, para detectar parasitos na [...] pele, linfonodo e baço desses animais. Os anticorpos específicos investigados foram IgG, IgG1, IgG2 e IgE. RESULTADOS De acordo com os achados parasitológicos, laboratoriais e clínicos, os cães foram alocados em um dos quatro grupos: assintomáticos com (AP+, n = 21) e sem (AP-, n = 36) parasitismo tecidual por Leishmania e sintomáticos com (SP+, n = 52) ou sem (SP-, n = 25) parasitismo. Níveis mais elevados de IgG e IgE se correlacionaram positivamente com o status de infecção e a carga parasitária, mas não com a condição clínica. Em todos os grupos, IgG total foi o anticorpo predominante, com maior concentração de IgG2 que IgG1. O anticorpo IgG foi positivo em proporção elevada nos animais infectados (SP+ 98,1%; AP+ 95,2%), mas não o IgE (SP+ 80,8%; AP+ 71,2%). O achado mais relevante refere-se aos cães não infectados que apresentaram elevada positividade para anticorpos IgG anti-Leishmania (SP- 60,0%; AP- 44,4%), IgE (SP- 44,0%; AP- 27,8%), IgG1 (SP- 28,0%; AP- 22,2%) e IgG2 (SP- 56,0%; AP- 41,7%). CONCLUSÕES O status sorológico dos cães, determinado por qualquer classe ou subclasse de anticorpos, não distinguiu com acurácia cães infectados por L. (L.) infantum chagasi daqueles não infectados. A imprecisão do resultado sorológico pode prejudicar não só o diagnóstico, mas também as investigações epidemiológicas e as estratégias para o controle da leishmaniose visceral. Esse complexo cenário sorológico observado na área endêmica mostra quão desafiador é o diagnóstico canino, e aponta a dificuldade enfrentada pelos médicos veterinários e coordenadores dos programas de controle. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay a [...] nd immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs.

  8. Urine Turbidity and Microhaematuria as Rapid Assessment Indicators for Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School Children in Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Adesola; Ntiaidem Uduak; Morenikeji Olajumoke; Nwuba Roseangela; Anumudu Chiaka; Adejuwon Sunday; Salawu Oyetunde; Jegede Ayodele; Odaibo Alex

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Urinary schistosomiasis is highly endemic in Nigeria and for effective control measure, an efficient, quick and yet cheap diagnosis should be integrated. This will ensure the proper management of infection due to Schistosoma haematobium in low resource communities of Nigeria. Approach: This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 456 (252 males, 204 females) school children aged 3-20 years between November 2010 and June 2011. Urine samples were examined macroscopically f...

  9. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; BOUYER, DONALD H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H; Cláudio L. Mafra; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Po...

  10. Brucella spp. infection in large ruminants in an endemic area of Egypt: cross-sectional study investigating seroprevalence, risk factors and livestock owner's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Tras Wael F; Hegazy Yamen M; Eltholth Mahmoud M; Holt Hannah R; Tayel Ahmed A; Guitian Javier

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brucellosis is regarded as one of the major zoonotic infections worldwide. It was first reported in Egypt in 1939 and is now endemic, the predominate species of Brucella in cattle and buffalo in Egypt is B. melitensis. The aim of the study was to estimate seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle and buffalo reared in households in an Egyptian village, identify risk factors for animals testing seropositive and to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of live...

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of recombinant parasite antigens for immunodiagnosis of onchocerciasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, R; Masood, K; Alvarez, R M; Ogunrinade, A F; Lujan, R.; Richards, F O; Weil, G J

    1991-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity among nematodes has hampered the development of specific serodiagnostic assays for onchocerciasis. In the present study, an Onchocerca volvulus adult worm complementary DNA expression library was differentially screened with human sera from patients infected with O. volvulus and with an omnibus anti-nematode serum pool comprised of sera from patients infected with Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancyl...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigens for serodiagnosis of onchocerciasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunrinade, A F; Chandrashekar, R; Eberhard, M. L.; Weil, G J

    1993-01-01

    Serodiagnostic assays for onchocerciasis based on native antigens are hampered by the scarcity of antigen, and they suffer from poor specificity. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of recently described recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigens OC 3.6 and OC 9.3 in enzyme immunoassays. The recombinant proteins were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusions and were tested in several enzyme immunoassay formats to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG4 antibo...

  13. Ivermectin distribution and the cultural context of forest onchocerciasis in South Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, B S; Kollo, B; Cline, B L

    1996-05-01

    This investigation examined the cultural context of forest onchocerciasis in several communities in the Dja-Lobo Division of southern Cameroon. The study sought to elucidate behaviors that would enhance or diminish health status relative to forest onchocerciasis and other filarial infections, and to make culturally sensitive and appropriate recommendations regarding the development of health education materials and the long-term sustainability of the ivermectin distribution program in Dja-Lobo. The study consisted of two sequential components; the first was a qualitative study of a few severely affected villages and the second was a quantitative study of 212 randomly selected heads of households from eight villages. The Boulou and Baka peoples in these communities defined general filariasis (minak) as small worms under the skin, identified flies as important transmitters of the illness, and indicated that blindness and other skin and ocular problems were a consequence of the illness. Illness of the Dja (referring to an illness found near the Dja River) was another illness that was closely linked to onchocerciasis; local people indicated it was transmitted by the black flies found near the Dja River, resulting in severe itching and leopard skin. These and other cultural-behavioral data on filariasis were used to implement a health education and distribution program. PMID:8644908

  14. Determinación de áreas de endemismo en mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Venezuela, mediante criterios explícitos de optimización / Determination of areas of endemism in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela, through explicit optimization criteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiola, Del Ventura; Jonathan, Liria; Juan-Carlos, Navarro.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Familia Culicidae ha sido estudiada ampliamente debido a su importancia en la salud pública y veterinaria. Varias especies de esta Familia son vectores de múltiples patógenos que causan enfermedades que generan altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad, así como numerosas pérdidas económicas. El con [...] ocimiento de la distribución geográfica de este grupo y el análisis de su biogeografía histórica nos permitirán obtener más conocimientos acerca de su historia natural, de las razones geológicas y ecológicas de su distribución, así como de patrones epidemiológicos de las enfermedades de las cuales son vectores. La delimitación de Áreas de Endemismo (AE) es un paso inicial y fundamental para la realización de análisis de biogeografía histórica, para ello se elaboró una base de datos de 9.610 registros, 435 localidades, 20 géneros y 261 especies de Venezuela, a partir del cual se realizaron mapas de distribución, análisis explícitos de áreas de endemismos (AE) y parsimonioso de endemicidad (PAE) en los programas (software) NDM/VNDM. Los registros compilados de la Familia Culicidae se distribuyen principalmente al Norte del país, con distribuciones particulares hacia zonas montañosas o la región del Macizo Guayanés, entre otras. Se proponen tres áreas de endemismo para mosquitos: Macizo Guayanés-Pantepui, Región Norte-central y Cordillera Andina, las cuales son concordantes con las zonas ancestrales y recientes de la historia geológica del territorio. Abstract in english The Family Culicidae has been studied extensively because of its importance in veterinary and public health. Several species of this family are vectors of pathogens causing multiple diseases which to generate high rates of morbidity and mortality and numerous economic losses. Studies of the geograph [...] ical distribution of Culicidae and its historical biogeography analysis will allow us to obtain more knowledge about the natural history and explanations of geological and ecological reasons of the distribution and also the epidemiological patterns of diseases which are involved. The delimitation of areas of endemism (AE) is a crucial initial step for the analysis of historical biogeography and for this we developed a database of 9,610 records in 435 localities, 20 genera and 261 species from Venezuela, map distribution, and explicit analyzes of areas of endemism (AE) and parsimonious of endemicity (PAE) software NDM / VNDM. The records compiled of Culicidae are mainly distributed in the north of the country, with particular distributions to mountainous or Guayana Shield region, among others. The results suggest the proposal of three endemism areas for mosquitoes: Guayana Shield-Pantepui, North-Central Region and Andean mountains cordillera, which are concordant with recent and ancestral areas of the geological history of the country.

  15. Punção biópsia aspirativa de tireóide em região endêmica de bócio colóide Fine needle aspiration citology in an endemic colloid goiter area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A. Lima

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Propusemo-nos verificar a freqüência de tireoidopatias em região endêmica de bócio colóide através de punção biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina (PBAAF. Foram avaliados os diagnósticos obtidos por este método em 1265 pacientes portadores de tireoidopatias difusas ou nodulares tratados na cidade de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, no período de 1989 a 2000, correlacionando-os com o sexo e a idade. As tireoidopatias mais freqüentemente encontradas foram bócio colóide (54,38%, tireoidite crônica de Hashimoto (22,70% e tumor folicular (8,61%, predominantemente no sexo feminino (92% e na faixa etária entre 30 e 60 anos (64,12%. Em conclusão, além do predomínio de bócio colóide, a tireoidite crônica de Hashimoto apresentou incidência maior que aquelas relatadas em outras regiões endêmicas e não endêmicas de bócio e houve elevada freqüência de tumores foliculares, cerca de treze vezes mais freqüentes que o carcinoma papilífero.The frequency of thyroid diseases was verified in an endemic goiter region, based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid diseases, in its nodular or diffuse form, were evaluated through 1265 FNAC in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1989 and 2000, according to sex and age. Colloid goiter was found in 54.39%, followed by Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis (22.70% and follicular tumors (8,61%, mainly in females (92% between 30 and 60 years old (64.12%. To conclude, besides the prevalence of colloid goiter, Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis presented a higher frequency than those seen in endemic regions and non-endemic goiter region and there was also a high frequency of follicular tumors, around 13 times higher than papillary carcinoma.

  16. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...

  17. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  18. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Charalambous; P. D., Ready; A. J., Shelley; M., Arzube; C. A., Lowry.

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (o [...] f the Cayapa cytotype) by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure) collection.

  19. Serum hyaluronan and collagen IV as non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni: a field-based study in Brazil

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    Carolina Coimbra Marinho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive markers of fibrosis have been used to diagnose liver fibrosis in a variety of diseases. Hyaluronic acid (HA and collagen IV (C-IV levels were measured in the sera of patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil to diagnose and to rank the intensity of liver fibrosis. Seventy-nine adult patients with schistosomiasis, in the age range of 21-82 years (49 ± 13.4 were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic examinations. Ultrasound was employed to diagnose and categorise liver fibrosis according to World Health Organization patterns. Serum HA and C-IV levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Ultrasound revealed six patients with intense liver fibrosis, 21 with moderate, 23 with light and 29 without. Serum HA was able to separate individuals with fibrosis from those without (p < 0.001 and light from intense fibrosis (p = 0.029, but C-IV was not (p = 0.692. The HA diagnostic accuracy for fibrosis was 0.89. The 115.4 ng/mL cut-off level diagnosed patients with fibrosis (sensitivity 0.98, specificity 0.64. HA correlated positively with portal hypertension. Periportal fibrosis (subjective evaluation, age and collateral circulation predicted HA increase. In conclusion, we propose that serum HA can be used to identify patients with liver fibrosis in an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil.

  20. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceovi?, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  1. Vigilância de doenças endêmicas em áreas urbanas: a interface entre mapas de setores censitários e indicadores de morbidade Surveillance of endemic diseases in urban areas: the interface between census tract maps and morbidity data

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    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se o eixo metodológico utilizado na construção de modelo de vigilância de endemias em áreas urbanas, orientado por uma análise de situações de risco e por indicadores epidemiológicos espaciais. São apresentadas as premissas básicas do modelo, os critérios de seleção de variáveis sócio-econômicas e as etapas metodológicas necessárias na construção do indicador sintético de risco. Comenta-se, também, como algumas questões operacionais relativas à construção de mapas digitais de setores censitários e vinculação de bancos de dados foram equacionadas. Essa abordagem, incorporando o componente da organização do espaço na vigilância de doenças endêmicas, tendo como exemplo a hanseníase e a tuberculose, privilegia o uso integrado de sistemas de informação já existentes, na perspectiva de estratificar áreas urbanas diferenciadas que permite discriminar riscos desiguais para ocorrência de endemias. Essa é uma ferramenta para o planejamento e o gerenciamento das ações voltadas para o controle das endemias nas cidades.In this article we discuss the methodological issues associated with the creation of a surveillance system for endemic diseases in urban areas based on analysis of populations at risk and on spatially referenced epidemiological indicators. We comment on the system's basic requirements, selection criteria for socioeconomic variables, and methodological steps to combine these variables so as to construct a census-based deprivation index. We also present the ways we solved some operational problems related to generation of digitized census tracts maps and linkage of morbidity data from different sources. This approach, spatial organization into account in surveillance of endemic diseases, exemplified here by tuberculosis and leprosy, allows for the interaction of several official data sets from census and health services in order to geographically discriminate inner-city risk strata. Criteria for constructing these risk strata were considered a useful tool for health planning and management activities for the control of endemic diseases in cities.

  2. Host immune response to Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides in a highly endemic area: evidence of parasite co-immunomodulation properties influencing the outcome of both infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lílian MG, Bahia-Oliveira; Juliana Azevedo da, Silva; Alba Lucinia, Peixoto-Rangel; Marcela Santana Bastos, Boechat; Annelise M Wilken Abreu, Oliveira; Cristiano L, Massara; Ricardo Guerra, Peixe.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and ascaridiasis evoke polar Th-1 and Th-2 host immune responses, respectively. A study to investigate the specific cytokine profile production by in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals living under precarious sanitary conditions in a highly endemic ar [...] ea for the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides was conducted. High levels of both IFN-³ (Th-1) and IL-13 (Th-2) were observed in groups of co-infected individuals presenting toxoplasmic ocular lesions. Significantly lower IL-10 and TGF-² levels were produced by co-infected individuals in comparison with groups of individuals not infected with A. lumbricoides and either positive or negative for T. gondii living under good sanitary conditions (control groups). The possible influence of co-parasitism on the clinical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis is discussed.

  3. Assessing the role of routine chest radiography in asymptomatic students during registration at a university in an endemic area of tuberculosis

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    Moifo Boniface

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Routine chest radiographs are usually obtained from asymptomatic individuals during routine medical visits probably to detect the presence of occult disease. In sub-Saharan countries tuberculosis is endemic among young individuals; primary tuberculosis might be the most probable occult disease sought for. Aims: The aim was to determine the diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness of routine chest radiography in an asymptomatic student population in Yaounde during registration at a university. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in a University-affiliated hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: Postero-anterior (PA chest radiographs were obtained from students during a routine medical visit before university admission. Radiographic results were coded as normal, minor, or major findings. The estimated cost per radiograph was that of the study setting at the time of the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Epi Info software version 3.3.2 of February 9 2005 (CDC Atlanta was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 758 students enrolled, there were 280 males and 478 females (sex ratio 1:2. The mean age of the study population was 21 years (age range 15-33 years. All enrolled cases were asymptomatic. There were 739 normal radiographs (97.5%, while 19 radiographs (2.5 % showed minor abnormalities. No major abnormality was seen. The estimated direct cost of all the radiographs obtained was 3,941,600 F CFA ($ 8,760. Conclusions: Routine chest radiography has a low diagnostic yield in asymptomatic students even in a setting where tuberculosis is endemic, and is therefore not cost-effective.

  4. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

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    J Blanks

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA, which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.La decisión tomada en 1987 por la Merck & Co., fabricante de productos farmacéuticos, de proveer Mectizan® (ivermectina gratuitamente a los programas de control de la oncocercosis ha obligado a la comunidad sanitaria internacional a buscar formas de distribuir el medicamento a las poblaciones rurales que se ven más afectadas por la enfermedad. En las Américas, la OPS respondió al reto con un llamado a eliminar de la Región toda morbilidad por oncocercosis para el año 2007 mediante la distribución de ivermectina al público. Desde 1991, una alianza multinacional de diversas entidades (la OPS, países con oncocercosis endémica, agencias de desarrollo no gubernamentales, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades en Atlanta, Georgia, instituciones académicas y agencias de financiamiento ha generado el apoyo político, económico y técnico necesario para tratar de alcanzar esa meta. Esta alianza está representada por el Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA, subvencionado por la Fundación Ceguera de los Ríos y actualmente por el Centro Carter. El OEPA se creó como iniciativa de alcance regional destinada a eliminar una enfermedad que no merece atención prioritaria. Desde su aparición en 1993, el OEPA ha aportado más de US$2 millones en ayuda económica, administrativa y técnica para fomentar y subvencionar programas en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México y Venezuela, logrando así aprovechar al máximo la donación de la Merck & Co. Ahora que hemos llegado a la mitad de una subvención de 5 años y US$ 4 millones aportada por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, se sabe que el OEPA tiene la capacidad para apoyar la iniciativa regional hasta fines de 1999.

  5. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership / Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Blanks; F, Richards; F, Beltrán; R, Collins; E, Álvarez; G. Zea, Flores; B, Bauler; R, Cedillos; M, Heisler; D, Brandling-Bennett; W, Baldwin; M, Bayona; R, Klein; M, Jacox.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La decisión tomada en 1987 por la Merck & Co., fabricante de productos farmacéuticos, de proveer Mectizan® (ivermectina) gratuitamente a los programas de control de la oncocercosis ha obligado a la comunidad sanitaria internacional a buscar formas de distribuir el medicamento a las poblaciones rural [...] es que se ven más afectadas por la enfermedad. En las Américas, la OPS respondió al reto con un llamado a eliminar de la Región toda morbilidad por oncocercosis para el año 2007 mediante la distribución de ivermectina al público. Desde 1991, una alianza multinacional de diversas entidades (la OPS, países con oncocercosis endémica, agencias de desarrollo no gubernamentales, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades en Atlanta, Georgia, instituciones académicas y agencias de financiamiento) ha generado el apoyo político, económico y técnico necesario para tratar de alcanzar esa meta. Esta alianza está representada por el Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), subvencionado por la Fundación Ceguera de los Ríos y actualmente por el Centro Carter. El OEPA se creó como iniciativa de alcance regional destinada a eliminar una enfermedad que no merece atención prioritaria. Desde su aparición en 1993, el OEPA ha aportado más de US$2 millones en ayuda económica, administrativa y técnica para fomentar y subvencionar programas en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México y Venezuela, logrando así aprovechar al máximo la donación de la Merck & Co. Ahora que hemos llegado a la mitad de una subvención de 5 años y US$ 4 millones aportada por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, se sabe que el OEPA tiene la capacidad para apoyar la iniciativa regional hasta fines de 1999. Abstract in english The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis [...] . In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies) has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA), which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF) and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.

  6. Estudo comparativo de áreas endêmicas de filariose bancroftiana na região metropolitana do Recife, Brasil Comparative studies on endemic areas of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia V. Maciel

    Full Text Available Para se realizar o estudo comparativo da filariose bancroftiana na área metropolitana do Recife, foram selecionados dois bairros da cidade do Recife (Santo Amaro e Campo Grande e dois bairros da cidade de Olinda (Sapucaia e Salgadinho, segundo critério apoiado na semelhança das características sócio-econômicas e demográficas e dos níveis endêmicos de filariose. As áreas foram divididas em conglomerados, com 25 casas em média. A amostra populacional foi estratificada por sexo e faixa etária de 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 e igual ou superior a 60 anos. Os dados parasitológicos foram obtidos por meio da gota espessa mensurada (60µl de sangue, coletada entre as 20 e 24 horas, processada e corada pelo método de Carrazi. Os dados obtidos foram descritos em tabelas, e a densidade parasitária e freqüência microfilarêmica analisadas através de gráficos com expressão logarítima. De maneira global, Recife apresentou prevalência de 13,5%, e Olinda, 12,3%. Quando comparamos a densidade parasitária, Olinda apresentou valor médio de 70 microfilárias por 60µl de sangue, e Recife, 41. Em relação aos índices microfilarêmicos, o maior ocorreu na faixa etária de 20-29 anos. Em Olinda, por outro lado, situou se entre 30-39 anos e em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Os autores concluem que a endemia apresenta níveis endêmicos do passado, e os dados descritos alertam para uma reavaliação das campanhas de controle realizadas pela Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS, já que a endemia atinge dimensões ainda não mensuradas.Two districts in Recife (Santo Amaro and Campo Grande and two districts in Olinda (Sapucaia and Salgadinho, were selected for a comparative study of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife. Selection parameters included similar socio-economic, demographic, and endemic levels of lymphatic filariasis. In the districts studied, streets were chosen randomly. These clusters consisted of 110 people each. A population sample was stratified by sex and age: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60 years old and over. The parasitological data were obtained by measuring thick blood smears (60µl, collected from 8:00 to 12:00 PM and processed and stained with hematoxylin. The data were described in tables, and logarithimic expression graphics were used to analyze parasitic densities. In general, Recife showed a prevalence of 13.5%, and Olinda 12.3%. Mean parasitic densities were 41 and 70 microfilariae/60µl (mf/60µl, respectively. Higher microfilaremic rates were observed in Recife for the 20-29-year age bracket and in Olinda in the 30-39-year bracket. The authors concluded that the disease has returned to former endemic levels, and the data described call for a reevaluation of control campaigns carried out by the Brazilian National Health Foundation, since the endemic has already reached serious proportions.

  7. Estudio preliminar de Citocinas en suero de perros con Leishmaniasis visceral en una zona endémica Venezolana / Preliminary Study of Cytokines in Sera from Dogs with Visceral Leishmaniasis from a Venezuelan Endemic Area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orquídea L, Rodríguez; Maira, Cabrera; Vestalia, Rodríguez; Marian, Ulrich; José D, Quijada; Martín A, Sánchez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios en modelos de ratones han demostrado que la inmunidad protectora frente a Leishmania es mediada por linfocitos T, células presentadoras de antígeno y citocinas. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han realizado para evaluar citocinas en perros infectados en forma natural con Leishmania [...] infantum/chagasi. El perro doméstico es el principal reservorio del parásito, en tal sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las citocinas en suero de 33 perros con Leishmaniasis Visceral Canina (LVC), provenientes del estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela (foco endémico). Los perros fueron clasificados en sintomáticos o asintomáticos, de acuerdo al análisis de los signos clínicos de la enfermedad, coincidentes con los títulos de anticuerpos contra las kinesinas recombinantes de Leishmania rK39 y rK26. Otros dos grupos incluyeron: 10 perros de la misma zona endémica como grupo control endémico (CE) y 10 perros de la zona no endémica como control sano (CS). Las concentraciones (pg/mL) de las citocinas solubles IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 e IL-2 se determinaron por citometría de flujo (Kit CBA Hu Th1/Th2, BD TM). Los resultados mostraron concentraciones estadísticamente mayores (p Abstract in english Different experimental murine models have shown that protective immunity against Lesihmania depends upon T cells, cytokines, and antigen presenting cells. However, the role of cytokines in naturally-infected hosts like domestic dogs is controversial. Few studies have evaluated cytokines in dogs natu [...] rally-infected with Leishmania infantum/chagasi. Since the domestic dog is the main reservoir of the parasite, a study was conducted to determine cytokines in serum of 33 dogs with Canine Visceral Lesihmaniasis from endemic areas of the State of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Dogs were classified as symptomatic (SD) and asymptomatic (AD), according to the expression of three or more clinical signs and levels of  antibodies for rK39 and rK26. Ten non-infected, rK39 negative controls were included from an endemic area (EA) and ten dogs from a non-endemic area were used as healthy controls (HC). The following cytokines (pg/mL) were measured in serum by flow cytometry (CBA Hu Th1/Th 2, BD TM kit): IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2. Results show a higher  concentration (P

  8. Identification and sequence characterization of novel Theileria genotypes from the waterbuck (Kobus defassa) in a Theileria parva-endemic area in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Bishop, Richard; Odongo, David; Lekolool, Isaac; Kariuki, Edward; Gakuya, Francis; Kamau, Lucy; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-28

    Waterbuck (Kobus defassa), an ungulate species endemic to the Eastern African savannah, is suspected of being a wildlife reservoir for tick-transmitted parasites infective to livestock. Waterbuck is infested by large numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the tick vector for Theileria parva, and previous data suggests that the species may be a source of T. parva transmission to cattle. In the present study, a total of 86 cattle and 26 waterbuck blood samples were obtained from Marula, a site in Kenya endemic for East Coast fever (ECF) where the primary wildlife reservoir of T. parva the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also common. To investigate for the presence of cattle-infective Theileria parasites, DNA specimens extracted from the blood samples were subjected to two diagnostic assays; a nested PCR based on the p104 gene that is specific for T. parva, and a reverse line blot (RLB) incorporating 13 oligonucleotide probes including all of the Theileria spp. so far described from livestock and wildlife in Kenya. Neither assay provided evidence of T. parva or Theileria sp. (buffalo) infection in the waterbuck DNA samples. By contrast, majority of the cattle samples (67.4%) were positive for T. parva using a nested PCR assay. The RLB assay, including a generic probe for the genus Theileria, indicated that 25/26 (96%) of the waterbuck samples were positive for Theileria, while none of the 11 Theileria species-specific probes hybridized with the waterbuck-derived PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences within the RLB-positive waterbuck samples revealed the occurrence of three Theileria genotypes of unknown identity designated A, B and C. Group A clustered with Theileria equi, a pathogenic Theileria species and a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis in domestic equids. However, DNA from this group failed to hybridize with the T. equi oligonucleotide present on the RLB filter probe, suggesting the occurrence of novel taxa in these animals. This was confirmed by DNA sequencing that revealed heterogeneity between the waterbuck isolates and previously reported T. equi genotypes. Group B parasites clustered closely with Theileria luwenshuni, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep and goats reported from China. Group C was closely related to Theileria ovis, an apparently benign parasite of sheep. Together, these findings provided no evidence that waterbuck plays a role in the transmission of T. parva. However, novel Theileria genotypes detected in this bovid species may be of veterinary importance. PMID:24690249

  9. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, Samuel; Koudou, Benjamin; Chounna Ndongmo, Patrick W.; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice R.; Fovennso, Bridget Adzemye; Tayong, Dizzle Bita; Fombad, Fanny Fri; Fischer, Peter U.; Enyong, Peter I.; Bockarie, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf) loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF) in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west) of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20), and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1–39.0; p < 0.001). Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman’s rho = 0.900; p = 0.037) was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area: a rate of 1% or more of positive ICT results was found only in areas with an L. loa Mf prevalence above 15%. In contrast, there was no association between ICT positivity and M. perstans prevalence (Spearman’s rho = - 0.200; p = 0.747) and Mf density (Odds ratio = 1.8; 95%CI: 0.8–4.2; p = 0.192). Conclusions/Significance This study has confirmed the strong association between the ICT positivity and L. loa intensity (Mf/ml of blood) at the individual level. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that ICT positivity is strongly associated with high L. loa prevalence. These results suggest that the main confounding factor for positive ICT test card results are high levels of L. loa. The findings may indicate that W. bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution. PMID:26544042

  10. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.

  11. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Maciel-de-Freitas; Roberto Costa, Peres; Fernando, Alves; Mauro Blanco, Brandolini.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured si [...] milar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%). A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p

  12. Serum hyaluronan and collagen IV as non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni: a field-based study in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Thales, Bretas; Izabela, Voieta; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Antônio Lúcio, Teixeira; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; Aluízio, Prata; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive markers of fibrosis have been used to diagnose liver fibrosis in a variety of diseases. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen IV (C-IV) levels were measured in the sera of patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil to diagnose and to rank the intensity of liver fibrosis. Se [...] venty-nine adult patients with schistosomiasis, in the age range of 21-82 years (49 ± 13.4) were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic examinations. Ultrasound was employed to diagnose and categorise liver fibrosis according to World Health Organization patterns. Serum HA and C-IV levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Ultrasound revealed six patients with intense liver fibrosis, 21 with moderate, 23 with light and 29 without. Serum HA was able to separate individuals with fibrosis from those without (p

  13. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluation of mediastinal lymph node staging of non-small-cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic area: A 5-year prospective observational study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J A, Shaw; E M, Irusen; F, von Groote-Bidlingmaier; J M, Warwick; B, Jeremic; R, du Toit; C F N, Koegelenberg.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) is a well-validated modality for assessing mediastinal lymph node metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which determines management and predicts survival. Tuberculosis (TB) is known to lead to false-positive [...] PET-CT findings. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of PET-CT in identifying mediastinal lymph node involvement of NSCLC in a high TB-endemic area. METHODS: Patients who underwent both PET-CT and lymph node tissue sampling for the investigation of suspected NSCLC were prospectively included in this observational study. Results were analysed per patient and per lymph node stage. A post-hoc analysis was performed to test the validity of a maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off for lymph node positivity. RESULTS: PET-CT had a sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 48.6%, positive predictive value of 56.8% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.0% in the per-patient analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 67.2%. Similar values were obtained in the per-lymph node stage analysis. TB was responsible for 21.1% of false-positive results. A SUVmax cut-off of 4.5 yielded an improvement in diagnostic accuracy from 64.0% to 84.7% compared with a cut-off of 2.5, but at the cost of decreasing the NPV from 90.6% to 83.5%. CONCLUSION: In a high TB-endemic area, PET-CT remains a valuable method for excluding mediastinal lymph node involvement in NSCLC. Patients with a negative PET-CT may proceed to definitive management without further invasive procedures. However, PET-CT-positive lymph nodes require pathological confirmation, and the possibility of TB must be considered.

  14. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanti Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied domestic filters and community filter with fluoride concentration below the permissible limit. The data obtained were compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs of dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis was 66.7%, 4.8-23.8%, and 9.5-38.1%, respectively, among the study population. Withdrawal of source(s identified for fluoride by providing domestic and community filters supplying safe water led to 9.6% decrease in manifestation of dental fluorosis, 2.4-14.3% decrease in various manifestations of skeletal fluorosis, and 7.1-21.5% decrease in various non-skeletal manifestations within 5 months. Following repeated motivation of participants during visit, there was also 9.7-38.1% decrease in the usage of fluoride containing toothpaste, and 9.8-45.3% and 7.3-11.9% decrease in the consumption of black lemon tea and tobacco, respectively, which are known sources of fluoride ingestion in our body and have an effect on the occurrence of various manifestations of fluorosis following drinking of safe water from domestic and community filters. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis was found among the study population. Withdrawal of source(s identified for fluoride by supplying domestic and community filters, dietary restriction, and other nutritional interventions led to decrease in manifestation of the three types of fluorosis within 5 months.

  15. Seasonality in cholera dynamics : a rainfall-driven model explains the wide range of patterns of an infectious disease in endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, Theo; Pascual, Mercedes; King, Aaron A.; Bouma, Menno J.; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An explanation for the spatial variability of seasonal cholera patterns has remained an unresolved problem in tropical medicine te{pascual_2002}. Previous studies addressing the role of climate drivers in disease dynamics have focused on interannual variability and modelled seasonality as given te{king_nature}. Explanations for seasonality have relied on complex environmental interactions that vary with spatial location (involving regional hydrological models te{bertuzzo_2012}, river discharge, sea surface temperature, and plankton blooms). Thus, no simple and unified theory based on local climate variables has been formulated te{emch_2008}, leaving our understanding of seasonal variations of cholera outbreaks in different regions of the world incomplete. Through the analysis of a unique historical dataset containing 50 years of monthly meteorological, demographic and epidemiological records, we propose a mechanistic, SIR-based stochastic model for the population dynamics of cholera driven by local rainfall and temperature that is able to capture the full range of seasonal patterns in this large estuarine region, which encompasses the variety of patterns worldwide. Parameter inference was implemented via new statistical methods that allow the computation of maximum-likelihood estimates for partially observed Markov processes through sequential Monte-Carlo te{ionides_2011}. Such a model may provide a unprecedented opportunity to gain insights on the conditions and factors responsible for endemicity around the globe, and therefore, to also revise our understanding of the ecology of Vibrio cholerae. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a decisive driver determining the seasonal dynamics of cholera. It was found that rainfall and longer water residence times tend to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to a dilution effect, while also enhancing cholera incidence in dry regions. This indicates that overall water levels matter and appear to determine whether the seasonality is uni- or bimodal, as well as whether it is pre-, post-, or in-phase with the monsoon te{akanda_2009}. We present evidence that the environmental reservoir is responsible for the persistence of the disease, and therefore its endemicity. Given the interplay between the seasonality of cholera and the environment, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could allow for the better management and planning of public health policies with respect to climate. We provide an interpretation of those dynamics and discuss their implications. In terms of disease prevention and mitigation strategies this is of paramount importance today, as changes in the population dynamics of infectious diseases are expected in response to fast anthropogenic climate change. M. Pascual, M. J. Bouma, and A. P. Dobson, "Cholera and climate: revisiting the quantitative evidence", Microbes and infections, 2002. A. A. King, E. L. Ionides, M. Pascual, M. J. Bouma, "Inapparent infections and cholera dynamics", Nature, 2008. E. Bertuzzo, L. Mari, L. Righetto, M. Gatto and R. Casagrandi et al., "Hydroclimatology of dual-peak annual cholera incidence: Insights from a spatially explicit model", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 39, num. 5, p. -, 2012. M. Emch, C. Feldacker, M. S. Islam, and M. Ali, "Seasonality of cholera from 1974 to 2005: a review of global patterns", International Journal of Health Geographics, 2008. E. L. Ionides, A. Bhadra, Y. Atchade, A. A. King, "Iterated filtering", Annals of Statistics, 2011. A. S. Akanda, A. S. Jutla, S. Islam, "Dual peak cholera transmission in Bangal Delta: A hydroclimatological explanation", Geophysical Reseach Letters, 2009.

  16. How many patients with post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism can we expect in the new endemic areas of Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Morales, A J; Cardona-Ospina, J A; Villamil-Gómez, W; Paniz-Mondolfi, A E

    2015-12-01

    Post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism (pCHIK-CIR) is one of the consequences that are impacting new endemic countries, such as those in the Americas. The relative frequency of pCHIK-CIR is highly variable, ranging from 14.4 % to 87.2 % (including variable number of patients and follow-up times). Based on those non-weighted values, it is difficult to estimate which would be the expected number of patients with CHIK who will develop CIR. For these reasons, we modeled weighted estimations based on pooled data extracted from those eight representative studies in order to provide cumulative proportion of pCHIK-CIR over time and median time of it, but also estimations of the number of patients with CHIK reported in Latin American countries (within a 95 % CI). This model estimated a prevalence of 47.57 % for pCHIK-CIR (95 % CI 45.08-50.13), with a median time to 50 % of pCHIK-CIR in 20.12 months. Given the reported number of patients with acute CHIK during 2014 in the Americas, our estimates suggest that from those patients, 385,835-429,058 patients will develop pCHIK-CIR. Despite the limitations of these estimates, the provided figures of pCHIK-CIR presented here are preliminary approximations of what the future burden of related rheumatic disease in the region as a consequence of CHIK infection for 2015-2016 could be, given the timeframe of median time of occurrence. PMID:26045218

  17. Simuliidae and the transmission and control of human Onchocerciasis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Shelley

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors that affect the propensity of a simuliid species to act as a host to Onchocerca volvulus and to naturally transmit this filarial worm in nature are discussed. Presence or absence of a cibarial armature is believed to be a major factor that has been previously overlooked and this is considered in relation to the choice of control methods currently advocated for onchocerciasis. The current epidemiological studies, transmission dynamics and relevant control measures are discussed for each onchocerciasis focus in Latin America.Neste trabalho são discutidos os fatores que interferem na suscetibilidade de espécies de simulídeos atuarem como hospedeiros do Onchocerca volvulus e de transmitir a filária em condições naturais. Acredita-se que a presença ou não da armadura do cibário pode ser um fator central, que anteriormente foi subestimado. Este aspecto é discutido em relação às opções em voga de métodos de controle na oncocercose. São também discutidos os estudos epidemiológicos correntes, a dinâmica de transmissão e principais medidas de controle para cada foco de oncocercose na América Latina.

  18. Simuliidae and the transmission and control of human Onchocerciasis in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. J., Shelley.

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são discutidos os fatores que interferem na suscetibilidade de espécies de simulídeos atuarem como hospedeiros do Onchocerca volvulus e de transmitir a filária em condições naturais. Acredita-se que a presença ou não da armadura do cibário pode ser um fator central, que anteriormente [...] foi subestimado. Este aspecto é discutido em relação às opções em voga de métodos de controle na oncocercose. São também discutidos os estudos epidemiológicos correntes, a dinâmica de transmissão e principais medidas de controle para cada foco de oncocercose na América Latina. Abstract in english Factors that affect the propensity of a simuliid species to act as a host to Onchocerca volvulus and to naturally transmit this filarial worm in nature are discussed. Presence or absence of a cibarial armature is believed to be a major factor that has been previously overlooked and this is considere [...] d in relation to the choice of control methods currently advocated for onchocerciasis. The current epidemiological studies, transmission dynamics and relevant control measures are discussed for each onchocerciasis focus in Latin America.

  19. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Elisa Colla-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  20. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Elisa, Colla-Jacques; Cláudio, Casanova; Ângelo Pires do, Prado.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period [...] of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  1. Vertebrate distributions indicate a greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of endemism

    OpenAIRE

    ?erban Proche?; Perera, Sandun J; Dayani Ratnayake-Perera

    2011-01-01

    The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA) biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km2) was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1) refines the delimitation of the MPA hotspot, (2) defines zoogeographical units and (3) identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near end...

  2. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland: Part 1: A population study on sled dogs during the racing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of surveillance of reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of TBE. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring for the presence of D. repens. PMID:24491396

  3. Measurements of 131I-Labelled Triiodothyronine Uptake by a Resin as a Means of Diagnosing Iodine-Basedow Produced by Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil in an Area of Endemic Goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors gave intramuscular injections of iodized oil with a view to studying its prophylactic effects on endemic goitre and related defects (such as endemic cretinism) in isolated areas where more traditional techniques have serious limitations. This system had been tried earlier in New Guinea, where the results showed a reduction in the prevalence of goitre and proved the technique to be both safe and practical. However, because of the remoteness of the population in question it was impossible to continue the observations and no information was obtained regarding the effectiveness of iodized oil in reducing the incidence of defects associated with endemic goitre, Ecuador's program, involving studies of the whole population of two rural communities in the Andes, was begun in March 1966. The final control check came three years later. Ethiodol (37% iodized oil, 450 mg iodine per cm3, obtained from Fougera, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y. United States of America) was injected intramuscularly, 2 cm3 being administered to subjects 12 years of age and older and proportionately smaller doses to younger children. The ethiodol produced extensive changes in the physiological behaviour of the thyroid. 131I uptake was depressed for six months and afterwards remained normal. Similarly, BEI and T4 returned to and stayed at normal levels from the very first control checks onwards, which indicated that even during the first few months the thyroid glands of these subjects were maintaining a normal capacity to secrete thyronines, i.e. that they were not exhibiting the effect described by Wolff and Chaikoff, PBI and BII maintained high livels in all the controls. Urinary excretion of iodine followed a double exponential path: calculations indicated that the subjects would still be excreting significant amounts five years after the injection. Six months after injection there was an unequivocal diagnosis of Iodine-Basedow in three older women with large nodular goitres. Among the indices which proved useful for this diagnosis were BEI, T4, BMR and, among the various tests with radioiodine (uptake, conversion ratio, PBI %/1/d, urinary excretion, saliva/total plasma, saliva/PBI, salivary clearance, KSCN suppression test) only the measurements of T3 - 131I uptake by resin. (author)

  4. Inmunopatología de sujetos sanos de un área endémica para pénfigo foliáceo en Perú: Estudio comparativo con familiares / Immunopathologic characterization of healthy subjects in an endemic area for pemphigus foliaceus: Comparative study with relatives.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willy, Ramos; Alex G., Ortega-Loayza; Jorge, Hancco; Ericson, Gutiérrez; Jorge, Hurtado; Gerardo, Jiménez; Gerardo, Ronceros; Isabel, Rojas; Carlos, Galarza.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el pénfigo foliáceo endémico (PFE) ha sido descrito a principios de los años 50 en la selva peruana. En el 2006, Ortega y col. reportaron la presencia de anticuerpos anti-desmogleina 1 en Pueblo Libre, Ucayali. Sin embargo, no existen reportes inmunológicos sobre los familiares de paci [...] entes con PFE en la zona. Objetivos: comparar las características inmunopatológicas de los sujetos sanos de Pueblo Libre (Campo Verde-Ucayali) endémico para pénfigo foliáceo, con familiares sanos de pacientes con PFE y controles sanos de áreas no endémicas. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico realizado de junio a agosto del 2006 que incluyó a 41 sujetos sanos de la comunidad de Pueblo Libre, 11 familiares de pacientes con PFE y 20 sujetos sanos de áreas no endémicas de la enfermedad de los que se obtuvo muestras de sangre para la realización del estudio inmunopatológico (ELISA para anticuerpos anti desmogleína 1 y anti desmogleína 3) comparándose las características de cada grupo de investigación. Para fijar los valores de corte se realizó la estandarización del ELISA usando el análisis de características operativas del receptor (ROC). Resultados: en Pueblo Libre se encontró una prevalencia de anticuerpos anti desmogleína 1 de 46,3%. El patrón predominante fue el IgG2 (62,5%) y el IgG1 (56,3%). En el 31,7% se detectó anticuerpos anti-desmogleína 3. Existió alta correlación entre los valores índice de anticuerpos anti desmogleína 1 y anti desmogleína 3 (r=0,76), significativa a un nivel ?=0,01. Para los familiares de los pacientes con PFE, el 45,5% fueron positivos para anticuerpos anti-desmogle?na 1 con un patr?n predominante IgG1 (63,6%) e IgG2 (54,5%). Se detectó anticuerpos anti-desmogleína 1 en el 10 % de sujetos sanos de áreas no endémicas; no se detectó anticuerpos anti desmogleína 3 en este grupo. Conclusiones: las personas sanas expuestas a factores ambientales de los focos endémicos de PFE y los familiares de pacientes desarrollan anticuerpos no patogénicos anti desmogleína 1 y 3 con características inmunopatológicas similares. Abstract in english Introduction: endemic pemphigus foliaceus (PFE) has been described at the beginning of the 50s in the peruvian forest. In 2006,Ortega & col. reported the presence of desmoglein 1 antibodies in Pueblo Libre, Ucayali. Nevertheless, immune reports does not exist on patients’ relatives with PFE in the z [...] one. Objetives: to compare the immunopathologic profiles of healthy subjects from Pueblo Libre (an area in Ucayali, endemic for pemphigus foliaceus), with healthy relatives of patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) and healthy controls from non-endemic areas. Materials and methods: this is a prospective multicentric study performed from June to August 2006. The sample consisted of 41 healthy subjects from the Pueblo Libre community, 11 relatives of EPF patients and 20 healthy subjects from non-endemic areas. Blood samples were obtained for immunopathologic studies (ELISA technique for antibodies against desmoglein-1 and desmoglein- 3). The immunopathologic profiles of each group were compared. Standardization of ELISA was performed using the analysis of receptor operative characteristics (ROC) to find appropriate cut-off values. Results: in Pueblo Libre, the prevalence of antibodies against desmoglein-1 was 46,3%. The predominant pattern was 56,3% for IgG1 and 62,5% for IgG2. Antibodies against desmoglein-3 were found in 31,7% of the sample. A high correlation was found between the index values of antibodies against desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3. (r=0.76); this is statistically significant, with an alpha = 0,001. The frequency of antibodies against desmoglein-1 was 45,5% in the relatives of EPF patients; the predominant pattern was 63,6% for IgG1 and 54,5% for IgG2. Antibodies against desmoglein-1 were detected in two healthy subjects from non-endemic areas; antibodies against desmoglein-3 were not detected. Conclusion: healthy subjects who are exposed to environme

  5. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia / Vigilância ativa da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em áreas endêmicas na Bolívia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vladimir Luna, Tedesqui; Guido Noel, Chuquimia Calleja; Rolando, Parra; Javier, Palacios Pabón; Márcio Neves, Bóia; Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA), incluindo a leishmaniose mucocutânea (LMC) e a leishmaniose cutânea (LC), é endêmica em várias regiões da Bolívia. Descreve-se um sistema de vigilância da LTA conduzido entre 2001 e 2006 e avaliando-se dados demográficos relacionados à epidemiol [...] ogia da doença. MÉTODOS: O sistema de busca ativa foi realizado conjuntamente pelas instituições SERVIR e CÁRITAS e pelo Servicio de Salud de La Paz (SEDES), cujos arquivos foram revisados, retrospectivamente. Um estudo transversal foi realizado em duas comunidades para aquisição de dados sócio-demográficos. RESULTADOS: Dois mil novecentos e nove casos de LTA, sendo 2.488 (85,5%) de LC e 421 (14,5%) de LMC foram diagnosticados de 2001 a 2006. Foi observada redução na proporção de casos mucosos ao longo do período. A proporção de LMC aumentou proporcionalmente à idade dos pacientes, sendo mais frequente entre pessoas do sexo masculino (15,5% versus 12,1%, p = 0,018). A taxa de detecção do parasita nos raspados cutâneos e no cultivo foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com LC do que em pessoas com LMC (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in t [...] he Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5%) corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5%) to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018). The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p

  6. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  7. A interdição da doença: uma construção cultural da esquistossomose em área endêmica, Minas Gerais, Brasil / The interdiction of disease: a cultural construction of schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Flávia, Gazzinelli; Andréa, Gazzinelli; Regiane Veloso, Santos; Luiz Alberto Oliveira, Gonçalves.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvido em uma área endêmica em esquistossomose, zona rural de Minas Gerais, Brasil, este estudo pretendeu analisar a relação entre um Programa de Educação Ambiental e Saúde, e a postura dos sujeitos frente aos ambientes e à doença. O programa de educação implementado, destinou-se a professores [...] e alunos da escola estadual do lugarejo de Boa União. Pautou-se em um importante dispositivo diferencial com relação aos programas mais usuais neste campo educacional, ao buscar uma perspectiva não puramente instrumental e cognitiva de conhecimento da realidade e da doença, mas uma abordagem na qual os sujeitos são levados a indagar e investigar juntos as suas percepções da realidade, dos ambientes e da doença. Ficou demonstrado que é a partir do conhecimento e reflexão acerca da experiência dos sujeitos com os ambientes e com a doença, experiência entendida aqui como campo onde se entrecruzam representações e práticas, aspectos objetivos e subjetivos, o racional e o empírico, que se obtém o confronto e ruptura cognitivos indispensáveis a uma mudança de postura dos sujeitos. Abstract in english This study was conducted in a rural area endemic for schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective was to determine the relationship between an environmental and health education program for schistosomiasis, implemented for teachers and students from the state secondary school in the villag [...] e of Boa União, and the subsequent actions of its participants in regards to the environment and the illness. An important difference in this program is its perspective that it is not merely the implementation of instrumental and cognitive knowledge of the environment and illness, but an approach in which subjects are asked to question and investigate their perception of reality, the environment, and the illness. The study demonstrated that a change in attitude could occur from reflection on one's experience in relation to both the environment and diseases endemic it.

  8. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

    OpenAIRE

    J Blanks; Richards, F; F Beltrán; Collins, R.; Álvarez, E.; G. Zea Flores; B Bauler; Cedillos, R; HEISLER, M.; D Brandling-Bennett; Baldwin, W; M Bayona; Klein, R.; M Jacox

    1998-01-01

    The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Sin...

  9. Impact of ivermectin on onchocerciasis transmission: assessing the empirical evidence that repeated ivermectin mass treatments may lead to elimination/eradication in West-Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Boatin, B. A.; Nagelkerke, N.J.D.; Agoua, H.; Akpoboua, K.L.; Alley, E.W.; Bissan, Y.; Renz, A; Yameogo, L.; Remme, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa has been closed down at the end of 2002. All subsequent control will be transferred to the participating countries and will almost entirely be based on periodic mass treatment with ivermectin. This makes the question whether elimination of infection or eradication of onchocerciasis can be achieved using this strategy of critical importance. This study was undertaken to exp...

  10. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swenson Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= Conclusions We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.

  11. Etiologia de exantema em crianças em uma área endêmica de dengue / Etiology of exanthema in children in a dengue endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delmina de S., Campagna; Marize P., Miagostovich; Marilda M., Siqueira; Rivaldo V. da, Cunha.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a etiologia dos casos de exantema com ou sem febre em crianças atendidas no pronto-socorro de um hospital de uma zona endêmica para dengue. MÉTODOS: No período de 21/09/2001 a 20/09/2002, foram inscritas no estudo 95,9% (71/74) das crianças atendidas no pronto-socorro do Hospital U [...] niversitário de Campo Grande (MS) que apresentassem exantema (percentual de recusa de 4,1%). Após preenchimento do protocolo com os dados das crianças, as mesmas foram submetidas a exame físico seguido da coleta de amostras de sangue para realizar hemograma com contagem de plaquetas e sorologias (IgM e IgG); inicialmente para dengue, rubéola e toxoplasmose e, posteriormente, naqueles casos com resultado negativo, realizou-se sorologia para parvovirose, herpes vírus tipo 6 e sarampo. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico laboratorial foi confirmado através da pesquisa de anticorpo IgM em 88,7% dos casos investigados: dengue (77,5%), herpes vírus tipo 6 (8,4%), parvovirose (2,8%) e diagnóstico inconclusivo em oito pacientes (11,3%). Não foi evidenciada sorologia positiva (IgM) para sarampo, rubéola ou toxoplasmose naquela ocasião. As manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes nos pacientes com dengue foram: febre, prurido, prostração, mialgia e prova do laço positiva. Nos pacientes cujo diagnóstico foi dengue, a prova do laço foi positiva em 58,4% (32/55) dos casos, demonstrando diferença estatisticamente significativa quando comparada com o grupo cujo diagnóstico não foi dengue. CONCLUSÕES: Nas crianças com exantema, dengue pode ser a principal enfermidade causal, atentando-se para a epidemiologia do local. É necessário um controle constante da vigilância epidemiológica e sorológica das doenças exantemáticas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology of exanthema cases, with or without fever, in children seen in the emergency room of a hospital located in a region where dengue is endemic. METHODS: Enrollment took place between 21/09/2001 and 20/09/2002 and included 95.9% (71/74) of children presenting with exanth [...] ema at the emergency room of the Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande, MS (4.1% refusals). After the children had had their details taken and entered on the study protocol, they were subjected to physical examination followed by collection of blood samples for blood testing with platelet counts and serology (IgM and IgG); initially for dengue, rubella and toxoplasmosis and then, in negative cases, serology was also run for parvovirus, herpes virus type 6 and measles. RESULTS: Laboratory diagnoses were confirmed by means of IgM antibody assay in 88.7% of the cases investigated: dengue (77.5%), herpes virus type 6 (8.4%), parvovirus (2.8%) and in eight patients diagnosis was inconclusive (11.3%). On this occasion no positive serology (IgM) was observed for measles, rubella or toxoplasmosis. The most common clinical manifestations among the dengue patients were: fever, itching, prostration, myalgia and positive tourniquet test results. In 58.4% (32/55) of those cases diagnosed with dengue, the tourniquet test was positive, which was a statistically significant difference when compared with the remainder of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: When children present with exanthema, it is possible that dengue is the primary causative disease, depending on the epidemiology of the location. Constant control of epidemiological and serological surveillance of exanthematous diseases is necessary.

  12. Etiologia de exantema em crianças em uma área endêmica de dengue Etiology of exanthema in children in a dengue endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmina de S. Campagna

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a etiologia dos casos de exantema com ou sem febre em crianças atendidas no pronto-socorro de um hospital de uma zona endêmica para dengue. MÉTODOS: No período de 21/09/2001 a 20/09/2002, foram inscritas no estudo 95,9% (71/74 das crianças atendidas no pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande (MS que apresentassem exantema (percentual de recusa de 4,1%. Após preenchimento do protocolo com os dados das crianças, as mesmas foram submetidas a exame físico seguido da coleta de amostras de sangue para realizar hemograma com contagem de plaquetas e sorologias (IgM e IgG; inicialmente para dengue, rubéola e toxoplasmose e, posteriormente, naqueles casos com resultado negativo, realizou-se sorologia para parvovirose, herpes vírus tipo 6 e sarampo. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico laboratorial foi confirmado através da pesquisa de anticorpo IgM em 88,7% dos casos investigados: dengue (77,5%, herpes vírus tipo 6 (8,4%, parvovirose (2,8% e diagnóstico inconclusivo em oito pacientes (11,3%. Não foi evidenciada sorologia positiva (IgM para sarampo, rubéola ou toxoplasmose naquela ocasião. As manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes nos pacientes com dengue foram: febre, prurido, prostração, mialgia e prova do laço positiva. Nos pacientes cujo diagnóstico foi dengue, a prova do laço foi positiva em 58,4% (32/55 dos casos, demonstrando diferença estatisticamente significativa quando comparada com o grupo cujo diagnóstico não foi dengue. CONCLUSÕES: Nas crianças com exantema, dengue pode ser a principal enfermidade causal, atentando-se para a epidemiologia do local. É necessário um controle constante da vigilância epidemiológica e sorológica das doenças exantemáticas.OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology of exanthema cases, with or without fever, in children seen in the emergency room of a hospital located in a region where dengue is endemic. METHODS: Enrollment took place between 21/09/2001 and 20/09/2002 and included 95.9% (71/74 of children presenting with exanthema at the emergency room of the Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande, MS (4.1% refusals. After the children had had their details taken and entered on the study protocol, they were subjected to physical examination followed by collection of blood samples for blood testing with platelet counts and serology (IgM and IgG; initially for dengue, rubella and toxoplasmosis and then, in negative cases, serology was also run for parvovirus, herpes virus type 6 and measles. RESULTS: Laboratory diagnoses were confirmed by means of IgM antibody assay in 88.7% of the cases investigated: dengue (77.5%, herpes virus type 6 (8.4%, parvovirus (2.8% and in eight patients diagnosis was inconclusive (11.3%. On this occasion no positive serology (IgM was observed for measles, rubella or toxoplasmosis. The most common clinical manifestations among the dengue patients were: fever, itching, prostration, myalgia and positive tourniquet test results. In 58.4% (32/55 of those cases diagnosed with dengue, the tourniquet test was positive, which was a statistically significant difference when compared with the remainder of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: When children present with exanthema, it is possible that dengue is the primary causative disease, depending on the epidemiology of the location. Constant control of epidemiological and serological surveillance of exanthematous diseases is necessary.

  13. Pluviosidad como Predictor de Consulta por Síndrome Febril Agudo en un Área Endémica de Dengue Rainfall and acute febrile syndrome in a dengue-endemic area

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    Fredi Díaz-Quijano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir los patrones de consulta por SFA asociado al dengue y evaluar su asociación con la pluviosidad. Métodos En dos clínicas, durante un periodo de 7 meses (de marzo a septiembre se identificaron 318 casos de SFA indiferenciado que se incluyeron en un seguimiento clínico sistemático. El 31 % (81/281 fueron IgM positivos para dengue. Se evaluó la pluviosidad (litros/metro cuadrado por día previa como variable explicatoria del patrón de consultas. Resultados Los meses con más casos de SFA fueron junio, julio y septiembre. Los casos de dengue sólo fueron significativamente más frecuentes en julio. Al evaluar los patrones de pluviosidad de las semanas anteriores, la consulta por SFA estuvo asociada con la pluviosidad promedio registrada 5 semanas antes y esta asociación fue independiente de la institución y del mes (Razón de tasas de incidencia ajustada: RTI=1,04; IC95 % 1-1,08; p=0,045. Por otra parte, un promedio de la pluviosidad de 5 semanas consecutivas fue un predictor independiente de consulta por dengue, 4 semanas después (RTI=1,6; IC95 % 1,15-2,22; p=0.006. Se evidenció una relación lineal entre la pluviosidad y las consultas por dengue: pluviosidad (promedio de 5 semanas x 0,72 (IC95 % 0,60-0,84; pObjective Describing patterns of acute febrile syndrome (AFS consultation related to dengue and evaluating association with rainfall. Methods 318 undifferentiated AFS patients were detected in two clinics during a 7-month period (March to September and then included in systematic clinical follow-up. 31 % of them (81/281 were IgM positive for dengue. Rainfall (litres/square meter-day during the previous weeks was evaluated as a variable for predicting consultation patterns. Results June, July and September were the months in which the greatest number of AFS cases occurred. Cases of dengue were only significantly more frequent during July. When evaluating the previous weeks' rainfall patterns, consultation for AFS was seen to be associated with the average rainfall registered 5 weeks beforehand and such association was independent of the institution and/or month (incidence rate ratio IRR=1,04; 1-1.08 95 %CI, p=0.045. On the other hand, 5 consecutive weeks' average rainfall was an independent predictor of consultation for dengue 4 weeks later on (RTI=1 ,6 ; 1,15-2,22 95 %CI, p=0.006. A linear relationship was thus proposed (regarding these sentinel clinics between consultation for dengue and rainfall: lt/mt-day (5 weeks' average rainfall X 0 ,72 (0,60-0,84 95 %CI, p<0.001 = cases for each 100 000 habitants per week (4 weeks later. Conclusions: Studying rainfall could predict the pattern of consultation for dengue in endemic regions .

  14. Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in an non-endemic area in Brazil Identificação sorológica de Rickettsia sp. em equinos e cães de área não endêmica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF case in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45% and 4 dogs (20% were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma riquetsiose letal para humanos, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, e é endêmica em algumas regiões brasileiras. Equinos e cães podem participar do ciclo da doença e podem também servir como sentinelas em estudos epidemiológicos. O primeiro caso humano relatado no Estado do Paraná ocorreu em 2005. O presente estudo foi realizado no município de Almirante Tamandaré, região onde não há relatos de casos de FMB. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 71 cavalos e 20 cães em nove propriedades rurais na região. Carrapatos também foram colhidos dos animais. Todos os proprietários responderam a um questionário sobre o manejo sanitário dos animais e o conhecimento a respeito da FMB. As amostras de soro foram processadas pela técnica de Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se os antígenos de R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Os carrapatos foram analisados por PCR para Rickettsia sp. e todos foram negativos. Seis cavalos (8,45% e 4 cães (20% foram identificados como soropositivos. Todos os proprietários desconheciam a relação de carrapatos com a FMB. Embora considerada uma área não endêmica, Almirante Tamandaré é um ambiente vulnerável à FMB e um controle eficiente de carrapatos deve ser implementado.

  15. Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in an non-endemic area in Brazil / Identificação sorológica de Rickettsia sp. em equinos e cães de área não endêmica no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Gonçalves, Batista; Daniella Matos da, Silva; Kerriel Thandile, Green; Louise Boulsfield de Lorenzi, Tezza; Sâmara Pereira de, Vasconcelos; Suelen Graziele Soares de, Carvalho; Iara, Silveira; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna; Fernanda Silva, Fortes; Marcelo Beltrão, Molento.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma riquetsiose letal para humanos, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, e é endêmica em algumas regiões brasileiras. Equinos e cães podem participar do ciclo da doença e podem também servir como sentinelas em estudos epidemiológicos. O primeiro caso human [...] o relatado no Estado do Paraná ocorreu em 2005. O presente estudo foi realizado no município de Almirante Tamandaré, região onde não há relatos de casos de FMB. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 71 cavalos e 20 cães em nove propriedades rurais na região. Carrapatos também foram colhidos dos animais. Todos os proprietários responderam a um questionário sobre o manejo sanitário dos animais e o conhecimento a respeito da FMB. As amostras de soro foram processadas pela técnica de Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI), utilizando-se os antígenos de R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Os carrapatos foram analisados por PCR para Rickettsia sp. e todos foram negativos. Seis cavalos (8,45%) e 4 cães (20%) foram identificados como soropositivos. Todos os proprietários desconheciam a relação de carrapatos com a FMB. Embora considerada uma área não endêmica, Almirante Tamandaré é um ambiente vulnerável à FMB e um controle eficiente de carrapatos deve ser implementado. Abstract in english Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF cas [...] e in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45%) and 4 dogs (20%) were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.

  16. Mutant pfcrt "SVMNT" haplotype and wild type pfmdr1 "N86" are endemic in Plasmodium vivax dominated areas of India under high chloroquine exposure

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    Mallick Prashant K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine resistance (CQR phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes. Mutations at amino acid position 72-76 of pfcrt gene, here defined as pfcrt haplotype are associated with the geographic origin of chloroquine resistant parasite. Here, mutations at 72-76 and codon 220 of pfcrt gene and N86Y pfmdr-1 mutation were studied in blood samples collected across 11 field sites, inclusive of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas in India. Any probable correlation between these mutations and clinical outcome of CQ treatment was also investigated. Methods Finger pricked blood spotted on Whatman No.3 papers were collected from falciparum malaria patients of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas. For pfcrt haplotype investigation, the parasite DNA was extracted from blood samples and used for PCR amplification, followed by partial sequencing of the pfcrt gene. For pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation, the PCR product was subjected to restriction digestion with AflIII endonuclease enzyme. Results In 240 P. falciparum isolates with reported in vivo CQ therapeutic efficacy, the analysis of mutations in pfcrt gene shows that mutant SVMNT-S (67.50% and CVIET-S (23.75% occurred irrespective of clinical outcome and wild type CVMNK-A (7.91% occurred only in adequate clinical and parasitological response samples. Of 287 P. falciparum isolates, SVMNTS 192 (66.89% prevailed in all study sites and showed almost monomorphic existence (98.42% isolates in low P. falciparum prevalent areas. However, CVIETS-S (19.51% and CVMNK-A (11.84% occurrence was limited to high P. falciparum prevalent areas. Investigation of pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation shows no correlation with clinical outcomes. The wild type N86 was prevalent in all the low P. falciparum prevalent areas (94.48%. However, mutant N86Y was comparably higher in numbers at the high P. falciparum prevalent areas (42.76%. Conclusions The wild type pfcrt gene is linked to chloroquine sensitivity; however, presence of mutation cannot explain the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in the current scenario of chloroquine resistance. The monomorphic existence of mutant SVMNT haplotype, infer inbreeding and faster spread of CQR parasite in areas with higher P. vivax prevalance and chloroquine exposure, whereas, diversity is maintained in pfcrt gene at high P. falciparum prevalent areas.

  17. Plasmodium vivax congenital malaria in an area of very low endemicity in Guatemala: implications for clinical and epidemiological surveillance in a malaria elimination context

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    Castellanos María Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report of the first Plasmodium vivax congenital malaria case in Guatemala and the first case in Latin America with genotypical, histological and clinical characterization. The findings show that maternal P. vivax infection still occurs in areas that are in the pathway towards malaria elimination, and can be associated with detrimental health effects for the neonate. It also highlights the need in very low transmission areas of not only maintaining, but increasing awareness of the problem and developing surveillance strategies, based on population risk, to detect the infection especially in this vulnerable group of the population.

  18. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

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    Mutabingwa TK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable component. Methods A retrospective analysis was completed of stillbirth differences between primigravidae and multigravidae in relation to malaria cases and transmission patterns for two different areas of Tanzania with a focus on the effects of the El Niño southern climatic oscillation (ENSO. One area, Kagera, experiences outbreaks of malaria, and the other area, Morogoro, is holoendemic. Delivery and malaria data were collected over a six year period from records of the two district hospitals in these locations. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of low birthweight in primigravidae compared to multigravidae for both data sets. Low birthweight and stillbirth prevalence (17.5% and 4.8% were significantly higher in Kilosa compared to Ndolage (11.9% and 2.4%. There was a significant difference in stillbirth prevalence between Ndolage and Kilosa between malaria seasons (2.4% and 5.6% respectively, p Conclusion Malaria exposure during pregnancy has a delayed effect on birthweight outcomes, but a more acute effect on stillbirth risk.

  19. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  20. Estudio preliminar de Citocinas en suero de perros con Leishmaniasis visceral en una zona endémica Venezolana Preliminary Study of Cytokines in Sera from Dogs with Visceral Leishmaniasis from a Venezuelan Endemic Area

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    Orquídea L Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios en modelos de ratones han demostrado que la inmunidad protectora frente a Leishmania es mediada por linfocitos T, células presentadoras de antígeno y citocinas. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han realizado para evaluar citocinas en perros infectados en forma natural con Leishmania infantum/chagasi. El perro doméstico es el principal reservorio del parásito, en tal sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las citocinas en suero de 33 perros con Leishmaniasis Visceral Canina (LVC, provenientes del estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela (foco endémico. Los perros fueron clasificados en sintomáticos o asintomáticos, de acuerdo al análisis de los signos clínicos de la enfermedad, coincidentes con los títulos de anticuerpos contra las kinesinas recombinantes de Leishmania rK39 y rK26. Otros dos grupos incluyeron: 10 perros de la misma zona endémica como grupo control endémico (CE y 10 perros de la zona no endémica como control sano (CS. Las concentraciones (pg/mL de las citocinas solubles IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 e IL-2 se determinaron por citometría de flujo (Kit CBA Hu Th1/Th2, BD TM. Los resultados mostraron concentraciones estadísticamente mayores (pDifferent experimental murine models have shown that protective immunity against Lesihmania depends upon T cells, cytokines, and antigen presenting cells. However, the role of cytokines in naturally-infected hosts like domestic dogs is controversial. Few studies have evaluated cytokines in dogs naturally-infected with Leishmania infantum/chagasi. Since the domestic dog is the main reservoir of the parasite, a study was conducted to determine cytokines in serum of 33 dogs with Canine Visceral Lesihmaniasis from endemic areas of the State of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Dogs were classified as symptomatic (SD and asymptomatic (AD, according to the expression of three or more clinical signs and levels of  antibodies for rK39 and rK26. Ten non-infected, rK39 negative controls were included from an endemic area (EA and ten dogs from a non-endemic area were used as healthy controls (HC. The following cytokines (pg/mL were measured in serum by flow cytometry (CBA Hu Th1/Th 2, BD TM kit: IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2. Results show a higher  concentration (P<0.05 of  IFN-? (69.93±7.46, IL-4 (7.51±2.68, TNF-? (3.86±1.46, and IL-2 (39.85±3.84 in AD when compared with SD (60.8±10.6; 5.28±0.80; 2.76± 0.72; and 36.04±3.61, respectively; and HC (51±14; 4.65±0.2; 3.21±0.89, and 32.65±5.86, respectively. The AD also showed higher levels (P<0.01 of IL-6 (4.9±0.55 compared with HC (4.02±0.64. Results show that AD exhibit a higher proportion of cellular activation and proinflammatory cytokines. Results indicate that measuring of serum cytokines could reflect the immunological status in dogs in future clinical trials oriented to either vaccination or therapy.

  1. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  2. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Elisa Colla-Jacques; Cláudio Casanova; Ângelo Pires do Prado

    2010-01-01

    Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species w...

  3. Risk factors for Leishmania chagasi infection in an endemic area in Raposa, State of Maranhão, Brazil Fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania chagasi em uma área endêmica em Raposa, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil

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    Charlene Barreto Ponte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infection with Leishmania chagasi is the most common clinical presentation for visceral leishmaniaisis in endemic areas. The municipality of Raposa is an endemic area in State of Maranhão, Brazil, and have had registration cases of visceral leishmaniasis disease. For this reason, a cross- sectional study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for infection with L. chagasi detected by Montenegro skin test. METHODS: The sample comprised 96% of the inhabitants of the villages of Maresia, Pantoja, and Marisol located in the municipality of Raposa, corresponding to 1,359 subjects. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association between the variables studied and infection of L. chagasi. RESULTS: The variables associated with infection upon nonadjusted analysis were a straw roof, mud walls, floors of beaten earth, presence of sand flies inside or outside of the dwelling, and bathing outdoors. Adjusted analysis showed that the presence of sand flies inside/outside the dwelling was a risk factor, and age younger than 10 years was a protective factor against asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the extent to which precarious living conditions of the population strengthen the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis.INTRODUÇÃO: A infecção por Leishmania chagasi é a apresentação clínica mais comum de laishmaniose visceral em áreas endêmicas. O município de Raposa é área endêmica no Estado do Maranhão, tendo registrado casos da doença. Por isso, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com o objetivo de estudar os fatores de risco para infecção por L. chagasi detectada pelo teste intradérmico de Montenegro. MÉTODOS: O estudo envolveu 96% dos moradores das localidades de Maresia, Pantoja e Marisol do município da Raposa, totalizando 1.359 indivíduos. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado utilizando um questionário. Para verificar a associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a infecção por L. chagasi, foram utilizados os modelos de regressão logística uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Na análise não ajustada, as variáveis associadas à infecção foram: cobertura da casa de palha, paredes de taipa, piso de chão batido, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio e o local do banho fora de casa. Na análise ajustada, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio foi considerada fator de risco e a idade menor que 10 anos revelou-se como fator de proteção para a infecção assintomática. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se também, o quanto a precariedade das condições de vida da população contribui para o fortalecimento da cadeia epidemiológica da doença.

  4. Risk factors for Leishmania chagasi infection in an endemic area in Raposa, State of Maranhão, Brazil / Fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania chagasi em uma área endêmica em Raposa, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charlene Barreto, Ponte; Natália Coelho, Souza; Maria Neuza, Cavalcante; Aldina Maria Prado, Barral; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A infecção por Leishmania chagasi é a apresentação clínica mais comum de laishmaniose visceral em áreas endêmicas. O município de Raposa é área endêmica no Estado do Maranhão, tendo registrado casos da doença. Por isso, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com o objetivo de estudar os fato [...] res de risco para infecção por L. chagasi detectada pelo teste intradérmico de Montenegro. MÉTODOS: O estudo envolveu 96% dos moradores das localidades de Maresia, Pantoja e Marisol do município da Raposa, totalizando 1.359 indivíduos. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado utilizando um questionário. Para verificar a associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a infecção por L. chagasi, foram utilizados os modelos de regressão logística uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Na análise não ajustada, as variáveis associadas à infecção foram: cobertura da casa de palha, paredes de taipa, piso de chão batido, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio e o local do banho fora de casa. Na análise ajustada, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio foi considerada fator de risco e a idade menor que 10 anos revelou-se como fator de proteção para a infecção assintomática. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se também, o quanto a precariedade das condições de vida da população contribui para o fortalecimento da cadeia epidemiológica da doença. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Infection with Leishmania chagasi is the most common clinical presentation for visceral leishmaniaisis in endemic areas. The municipality of Raposa is an endemic area in State of Maranhão, Brazil, and have had registration cases of visceral leishmaniasis disease. For this reason, a cro [...] ss- sectional study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for infection with L. chagasi detected by Montenegro skin test. METHODS: The sample comprised 96% of the inhabitants of the villages of Maresia, Pantoja, and Marisol located in the municipality of Raposa, corresponding to 1,359 subjects. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association between the variables studied and infection of L. chagasi. RESULTS: The variables associated with infection upon nonadjusted analysis were a straw roof, mud walls, floors of beaten earth, presence of sand flies inside or outside of the dwelling, and bathing outdoors. Adjusted analysis showed that the presence of sand flies inside/outside the dwelling was a risk factor, and age younger than 10 years was a protective factor against asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the extent to which precarious living conditions of the population strengthen the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis.

  5. Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma ticks from an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever in Brazil / Rickettsia infectando carrapatos Amblyomma de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa Brasileira no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizângela, Guedes; Romário Cerqueira, Leite; Richard Campos, Pacheco; Iara, Silveira; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum, colhidos numa área do Estado de Minas Gerais, onde a febre maculosa brasileira (FMB) é considerada endêmica. Para esse estudo, 400 adultos de A. cajennense, 200 adultos de A. dubitatum, 2.000 larva [...] s e 2.000 ninfas de Amblyomma spp. foram colhidas de equinos e da vegetação. Os carrapatos foram testados para infecção por rickettsia através de reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) direcionada a fragmentos de três genes de rickettsia (gltA, ompA, e ompB). Apenas 2 A. cajennense adultos de vida livre, e 4 grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. continham DNA de rickettsia. Os produtos de PCR dos dois adultos de A. cajennense foram idênticos às sequências correspondentes de Rickettsia rickettsii cepa Sheila Smith. Sequências de DNA dos produtos provenientes dos quatro grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. revelaram um novo genótipo, próximo (99,4%) à sequência correspondente de Rickettsia tamurae. Neste trabalho foram achados 2 carrapatos A. cajennense infectados por R. rickettsii que corroboram o caráter endêmico da área de estudo, em que casos de FMB ocorreram recentemente. Em adição, foi reportado, pela primeira vez, um novo genótipo de Rickettsia no Brasil. Abstract in english This study reports rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in an area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is considered endemic. For this purpose, 400 adults of A. cajenennse and 200 adults of A. dubitatum, plus 2,000 larv [...] ae and 2,000 nymphs of Amblyomma spp. were collected from horses and from the vegetation. The ticks were tested for rickettsial infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols targeting portions of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Only two free-living A. cajennense adult ticks, and four pools of free-living Amblyomma spp. nymphs were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products from the two A. cajennense adult ticks were shown to be identical to corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. DNA sequences of gltA-PCR products of the four nymph pools of Amblyomma spp. revealed a new genotype, which was shown to be closest (99.4%) to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia tamurae. Our findings of two R. rickettsii-infected A. cajennense ticks corroborate the endemic status of the study area, where human cases of BSF were reported recently. In addition, we report for the first time a new Rickettsia genotype in Brazil.

  6. Overuse of artemisinin-combination therapy in Mto wa Mbu (river of mosquitoes, an area misinterpreted as high endemic for malaria

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    Sauerwein Robert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate malaria diagnosis and treatment remain major difficulties in rural sub-Saharan Africa. These issues deserve renewed attention in the light of first-line treatment with expensive artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT and changing patterns of transmission intensity. This study describes diagnostic and treatment practices in Mto wa Mbu, an area that used to be hyperendemic for malaria, but where no recent assessments of transmission intensity have been conducted. Methods Retrospective and prospective data were collected from the two major village health clinics. The diagnosis in prospectively collected data was confirmed by microscopy. The level of transmission intensity was determined by entomological assessment and by estimating sero-conversion rates using anti-malarial antibody responses. Results Malaria transmission intensity by serological assessment was equivalent to 40% of outpatients attending the clinics in 2006–2007 were diagnosed with malaria. Prospective data demonstrated a very high overdiagnosis of malaria. Microscopy was unreliable with Conclusion Transmission intensity has dropped considerably in the area of Mto wa Mbu. Despite this, most fevers are still regarded and treated as malaria, thereby ignoring true causes of febrile illness and over-prescribing ACT. The discrepancy between the perceived and actual level of transmission intensity may be present in many areas in sub-Saharan Africa and calls for greater efforts in defining levels of transmission on a local scale to help rational drug-prescribing behaviour.

  7. Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity

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    Jihong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species ?-diversity, and phylogenetic ?-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

  8. Inquérito soroepidemiológico de leishmaniose canina em áreas endêmicas de Cuiabá, Estado de Mato Grosso / Seroepidemiological survey of canine leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de, Almeida; Renata Pereira, Faria; Maria Fernanda Aranega, Pimentel; Magyda Arabia Araji, Dahroug; Nívea Clarice Monteiro Rocha, Turbino; Valéria Régia Franco, Sousa.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As leishmanioses são zoonoses em expansão no Brasil, tendo o cão importância na transmissão e dispersão da doença, principalmente em áreas de leishmaniose visceral. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a soroprevalência de leishmaniose em cães domiciliados na zona urbana de Cuiabá. Para a pesquisa [...] foram selecionados quatro bairros de Cuiabá, sendo um em cada regional administrativa. A amostragem canina foi definida estatisticamente, considerando-se a prevalência de 8,4%. Dos 468 cães analisados, 16 foram reagentes na imunofluorescência indireta, obtendo-se uma prevalência geral de 3,4%. Não foi observada predisposição racial, sexual e etária para a ocorrência da leishmaniose canina. Os principais fatores de risco identificados na ocorrência da infecção canina na Cidade de Cuiabá, foram a localização dos cães no peridomicílio, bem como a proximidade das residências de matas, evidenciando mudanças na ocorrência da doença no ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Leishmaniases are zoonoses that are undergoing expansion in Brazil. Dogs are of importance regarding transmission and dispersion of the disease, especially in areas presenting visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis among domestic dogs in the [...] urban area of Cuiabá. For this investigation, four districts of Cuiabá were selected, one in each administrative region. The dog sampling was defined statistically, taking the prevalence to be 8.4%. Among the 468 dogs examined, 16 presented an indirect immunofluorescence reaction, thus resulting in an overall prevalence of 3.4%. There was no predisposition towards canine leishmaniasis occurrences in relation to breed, sex or age. The main risk factors for occurrences of canine infection identified in the city of Cuiabá were the presence of dogs living in areas surrounding homes and the proximity of homes to forests. Thus, there have been changes in leishmaniasis occurrences within the urban environment.

  9. Use of immunoradiometric assays employing monoclonal antibodies or synthetic peptides for the study of malaria transmission and immunity in migrant population of endemic areas in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) and immunofluorence tests were used in combination with entomological techniques to study malaria epidemiology in areas in the Amazon Basin where non-immune migrant individuals have settled in recent years. Anopheles darlingi was found to be the most important vector accounting for 77% of the anophelines positive for sporozoites by the IRMA. The prevalence of anti-sporozoite and anti-blood stage antibodies was low and decreased with time after the last episode of malaria. Anti-sporozoite antibodies did not indicate immune status of the individual but may reflect malaria transmission. (author). 9 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Leishmania chagasi in opossums (Didelphis albiventris) in an urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberg, Roberta M P; Oshiro, Elisa T; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Alonso, Diego P; Ferreira, Alda M T; Bonamigo, Raquel A; Tasso, Norton; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Didelphis albiventris opossums at a wild animal rehabilitation center in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. A total of 54 opossums were tested for L. i. chagasi infection in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. The samples were analyzed by direct examination, culturing in a specific medium, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Leishmania i. chagasi DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 11 (20.37%) animals. A total of 81.81% of positive opossums were captured in areas of known visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These results suggest a role for D. albiventris in the urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22802435

  11. Effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of Sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. The study was conducted in the farm of the University of Messina (Italy). Light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from May to November; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag being changed every 2h; for 30 days, at different heights from 18:00 to 6:00. A total of five species (i.e., Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Sergentomyia minuta), three of which are proven vectors of Leishmania infantum, were captured. The most abundant species was P. perniciosus (73.3%) followed by S. minuta (23.3%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in August and September with a peak of collection recorded in the evening (i.e., from 20:01 to 22.00). The number of phlebotomine sand flies collected at 50cm above the ground was significantly higher (P=0.041) than that captured at 150cm. Results of this study shed light on the ecology of main phlebotomine species in the Mediterranean area, and on the influence of some factors, such as time and height of traps, on the light trap capture efficiency. PMID:24561074

  12. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

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    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%. A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p < 0,05. However, some MosquiTRAPs (28.12% contained immature Ae. aegypti after 18 days of exposure in the field and could be pointed as an oviposition site for female mosquitoes. Both trapping methods, designed to collect gravid Ae. aegypti females, seem to be efficient, reliable and may aid routine Ae. aegypti surveillance.

  13. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

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    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  14. Aporte de la técnica de PCR en el diagnóstico de Mansonella ozzardi en zonas endémicas de la Argentina / Contribution of the PCR assay to the diagnosis of Mansonella ozzardi in endemic areas of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María F, Degese; Marta G, Cabrera; Silvio J, Krivokapich; Lucia E, Irazu; Marcelo A, Rodríguez; Eduardo A, Guarnera.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi es un nematode parásito tisular, agente etiológico de mansonellosis en casi la totalidad de los países latinoamericanos. En Argentina la mansonellosis ha sido descrita a lo largo de la región de las yungas. Su diagnóstico microscópico puede dar resultados falsos negativos en micro [...] filaremias bajas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue optimizar su diagnóstico molecular y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos mediante las pruebas microscópicas de Knott, de gota gruesa y de extendido hemático fino, en 92 muestras de sangre de pacientes de zona endémica. La técnica de PCR seguida de la secuenciación del producto amplificado presentó una sensibilidad del 100 % frente al método de Knott, considerado como referencia, e incluso permitió identificar 7 casos más de la parasitosis. Abstract in english Mansonella ozzardi is a tissue-dwelling parasitic nematode, the causative agent of mansonelliasis in almost all Latin American countries. It has been described along the Argentine Yungas region. The microscopic diagnosis can yield false-negative test results at low microfilaremia levels. The aim of [...] this study was to optimize the molecular diagnostic technique and compare it with the Knott's method and standard blood smear procedures (thin blood films and thick smears) in 92 blood samples of individuals from an endemic area. The PCR technique followed by the sequencing of the amplified product yielded 100 % sensitivity compared to the Knott's test, which is considered a reference method. Seven more cases of this parasitosis could only be identified with the molecular technique.

  15. Utilidad de la velocidad de sedimentación globular en el diagnóstico temprano del dengue en un área endémica Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is useful to early diagnosis of dengue infection in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Angel Villar-Centeno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La elevación de la Velocidad de Sedimentación Globular (VSG frecuentemente se asocia a enfermedades infecciosas. Sin embargo, en el dengue se han descrito niveles de VSG comparativamente normales. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la VSG en el diagnóstico temprano del dengue en una cohorte de pacientes que consultan por síndrome febril agudo (SFA en una región endémica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte, incluyendo pacientes con SFA de menos de 4 días, sin etiología aparente. El estudio se desarrolló en el área metropolitana de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Al ingreso se recolectó la información demográfica y clínica de cada caso y se midió la VSG por método Westergren con lectura en una hora. La infección por dengue fue estudiada mediante pruebas serológicas pareadas y aislamiento viral. Se estimó la asociación entre VSG y dengue, mediante análisis bivariados y multivariados de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 95 casos de dengue y 198 pacientes con SFA de otra etiología. La VSG (expresada en milímetros/hora fue significativamente inferior en los pacientes con dengue (19,4 ± 16,3 vs 27,9 ± 20,7; p=0,0005. En el análisis multivariado, una VSG Introduction: High erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR is frequently associated to infectious diseases. However, among dengue patients comparably normal ESR has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the utility of ESR to the early diagnosis of dengue in patients with acute febrile syndrome (AFS from an endemic region. Materials and methods: A cohort study was conducted, including patients with acute febrile syndrome of less than 4 days, without apparent aetiology. The study was developed in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Demographic and clinical information was collected in each case and ESR by Westergren method with one hour measurements. Dengue virus infection was studied with paired serologic tests and viral isolation. The association between ESR and dengue was considered, in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: 95 cases of dengue and 198 patients with AFS of another aetiology were included. ESR (expressed in millimetres/hour was significantly lower in the patients with dengue than those with other causes of AFS (average=19,4 ± 16,3 vs 27,9 ± 20,7; p=0,0005. In the multivariate analysis, ESR <23 mm/h was associated to dengue (OR= 2,33; 95% CI: 1,25 - 4,33; p=0,008, independently of the age, clinical manifestations, and variables of the hemogram such as hematocrit, platelet count and leukocyte count. Conclusion: A relatively low ESR could be useful to differentiate dengue from other causes of AFS in an endemic region

  16. Serología para triquinosis en dadores de sangre en área no endémica de la Argentina / Trichinellosis serology in blood-donors from a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana S., Barlasina; Carolina, Pedevilla; Paula, Kade; Susana N., Costantino; María R., Taus; Stella M., Venturiello.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la presencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada históricamente libre de esta parasitosis en la Argentina. Se evaluó la parasitosis mediante técnicas inmunoserológicas y su relación con los hábitos alimenticios de riesgo mediante un cuestion [...] ario realizado a 150 donantes de sangre. Las encuestas revelaron que el 98.0% (n=147) de los individuos consumía carne de cerdo y/o derivados con elevada frecuencia. Los principales productos porcinos incorporados a la alimentación habitual fueron los chacinados. El 80.3% (n=118) de los individuos adquirían los productos en carnicerías, el 38.1% (n=56) en faenas domiciliarias y el 34.0% (n=50) en supermercados. Las técnicas inmunoserológicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico de triquinosis fueron: enzimoinmunoanálisis, inmunofluorescencia indirecta y/o inmunoelectrotransferencia. En el 8.0% (n=12) de los sueros de los individuos se detectaron anticuerpos anti-Trichinella por más de una de las técnicas realizadas, considerándose este resultado diagnóstico confirmatorio de triquinosis. Los estudios realizados demuestran la existencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada libre de esta parasitosis y sugieren su relación con la ingesta de carne porcina y/o sus subproductos, hábito alimenticio de riesgo. Estos resultados indican que la falta de denuncia de casos de la enfermedad no debe ser el único criterio a tener en cuenta para considerar a una región área libre de triquinosis. El conocimiento de la presencia del parásito en un área determinada favorece la instauración de medidas de control y prevención evitando la diseminación de la parasitosis. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease. This parasitosis was assessed on 150 blood donors by means of immunoserological tests, and their relation with risk alimentary habits by [...] a questionnaire. The questionnaires showed that 98.0% (n=147) of the individuals consumed pork and pork products at a high frequency. The main pork products incorporated to the habitual diet were the stuffed ones. A 80.3% (n=118) of the individuals had acquired such products at butchers, a 38.1% (n=56) at home slaughters and a 34.0% (n=50) at supermarkets. The immunoserological techniques employed were: enzyme immunoanalysis, indirect immunofluorescence and/or immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. Anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 8.0% (n=12) of the serum samples by more than one of the methodologies employed, considering these results as confirmatory of trichinellosis. The studies carried out herein demonstrate the existence of human trichinellosis in an area historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease and suggest its relationship with the ingestion of pork or pork products as a risk factor. These results indicate that the lack of reports should not be the only criterion for an area to be considered as Trichinella-free. The awareness of the existence of the parasite in a region will favor the establishment of control and prevention strategies which is of fundamental importance to avoid the spread of the disease.

  17. Serología para triquinosis en dadores de sangre en área no endémica de la Argentina Trichinellosis serology in blood-donors from a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Barlasina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la presencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada históricamente libre de esta parasitosis en la Argentina. Se evaluó la parasitosis mediante técnicas inmunoserológicas y su relación con los hábitos alimenticios de riesgo mediante un cuestionario realizado a 150 donantes de sangre. Las encuestas revelaron que el 98.0% (n=147 de los individuos consumía carne de cerdo y/o derivados con elevada frecuencia. Los principales productos porcinos incorporados a la alimentación habitual fueron los chacinados. El 80.3% (n=118 de los individuos adquirían los productos en carnicerías, el 38.1% (n=56 en faenas domiciliarias y el 34.0% (n=50 en supermercados. Las técnicas inmunoserológicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico de triquinosis fueron: enzimoinmunoanálisis, inmunofluorescencia indirecta y/o inmunoelectrotransferencia. En el 8.0% (n=12 de los sueros de los individuos se detectaron anticuerpos anti-Trichinella por más de una de las técnicas realizadas, considerándose este resultado diagnóstico confirmatorio de triquinosis. Los estudios realizados demuestran la existencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada libre de esta parasitosis y sugieren su relación con la ingesta de carne porcina y/o sus subproductos, hábito alimenticio de riesgo. Estos resultados indican que la falta de denuncia de casos de la enfermedad no debe ser el único criterio a tener en cuenta para considerar a una región área libre de triquinosis. El conocimiento de la presencia del parásito en un área determinada favorece la instauración de medidas de control y prevención evitando la diseminación de la parasitosis.The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease. This parasitosis was assessed on 150 blood donors by means of immunoserological tests, and their relation with risk alimentary habits by a questionnaire. The questionnaires showed that 98.0% (n=147 of the individuals consumed pork and pork products at a high frequency. The main pork products incorporated to the habitual diet were the stuffed ones. A 80.3% (n=118 of the individuals had acquired such products at butchers, a 38.1% (n=56 at home slaughters and a 34.0% (n=50 at supermarkets. The immunoserological techniques employed were: enzyme immunoanalysis, indirect immunofluorescence and/or immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. Anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 8.0% (n=12 of the serum samples by more than one of the methodologies employed, considering these results as confirmatory of trichinellosis. The studies carried out herein demonstrate the existence of human trichinellosis in an area historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease and suggest its relationship with the ingestion of pork or pork products as a risk factor. These results indicate that the lack of reports should not be the only criterion for an area to be considered as Trichinella-free. The awareness of the existence of the parasite in a region will favor the establishment of control and prevention strategies which is of fundamental importance to avoid the spread of the disease.

  18. Differences in aetiology and thyroid function in endemic goitre between rural and urban areas of the Darfur region of the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltom, M; Salih, M A; Boström, H; Dahlberg, P A

    1985-03-01

    To investigate further the possible causes of the difference in goitre frequency between the rural and urban areas of Darfur region in the Sudan, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in 97 goitrous and 31 non-goitrous subjects from rural Darfur, 62 goitrous subjects from urban Darfur and 37 non-goitrous subjects from Khartoum. The mean UIE was equally low in goitrous subjects from rural Darfur (56.2 +/- 43.1 micrograms/g creatinine) and urban Darfur (46.3 +/- 20.7 micrograms/g creatinine) and both values were lower than that in the non-goitrous subjects from Khartoum (83.6 +/- 41.9 micrograms/g creatinine). Subjects from rural Darfur also had lower mean serum thyroxine and higher triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels. The mean serum thiocyanate level of 3.2 mg/l in goitrous subjects from rural Darfur was significantly higher than the values of 1.8 ng/ml in goitrous subjects from urban Darfur (P less than 0.001) and 1.7 mg/l in non-goitrous subjects from Khartoum (P less than 0.001). It is concluded that the additional contribution of goitrogenic factors in rural Darfur induces thyroid anomalies to a greater degree than are most likely caused by the iodine deficiency alone in subjects from urban Darfur. PMID:3984663

  19. Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Selma Patricia Diniz, Cantanhede; Monica Ammon, Fernandez; Aline Carvalho de, Mattos; Lângia Colli, Montresor; Nêuton, Silva-Souza; Silvana Carvalho, Thiengo.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Th [...] is paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species), which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1%) from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study.

  20. Fauna of Phlebotominae (Diptera Psychodidae in an endemic canine visceral leishmaniasis area in the metropolitan region of Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil

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    Jorge Luis Pinto Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify fauna of Phlebotominae (Diptera Psychodidae in an area with occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the city of Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil. The captures of the phlebotomines was undertaken at the Tirirical district, using CDC light-traps both onan intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary basis (animals’ shelter from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m., once a month, in four fixed collecting points, from August 2005 to July 2006. A total of 4,326 phlebotomines (males: 2,808/64.9%; females: 1,518/35.1% was captured. Seven species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva (2,317/53.5%, L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho(1,761/40.7%, L. antunesi (Coutinho (120/2.8%, L. evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes (99/2.3%, L. sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte (14/0.3%, L. flaviscutellata (Mangabeira (12/0.3% and L. richardwardi (Ready & Fraiha (3/0.1%. Lutzomyia longipalpis and L. whitmani, the most prevalent species, occurred throughout the year. The presence of L. longipalpis explains the transmission of autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis. One also highlights the presence of L. whitmani and L. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, etiological agents of cutaneous and/or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively.

  1. The complex epidemiology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Kenya and Uganda. III. The epidemiology in the endemic areas along the lake shore between the Nile and the Yala swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijers, D J

    1974-09-01

    The endemic Rhodesian sleeping sickness belt along the shore of Lake Victoria between the Nile and the Yala swamp consists of two ecologically different areas: the Busoga belt and the Samia belt. The Busoga belt is a country of forest and forest relics, full of game, with a high density of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes but also inhabited by G. pallidipes, and with a people encroaching on the northern border who pass the forest on their way to the lake to catch and buy fish, but who seldom penetrate deep in the forest to hunt. The Samia belt is a country of dense bush in savanna, with less and smaller game, with forest, but with a relatively high density of G. pallidipes, and with a people who will not only pass the bush on their way to catch and buy fish at the lake, bur who also like hunting in bush and forest. From sex-, age-, seasonal and tribal incidence, from the incidence among different professions such as fishermen, fishmongers and cultivators, and from the differences in incidence encountered between the Busoga belt and the Samia belt, it is concluded: that nearly all women and children, most cultivators and part of the fishermen who contract sleeping sickness in these areas, become infected near their homes by G. pallidipes: this occurs mainly in the dense bush area. that most fishmongers, some cultivators and some fishermen become infected on their way to the lake shore, mainly by G. pallidipes; this occurs not only in the dense bush area, but also in the forest area. that fishermen, who become infected during trips, mainly contract their infection some distance away from the lake shore where they meet G.pallidipes. that transmission at the lake shore itself is rare and that G. fuscipes fuscipes only plays a minor role in the transmission of the disease in the areas under consideration. that man is not a good reservoir for Rhodesian sleeping sickness and that man-fly-man transmission is a rare occurrence. that game animals, particularly bushbuck and duiker, are the main source of infection for the flies which transmit the disease to man. that the sleeping incidence in man might merely be a reflexion of the incidence in the natural reservoir and that the factors influencing the latter will have to be studied to understand the former. PMID:4439469

  2. Distribution, possession, condition, and use of mosquito nets impregnated with long- lasting insecticide in chestnut harvesting areas of malaria endemic municipalities in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn Bolivia, malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax (85% and Plasmodium falciparum (15%, the highest level of transmission is in the north on the border with Brazil. In this area the NGO Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA is implementing a project for the prevention and control of malaria through voluntary workers. These workers carry out rapid diagnostic tests, provide chloroquine-primaquine treatment for P. vivax malaria and a combined treatment for malaria caused by P. falciparum, as well as undertaking free mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The present study aimed to establish the level of distribution, possession, condition of LLINs, as well as their use the previous night.Material and MethodsThe study was conducted in Pando and La Paz, in 4 municipalities and 24 communities, visiting 193 families with 814 members, between March and May 2012. The voluntary workers visited the homes and undertook surveys and physical inspection of the LLINs.ResultsThe distribution coverage reached 86%, with a ratio of 2.5 LLINs per family. Of all families, 74% had at least one LLIN and 65% maintained them. The ratio LLIN/per person was 0.38; 55% of the LLINS had holes of different sizes, while the percentage of use the previous night was 54 %.DiscussionThe differences between coverage, possession and use the previous night show that educational activities should be strengthened, as 55% of the LLINs already had holes. Use among the general population and children under 5 years was very similar, at 53% and 54% respectively.The current level of ownership and physical condition of the cloth should be used for future replenishment activities. The free mass distribution activities (Catch-Up, the establishment of a routine access in the long term (Keep-Up and continuing education activities in the hanging of the LLINs (Hang-Up are important for the prevention of malaria.

  3. Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego, Mendicino; Mariana, Stafuza; Carlina, Colussi; Mónica del, Barco; Mirtha, Streiger; Edgardo, Moretti.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Chagas disease live in remote communities that lack both equipment and trained personnel to perform a diagnosis by conventional serology (CS). Thus, reliable tests suitable for use under difficult conditions are required. In this study, we evaluated the ability of p [...] ersonnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC) tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC). We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA) between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests. The readings of the IC test results showed 100% agreement (POA = 1). The IC test on whole blood showed the following values: S = 87.3%; Sp = 98.8%; PPV = 96.9% and NPV = 95.9%. Additionally, the IC test on serum displayed the following results: S = 95.7%; Sp = 100%; PPV = 100% and NPV = 98.2%. Using whole blood, the agreement with ELISA was 96.3% and the agreement with IHA was 94.1%. Using serum, the agreement with ELISA was 97.8% and the agreement with IHA was 96.6%. The IC test performance with serum samples was excellent and demonstrated its usefulness in a PHCC with minimal equipment. If the IC test S value and NPV with whole blood are improved, then this test could also be used in areas lacking laboratories or specialised personnel.

  4. Comparative detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in saliva and urine samples from symptomatic malaria patients in a low endemic area

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    Seethamchai Sunee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Definite diagnosis of malaria relies on microscopy detection of blood stages of parasites in peripheral blood and requires blood sample collection. The nested PCR method has shown to be more sensitive and superior to microscopy in detecting co-infections of Plasmodium species in circulation while Plasmodium falciparum DNA can be identified in urine and saliva specimens of patients, albeit at a lower sensitivity. Methods Matched blood, saliva and urine samples were collected from 100 microscopy-positive and 20 microscopy-negative febrile patients who attended a malaria clinic in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand for nested PCR analysis targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of human malaria. Both P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have been known to circulate at a comparable rate in the study area. Results Comparing with microscopy results, nested PCR of saliva samples had a sensitivity of 74.1% for P. falciparum detection and 84% for P. vivax detection while 44.4% and 34.0% of the corresponding values were observed for urine samples. Both nested PCR results of saliva and urine samples had a specificity of 100% for identification of P. falciparum and P. vivax when compared with nested PCR results from blood. Co-infections of both species were found in four, 26 and 8 patients by microscopy and nested PCR of blood and saliva samples, respectively. Although the positive rates of nested PCR of saliva samples for P. falciparum increased with parasite density, no tendency occurred in results from nested PCR of saliva samples for P. vivax as well as those of urine samples. Conclusions Saliva and urine samples could be alternative noninvasive sources of DNA for molecular detection of both P. falciparum and P. vivax. Further improvement of the detection method will offer an opportunity to use these samples for diagnosis of malaria.

  5. Vigilancia de la infección por Rickettsia sp. en capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) un modelo potencial de alerta epidemiológica en zonas endémicas / Surveillance of Rickettsia sp. infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) a potential model of epidemiological alert in endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Miranda; Verónica, Contreras; Yésica, Negrete; Marcelo B, Labruna; Salim, Máttar.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los capibaras o chigüiros (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) son huéspedes amplificadores de Rickettsia sp. Usualmente se encuentran parasitados por la garrapata Amblyomma cajennense, principal vector de rickettsiosis en Suramérica. Los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas [...] de la circulación de rickettsias. Objetivo. Detectar anticuerpos contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de una zona rural del municipio de Montería, departamento de Córdoba. Material y métodos. Se analizaron 36 sueros de capibaras de una zona rural de Montería (vereda San Jerónimo) en Córdoba. Para la detección de anticuerpos IgG se practicó inmunofluorescencia indirecta, que utilizó antígenos de la cepa Taiaçu de Rickettsia rickettsii de Brasil. Los sueros de los capibaras fueron diluidos 1:64. Se capturaron las garrapatas que se encontraban parasitando los capibaras y se clasificaron hasta su especie. Resultados. La seroprevalencia contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebres manchadas encontrada fue de 22 % (8 capibaras); se encontraron cuatro sueros con título de 1:64, tres sueros con título 1:128 y un suero presentó titulación de 1:512. Todas las garrapatas (n=933) fueron identificadas taxonómicamente como A. cajennense. Conclusión. En Colombia existen zonas endémicas de rickettsiosis y la aparición de brotes anuales lo confirma (Necoclí, 2006; Los Córdobas, 2007, y Altos de Mulatos, 2008). El presente estudio reporta por primera vez la presencia de infección natural por rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de Colombia. Los hallazgos sugieren que los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas de la circulación de rickettsias y marcadores de las áreas de riesgo para la transmisión de rickettsiosis. Abstract in english Introduction. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are considered amplifying hosts of Rickettsia sp. These rodents are usually parasitized by the tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, the main vector of rickettsioses in humans and animals in South America. Capybaras can be used as sentinels in detecti [...] on of circulation of rickettsiae. Objective. Antibodies to rickettsiae of spotted fever group were detected in capybaras in a rural area of Cordoba Province, northern Colombia. Materials and methods. Sera were analyzed from 36 capybaras in a rural area of Monteria (village of San Jeronimo) in Córdoba. For the detection of IgG antibodies, indirect immunofluorescence was performed. The antigens were derived from R. rickettsia strain Taiaçu isolated in Brazil. Capybara sera were diluted 1:64 for IFA analysis. Ticks were collected from each capybara (also known as chigüiro) and identified to species. Results. The seroprevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was 22% (8 capybaras). Four sera had a titer of 1:64, 3 had a titer of 1:128 and one serum had a titer of 1:512. All ticks removed from the capybaras (n=933) were taxonomically identified as Amblyomma cajennense. Conclusion. Colombia has areas endemic for rickettsioses, as indicated by confirmed annual outbreaks. The current study reports the first evidence of natural rickettsial infection of the spotted fever group in capybaras from Colombia. The findings suggest that capybaras can be used as sentinels for the circulation of rickettsiae and can identify endemic areas for the transmission of rickettsial diseases.

  6. Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description

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    Tisgratog Rungarun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2?months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600?hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC, outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC. Results A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%, followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68% and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%. An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60% versus inside structures. Significantly (P?An. minimus were collected from human-baited methods compared with a tethered cow, indicating a more anthropophilic feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. Conclusions The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito behavior related to host preference, and the temporal and spatial blood feeding activity will help facilitate the design of vector control strategies and effectiveness of vector control management programs in Thailand.

  7. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Thompson, R

    1994-01-01

    We examined the impact of chemoprophylaxis on the cellular and humoral immune responses to polypeptides of the asexual Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigens, the glutamate rich protein GLURP and Pf155/RESA, both of which in previous field studies have been identified as potentially protective antigens. The study was carried out in the Escola Primária de Lingamo, a primary school in a suburban area of Maputo, Mozambique. A cohort of 392 schoolchildren (aged 7-12 years) was randomly allocated to two equal groups, one receiving chemoprophylaxis with dapsone/pyrimethamine (Maloprim), the other receiving placebo every week from December 1989 to November 1990. The groups were then followed until November 1991 without chemoprophylaxis. Cellular responses to immunodominant epitopes from Pf155/RESA and GLURP, and to non malaria antigens C. albicans and PPD, were assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assays in vitro. Anti-GLURP and anti-Pf155/RESA antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and erythrocyte membrane immunofluorescence (EMIF), and total anti-P. falciparum antibodies were measured by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Immunological reactivities were evaluated every six months, at the end of the rainy season and at the end of the dry season, both during the period of chemoprophylaxis and during the follow-up. The antibody response rate to the GLURP was lower in the Maloprim group than in the placebo group during the intervention phase. The lymphoproliferative response rate to the malaria antigens was significantly lower at the end of the rainy season than at the end of the dry season, but the difference between the experimental group and the control group of schoolchildren was not statistically significant. These results suggest that the antibody responses to the GLURP molecule and partly to the Pf155/RESA antigen in this study population were shortlived and dependent on frequent boostering, but whether these antigens play a role in the development of natural clinical immunity remains open. In the experimental group of schoolchildren weekly chemoprophylaxis successfully reduced the parasite rate during the rainy season from 43% to 4%, and during the dry season from 18% to 0%. Chemoprophylaxis may therefore have a useful role in combination with another partially effective malaria control measure such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets or a malaria vaccine.

  8. Leishmania major strains isolated from distinct endemic areas show diverse cytokine mRNA expression levels in C57BL/6 mice: Toward selecting an ideal strain for the vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Sima; Khaze, Vahid; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Darabi, Haiedeh; Bahrami, Fariborz; Ajdary, Soheila; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis shows heterogeneity and diverse clinical manifestations in different areas of infection and experimental models. Such polymorphism may cause difficulties in selection of reliable strains for development of prophylaxes. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify an ideal strain of L. major, capable of inducing protective and long-lasting Th1 responses in an animal model that mimics the human response to L. major infection. The isolates were from patients residing in 4 endemic areas of L. major in Iran, namely Damghan (north), Kashan (center), Dehloran (west) and Shiraz (south) which their heterogeneity had been previously confirmed in BALB/c mice. In this study, the same isolates as well as the Iranian reference strain of L. major were inoculated to C57BL/6 mice to evaluate their pathogenicity and changes in expression of key cytokine genes from lymph nodes of the mice in different time points, in order to evaluate their ability to control leishmaniasis by development of Th1 responses. Our results showed the lowest and highest parasite burden in lymph nodes of mice infected with all strains at weeks 3 and 8 post-infection, respectively. However, the Damghan strain (DA39) showed comparatively lower number of viable parasite than other strains at week 8 post-infection. Furthermore, DA39 showed higher expression of Ifng and Il12 mRNA at week 8 post-infection while the ratio of its Ifng/Il4 mRNA expressions was higher than other strains. In conclusion, DA39 among the studied strains appears to induce strong and lasting Th1 cytokine gene expressions with minimum virulence, making it a suitable candidate strain for vaccine studies in leishmaniasis. PMID:26072430

  9. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eunice AB, Galati; Mauro Breviglieri, Fonseca; Ana Maria, Marassá; Edna Fátima M, Bueno.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent) in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Ipor [...] anga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48%) were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011) for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326) for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  10. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. Howeve