WorldWideScience

Sample records for onchocerciasis endemic areas

  1. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis

    Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed sing...

  2. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis

    Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

  3. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

    Wanji Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the

  4. Mass ivermectin treatment for Onchocerciasis: Lack of evidence for collateral impact on transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas of co-endemicity

    Richards, FO; Eigege, A; Pam, D; Kal, A; Lenhart, A; Oneyka, JOA; Jinadu, MY; Miri, ES

    2005-01-01

    There has long been interest in determining if mass ivermectin administration for onchocerciasis has 'unknowingly' interrupted lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission where the endemicity of the two diseases' overlaps. We studied 11 communities in central Nigeria entomologically for LF by performing mosquito dissections on Anopheline LF vectors. Six of the communities studied were located within an onchocerciasis treatment zone, and five were located outside of that zone. Communities inside th...

  5. Vector competence of Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in two endemic areas of human onchocerciasis in northern Venezuela.

    Grillet, M E; Botto, C; Basañez, M G; Barrera, R

    1994-02-01

    Experimental infections of Simulium metallicum s.l. with Onchocerca volvulus were carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, Altamira and Trincheras, in northern Venezuela, to determine vector competence. Wild-caught flies, fed on infected volunteers, were maintained in the laboratory for 13-15 days at 27 degrees C. Parasite development was complete but asynchronous and retarded. No differences in the vector competence of the two populations of S. metallicum s.l. were found. However, a less efficient development of the parasite occurred during the dry season at both localities. The distribution of the parasite within the vector was aggregated and also displayed seasonal variation. The seasonal susceptibility may be a consequence of a density-dependence regulation mechanism of the parasite within the vector. These results indicate a relatively low vector competence for S. metallicum s.l. in northern Venezuela. PMID:8192518

  6. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

    Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

  7. Feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: first evidence from studies in Mali and Senegal.

    Lamine Diawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass treatment with ivermectin is a proven strategy for controlling onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it is not known if it can also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission and test whether ivermectin treatment could be safely stopped in the study areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 126 villages, and 17,801 people were examined. The prevalence of microfilaridermia was <1% in all three foci. A total of 157,500 blackflies were collected and analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larvae using a specific DNA probe, and vector infectivity rates were all below 0.5 infective flies per 1,000 flies. Except for a subsection of one focus, all infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Treatment was therefore stopped in test areas of 5 to 8 villages in each focus. Evaluations 16 to 22 months after the last treatment in the test areas involved examination of 2,283 people using the skin snip method and a DEC patch test, and analysis of 123,000 black flies. No infected persons and no infected blackflies were detected in the test areas, and vector infectivity rates in other catching points were <0.2 infective flies per 1,000. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the first empirical evidence that elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin treatment is feasible in some endemic foci in Africa. Although further studies are needed to determine to what extent these findings can be extrapolated to other endemic areas in Africa, the principle of elimination has been established. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control has adopted an additional

  8. Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species

    EC Uttah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual im­pair­ments by qualified medical doctors. Five categories of skin manifestations were observed, namely permanent itching, onchodermatitis, atrophy of skin, leopard skin, and sowda. A total of 1024 individuals were examined. "nResults: The prevalence of the skin manifestations were permanent itching (2.5%, onchoder­ma­titis (3.9%, atrophy of the skin (5.8%, leopard skin (22.1%, and sowda (0.1%. The preva­lence of subcutaneous nodules was 25.3%, but 88.9% among the oldest age group, and mostly found in lower half of body. The majority of cases of visual acuity problems (6.8% overall prev­alence were in the oldest age groups. Among those who were ≥ 20 years old, the prevalence of visual acuity problems was significantly higher in females than in males (χ2-test; P< 0.05. Only two of the examined persons were observed to be blind. "nConclusion: Clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis are perhaps more intense in the area prob­ably because of presence of endemic infections of other filarial species.

  9. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in rain forest communities in southwestern Nigeria.

    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Loiasis is currently receiving attention as a disease of public health importance because of the possibility of increased risk of developing neurologic serious adverse event following mass ivermectin treatment against onchocerciasis in individual co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa.Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA was conducted in 12 communities covering the 3 senatorial districts of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 960 people were interviewed for history of eye worm using the WHO guidelines for rapid assessment. The survey confirmed the presence of loiasis in all the 12 communities with 4 in Osun East/Ife south senatorial district being at high risk with a prevalence of over 40%. Based on the RAPLOA results, communities within Osun East/Ife south senatorial district were selected for microfilaraemic assessment of L. loa and O. volvulus. A total of 1115 and 1091 individuals were screened for L. loa and O. volvulus microfilaria worms respectively. 160 (14.3% had L. loa microfilaria detected in their blood with 8 (5.0% individuals having L. loa loads above 8000 mf/ml. 166 (15.2% subjects had O. volvulus microfilaria (range 4-504 mf/ml detected in their skin snip. 30 (2.69% subjects were co-infected with both L. loa and O. volvulus. There was a significant variation in the prevalence (2.1% to 33.3% of onchocerciasis in the communities studied (p = 0.001. Five (41.7% of the studied communities had a prevalence that is equal to or greater than 20%.Low prevalence of onchocerciasis and loiasis co-infection in this study suggests that loiasis may not pose a serious epidemiological threat to the continuous distribution and sustainability of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Evaluation of the interruption of onchocerciasis transmissions in this region using all the indicators set forth by WHO is therefore suggested.

  10. Human Onchocerciasis: Modelling the Potential Long-term Consequences of a Vaccination Programme.

    Hugo C Turner

    Full Text Available Currently, the predominant onchocerciasis control strategy in Africa is annual mass drug administration (MDA with ivermectin. However, there is a consensus among the global health community, supported by mathematical modelling, that onchocerciasis in Africa will not be eliminated within proposed time frameworks in all endemic foci with only annual MDA, and novel and alternative strategies are urgently needed. Furthermore, use of MDA with ivermectin is already compromised in large areas of central Africa co-endemic with Loa loa, and there are areas where suboptimal or atypical responses to ivermectin have been documented. An onchocerciasis vaccine would be highly advantageous in these areas.We used a previously developed onchocerciasis transmission model (EPIONCHO to investigate the impact of vaccination in areas where loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic and ivermectin is contraindicated. We also explore the potential influence of a vaccination programme on infection resurgence in areas where local elimination has been successfully achieved. Based on the age range included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI, the vaccine was assumed to target 1 to 5 year olds. Our modelling results indicate that the deployment of an onchocerciasis vaccine would have a beneficial impact in onchocerciasis-loiasis co-endemic areas, markedly reducing microfilarial load in the young (under 20 yr age groups.An onchocerciasis prophylactic vaccine would reduce the onchocerciasis disease burden in populations where ivermectin cannot be administered safely. Moreover, a vaccine could substantially decrease the chance of re-emergence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in areas where it is deemed that MDA with ivermectin can be stopped. Therefore, a vaccine would protect the substantial investments made by present and past onchocerciasis control programmes, decreasing the chance of disease recrudescence and offering an important additional tool to mitigate the

  11. Onchocerciasis hyperendemic in the Unturán Mountains: the value of recombinant antigens in describing a new transmission area in southern Venezuela.

    Botto, C; Gillespie, A J; Vivas-Martínez, S; Martínez, N; Planchart, S; Basáñez, M G; Bradley, J E

    1999-01-01

    A recently described hyperendemic onchocerciasis area, located in the Unturán Mountains (between the Siapa and Orinoco basins) of southern Venezuela was studied using a cocktail of 3 low molecular weight onchocercal recombinant antigens (OvMBP/10, OvMBP/11, and OvMBP/29). The resulting seroepidemiological data were compared with those from a hypoendemic community (Altamira) situated in the northern coastal mountain range. Parasitological (skin biopsy) and serological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) methods for the specific diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus in these 2 very different endemic areas were, respectively, 88% and 96% sensitive in Unturán, and 57% and 91% sensitive in Altamira. The mean microfilarial load, the mean optical density (OD), and the seropositivity rates all increased significantly with age in both communities. The serological variables (mean OD and prevalence of anti-O. volvulus antibodies) were both significantly higher in Unturán than in Altamira for children and young adults (aged Altamira for the same age-class. The prevalence of specific antibodies (mainly a marker of exposure to risk of infection) exceeded 85% in the remaining age-categories at the hyperendemic area. This is in agreement with the high community microfilarial load recorded in Unturán (> 20 mf/mg) and the presence of sclerosing keratitis and hanging groin, suggesting that onchocerciasis is a public health problem in this community. The ELISA test used here, based on a cocktail of 3 low molecular weight onchocercal recombinant antigens, appears, therefore, to constitute a practical tool for the description of endemicity levels in remote areas, particularly given the fact that finger-prick blood samples are routinely taken from children in the Upper Orinoco region for surveys of malaria incidence. Such studies could aid in defining the true extent of the Amazon focus (still unknown) and providing priority indicators for the selection of communities where

  12. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, Cameroon after 6 years of continuous community-directed treatment with ivermectin

    Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available <0.001. The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5% followed by students (0.7% and businessmen (0.25%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity.

  13. Proof-of-principle of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: final results of a study in Mali and Senegal.

    Mamadou O Traore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa.

  14. Macrofilaricidal Activity after Doxycycline Only Treatment of Onchocerca volvulus in an Area of Loa loa Co-Endemicity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Turner, Joseph D.; Nicholas Tendongfor; Mathias Esum; Johnston, Kelly L; R Stuart Langley; Louise Ford; Brian Faragher; Sabine Specht; Sabine Mand; Achim Hoerauf; Peter Enyong; Samuel Wanji; Taylor, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of severe adverse events following treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in areas co-endemic with loiasis currently compromises the development of control programmes and the treatment of co-infected individuals. We therefore assessed whether doxycycline treatment could be used without subsequent ivermectin administration to effectively deliver sustained effects on Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia and adult viability. Furthermore we assessed the safety of doxycy...

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  16. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  17. Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review

    Laura Moya Alonso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost

  18. Importance of ivermectin to human onchocerciasis: past, present, and the future

    Cupp EW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas

  19. Metabolomics-based discovery of diagnostic biomarkers for onchocerciasis.

    Judith R Denery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of robust, sensitive, and reproducible diagnostic tests for understanding the epidemiology of neglected tropical diseases is an integral aspect of the success of worldwide control and elimination programs. In the treatment of onchocerciasis, clinical diagnostics that can function in an elimination scenario are non-existent and desperately needed. Due to its sensitivity and quantitative reproducibility, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS based metabolomics is a powerful approach to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of an African sample set comprised of 73 serum and plasma samples revealed a set of 14 biomarkers that showed excellent discrimination between Onchocerca volvulus-positive and negative individuals by multivariate statistical analysis. Application of this biomarker set to an additional sample set from onchocerciasis endemic areas where long-term ivermectin treatment has been successful revealed that the biomarker set may also distinguish individuals with worms of compromised viability from those with active infection. Machine learning extended the utility of the biomarker set from a complex multivariate analysis to a binary format applicable for adaptation to a field-based diagnostic, validating the use of complex data mining tools applied to infectious disease biomarker discovery and diagnostic development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An LC-MS metabolomics-based diagnostic has the potential to monitor the progression of onchocerciasis in both endemic and non-endemic geographic areas, as well as provide an essential tool to multinational programs in the ongoing fight against this neglected tropical disease. Ultimately this technology can be expanded for the diagnosis of other filarial and/or neglected tropical diseases.

  20. Impact of three rounds of mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis in areas previously treated for onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone.

    Joseph B Koroma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 1974-2005 studies across Sierra Leone showed onchocerciasis endemicity in 12 of 14 health districts (HDs and baseline studies 2005-2008 showed lymphatic filariasis (LF endemicity in all 14 HDs. Three integrated annual mass drug administration (MDA were conducted in the 12 co-endemic districts 2008-2010 with good geographic, programme and drug coverage. Midterm assessment was conducted 2011 to determine impact of these MDAs on LF in these districts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mf prevalence and intensity in the 12 districts were determined using the thick blood film method and results compared with baseline data from 2007-2008. Overall mf prevalence fell from 2.6% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.0% to 0.3% (95% CI: 0.19%-0.47%, a decrease of 88.5% (p = 0.000; prevalence was 0.0% (100.0% decrease in four districts: Bo, Moyamba, Kenema and Kono (p = 0.001, 0.025, 0.085 and 0.000 respectively; and seven districts had reductions in mf prevalence of between 70.0% and 95.0% (p = 0.000, 0.060, 0.001, 0.014, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.002 for Bombali, Bonthe, Kailahun, Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko and Tonkolili districts respectively. Pujehun had baseline mf prevalence of 0.0%, which was maintained. Only Bombali still had an mf prevalence ≥1.0% (1.58%, 95% CI: 0.80%-3.09%, and this is the district that had the highest baseline mf prevalence: 6.9% (95% CI: 5.3%-8.8%. Overall arithmetic mean mf density after three MDAs was 17.59 mf/ml (95% CI: 15.64 mf/ml-19.55 mf/ml among mf positive individuals (65.4% decrease from baseline of 50.9 mf/ml (95% CI: 40.25 mf/ml-61.62 mf/ml; p = 0.001 and 0.05 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.03 mf/ml-0.08 mf/ml for the entire population examined (96.2% decrease from baseline of 1.32 mf/ml (95% CI: 1.00 mf/ml-1.65 mf/ml; p = 0.000. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that mf prevalence decreased to <1.0% in all but one of the 12 districts after three MDAs. Overall mf density reduced by 65.0% among mf

  1. Endemism

    Vidal, J.E.

    1969-01-01

    In the Flore générale de l’Indochine, 217 families have been described, 1794 genera, c. 9000 species. There is an amount of endemism, on the basis of which attempts have been made towards an inner subdivision of the region. The problem is, that the endemism is of uncertain status. A few percentages

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of three Onchocerca volvulus cloned antigens in diagnosis of onchocerciasis

    Onchcerciasis is endemic in three geographical regions in Sudan, and presented with variable clinical reactions. The current diagnosis of onchocerciasis is based on detection of live microflaraie in skin snips in addition to clinical signs and history of living in endemic regions. Different serological diagnostic trials using crude soluble antigens of O. volvulus have shown variable degrees of cross reaction with other nematodes co-endemic in the same area. We have studied the sensitivity and specificity of RAL-2, calreticulin and PDI O. volvulus cloned antigens using the ELISA techniques. Eighty serum samples of Onchocerciasis patients, 20 non endemic normal controls and 42 samples of patients of other endemic deseas including Leishmanoasis, malaria, tuberculosis and shestosomiasis were tested RAL-2 gave the best Ig G response, with 83.75% sensitivity and 91. 66% specificity. PDI sensitivity was 20% and specificity 91.66%, while calreticulum showed sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 73.30%. IgG3 subclasses was not significantly different from controls while IgG4 was significantly higher in patients. The sensitivity of RAL-2 for IgG4 was 90% with a specificity of 100%. For PDI sensitivity was 25% and 100% specificity while calreticulin resulted in sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100%. Low levels of circulating IgE to RAL-2 antigen were detected. For all antigens there was significant correlation with gender, age, microflarial load or presence of nodules. (Author)

  3. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

    Higazi TB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is

  4. Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas - 1993-2012.

    2013-05-24

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected black flies of the genus Simulium, and is characterized by chronic skin disease, severe itching, and eye lesions that can progress to complete blindness. Currently, among approximately 123 million persons at risk for infection in 38 endemic countries, at least 25.7 million are infected, and 1 million are blinded or have severe visual impairment. Periodic, communitywide mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (Mectizan, Merck) prevents eye and skin disease and might interrupt transmission of the infection, depending on the coverage, duration, and frequency of MDA. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) was launched in response to a 1991 resolution of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) calling for the elimination of onchocerciasis from the Americas. By the end of 2012, transmission of the infection, judged by surveys following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, had been interrupted or eliminated in four of the six endemic countries in the WHO Americas Region. Thus, in 2013, only 4% (23,378) of the 560,911 persons originally at risk in the Americas will be under ivermectin MDA. Active transmission currently is limited to two foci among Yanomami indigenes in adjacent border areas of Venezuela and Brazil. PMID:23698606

  5. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas

    Akin, Melih; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts. PMID:26702290

  6. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    ... The CDC Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds in ...

  7. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection

    Proaño Roberto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Results Over the period 1990–2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round. Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. Conclusion The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries.

  8. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Carmen Elena Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  9. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  10. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  11. The Health Impact of Onchocerciasis Control in Africa

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Onchocerciasis is a tropical disease endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa, Yemen, and parts of Latin America, and is caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is found exclusively in humans. Adult specimens of this roundworm reside in subcutaneous and deep-tis

  12. Spatio-temporal Evolution on Geographic Boundaries of HFRS Endemic Areas in Shandong Province, China

    LIU Yan Xun; WANG Zhi Qiang; GUO Jing; TANG Fang; SUN Xiu Bin; XUE Fu Zhong; KANG Dian Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. Methods The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. Results The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. Conclusion The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled.

  13. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  14. Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects

    Babalola OE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola Department of Ophthalmological Surgery, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, New Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria Abstract: This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported

  15. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.

  16. Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline only treatment of Onchocerca volvulus in an area of Loa loa co-endemicity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Joseph D Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of severe adverse events following treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in areas co-endemic with loiasis currently compromises the development of control programmes and the treatment of co-infected individuals. We therefore assessed whether doxycycline treatment could be used without subsequent ivermectin administration to effectively deliver sustained effects on Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia and adult viability. Furthermore we assessed the safety of doxycycline treatment prior to ivermectin administration in a subset of onchocerciasis individuals co-infected with low to moderate intensities of Loa loa microfilaraemia. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, field trial was conducted of 6 weeks of doxycycline (200 mg/day alone, doxycycline in combination with ivermectin (150 microg/kg at +4 months or placebo matching doxycycline + ivermectin at +4 months in 150 individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus. A further 22 individuals infected with O. volvulus and low to moderate intensities of Loa loa infection were administered with a course of 6 weeks doxycycline with ivermectin at +4 months. Treatment efficacy was determined at 4, 12 and 21 months after the start of doxycycline treatment together with the frequency and severity of adverse events. RESULTS: One hundred and four (60.5% participants completed all treatment allocations and follow up assessments over the 21-month trial period. At 12 months, doxycycline/ivermectin treated individuals had lower levels of microfilaridermia and higher frequency of amicrofilaridermia compared with ivermectin or doxycycline only groups. At 21 months, microfilaridermia in doxycycline/ivermectin and doxycycline only groups was significantly reduced compared to the ivermectin only group. 89% of the doxycycline/ivermectin group and 67% of the doxycycline only group were amicrofilaridermic, compared with 21% in the ivermectin only group. O. volvulus from doxycycline groups were

  17. Hair as Biomarker of Fluoride Exposure in a Fluoride Endemic Area and a Low Fluoridated Area

    Parimi, Nalini; V. Viswanath; Kashyap, Bina; Patil, Pavan Uday

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether hair could be used as biomarker of fluoride exposure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 people living in an endemically fluoridated area and a low fluoridated area. Samples of hair from the occipital were taken and subjected to fluoride analysis by a fluoride ion electrode. Results: Lower fluoride levels in water supplies correlated with lower levels of fluoride in hair and more over higher fluoride levels in wate...

  18. Use of Geographic Information Systems in the development of prediction models for onchocerciasis control in Ethiopia.

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; McNally, K

    2005-03-01

    A risk assessment model was developed for onchocerciasis distribution and its control in Ethiopia using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. GIS data analysis was done to generate 3 separate risk models using selected environmental features of (1) earth observing satellite data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) prepared from AVHRR sensor data of the Global land 1-km project for the years 1992 and 1995, (2) FAO agroclimatic databases from the Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region of East Africa, and (3) a climate-based forecast index based on the growing degree days (GDD) and water budget concepts. Parasitological data used for the analysis were published and unpublished reports of onchocerciasis surveillance made between 1969 and 2000 in various parts of the country. Analysis of queries based on 1992 and 1995 annual wet and dry season data of the Global land 1-km project resulted in a predictive value of 95.1%, 94.0% and 96.3%, respectively, using data values extracted from buffers centered on sites above 5% prevalence. The model based on CPSZ data predicted an endemic area that best fit the distribution of sites over 5% prevalence; the query was based on CPSZ values of average altitude (442-2134 m), annual mean temperature (18-28 degrees C), annual rainfall (822-1980 mm), annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938 mm), rain minus potential evapotranspiration (-124 - 792 mm), average NDVI x 100 (2000-5000) and average terrain percent slope (9-34). The climate-based model based on GDD and water-budget predicted high risk to severe risk areas in the western and southwestern parts of the country. All three of the models predicted suitable areas for the transmission of onchocerciasis outside known endemic areas, suggesting the need for ground-based validation and potential application to current community-directed treatment programs with

  19. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    prevention or management services are provided efficiently. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Iron supplements for children living in malaria-endemic countries Why the review is important Children living in malarial areas commonly develop anaemia. Long-term anaemia is thought to delay a child's development and make children more likely to get infections. In areas where anaemia is common, health providers may give iron to prevent anaemia, but there is a concern amongst researchers that this may increase the risk of malaria. It is thought that the iron tablets will increase iron levels in the blood, and this will promote the growth of the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. We aimed to assess the effects of oral iron supplementation in children living in countries where malaria is common. Main findings of the review Cochrane researchers searched the available evidence up to 30 August 2015 and included 35 trials (31,955 children). Iron did not increase the risk of malaria, indicated by fever and the presence of parasites in the blood (high quality evidence). There was no increased risk of death among children treated with iron, although the quality of the evidence for this was low. Among children treated with iron, there was no increased risk of severe malaria (high quality evidence). Although it is hypothesized that iron supplementation might harm children who do not have anaemia living in malarial areas, there is probably no increased risk for malaria in these children (moderate quality evidence). In areas where health services are sufficient to help prevent and treat malaria, giving iron supplements (with or without folic acid) may reduce clinical malaria. In areas where these services are not available, iron supplementation (with or without folic acid) may increase the number of children with clinical malaria (low quality evidence). Overall, iron resulted in fewer anaemic children at follow up, and the end average change in haemoglobin from base line was higher with iron

  20. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko;

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  1. Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.

    Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

  2. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ∼850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s

  3. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  4. Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

  5. Identification of areas of endemism from species distribution models: Threshold selection and Nearctic mammals

    Tania Escalante; Gerardo Rodríguez-Tapia; Miguel Linaje; Patricia Illoldi-Rangel; Rafael González-López

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relevance of threshold selection in species distribution models on the delimitation of areas of endemism, using as case study the North American mammals. We modeled 40 species of endemic mammals of the Nearctic region with Maxent, and transformed these models to binary maps using four different thresholds: minimum training presence, tenth percentile training presence, equal training sensitivity and specificity, and 0.5 logistic probability. We analyzed the binary maps with th...

  6. Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil

    Cardoso, Luciana S; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Maria Ilma Araujo; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Pa...

  7. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey Conducted Three Years after Halting Ivermectin Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Guatemala.

    Frank O Richards

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was provided in Guatemala's Central Endemic Zone (CEZ over a 24 year period (1988-2011. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission was declared in 2015 after a three year post MDA surveillance period (2012-2014 showed no evidence of recrudescence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP towards onchocerciasis and ivermectin among residents in the post endemic CEZ. A major interest in this study was to determine what community residents thought about the end of the ivermectin MDA program.A total of 148 interviews were conducted in November 2014 in four formerly hyperendemic communities using a standard questionnaire on smart phones. The majority (69% of respondents knew that the MDA program had ended because the disease was no longer present in their communities, but a slight majority (53% was personally unsure that onchocerciasis had really been eliminated. Sixty-three percent wanted to continue to receive ivermectin because of this uncertainty, or because ivermectin is effective against intestinal worms. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that they would seek medical attention immediately if a family member had symptoms of onchocerciasis (especially the presence of a nodule, which is a finding very important for ongoing surveillance.Many respondents wanted to continue receive ivermectin and more than half did not believe onchocerciasis had been eliminated. The ministry of health outreach services should be prepared to address ongoing concerns about onchocerciasis in the post endemic CEZ.

  8. Beginning of the end of Onchocerciasis in the Americas

    Gloria Ines Palma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis, also known as River Blindness, is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by black flies of the genus Simulium. It is endemic in Africa, where an estimated 37 million people are infected. It is almost certain that the slave trade in the 17th and 18th centuries brought onchocerciasis from West Africa to the Americas (1,  where transmission foci  where established  in  six  countries: Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela,  Brazil, Ecuador  and Colombia.  Since the beginning of the 20th century it was suspected that this vector borne disease was present in Colombia but the first confirmed case was not reported until 1965. The exact location of the single focus in the country was confirmed almost thirty years later in the locality of Naicioná, on the stream that bears the same name

  9. Malaria situation in an endemic area, southeastern iran.

    Sajjad Fekri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006-2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%.Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness.

  10. Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Central Nigeria: Challenges in Coordinating the Stop MDA Decision

    Evans, Darin S.; Alphonsus, Kal; Umaru, Jon; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Mafuyai, Hayward; Gonzales-Peralta, Carlos; Adamani, William; Pede, Elias; Umbugadu, Christopher; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Richards, Frank O.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF) co-endemic local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria. Annual MDA with ivermectin had been given for 17 years, 8 of which were in combination with albendazole. In 2008, assessments indicated that LF transmission was interrupted, but that the MDA had to continue due to the uncertain status of onchocerciasis transmission. Accordingly, assessments to determine if ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped were conducted in 2009. Methods We evaluated nodule, microfilarial (mf) skin snip, and antibody (IgG4 response to OV16) prevalence in adults and children in six sentinel sites where baseline data from the 1990s were available. We applied the 2001 WHO criteria for elimination of onchocerciasis that defined transmission interruption as an infection rate of <0.1% in children (using both skin snip and OV16 antibody) and a rate of infective (L3) blackflies of <0.05%. Results Among adult residents in sentinel sites, mean mf prevalence decreased by 99.37% from the 1991–1993 baseline of 42.95% (64/149) to 0.27% (2/739) in 2009 (p<0.001). The OV16 seropositivity of 3.52% (26/739) among this same group was over ten times the mf rate. No mf or nodules were detected in 4,451 children in sentinel sites and ‘spot check’ villages, allowing the exclusion of 0.1% infection rate with 95% confidence. Seven OV16 seropositives were detected, yielding a seroprevalence of 0.16% (0.32% upper 95%CI). No infections were detected in PCR testing of 1,568 Simulium damnosum s.l. flies obtained from capture sites around the six sentinel sites. Conclusion Interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis in these five LGAs is highly likely, although the number of flies caught was insufficient to exclude 0.05% with 95% confidence (upper CI 0.23%). We suggest that ivermectin MDA could be stopped in these LGAs if similar results are seen in neighboring districts. PMID:25233351

  11. Status of Onchocerciasis transmission after more than a decade of mass drug administration for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination in central Nigeria: challenges in coordinating the stop MDA decision.

    Darin S Evans

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF co-endemic local government areas (LGAs in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria. Annual MDA with ivermectin had been given for 17 years, 8 of which were in combination with albendazole. In 2008, assessments indicated that LF transmission was interrupted, but that the MDA had to continue due to the uncertain status of onchocerciasis transmission. Accordingly, assessments to determine if ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped were conducted in 2009.We evaluated nodule, microfilarial (mf skin snip, and antibody (IgG4 response to OV16 prevalence in adults and children in six sentinel sites where baseline data from the 1990s were available. We applied the 2001 WHO criteria for elimination of onchocerciasis that defined transmission interruption as an infection rate of <0.1% in children (using both skin snip and OV16 antibody and a rate of infective (L3 blackflies of <0.05%.Among adult residents in sentinel sites, mean mf prevalence decreased by 99.37% from the 1991-1993 baseline of 42.95% (64/149 to 0.27% (2/739 in 2009 (p<0.001. The OV16 seropositivity of 3.52% (26/739 among this same group was over ten times the mf rate. No mf or nodules were detected in 4,451 children in sentinel sites and 'spot check' villages, allowing the exclusion of 0.1% infection rate with 95% confidence. Seven OV16 seropositives were detected, yielding a seroprevalence of 0.16% (0.32% upper 95%CI. No infections were detected in PCR testing of 1,568 Simulium damnosum s.l. flies obtained from capture sites around the six sentinel sites.Interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis in these five LGAs is highly likely, although the number of flies caught was insufficient to exclude 0.05% with 95% confidence (upper CI 0.23%. We suggest that ivermectin MDA could be stopped in these LGAs if similar results are seen in neighboring districts.

  12. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. PMID:27094337

  13. Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis

    Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

  14. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    Jean-François Guégan; Philippe Legall; Jordi Landier; Laurent Marsollier; Estelle Marion; Sara Eyangoh; Solange Meyin A Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

  15. Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm

    Program Coordinating Committee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan® has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the process leading up to interruption of transmission as well as the critical period following cessation of mass drug administration to document that there is no recrudescence of transmission. This is called the posttreatment surveillance (PTS period. This report describes the aims, phases, and methodology of PTS as operationalized by the endemic countries and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. Successful completion of the PTS period without signs of recrudescence leads to a country request for certification of elimination by the World Health Organization. As elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas proceeds and emphasis in Africa switches from control to elimination, the PTS guide should prove invaluable to those programs going forward.Keywords: Onchocerca volvulus, onchocerciasis, ivermectin, Mectizan®, recrudescence, surveillance

  16. Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination

    Lazdins Janis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

  17. Onchocerciasis in Yemen: Time to take action against a neglected tropical parasitic disease.

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Beier, John C

    2016-10-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease affecting the poorest underserved people in Yemen. A national control programme with goals to eliminate onchocerciasis has yet to be launched due to the current upheaval and social unrest in the country. The disease, locally termed as sowda, is unique in its clinicopathologic pattern, being of the localized, non-blinding, hyperreactive onchocercal skin disease. Although early reports identified endemic foci along seasonal watercourses, there is a need to redefine its epidemiologic patterns as well as health and socioeconomic impacts. Laboratory diagnosis of sowda among Yemeni patients is difficult due to the low load of microfilariae in skin snips and the presence of asymptomatic itching-free microfilaria carriers. Adoption of ivermectin use at three-month intervals as a control strategy has not been evaluated because the drug is mostly used in clinics and distributed to only a few affected communities. This paper addresses key aspects of onchocerciasis in Yemen and highlights the need for screening at-risk populations using highly sensitive techniques and mapping the distributions of the parasite in human and vector populations of blackflies. The new research should be integrated with the launch of a national onchocerciasis control programme to achieve onchocerciasis elimination. PMID:27325293

  18. Plasmodium falciparum: limited genetic diversity of MSP-2 in isolates circulating in Brazilian endemic areas.

    Sallenave-Sales, S; Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Faria, C P; Cerruti, C; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T; Zalis, M G

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of the surface merozoite protein 2 (MSP-2) was evaluated in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from individuals with uncomplicated malaria living in a Brazilian endemic area of Peixoto de Azevedo. The frequency of MSP-2 alleles and the survival of genetically different populations clones in 104 isolates were verified by Southern blot and SSCP-PCR. Single and mixed infections were observed in similar frequencies and the rate of detection of FC27 and 3D7 allelic families was equivalent. Eight alleles were identified and among them, the sequence polymorphism was mainly attributed to variations in the repetitive region. Interestingly, in three alleles nucleotide polymorphism was identical to that detected in a previous study, conducted in 1992, in a near Brazilian endemic area. This finding demonstrated the genetic similarity between two isolate groups, besides the certain temporal stability in the allelic patterns. The implications of these data for studies on the genetic diversity are also discussed. PMID:12880589

  19. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  20. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: Mass Drug Administration in Endemic Areas of (Bidar District) Karnataka-2008

    Ranganath, T. S.; N Ramakrishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Background : Lymphatic Filariasis is a mosquito transmitted disease, caused by parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis was established in early 2000. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization is annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of single-dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC), distributed to inhabitants of Filariasis endemic areas, excluding children below 2 years of age, pregnant women, and seriously ill persons, an...

  1. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    Tveit Ingvar; Walde Anna; Søbstad Øystein; Schimmer Barbara; Nygård Karin; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped bas...

  2. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Basic Lymphedema Management in Leogane, Haiti, an Area Endemic for Bancroftian Filariasis

    David G Addiss; Jacky Louis-Charles; Jacquelin Roberts; Frederic Leconte; Wendt, Joyanna M.; Marie Denise Milord; Patrick J Lammie; Gerusa Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 14 million persons living in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis have lymphedema of the leg. Clinical studies indicate that repeated episodes of bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) lead to progression of lymphedema and that basic lymphedema management, which emphasizes hygiene, skin care, exercise, and leg elevation, can reduce ADLA frequency. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of basic lymphedema management or assesse...

  3. Thyroid nodules in Graves′ disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    Mishra A; Mishra S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves′ disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves′ disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves′ disease (1990-1999). Out of these 35 (26.9&#...

  4. Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas

    Greenwood Brian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Anti-malarial drugs can make a significant contribution to the control of malaria in endemic areas when used for prevention as well as for treatment. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in preventing deaths and morbidity from malaria, but it is difficult to sustain for prolonged periods, may interfere with the development of naturally acquired immunity and will facilitate the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains if applied to a whole community. However, chemoprophylaxis targeted ...

  5. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista; Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da Matta; Thaise Yumie Tomokane; Acácio Duarte Pacheco; Fernando Tobias Silveira; Claudio Nazaretian Rossi; Mary Marcondes; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis ...

  6. Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires; Luciane Marinoni

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Prim...

  7. Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas

    An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

  8. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  9. Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis

    Tamarozzi Francesca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its

  10. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  11. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  12. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  13. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Raquel Lovato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101 and 72.7 (CI 42-116 in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. SIGNIFICANCE: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  14. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total

  15. Feasibility and effectiveness of basic lymphedema management in Leogane, Haiti, an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis.

    David G Addiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 14 million persons living in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis have lymphedema of the leg. Clinical studies indicate that repeated episodes of bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA lead to progression of lymphedema and that basic lymphedema management, which emphasizes hygiene, skin care, exercise, and leg elevation, can reduce ADLA frequency. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of basic lymphedema management or assessed the role of compressive bandaging for lymphedema in resource-poor settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 1995 and 1998, we prospectively monitored ADLA incidence and leg volume in 175 persons with lymphedema of the leg who enrolled in a lymphedema clinic in Leogane, Haiti, an area endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti. During the first phase of the study, when a major focus of the program was to reduce leg volume using compression bandages, ADLA incidence was 1.56 episodes per person-year. After March 1997, when hygiene and skin care were systematically emphasized and bandaging discouraged, ADLA incidence decreased to 0.48 episodes per person-year (P<0.0001. ADLA incidence was significantly associated with leg volume, stage of lymphedema, illiteracy, and use of compression bandages. Leg volume decreased in 78% of patients; over the entire study period, this reduction was statistically significant only for legs with stage 2 lymphedema (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Basic lymphedema management, which emphasized hygiene and self-care, was associated with a 69% reduction in ADLA incidence. Use of compression bandages in this setting was associated with an increased risk of ADLA. Basic lymphedema management is feasible and effective in resource-limited areas that are endemic for lymphatic filariasis.

  16. Protein profiles of field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from different endemic areas of Indonesia

    M Bhakti Poerwadikarta

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonicated cell-free extract proteins of 14 field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from six different endemic areas of Indonesia were analyzed by the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods . The protein profiles of each field isolate tested demonstrated slightly different at the protein bands with molecular weights of 18, 37, 52, 65 and 70 kDa, and varied between the field isolates and vaccine strains. The variation could provide clues to the source of anthrax transmission whether it was originated from similar strain or not.

  17. Lyme arthritis in Southern Norway - an endemic area for Lyme Borreliosis

    Haugeberg, Glenn; Hansen, Inger Johanne W.; Skarpaas, Tone; Noraas, Sølvi; Kjelland, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite Southern Norway is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis there is a lack of data on Lyme arthritis (LA). In the literature controversies exist if acute LA can develop into chronic arthritis. Our objective was to identify and characterize patients with LA in Southern Norway and explore disease course after antibiotic treatment.Methods: Patients aged 20 years or older with arthritis and a positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi infection (IgG and/or IgM) suspected of havin...

  18. Clinical features and management of biliary ascariasis in a non-endemic area

    Misra, S; Dwivedi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Biliary ascariasis is common in certain geographical areas of the world. In India, it is common in the Kashmir valley and only stray cases have been reported from other parts of the country. Between January 1995 and May 1997, 14 patients with biliary ascariasis were seen at our centre, which is more than 1000 km from the Kashmir valley. The mean (± SD) age of the patients was 31.7 (± 6.1) years and all were females. None of them had been to a place known to be endemic for biliary ascariasis. ...

  19. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  20. A Comparison of Two Brazilian Populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) from Endemic and Non-endemic Areas to Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877)

    Brito Ana C; Williams Paul; Fontes Gilberto; Rocha Eliana MM

    1997-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be an efficient insect host of Wuchereria bancrofti. In Brazil Cx. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed throughout the country and is often abundant in and around human habitations. In contrast, Bancroftian filariasis is limited to three foci in Brazil. Experiments were undertaken to compare the vector capacities of Cx. quinquefasciatus originating from Maceió (Alagoas), one of the endemic areas of W. bancrofti infection in Brazil, and Belo Horizonte (Mina...

  1. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed

    Boussinesq M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  2. How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?

    B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

  3. Farm characteristics and farmer perceptions associated with bovine tuberculosis incidents in areas of emerging endemic spread.

    Broughan, J M; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Brunton, L A; Ashton, A; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Goodchild, A V; Hinchliffe, S; Eglin, R D; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Enticott, G

    2016-07-01

    While much is known about the risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in herds located in high incidence areas, the drivers of bTB spread in areas of emerging endemicity are less well established. Epidemiological analysis and intensive social research identified natural and social risk factors that may prevent or encourage the spread of disease. These were investigated using a case-control study design to survey farmers in areas defined as recently having become endemic for bTB (from or after 2006). Telephone surveys were conducted for 113 farms with a recent history of a bTB incident where their officially tuberculosis free status had been withdrawn (OTFW) (cases) and 224 controls with no history of a bTB incident, matched on location, production type and the rate of endemic bTB spread. Farmers were questioned about a range of farm management strategies, farm characteristics, herd health, wildlife and biosecurity measures with a focus on farmer attitudes and behaviours such as farmers' perception of endemicity and feelings of control, openness and social cohesion. Data generated in the telephone surveys was supplemented with existing herd-level data and analysed using conditional logistic regression. Overall, herd size (OR 1.07), purchasing an animal at a cattle market compared to purchasing outside of markets (OR 2.6), the number of contiguous bTB incidents (2.30) and the number of inconclusive reactors detected in the 2 years prior to the case incident (OR 1.95) significantly increased the odds of a bTB incident. Beef herds using a field parcel more than 3.2km away from the main farm and dairy herds reporting Johne's disease in the previous 12 months were 3.0 and 4.7 times more likely to have a recent history of a bTB incident, respectively. Beef herds reporting maize growing near, but not on, their farm were less likely to be case herds. Operating a closed farm in the two years prior to the case breakdown did not reduce the odds of a bTB incident. Farmers

  4. Burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in an area of low endemicity in Brazil.

    Netto, Maria José; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Medeiros, Zulma

    2016-11-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has two main components: interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and managing morbidity and preventing disability. However, interventions to prevent and manage LF-related disabilities in endemic communities have been of limited extent. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of morbidity and its correlation with filarial infection, thereby filling a gap that existed regarding the data on morbidity in Brazil. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria was investigated using the thick smear technique. Information on parasitosis-related clinical manifestations was obtained using a questionnaire applied by community health agents with previous training and capacitation to know about and identify the disease. To analyze correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used with the corresponding statistical significance test. 23,673 individuals were investigated: 323 presented microfilaremia (1.36%) and 741 (3.13%) had clinical complaints that were attributable to LF. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) was the most prevalent condition (2.2%). Lymphedema, ADLA and chyluria were more commonly reported among female patients. There were positive associations between all the clinical complaints reported and filarial infection. Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r=0.699; p<0.001). The present study showed that there is an association between clinical condition reported and the rate of infection among people living in an area of low endemicity for LF. It contributes data that might provide support for healthcare systems and thus optimize disease management, through incorporating surveillance measures directed towards preventing disability and reducing the psychosocial and economic impact of the disease on poor populations living in areas endemic for LF. PMID:27427218

  5. Evidence for Suppression of Onchocerciasis Transmission in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Laura Moya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic neglected tropical disease which is endemic both in mainland and insular Equatorial Guinea. We aim to estimate the current epidemiological situation of onchocerciasis in Bioko Island after vector elimination in 2005 and more than sixteen years of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI by using molecular and serological approaches for onchocerciasis diagnosis. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. A total of 544 study participants were recruited. A complete dermatological examination was performed and three skin snips were performed in every participant for parasitological and molecular assessments. Blood spots were also taken for determination of Ov16 IgG4 antibodies trough an "in-house" ELISA assay. Overall, we found 15 out of 522 individuals suffering any onchocerciasis specific cutaneous lesions and 16 out of 528 (3.0% with onchocercal nodules in the skin. Nodules were significantly associated with age, being more common in subjects older than 10 years than in younger people (3.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.029. Regarding the onchocerciasis laboratory assessment, no positive parasitological test for microfilaria detection was found in the skin snips. The calculated seroprevalence through IgG4 serology was 7.9%. No children less than 10 years old were found to be positive for this test. Only one case was positive for Onchocerca volvulus (O. volvulus after skin PCR. The present study points out that the on-going mass ivermectin treatment has been effective in reducing the prevalence of onchocerciasis and corroborates the interruption of transmission in Bioko Island. To our knowledge, this is the first time that accurate information through molecular and serological techniques is generated to estimate the onchocerciasis prevalence in this zone. Sustained support from the national program and appropriate communication

  6. Evidence for Suppression of Onchocerciasis Transmission in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Moya, Laura; Herrador, Zaida; Ta-Tang, Thuy Huong; Rubio, Jose Miguel; Perteguer, Maria Jesús; Hernandez-González, Ana; García, Belén; Nguema, Rufino; Nguema, Justino; Ncogo, Policarpo; Garate, Teresa; Benito, Agustín; Sima, Anacleto; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic neglected tropical disease which is endemic both in mainland and insular Equatorial Guinea. We aim to estimate the current epidemiological situation of onchocerciasis in Bioko Island after vector elimination in 2005 and more than sixteen years of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) by using molecular and serological approaches for onchocerciasis diagnosis. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. A total of 544 study participants were recruited. A complete dermatological examination was performed and three skin snips were performed in every participant for parasitological and molecular assessments. Blood spots were also taken for determination of Ov16 IgG4 antibodies trough an "in-house" ELISA assay. Overall, we found 15 out of 522 individuals suffering any onchocerciasis specific cutaneous lesions and 16 out of 528 (3.0%) with onchocercal nodules in the skin. Nodules were significantly associated with age, being more common in subjects older than 10 years than in younger people (3.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.029). Regarding the onchocerciasis laboratory assessment, no positive parasitological test for microfilaria detection was found in the skin snips. The calculated seroprevalence through IgG4 serology was 7.9%. No children less than 10 years old were found to be positive for this test. Only one case was positive for Onchocerca volvulus (O. volvulus) after skin PCR. The present study points out that the on-going mass ivermectin treatment has been effective in reducing the prevalence of onchocerciasis and corroborates the interruption of transmission in Bioko Island. To our knowledge, this is the first time that accurate information through molecular and serological techniques is generated to estimate the onchocerciasis prevalence in this zone. Sustained support from the national program and appropriate communication and health

  7. Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile

    Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

  8. Results of implementation of preventive recommendations for tuberculosis after renal transplantation in an endemic area.

    de Lemos, A S; Vieira, M A M S; Halpern, M; Quaresma, R G; Borchardt, A C; Santos, M A A R; Gonçalves, R T; Santoro-Lopes, G

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective cohort study assessed the results of the implementation of preventive recommendations for tuberculosis (TB) among renal transplant recipients in an endemic area (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Subjects were defined as at high risk for TB if they had latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), reported recent close contact with individuals with TB or received a graft from a donor with LTBI. A 6-month course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was targeted to high-risk subjects. The study end point was TB confirmed by culture. Altogether, 535 patients were included. Median follow-up was 59 months. The overall cumulative incidence of TB was 2.1% while among the 274 patients in whom the preventive protocol was fully implemented, the incidence was only 0.7%. The incidence of TB among 75 high-risk recipients not treated with isoniazid (7%) was significantly higher than that observed in 209 untreated low-risk patients (1%, p = 0.006) and in 65 high-risk subjects that received IPT (no case, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the implementation of preventive recommendations for TB in an endemic area allowed the appropriate discrimination between high- and low-risk renal transplant recipients and was associated with long-term reduction in the incidence of this complication among high-risk subjects. PMID:24119248

  9. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  10. The status of Simulium oyapockense and S. limbatum as vectors of human onchocerciasis in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Shelley, A J; Dias, A P; Moraes, M A; Procunier, W S

    1987-07-01

    In an attempt to explain the current distribution of onchocerciasis in the forests of northern Brazil (Moraes et al., 1979, 1986), and its potential for dispersal to other areas, this study compares the vector status of Simulium oyapockense Floch and Abonnenc, 1946 in both a hypoendemic and an onchocerciasis free area with that of S. limbatum Knab, 1915 in the latter area. Both species allowed the full development of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to the infective L3 stage after experimental infection with microfilariae. Their vector competence was significantly lower than for other efficient vector species in South America and Africa because of the lethal effect of the cibarial armature on ingested microfilariae. The low vector capacity of S. oyapockense, together with the low prevalence and intensity of infection of O. volvulus, probably explains why onchocerciasis has not significantly increased in intensity over the last 10 years in the hypoendemic part of the Amazonian focus. Omnipresence of both vector species in the adjacent savanna region, however, could facilitate the spread of onchocerciasis if human population movements continue from the hyperendemic part of the onchocerciasis focus. PMID:2979535

  11. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  12. Farming on the edge: farmer attitudes to bovine tuberculosis in newly endemic areas.

    Enticott, G; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Hinchliffe, S; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Elgin, R; Ashton, A; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Goodchild, T; Brunton, L; Broughan, J

    2015-10-31

    Defra's recent strategy to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB) establishes three spatial zones: high-risk areas (HRAs) and low-risk areas, and an area referred to as 'the edge', which marks the areas where infection is spreading outwards from the HRA. Little is known about farmers in the edge area, their attitudes towards bTB and their farming practices. This paper examines farmers' practices and attitudes towards bTB in standardised epidemiologically defined areas. A survey was developed to collect data on farmer attitudes, behaviours, practices and environmental conditions as part of an interdisciplinary analysis of bTB risk factors. Survey items were developed from a literature review and focus groups with vets and farmers in different locations within the edge area. A case-control sampling framework was adopted with farms sampled from areas identified as recently endemic for bTB. 347 farmers participated in the survey including 117 with bTB, representing a 70per cent response rate. Results show that farmers believe they are unable to do anything about bTB but are keen for the government intervention to help control the spread of bTB. PMID:26494770

  13. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

    Solange Meyin A. Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae, their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  14. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Aline TANURE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1% and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%. Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6% in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  16. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A.; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  17. Guidelines on the treatment of chronic coinfection by Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV outside endemic areas.

    Pérez-Molina, José A; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena; Soriano, Antonio; Pinazo, María-Jesús; Carrilero, Bartolomé; García-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Salas, Joaquín; Torrús, Diego; Soler-Ferrer, Cristina; Puente, Sabino; Haro-González, Juan Luís; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Gascon, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    As a result of population migration, Chagas disease is no longer limited to the North and South American continents. In HIV-infected patients, chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi behaves as an opportunistic infection in severely immunosuppressed patients and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Unlike other opportunistic infections, information on the natural history, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Chagas disease is scarce. Spain has the highest number of cases of Chagas disease outside the North and South American continents, and coinfection with HIV is increasingly prevalent. In this article, the Spanish Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health (Sociedad Española de Medicina Tropical y Salud Internacional) reviews the current situation of coinfection with HIV and T. cruzi infection and provides guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention in areas where Chagas disease is not endemic. It also identifies areas of uncertainty where additional research is necessary. PMID:22189148

  18. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.

  19. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P

  20. Onchocerciasis

    ... live in 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, ... Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, ...

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  2. Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated

    Moses N. Katabarwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control onchocerciasis only as a public health problem. From 2006 to 2010, Wadelai program successfully attained ultimate treatment goal (UTG, treatment coverage of ≥90%, despite expanding from 19 to 34 communities and from 5,600 annual treatments to over 29,000 semiannual treatments. Evaluations in 2009 showed no microfilaria in skin snips of over 500 persons examined, and only 1 of 3011 children was IgG4 antibody positive to the OV16 recombinant antigen. No Simulium vectors were found, and their disappearance could have sped up interruption of transmission. Although twice-per-year treatment had an unclear role in interruption of transmission, the experience demonstrated that twice-per-year treatment is feasible in the Ugandan setting. The monitoring data support the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from the Wadelai focus of Uganda.

  3. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    Tveit Ingvar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped based on address of residence, and attack rates and relative risks were calculated for each water supply zone. A case control study was conducted among people living in the central area of Bergen using age- and sex matched controls randomly selected from the population register. Results The outbreak investigation showed that the outbreak started in late August and peaked in early October. A total of 1300 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database gave an estimate of 2500 cases treated for giardiasis probably linked to the outbreak. There was a predominance of women aged 20–29 years, with few children or elderly. The risk of infection for persons receiving water from the water supply serving Bergen city centre was significantly higher than for those receiving water from other supplies. Leaking sewage pipes combined with insufficient water treatment was the likely cause of the outbreak. Conclusion Late detection contributed to the large public health impact of this outbreak. Passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases is not sufficient for timely detection of outbreaks with non-endemic infections.

  4. Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya

    The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

  5. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  6. Study of the incidence and etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in an endemic goiter area after treatment with iodine enriched salt

    A screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed in a severe endemic goiter area, Chengde district including 7 counties, after treatment with Iodine enriched salt, and Beijing city as a control area. From May 1985 to Sep. 1991, 26570 newborns in Beijing city and 16227 in Chengde were screened. The incidence of primary hypothyroidism in Beijing city was 1/8800 and that in Chengde 1/8100. Of all the 5 Ch detected, 3 from Beijing city and 2 from Chengde, were thyroid dysgenesis. Not a single case of endemic goiter cretinism (including both myxedematous and neurological cretinism) was found in our study. We conclude that Iodine deficiency is the only cause of endemic cretinism and this problem can be solved by Iodine enriched salt treatment

  7. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    Jakobsen, P.H.; Theander, T.G.; Hvid, L; Morris-Jones, S.; Jensen, J.B.; Bayoumi, R.A.L.; Greenwood, B.M.; Bygbjerg, I.C.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    1996-01-01

    individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Sudan, Indonesia and The Gambia to study antibody responses to these peptides in donors living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to the peptides increased with malaria endemicity, although there were no differences in reactivities to...... peptides tested were shortlived in most patients. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM reactivities but not IgG antibody reactivities against the ABRA peptide were higher in those with mild malaria than in those with severe malaria. The peptides may be useful in future epidemiological studies, especially......Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA in...

  8. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  9. A Step Toward Eradication of Human Filariases in Areas Where Loa Is Endemic.

    Geary, Timothy G

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success in limiting the pathology and transmission of the human parasitic infections onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. The full implementation of MDA campaigns for filariasis elimination has been stymied by the unacceptable incidence of severe adverse events observed following drug treatment of a subset of individuals who harbor high loads of Loa loa microfilaria. Extending MDA strategies to regions where loiasis is coendemic could be done confidently if a simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic method was available that could accurately identify individuals who have L. loa microfilarial loads above the risk threshold and could thus be excluded from treatment. A recent paper in mBio reports the discovery of an antigen unique to L. loa microfilaria that can be detected in blood and urine and may form the basis for such an assay. Further work will reveal whether this discovery will smooth the path to achieve filariasis eradication. PMID:27073095

  10. Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

  11. Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Sandra Costa Drummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected for this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US, and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%, twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%, eight were in Group 3 (2.1%, and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%. A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p<0.01. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (platelet count <143,000/mm3, the sensitivity was greater than 92% in all groups, and the specificity varied from 44.4% to 75%. Conclusions We concluded that in endemic areas, thrombocytopenia demonstrates good sensitivity for detecting HSS and may be used as a screening tool to identify patients with HSS.

  12. Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

  13. Severe Anemia in Papua New Guinean Children from a Malaria-Endemic Area: A Case-Control Etiologic Study

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Michon, Pascal; Aipit, Susan; Bona, Cathy; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few detailed etiologic studies of severe anemia in children from malaria-endemic areas and none in those countries with holoendemic transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined associates of severe anemia in 143 well-characterized Papua New Guinean (PNG) children aged 0.5–10 years with hemoglobin concentration

  14. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  15. The Sensitivity of Schistosoma japonicum to Praziquantel: A Field Evaluation in Areas with Low Endemicity of China

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Jian-Rong; LI, HONG-JUN; Shen, Xue-Hui; Liang, You-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility of Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in low endemic foci of China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a total of 43 of 1,242 subjects were identified as being infected with the parasite using parasitological stool examinations in two low-endemicity areas of China, with a prevalence rate of 3.46%. All stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg or 30 m...

  16. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for human Brucellosis in an endemic area

    Filiz Arabacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical utility of complementary tests for brucellosis are not clear in many situation. This study aimed toevaluate value of these tests for brucellosis in an endemic area in Turkey.Materials and methods: This study was performed at Çanakkale General Hospital in 2009. In a retrospective approach, recordsof the patients who evaluated for brucellosis were collected. During the study period, 236 people (131 symptomaticand 105 non-symptomatic were evaluated for diagnosis of brucellosis. All of the samples from these patients were testedfor Brucella antibody seropositivity by RB slide agglutination, standard serum agglutination, Brucella Coombs, BrucellaCapt,and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. Results: In total, 49 symptomatic patients were hospitalized and blood cultures wereobtained. Brucella spp. were isolated from nine of them (18.4%.The BrucellaCapt test was found to be the most sensitivefor Brucella (74.0% and close behind it was the Coombs test (72.5%. The sensitivity for the RB test was 48.1%. The ELISAIgG test was found more sensitive for brucellosis than the ELISA IgM test was (65.6% and 49.6%, respectively. All examinedtests were found about 100% specific for brucellosis but the RB test was found less specific than the others were (96.1%Positive predictive value for all tests was about 1 but negative predictive values were only valuable for the Coombs andBrucella Capt test (0.744 and 0.755, respectively. The other serological tests were around and below 0.50, which was weakfor negative results.Conclusions: The ELISA IgG and IgM tests were no superior to the other tests. By assessment of receiver operating characteristics(ROC analysis, the Brucella Coombs and BrucellaCapt tests were found to be the most valuable tests for serologicaldiagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The seronegative tests in the symptomatic patients should be evaluated andrepeated in short time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 50-56Key words: Brucella

  17. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  18. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  19. Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina

    A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of

  20. Extraction of arsenic from a soil in the blackfoot disease endemic area with ionic liquids

    Liao, Chang-Yu; Peng, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hong-Chung; Kang, Hsu-Ya; Paul Wang, H.

    2011-10-01

    Speciation of arsenic extracted with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) ([bmim][BF 4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [bmim][PF 6] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)) from an As-humic acid (As-HA) complex contaminated soil (As-HA/soil) in a blackfoot disease endemic area has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. About 45% of arsenic in the As-HA/soil can be extracted with [bmim][BF 4] while the relatively less hydrophilic [bmim][PF 6] extracts 25% of arsenic. The extracted arsenic in the [bmim][BF 4] and [bmim][PF 6] from the As-HA/soil possesses mainly As(III) species, suggesting that at least two reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) splitting of As-HA and (2) reduction of As(V) to As(III). The refined EXAFS spectra also indicate that the As(III) extracted in the RTILs possesses the AsO 2- structure, which has the As-O bond distances of 1.77-1.79 Å and coordination numbers of 4.0-4.2.

  1. Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast

    Rivian Christina Lopes Faiolla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in non-immunosuppressed individuals. Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 and 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

  2. Extraction of arsenic from a soil in the blackfoot disease endemic area with ionic liquids

    Liao, Chang-Yu [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Peng, Ching-Yu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Wang, Hong-Chung [Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81362, Taiwan (China); Kang, Hsu-Ya [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Paul Wang, H., E-mail: wanghp@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    Speciation of arsenic extracted with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) ([bmim][BF{sub 4}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [bmim][PF{sub 6}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)) from an As-humic acid (As-HA) complex contaminated soil (As-HA/soil) in a blackfoot disease endemic area has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. About 45% of arsenic in the As-HA/soil can be extracted with [bmim][BF{sub 4}] while the relatively less hydrophilic [bmim][PF{sub 6}] extracts 25% of arsenic. The extracted arsenic in the [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [bmim][PF{sub 6}] from the As-HA/soil possesses mainly As(III) species, suggesting that at least two reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) splitting of As-HA and (2) reduction of As(V) to As(III). The refined EXAFS spectra also indicate that the As(III) extracted in the RTILs possesses the AsO{sub 2}{sup -} structure, which has the As-O bond distances of 1.77-1.79 A and coordination numbers of 4.0-4.2.

  3. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-01-01

    The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures. PMID:27598014

  4. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  5. Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  6. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  7. Extraction of arsenic from a soil in the blackfoot disease endemic area with ionic liquids

    Speciation of arsenic extracted with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) ([bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [bmim][PF6] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)) from an As-humic acid (As-HA) complex contaminated soil (As-HA/soil) in a blackfoot disease endemic area has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. About 45% of arsenic in the As-HA/soil can be extracted with [bmim][BF4] while the relatively less hydrophilic [bmim][PF6] extracts 25% of arsenic. The extracted arsenic in the [bmim][BF4] and [bmim][PF6] from the As-HA/soil possesses mainly As(III) species, suggesting that at least two reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) splitting of As-HA and (2) reduction of As(V) to As(III). The refined EXAFS spectra also indicate that the As(III) extracted in the RTILs possesses the AsO2- structure, which has the As-O bond distances of 1.77-1.79 A and coordination numbers of 4.0-4.2.

  8. [Traditional treatments in an endemic area of american cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru].

    Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Dancuart, Mauricio

    2015-10-01

    In order to know the first-choice treatment by villagers of an endemic area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) prior to medical attention in a health care center, a cross sectional study was realized in Pichupampa town. A census was made in order to collect demographic data and previous history of CL. 254 participants were surveyed. 41.7% (106/254) of the village had CL at least once in their lives and only half of them went to a health center to seek for primary care. 76/106 (71.7%) used some traditional treatment as their first choice and only 23.6% (25/106) subjects went to a health-care center without manipulation of their lesions. It's evident that a high percentage (71.7%) of people potentially infected by CL manipulate and treat their lesions with traditional treatments prior to professional health-care, actions that could interfere with the diagnosis and effectiveness of the program implemented by the Health Ministry. PMID:26732927

  9. Hypothyroidism in women above 35 years in an endemic area recently under iodine supplementation: preliminary report

    The region of greater Mymensingh is known of iodine endemicity. Association of IDD with hypothyroidism is well established phenomenon. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to thyroid dysfunction. 150 consecutive female patients of 35 plus years, who attended the Resident Physician of Mymensingh Medical College were invited to assay free T3, free T4 and TSH in CNMU, Mymensingh. Residencies of these patients were in the various districts of greater Mymensingh. 150 volunteers were offered to give their blood for the study. 134 attended CNMU, Mymensingh. Mean age was 45.03 + 6.65 y (mean + STD). Age ranged from 35 to 60 years. 24 (17.91%) had overt or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Full blown hypothyroidism with low FT3, FT4 and high TSH were seen in 6 (4.48%) cases. 18 (13.43%) showed elevated TSH level with normal FT4 and T3, suggesting sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is high in this area. (author) 1 fig., 23 refs

  10. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  11. Sociocultural aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Gazzinelli Andréa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the sociocultural factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from a small community toward Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out in an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used qualitative approaches to collect data from school-aged children and teachers. Specific findings were that the individuals interviewed were aware of the disease, but also held inaccurate popular beliefs about transmission. Misconceptions coexisted with accurate knowledge both in children and teachers. The disease was not seen as a major health problem and did not affect their activities since it did not cause severe symptoms in most of the individuals. Although the majority of the participants related transmission to water and lack of sanitation, they did not take any preventive measures since their subsistence is highly dependent on irrigation, farming, fishing, and other essential work that is directly related to water activities. The authors discuss the development of a health education program based on the knowledge and perception of individuals about the disease and its determinants as being important for the context and behavioral change.

  12. Sociocultural aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Andréa Gazzinelli

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the sociocultural factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from a small community toward Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out in an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used qualitative approaches to collect data from school-aged children and teachers. Specific findings were that the individuals interviewed were aware of the disease, but also held inaccurate popular beliefs about transmission. Misconceptions coexisted with accurate knowledge both in children and teachers. The disease was not seen as a major health problem and did not affect their activities since it did not cause severe symptoms in most of the individuals. Although the majority of the participants related transmission to water and lack of sanitation, they did not take any preventive measures since their subsistence is highly dependent on irrigation, farming, fishing, and other essential work that is directly related to water activities. The authors discuss the development of a health education program based on the knowledge and perception of individuals about the disease and its determinants as being important for the context and behavioral change.

  13. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  14. Studies on breeding habitats and density of postembryonic immature filarial vector in a filarial endemic area

    Manas Paramanik; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain a complete and systematic data about the breeding habitats and density of vector immatures (larvae & pupae) in a filarial endemic area. Methods: All the possible permanent and temporary water bodies were surveyed systematically. Four hundred samples were taken in each season from each type of habitats. Sampling was done with a 250 mL dipper and immature mosquitoes were identified following standard keys. Results: In summer, rainy and winter seasons, overall 49.64%, 44.64%, and 28.57% of the habitats were positive for immature filarial vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) respectively; 36.93%, 35.11%, and 21.18%of the samples were positive for immatures respectively and overall per dip densities (PDD) of them were 10.29, 10.18, and 4.40 respectively. In the study year overall PDD were much higher in open cesspits (19.53) and drains (17.24) than in other habitats. Peak PDD of vector immatures in Dobas (ditches), open cesspits and drains were in March whereas in paddy fields and temporary water bodies peak PPD were in September. Conclusion: Dobas, paddy fields, open cesspits, drains, and temporary water bodies were found to be the main breeding sites of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus in different months. Open cesspits and drains were suitable almost throughout the year with peak in summer. Dobas also act as a steady breeding site throughout the year, whereas temporary water bodies immerge as strong breeding site during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Information about the breeding habitats will be helpful to formulate a filarial vector control strategy and in turn to control the filarial diseases in the study area.

  15. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    Mariella Anselmi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases.We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis.In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected.Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections.

  16. Thyroid nodules in Graves′ disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    Mishra A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves′ disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves′ disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves′ disease (1990-1999. Out of these 35 (26.9% cases had palpable nodules. No patient had history of previous head and neck irradiation or radioiodine therapy. The clinico-pathological findings and follow-up of these cases were noted. RESULTS: Mean age of patients with nodules was 40.2 +/- 9.5 years and male to female ratio was 1:2.2. The overall incidence of thyroid carcinoma in Graves′ disease was 6.2% (8/130 cases, while the incidence, in cases having nodule with Graves′ disease was 17.1% (6/35 cases. The median age of patients with carcinoma was 45 years (5 women and 1 man. Besides laboratory investigations for hyperthyroidism, preoperative investigations included fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroid scintigraphy in 29 and 25 cases respectively. Incidence of malignancy in palpable cold nodules was 20%. FNAC could not predict malignancy with certainty in any of these cases. Five patients had papillary thyroid carcinoma while one had follicular carcinoma. Median tumour diameter was 10 mm. Tumour was multi-centric in two cases while one case had metastases to cervical lymph node. In follow-up (median =5.5 years one patient died of unrelated cause, while rest are alive with no evidence of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Nodules are frequently associated with Graves′ disease in IDA. Incidence of carcinoma is high in palpable cold nodule. We recommend early thyroidectomy in these cases.

  17. Identification of the plague reservoir in an endemic area of Zambia

    Bernard M. Hang’ombe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is primarily a parasite of wild rodents that persists in permanent, discrete enzootic foci throughout the world. The disease is transmitted in humans by bites from fleas of wildlife rodent species. Therefore surveillance is the ultimate public health solution through plague detection in domestic dogs, other carnivores and wild rodents. The investigations of die-offs amongst plague-susceptible colonial rodents are also significant to determine the presence of Y. pestis in a susceptible population.This study details the identification of the plague reservoir in a suspected endemic area of Zambia. The study was undertaken through rodent investigation for the presence of Y. pestis. A total of 105 rodents were sampled routinely and during a suspected plague period. On dissection 4 (3.81%, 95% CI: 1.23−10.0 rodents sampled during an outbreak showed signs of spleen enlargement. The blood, liver, lymph nodes and spleen of each rodent were subjected to culture on 6% sheep blood agar and MaCconkey agar. Colonies obtained were identified as Y. pestis by colony morphologic features, biochemical profiles, mouse inoculation assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR primers used targeted the Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene, chromosomal ferric iron uptake regulation gene and the outer membrane protein B gene.The isolates were also subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests using the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar with sensitivity being observed with ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The findings, identifies a natural reservoir of Y. pestis in Zambia providing the public health officials with a definite host for the control strategy.

  18. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    Hossein Nahrevanian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP and nitric oxide (NO are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman and Northwestern (NW provinces (Ardabil. The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection. The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

  19. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri to assess its genetic variability in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Paterna, Ana; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is one of the main causative agents of caprine contagious agalactia. Besides, the absence of accurate control methods eases its dispersion between different herds within endemic areas of this disease. In this context, there is a need to implement molecular typing schemes which offer valuable information useful to establish control measures and enables the surveillance of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of different strains of Mmc from a contagious agalactia endemic area through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, five house-keeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA, rpoB) from 39 field isolates were analysed. These isolates were obtained from different geographic areas of Spain, between the years 2004 and 2015. The results obtained in this study suggest that the selected MLST scheme could be a useful technique to monitor the genetic variability of Mmc in endemic areas. Despite the significant differences found between the assessed field isolates, they could be classified according to their geographical origin. Moreover, it was also possible to detect genetic differences between Mmc strains coming from the same herd at the same sampling time, which may need to be taken into consideration when designing or arranging prophylactic strategies. PMID:27374908

  20. Diagnostic significance of Schistosoma mansoni proteins Sm31 and Sm32 in human schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Egypt.

    El-Sayed, L H; Ghoneim, H; Demian, S R; El-Sayed, M H; Tawfik, N M; Sakr, I; Abou-Basha, L M; Renganathan, E; Klinkert, M Q; Abou-Rawash, N

    1998-09-01

    We performed a series of ELISAs to evaluate the diagnostic significance of two Schistosoma mansoni proteins, Sm31 (cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B) and Sm32 (asparaginyl endopeptidase). Our study populations were chosen from two villages in an endemic area close to Alexandria. Using fusion proteins MS2-Sm31 and MS2-Sm32 as antigens, 70% and 78.9%, respectively, of patient sera from 134 parasitologically confirmed cases reacted positively. The percentage of seropositivity increased to 84.5% when parasite-derived proteins Sm31 and Sm32 were used. The serum levels of antibodies to these two proteins in recombinant or native forms do not correlate with intensity of infection and hence are detected even when egg counts are low, which makes proteins Sm31 and Sm32 useful antigens in the identification of S. mansoni infected cases, particularly in endemic areas in Egypt. PMID:9754667

  1. [Immunoradiometric measurement of serum thyrotropin levels in inhabitants who used iodized salt for 25 years in an endemic goiter area].

    Ouyang, A; Su, T S

    1991-11-01

    Recently we surveyed the thyroid function and TSH concentration of villagers in an endemic goiter area where iodized salt had been supplied for 25 years. We found that the serum FT3 and TSH (IRMA) level of villagers were higher and the FT4 level was lower than those of the controls, comparing with the RIA, which suggested that the inhabitants of the endemic goiter area had subclinical hypothyroidism based on the IRMA method for TSH assay. Therefore, we suggest that the best biochemical technique for monitoring the iodized salt prophylaxis program and the physiological response of villagers to iodine is measurement of serum TSH level with the ultrasensitive assay and FT4 level periodically. PMID:1815875

  2. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    DA Cerino; Veloso, J; TF Perles; PD Zanzarini; MVC Lonardoni; TGV Silveira

    2010-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin...

  3. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Lyda Osorio; Marcela Uribe; Gloria Ines Ardila; Yaneth Orejuela; Margarita Velasco; Anilza Bonelo; Beatriz Parra

    2015-01-01

    There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were ...

  4. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    Hossein Nahrevanian; Jafar Gholizadeh; Mahin Farahmand; Mehdi Assmar

    2008-01-01

    In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produce...

  5. Using Recombinant Proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva to Estimate Human Vector Exposure in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas

    Clarissa Teixeira; Regis Gomes; Nicolas Collin; David Reynoso; Ryan Jochim; Fabiano Oliveira; Amy Seitz; Dia-Eldin Elnaiem; Arlene Caldas; Ana Paula Souza; Cláudia I Brodskyn; Camila Indiani de Oliveira; Ivete Mendonca; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Petr Volf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sand flies deliver Leishmania parasites to a host alongside salivary molecules that affect infection outcomes. Though some proteins are immunogenic and have potential as markers of vector exposure, their identity and vector specificity remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened human, dog, and fox sera from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis to identify potential markers of specific exposure to saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Human and dog sera were further ...

  6. Drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women in endemic areas: any drug regimen versus placebo or no treatment

    Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; Feiko O ter Kuile; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Obje...

  7. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

  8. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  9. [The efficacy of iodine prophylaxis in the prevention of endemic goiter in the southwestern area of Asturias].

    Enguix, A; Riaño, I; Larrubia, O; Gómez de la Torre, R; Rey, C; Otero, J; Pinto, I

    1995-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the prevalence of the endemic goiter in Asturias southwestern area (46,000 inhabitants; 6,638 in school age), after 10 years of iodized salt introduction in diet. 317 schooling children were randomly chosen (stratified by age, sex and geographic area). We evaluated thyroid gland size and urinary iodine excretion (microgram of iodine per gram of creatinine = I/C). Previously, studies of infantile population suggested a 63% of prevalence. Our results indicate a decrease to 16.4% of endemic goiter prevalence. Nevertheless, the success of iodine prophylaxis was heterogeneous and not good in some case: point out Ibias population with a prevalence of 48.5% (2,000 inhabitants and 353 in schooling). Remainder population was prevalences between 6.9% and 19.8%. The mean of urinary iodine excretion increased to I/C = 106 (previously I/C = 53). The smallest index I/C become to Ibias population = 78. (p Cangas del Narcea and Tineo population respectively). Only 2 of the 52 cases of goiter were hypothyroidism (but because of autoimmune thyroiditis). We conclude that iodine prophylaxis with salt was effective generally, in order to diminish the endemic goiter in the area. PMID:7620063

  10. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D;

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase in the...

  11. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  12. Uncertainty surrounding projections of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment on human onchocerciasis.

    Hugo C Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal have indicated that annual (or biannual ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci. Modelling-based projections have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. A crucial assumption has been that microfilarial production by Onchocerca volvulus is reduced irreversibly by 30-35% with each (annual ivermectin round. However, other modelling-based analyses suggest that ivermectin may not have such a cumulative effect. Uncertainty in this (biological and other (programmatic assumptions would affect projected outcomes of long-term ivermectin treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modify a deterministic age- and sex-structured onchocerciasis transmission model, parameterised for savannah O. volvulus-Simulium damnosum, to explore the impact of assumptions regarding the effect of ivermectin on worm fertility and the patterns of treatment coverage compliance, and frequency on projections of parasitological outcomes due to long-term, mass ivermectin administration in hyperendemic areas. The projected impact of ivermectin distribution on onchocerciasis and the benefits of switching from annual to biannual distribution are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the drug's effect on worm fertility and on treatment compliance. If ivermectin does not have a cumulative impact on microfilarial production, elimination of onchocerciasis in hyperendemic areas may not be feasible with annual ivermectin distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is substantial (biological and programmatic uncertainty surrounding modelling projections of onchocerciasis elimination. These uncertainties need to be acknowledged for mathematical models to inform control policy reliably. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of ivermectin on O. volvulus reproductive biology and quantify the patterns of

  13. Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoen­demic Communities

    EC Uttah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assess­ing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nige­ria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder were taken from 1024 individu­als examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population. An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Win­dows package was used for entering and analysis of data.Results: Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females. The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip than females (14 mf/skin snip (p < 0.01. A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.90; p < 0.01, and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities.Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

  14. Tick-borne disease preventive practices and perceptions in an endemic area.

    Butler, Amber D; Sedghi, Tannaz; Petrini, Joann R; Ahmadi, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Since the institution of Nationally Notifiable surveillance efforts for Lyme disease in the United States in 1991, there has been a consistent increase in the number of reported cases. Thus, the need for targeted prevention strategies is underscored. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge about tick-borne diseases as well as beliefs and practices related to a variety of personal tick-borne disease prevention methods among individuals in southwestern Connecticut, a Lyme disease-endemic area. Between June and September 2014, an anonymous questionnaire was administered to 275 participants through a point-of-contact convenience sample obtained at community events in southwestern Connecticut. The questionnaire assessed individuals' general knowledge about tick-borne diseases, performance of four selected tick-borne disease prevention methods, and perceived effectiveness and burdensomeness of those four behaviors. Some 80% of participants were female; median age was 55 years (IQR 45-64 years); 30% reported having been treated for a tick-borne illness and 50% reported a family member having been treated for a tick-borne illness. Overall, participants' knowledge of tick-borne diseases was poor; the average knowledge score was only 57% (SD 22.6%). The reported frequency of performing preventive behaviors was variable. The most commonly reported behavior was performing a tick check (68%); use of tick repellent was the least commonly reported behavior (38%). Those who were more knowledgeable about Lyme disease were more likely to perform tick checks but knowledge score was not significantly associated with any of the other three behaviors studied. Respondents largely believed preventive behaviors to be effective at reducing the risk of tick-borne diseases. Belief that a prevention behavior is effective was highly correlated with performing that behavior but perceived

  15. Changes in thyroid function following iodine-containing contrast administration in patients in an endemic goitre area

    Grehn, S.; Steidle, B.; Seif, F.J.

    1981-08-01

    A prospective study of thyroid function after the administration of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media was carried out on 119 patients from an area where goitres are endemic. Eighteen patients had a negative TRH test after 28 days. Results showed hyperthyroid function in 27.9% of patients after oral cholecystography, 15.1% of patients after intravenous cholangiography and 5.3% of patients after infusion urography. In these patients, thyroxin and triiodothyronin levels were higher than in euthyroid patients. Thyroid stimulating antibodies could not be demonstrated. Induction of hyperthyroidism by iodine is considered to be due to autonomy of the thyroid gland parenchyma. For this reason the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is greater in patients from a goitre endemic region (by a factor of 1.3 to 17.1).

  16. Clinical disease, immunity and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in populations living in endemic areas

    Hviid, L

    1998-01-01

    and mortality in an endemic setting (malaria is regularly found) is concentrated in children below the age of five years, and the increasing resistance to infection and disease with age is conventionally thought to reflect a slow and gradual acquisition of protective immunity. Many recent and...... comprehensive reviews of malarial immunity exist; rather than attempting to add another, this review summarises some of the recent evidence on how protective immunity is acquired in humans and what precipitates clinical disease, specifically as it relates to populations living in areas where the disease is...... endemic. It is becoming increasingly clear that naturally acquired protective immunity depends largely on responses directed against highly variable parasite antigens. This implies that a successful blood-stage vaccine against this disease must be able to either induce protective responses against many of...

  17. Isolation of pure Babesia equi and Babesia caballi organisms in splenectomized horses from endemic areas in South Africa.

    De Waal, D T; Van Heerden, J; Van den Berg, S S; Stegmann, G F; Potgieter, F T

    1988-03-01

    Both Babesia equi and Babesia caballi are endemic in large parts of South Africa. Attempts were made to obtain pure local isolates of both B. equi and B. caballi for the purpose of developing serological tests to study the epidemiology of equine babesiosis in this country. The indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to screen horses for B. equi and B. caballi in an endemic area. Seven horses and 3 donkeys between 3 and 36 months of age that tested negative were subsequently splenectomized. The splenectomy operation was performed through the abdominal approach. A 100% survival rate was achieved through this method, probably because it reduced the risk involved in the operation. Blood collected from naturally infected horses and passaged in fully susceptible splenectomized horses and a donkey, under laboratory conditions, produced 2 isolates of Babesia caballi and 1 of B. equi. Microscopical and serological examinations confirmed that these were pure isolates. PMID:3353098

  18. Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil

    Giovanini Evelim Coelho

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  19. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases.

    Stanimira P Krotneva

    Full Text Available Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF, and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported.

  20. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases.

    Krotneva, Stanimira P; Coffeng, Luc E; Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G M; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V; de Vlas, Sake J; Stolk, Wilma A

    2015-01-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  1. Dog Bites in Humans and Estimating Human Rabies Mortality in Rabies Endemic Areas of Bhutan

    Tenzin,; Dhand, Navneet K; Gyeltshen, Tashi; Firestone, Simon; Zangmo, Chhimi; Dema, Chimi; Gyeltshen, Rawang; Ward, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Background Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. Methods A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009–2010 among dog bites vic...

  2. [A case of brucellosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever coinfection in an endemic area].

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Akın, Hicran; Gülhan, Barış; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease which is especially seen in developing countries is still an important public health problem worldwide. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is another zoonotic disease that transmits to humans by infected tick bites as well as exposure to blood or tissue from infected animals. Both of the diseases are common among persons who live in rural areas and deal with animal husbandry. Since brucellosis usually presents with non-specific clinical symptoms and may easily be confused with many other diseases, the diagnosis of those infections could be delayed or misdiagnosed. In this report, a case of coinfection of brucellosis and CCHF has been presented to emphasize the possibility of association of these infections. A 70-year-old female patient with a history of dealing with animal husbandry in a rural area admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise, generalized body and joint pains, and headache. Her complaints had progressed within the past two days. She also reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She denied any history of tick bites. Her physical examination was significant for the presence of 38.8°C fever, increased bowel sounds and splenomegaly. Laboratory analysis revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high levels of liver enzymes. The patient was admitted to our service with the prediagnosis of CCHF. Serum sample was sent to the Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory at Public Health Agency of Turkey for CCHF testing. During patient's hospitalization in service, more detailed history was confronted and it was learned that she had fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating, joint pain, and intermittent fever complaints were continuing within a month and received various antibiotic treatments. The tests for brucellosis were conducted and positive results for Brucella Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination (1/160 titers) and immune capture test with Coombs (1/320 titers) were determined

  3. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  4. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Christina A Bulman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC, and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode.

  5. A Survey of Moniliformin Conamination in Rice and Corn from Keshan Disease Endemic and Non—KSD Areas in China

    YUSHI-RONG; LIUXING-JIE; 等

    1995-01-01

    Keshan Disease(KSD)is an endemic heart disease and moniliformin(F)has been suggested as one of the etiological factors.In this paper,thin layer chromatographic(TLC) an high pressure liquid chromatographic(HPLC)methods were used for the determination of MF in the rice and corn samples collected from KSD areas and non-KSD areas,One hundred and twenty-three rice samples were analyzed and showed MF contamination in only 8 samples(KSD areas:8.4% positive;non-KSD areas:2.5% positive)ranging from 73.6 to 265.3ng/g(mean concentration:KSD areas 156.3ng/g/non-KSD areas 179.5ng/g):One hundred and four corn samples in KSD areas and non-KSD areas were determinated by HPLC method,45.2% samples were contaminated with MF(KSD areas:81.4%;non-KSD areas:19.7%)ranging from 52.3 to 1116.0ng/g(mean concentration:KSD areas 488.9ng/g;non-KSD areas 457.4ng/g).The results showed that the contamiination of MF in grains were significantly different between rice and corn,but not between the grains from the KSD areas and non-KSD areas,then casting doubt on the role of MF as an etiological factor of KS.

  6. Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mehdi MOHEBALI; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; AKHOUNDI, Behnaz; HAJJARAN, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; ALIZADEH, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were ident...

  7. Is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency more prevalent in Carrion's disease endemic areas in Latin America?

    Mazulis, Fernando; Weilg, Claudia; Alva-Urcia, Carlos; Pons, Maria J; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a cytoplasmic enzyme with an important function in cell oxidative damage prevention. Erythrocytes have a predisposition towards oxidized environments due to their lack of mitochondria, giving G6PD a major role in its stability. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) is the most common enzyme deficiency in humans; it affects approximately 400 million individuals worldwide. The overall G6PDd allele frequency across malaria endemic countries is estimated to be 8%, corresponding to approximately 220 million males and 133 million females. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of G6PDd in Andean communities where bartonellosis is prevalent. PMID:26706684

  8. Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control

    Abdi Kumera; Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’) of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6%) respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of respondents a...

  9. Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species

    D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals≥ 1.5 m height and ≥ 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of

  10. The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

  11. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  12. BCG vaccine for immunotherapy in warts: is it really safe in a tuberculosis endemic area?

    Daulatabad, Deepashree; Pandhi, Deepika; Singal, Archana

    2016-05-01

    Management of recurrent and or recalcitrant warts can be a therapeutic challenge and in such cases invoking body's own immunity may help to overcome the present episode and also prevent recurrences. Bacilli Calmette Geurin (BCG) immunotherapy has long been considered to be an effective and safe modality in such cases. We present a series of seven cases treated with BCG immunotherapy wherein a single dose of BCG caused regression of wart in 85.7% patients and complete resolution was evident in 28.6% patients. However, the development of adverse effects precluded any further dosages in four of seven (57.1%) patients. This raises serious concern on the safety of this therapeutic modality, especially in a population endemic to tuberculosis. PMID:26809285

  13. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas. PMID:27363044

  14. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (pallergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (presponse against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic areas and also that improved hygienic conditions in the urban environment is associated with increased responses to airborne allergens. PMID:17698018

  15. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand

    Phompradit Papichaya; Kuesap Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul Wanna; Rueangweerayut Ronnatrai; Hongkaew Yaowaluck; Yamnuan Rujira; Na-Bangchang Kesara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions...

  17. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  18. Risk Mapping and Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Central Iran: A GIS-Based Survey

    Abedi-Astaneh, Fatemeh; Hajjaran, Homa; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is among the top 10 infectious disease priorities in the world, and the leading cause of morbidity in Iran. The present study was conducted to assess the risk of CL, and to determine some epidemiological features of the disease in endemic areas of Qom Province in Central Iran during 2009 to 2013. Methods Data regarding human cases of the disease were obtained from the Qom Province Health Center, prepared and stored in a spatial database created in ArcGIS10.3. A total of 9 out of 212 Leishmania spp. positive slides taken in 2013 from patients residing in Qom city were examined using molecular methods and the species of Leishmania was identified by PCR-RFLP. Those 9 patients had no history of travel outside the city. Spatial analysis and clustering methods were applied to find major hot spots and susceptible areas for the establishment of novel foci of the disease. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistical application, and for the clustering of high or low values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics. Results During the period of study, a total of 1767 CL cases were passively reported in the area, out of which were 65% males and 35% females. The highest and lowest numbers of cases were reported in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Importantly, 979 cases were reported from urban areas, while the remainder came from rural areas. Leishmania major was detected as the causative agent of CL in the city of Qom. Remarkably, most patients recorded in Qom city were associated with a history of travel to the endemic areas of CL within the province, or to other endemic areas of the disease in Iran. Spatial distribution of CL cases revealed northeastern and southwestern quarters of the city were the major hot spots of the disease (P<0.05). Hot spot and CL transmission risk analysis across the province indicated that more than 40 villages were located in high and very high risk areas of CL

  19. Comparison of mineral intake between children from endemic and non-endemic areas for Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet Autonomous Region: Pilote study

    Dermience, Michael; Maesen, Philippe; Mathieu, Françoise; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Lognay, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. The etiology remains unclear, although a multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed (selenium/iodine deficiency; high concentration of organic matters in drinking water; and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals). The rural population is almost exclusive...

  20. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  1. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus).

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species. PMID:26115482

  2. Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area

    Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the

  3. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection. It has been a major public health problem in India. The Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis was launched by the WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating Lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by the year 2020. For the effective control of filariasis >65% population of endemic areas should be covered by single dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6mg/kg (DEC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration in the selected District and to make independent assessment with respect to process and out - come indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A community based cross sectional study through house to house survey method in selected clusters was adopted. An independent evaluation was done and the outcome was assessed as the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration. RESULTS: In both Damoh and Sagar Districts of Madhya Pradesh, the coverage level for DEC was > 80% in all the Blocks. CONCL USION: The mass drug administration was aimed only to distribute the drug and the issues related to compliance, proper health education and side effects management were not given enough attention. These issues are important to make programme effective.

  4. Feeding sources and trypanosome infection index of Rhodnius pallescens in a Chagas disease endemic area of Amador County, Panama.

    Pineda, Vanessa; Montalvo, Edilma; Alvarez, Dayra; Santamaría, Ana María; Calzada, Jose Eduardo; Saldaña, Azael

    2008-01-01

    The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3% of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4%) for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4%. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90%). Between 47-51% of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51%) were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic. PMID:18488091

  5. Tree species of South America central savanna: endemism, marginal areas and the relationship with other biomes

    Renata D. Françoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological knowledge is important for guidance of conservation polices. In the Cerrado, an extremely diverse biome, the last synthesis of floristic knowledge has more than ten years. To understand the progress on the information, our aim was quantify the tree species of the Cerrado, and assess their distribution. We compiled 167 inventories and rapid surveys of tree species, corresponding to 625 sites. We accessed the species distributions in the Brazilian biomes, and estimated the number of species in the savannas of Cerrado using four algorithms. We observed a greater local richness in more central regions of the biome, but due to high beta diversity, more peripheral regions presented a greater cumulative richness. The Atlantic Forest was the most important neighbouring biome, influencing the floristic composition of the Cerrado. The proportion of typical Cerrado species was 16%. The highest proportion of endemic species is possibly found in other life forms, and it is crucial that these species are included in inventories and floristic surveys. To guide new studies and help supplement the knowledge of the Cerrado's flora, we identified the main sampling gaps, located mainly in ecotonal regions, which are responsible for the largest number of species recorded in studies of the Cerrado.

  6. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  7. Hyperreactive onchocerciasis is characterized by a combination of Th17-Th2 immune responses and reduced regulatory T cells.

    Katawa, Gnatoulma; Layland, Laura E; Debrah, Alex Y; von Horn, Charlotte; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Arriens, Sandra; W Taylor, David; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO)/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection and endemic normals (EN). In addition to elevated frequencies of memory CD4+ T cells, individuals with HO showed accentuated Th17 and Th2 profiles but decreased CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. These profiles included increased IL-17A+, IL-4+, RORC2+ and GATA3+CD4+ T cell populations. Flow cytometry data was further confirmed using a PCR array since Th17-related genes (IL-17 family members, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-22) and Th2-related (IL-4, IL-13, STAT6) genes were all significantly up-regulated in HO individuals. In addition, stronger Onchocerca volvulus-specific Th2 responses, especially IL-13, were observed in vitro in hyperreactive individuals when compared to GEO or EN groups. This study provides initial evidence that elevated frequencies of Th17 and Th2 cells form part of the immune network instigating the development of severe onchocerciasis. PMID:25569210

  8. Hyperreactive onchocerciasis is characterized by a combination of Th17-Th2 immune responses and reduced regulatory T cells.

    Gnatoulma Katawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection and endemic normals (EN. In addition to elevated frequencies of memory CD4+ T cells, individuals with HO showed accentuated Th17 and Th2 profiles but decreased CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. These profiles included increased IL-17A+, IL-4+, RORC2+ and GATA3+CD4+ T cell populations. Flow cytometry data was further confirmed using a PCR array since Th17-related genes (IL-17 family members, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-22 and Th2-related (IL-4, IL-13, STAT6 genes were all significantly up-regulated in HO individuals. In addition, stronger Onchocerca volvulus-specific Th2 responses, especially IL-13, were observed in vitro in hyperreactive individuals when compared to GEO or EN groups. This study provides initial evidence that elevated frequencies of Th17 and Th2 cells form part of the immune network instigating the development of severe onchocerciasis.

  9. Onchocerciasis in West Africa after 2002: a challenge to take up

    Hougard J.M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially planned for a 20 year life time, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP will have finally continued its activities for nearly three decades (vector control alone from 1975 to 1989, then vector control and/or therapeutic treatment until 2002. Although onchocerciasis is no longer a problem of public health importance nor an obstacle to socioeconomic development in the OCP area, the control of this filariasis is not over because OCP never aimed at eradication, neither of the parasite (Onchocerca volvulus, nor of its vector (Simulium damnosum s.l.. In 2003, the eleven Participating countries of OCP will take over the responsibility of carrying out the residual activities of monitoring and the control of this disease. This mission is of great importance because any recrudescence of the transmission could lead in the long run to the reappearance of the clinical signs of onchocerciasis, if not its most serious manifestations. For epidemiological and operational reasons, and given the disparity in national health policies and infrastructures, the capacities of the countries to take over the residual activities of monitoring and control of onchocerciasis are very unequal. Indeed, the interventions to be carried out are very different from one country to another and the process of integrating the residual activities into the national health systems is not taking place at the same pace. This inequality among the countries vis-a-vis the challenges to be met does not, however, prejudge the epidemiological situation after 2002 whose evolution will also depend on the effectiveness of the provisions made before that date by OCP, then after 2002, by the Regional Office for Africa of the World Health Organization which is currently setting up a sub-regional multidisease surveillance centre.

  10. Typology and description of the endemic areas with a long-time and smallest colorectal mortality rates within Silesia voivodeship

    Brunon Zemła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the years 1999–2009, in Silesia voivodeship, 7339 males and 6635 females were died for the colorectal cancers (C18–C21, by ISCD&HRP, X revision. Mortality, especially among men increase. Mortality, among both sexes, is very unequal, taking into account a small administrative units (counties. Therefore an attempt looking for endemic areas with a long – time biggest and smallest mortality rates. Materials and methods: For the 13 974 cases of deaths because of the colorectal cancer, and at used demographic data, the following mortality rates were calculated to be average for 11 years period (in this two periods extreme, each 4-years: a age specific (for 5-years age groups, b crude rates („intensity rates” for all ages and a particular administrative unit type of counties, c age-adjusted (standardized rates by direct M. Spiegelman’s method and the age structure of „world population” according to M. Segi’s and M. Kurihara’s method and modified by R. Doll’s. Age – adjusted mortality rates for particular counties (R1 to the whole voivodeship (R2 were compared with used 95% confidence interval for the ratio (R1/R2 according to O.S. Miettinen’s method. Basing on the data the endemic areas with a biggest and smallest cancer colorectal rates were described. Results: In the years 1999–2009 within Silesia voivodeship 13974 patients died because of the colorectal cancers, i.e. 52.5% males and 47.5% females. Standardized mortality rate for whole Silesia voivodeship is 20.9 per 100 thousands among males and 12.1/100 thousands among females (at the small increase between two periods comparising, i.e. 1999–2002:2006–2009 for females, and bigger among males. Standardized, average minimum mortality rate for the colorectal cancers for the whole Silesia voivodeship and the period 1999–2009 is 17.1/100 thousands for males (bieruńsko-lędziński county and 10.0/100 thousands for females (myszkowski county; and maximum

  11. Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis

    Shah A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4% showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40% serum and 5 (4.4% fluid samples. All five fluid antigen positive cases were positive for antibodies and showed microfilaria in blood. These findings emphasize the use of circulating filarial antigen detection and alternative usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filariasis.

  12. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpini......, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species....... Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current...... endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of...

  13. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  14. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  15. Serology of Typhoid Fever in an Area of Endemicity and Its Relevance to Diagnosis

    House, Deborah; Wain, John; Ho, Vo A.; Diep, To S.; Chinh, Nguyen T.; Bay, Phan V.; Vinh, Ha; Duc, Minh; Parry, Christopher M.; Dougan, Gordon; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of ≥0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P ≤ 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available

  16. A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection

    Bødker, Rene

    insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account...... produced more eggs. Somewhat counter intuitively and contrary to the EFSA risk assessment model, this model predicted that delaying treatment until arriving in free country may sometimes be highly advantageous. Delaying treatment of Swedish dogs returning from a visit in an endemic area resulted in fewer...

  17. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam; Hirotomo Kato; Mizuho Fukushige; Yukiko Wagatsuma; Makoto Itoh

    2012-01-01

    Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identif...

  18. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

    Haq M Zahirul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences

  19. Mathematical Modelling of the Spread and Control of Onchocerciasis in Tropical Countries: Case Study in Nigeria

    Ikechukwu Chiwueze Oguoma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness and Robles disease, is a parasitic disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus, a nematode (roundworm, and it is endemic in tropical countries like Nigeria. The objective of this paper is to discuss the mathematical formulation underpinning the spread and control of this disease on one hand. On the other hand, we make use of some new analytical methods to derive the solution of the resulting set of equations. The numerical results are presented to test the efficiency and the accuracy of both methods. The techniques used for solving these problems are friendly, very easy, and less time consuming. The numerical solutions in both cases display the biological behaviour of the real life situation.

  20. Leptospirosis: Endemic Disease in Dogs in Rural Areas of Monteria (Córdoba)

    Alba E. Sánchez - García; Juan C. Ballut Pestana; Alfonso Calderón - Rangel; Virginia C. Rodríguez - Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was determined in a canine population in the rural area of the municipality of Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia). Blood samples were taken in 200 dogs of 28 townships, which were processed in the laboratory of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) by microscopic agglutination technique (MAT). Aseroprevalence of 12 % was determined and the seropositivity distributed among the serovars: canicola 7 %,icterohaemorrhagiae and grippotyphosa 2 %, bratislava 1 % a...

  1. Fresh fruits, vegetables and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in highly endemic areas of Poland: reply to concerns.

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemysław; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm that may cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most dangerous parasitic zoonoses. As in the case of other foodborne diseases, unwashed fruits and vegetables, contaminated with dispersed forms of E. multilocularis, may serve as an important transmission route for this parasite. In this article, we reply to the incorrect interpretation of results of our study concerning the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in fresh fruit, vegetable and mushroom samples collected from the highly endemic areas of the Warmia-Masuria Province, Poland, to dispel any doubts. The accusations formulated by the commentators concerning our paper are unfounded; moreover, these commentators demand information which was beyond the purview of our study. Making generalisations and drawing far-reaching conclusions from our work is also unjustified. The majority of positive samples were found in only a few hyperendemic communities; this information corresponds with the highest number of both infected foxes and AE cases in humans recorded in this area. Our findings indicate that E. multilocularis is present in the environment and may create a potential risk for the inhabitants. These people should simply be informed to wash fruits and vegetables before eating. No additional far-reaching conclusions should be drawn from our data. We believe these commentators needlessly misinterpreted our results and disseminated misleading information. Nevertheless, we would like to encourage any readers simply to contact us if any aspects of our study are unclear. PMID:27249964

  2. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

  3. Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

  4. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  5. Relationship between Different Species of Helminths and Atopy: A Study in a Population Living in Helminth-Endemic Area in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    T. Supali; Y. Djuardi; H. Wibowo; R. van Ree; M. Yazdanbakhsh; E. Sartono

    2010-01-01

    Background: The association between allergen skin sensitization and helminth infection has been debated for years. Here, we sought to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization of residents living in area endemic for lymphatic filariasis and intestinal helminths and to investigate the associati

  6. Control status quo of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in the disease affected areas in Shandong Province in 2012:an analysis of survey results

    云中杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the schedule and effectiveness of water-improving defluoridation projects comprehensively of control of fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods In accordance

  7. Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast

    Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles M. Mbogo, Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Charles Mwandawiro, Robert J. Novak & John C. Beier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: An entomological survey was conducted to determine the relationshipbetween malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus intwo inland villages along the Kenyan coast.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses by pyrethrum spray sheet collection (PSC. In thelaboratory, the mosquitoes were sorted to species, dissected for examination of filarial infection andthe anophelines later tested for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by an enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: From a total of 2,032 female mosquitoes collected indoors, An. gambiae s.l constituted 94.4%while the remaining 5.6% comprised of An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus. None of the Cx.quinquefasciatus was positive for filarial worms. P. falciparum sporozoite rate for An. gambiae s.l.from both villages was significantly higher than Wuchereria bancrofti infectivity rate. Similarly, theentomological inoculation rate for An. gambiae s.l. was significantly higher than the corresponding W.bancrofti infective biting rate and transmission potential for both the villages. Mass treatment of peoplewith filaricidal drugs in Shakahola in the ongoing global elimination of lymphatic filariasis campaignseemed to have reduced the indices of filariasis transmission but had no effect on malaria transmission.Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate the intensity of malaria transmission by anophelinesto be much higher than that of lymphatic filariasis in areas where both diseases co-exist and re-emphasisethe need to integrate the control of the two diseases in such areas.

  8. Bio-ecology of malaria vectors in an endemic area, Southeast of Iran

    Masoud Yeryan; Hamid Rreza Basseri; Ahamd Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Ahmad Raeisi; Hamideh Edalat; Reza Safari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine some bio-ecological aspects of malaria vectors in Jask County, where is targeted for malaria elimination in the national program. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected monthly during 2013-2014 using different collection methods. Subsequently, ELISA test was used to detect the human blood index of mosquitoes. The susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi was evaluated against the diagnostic dosages of seven WHO recommended insecticides. Results: A total of 3 650 female and 4 736 Anopheles larvae were collected including Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l., Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis s.l., Anopheles moghulensis and Anopheles turkhodi species. Anopheles stephensi was the dominant collected species on human baits and indoors with high rate of unfed and gravid specimens in internal and external window traps. Human blood index was calculated as 14.3% for this species. It was also found to be resistant to DDT and Dieldrin. Conclusions: The collected species had a wide range of habitats, and resting behaviors. With regarding to the presence of most important malaria vectors in Jask, control of the disease may be so complicated; as based on the weather condition it can be transmitted during the whole year, except for cold months. With this strong potential of transmission, existing population movements in the area may lead to imported cases of malaria and local outbreak(s). So, more specific studies on malaria vectors in high risk areas of Jask County are recommended.

  9. Aedes aegypti entomological indices in an endemic area for dengue in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Eliane A Favaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most productive types of properties and containers for Aedes aegypti and the spatial distribution of entomological indices. METHODS: Between December 2006 and February 2007, the vector's immature forms were collected to obtain entomological indices in 9,875 properties in the Jaguare neighborhood of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. In March and April 2007, a questionnaire about the conditions and characteristics of properties was administered. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with the presence of pupae at the properties. Indices calculated per block were combined with a geo-referenced map, and thematic maps of these indices were obtained using statistical interpolation. RESULTS: The properties inspected had the following Ae. aegypti indices: Breteau Index = 18.9, 3.7 larvae and 0.42 pupae per property, 5.2 containers harboring Ae. aegypti per hectare, 100.0 larvae and 11.6 pupae per hectare, and 1.3 larvae and 0.15 pupae per inhabitant. The presence of yards, gardens and animals was associated with the presence of pupae. CONCLUSIONS: Specific types of properties and containers that simultaneously had low frequencies among those positive for the vector and high participation in the productivity of larvae and pupae were not identified. The use of indices including larval and pupal counts does not provide further information beyond that obtained from the traditional Stegomyia indices in locations with characteristics similar to those of São José do Rio Preto. The indices calculated per area were found to be more accurate for the spatial assessment of infestation. The Ae. aegypti infestation levels exhibited extensive spatial variation, indicating that the assessment of infestation in micro areas is needed.

  10. Vegetation of the Sileza Nature Reserve and neighbouring areas, South Africa, and its importance in conserving the woody grasslands of the Maputaland Centre of Endemism

    W. S. Matthews

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the plant communities of the Sileza Nature Reserve and surrounding areas (± 4 124 ha is presented. The study area falls within the Maputaland Centre o f Endemism, which is part ot the Maputaland-Pondoland Region, a centre of plant diversity rich in endemic plants and animals. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 12 distinct, mainly grassland plant communities. A hierarchical classification, description and ecological interpretation ot these communities are presented. The level o f the water table, either directly, or indirectly through its role in soil formation, is the deciding factor in defining plant communities on the geologically young sandy substrate. Fire is an essential factor, particularly in maintaining the woody grasslands, a rare vegetation type rich in geoxylic suffrutices. and unique to the Maputaland Centre. A comparison between the endemic complement in the subtropical coastal grasslands of Maputaland and the high-altitude Afromontane grasslands of the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism shows marked differences in grow th form and vegetation type partitioning between the two centres. This can probably be ascribed to the relative youth (Quaternary of the Maputaland coastal plain and its associated plant communities. Notable for their richness in Maputaland Centre endemic/near-endemic taxa. the conservation of sand forest and woody grasslands should receive high priority. Afforestation with alien trees is the most serious threat to the biodiversity of the Maputaland coastal grasslands, not only because of habitat destruction, but also through its expected negative effect on the hydrology of the region

  11. Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand

    Phompradit Papichaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be

  12. Performance of V3-based HIV-1 sero subtyping in HIV endemic areas

    Lara Tavoschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 serosubtyping based on reactivity to peptides from the V3 region of gp120 is a low-cost and easy to perform procedure often used in geographical areas with high prevalence and incidence of HIV infection. We evaluated the performance of V3-based serotyping on 148 sera from 118 HIV-1-infected individuals living in Uganda, with estimated dates of seroconversion. Of the 148 tested samples, 68 (46.0% specifically reacted with only one of the V3 peptides included in the test (SP, 64 (43.2% did not react with any peptide (NR and 16 (10.8% reacted with two or more peptides (CR. According to the estimated seroconversion date, the large majority of samples collected early after infection belonged to the NR group. These samples had also a low Avidity Index. In contrast, samples collected later after infection belonged mainly to CR and SP groups and had also a higher avidity index. These results indicate that the performance of V3-based assays depends on maturation of HIV-specific immune response and can be significantly lowered when these tests are carried out on specimens collected from recently infected individuals.

  13. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  14. Evaluating the effect of a novel molluscicide in the endemic schistosomiasis japonica area of China.

    Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

  15. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  16. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study’s results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species’ distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587

  17. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Tomonori Hoshi

    Full Text Available HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years, adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055 HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047 in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  18. Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey

    Rawlani Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.′s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

  19. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  20. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Chien-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD and identify the related factors.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD.Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99, female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53, hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42, high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61, high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20, and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year were independent predictors of CKD.A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  1. Environmental characteristics of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in a malaria endemic area in Iran

    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Ahmad-Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Mehdi Zare; Reza Safari; Abdolrasul Mojahedi; Fatemeh Poorahmad-Garbandi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental parameters of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Rudan county of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the mosquito breeding season from February 2010 to October 2011. The anopheline larvae were collected using the standard dipping method. The specimens were identified using a morphological-based key. Simultaneously with larval collection, environmental parameters of the larval habitats including water current and turbidity, sunlight situation, and substrate type of habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from breeding sites during larval collection. Before collection of samples, the water temperature was measured. The water samples were analysed for turbidity, conductivity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solid, pH and ions including chloride, sulphate, calcium, and magnesium. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA test were used to analyze the association between environmental parameters and larval mosquito abundance. Results: In total 2 973 larvae of the genus Anopheles were collected from 25 larval habitats and identified using morphological characters. They comprised of six species:An. dthali turkhudi (3.30%), and An. apoci (1.14%). The most abundant species was An. dthali which were collected from all of the study areas. Larvae of two malaria vectors, An. dthali and An. stephensi, co-existed and collected in a wide range of habitats with different physico-chemical parameters. The most common larval habitats were man-made sites such as sand mining pools with clean and still water. The anopheline mosquitoes also preferred permanent habitats in sunlight with sandy substrates. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between mean physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate, chloride, and mosquito distribution and abundance. Conclusions: The results of this

  2. First molecular identification of Leishmania species in a new endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Lorestan,Iran

    Farnaz; Kheirandish; Ali; Chegeni; Sharafi; Bahram; Kazemi; Mojgan; Bandehpour; Mohamad; javad; Tarahi; Ali; Khamesipour

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify Leishman{u using PCR.Methods:This studs was conducted from April2009 to March 2011 in order to identify Leishmania species in a new endemic area of CL in Lorestan.Iran.Samples were taken from 62 patients that referred to the health centers in different cities of Lorestan province,the presence of Leishmcania was confirmed using direct smear and then grown in NNN media and mass cultured in RPM!1640 medium supplemented with 10%heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum.DNA was extracted from cultured promastigotes and used in P15-PCR.Results:45(72.6%)samples out of 62 showed a hand in the range of 485 hp and 17(27.4%)with a hand in the range of 626 hp which were similar to standard strains of Leichmania tropica(L.tropical and Leishnrania major(L.major),respectively.50(65.80%)of samples were collected from people with no history of travel in at least a year prior to the onset which shows that indigenous source of infection.Conclusions:Since the vector and reservoir of the two species are different.so precise and extensive control and prevention methods should be designed and earned out.

  3. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  4. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

  5. Factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection 5 years after selective treatment in a low endemic area in Brazil.

    Disch, Jolande; Katz, Naftale; Pereira e Silva, Yerkes; de Gouvêa Viana, Luciana; Andrade, Marcela Orsini; Rabello, Ana

    2002-02-01

    Five years after a single dose treatment, prevalence, intensity and morbidity of schistosomiasis mansoni were evaluated in Agua Branca, a low endemic community in the South East Brazil (cure rate 94%). At community level, prevalence showed a decrease from 38.9 to 24.5% and the intensity of infection dropped from 119.5 to 38.9 eggs per g of faeces (epg). However, after the exclusion of immigrants, newborn children and individuals that had left the area after the first evaluation, the prevalence among the treated and followed population was not significantly affected. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-29 age group and water contact for agricultural purposes were independently associated with the presence of infection on post treatment evaluation [OR 3.9 and 5.09, respectively]. A previous treatment among subjects older than 15 years was inversely associated [OR 0.58]. The authors wish to draw attention to the fact that mobility may lead to a serious bias in evaluating the impact of the control programme. PMID:11801220

  6. Pathogen-specific epitopes as epidemiological tools for defining the magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae transmission in areas endemic for leprosy.

    Marcia V S B Martins

    Full Text Available During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population.

  7. Pathogen-specific epitopes as epidemiological tools for defining the magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae transmission in areas endemic for leprosy.

    Martins, Marcia V S B; Guimarães, Marjorie M da S; Spencer, John S; Hacker, Mariana A V B; Costa, Luciana S; Carvalho, Fernanda M; Geluk, Annemieke; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J; Pontes, Maria A A; Gonçalves, Heitor S; de Morais, Janvier P; Bandeira, Tereza J P G; Pessolani, Maria C V; Brennan, Patrick J; Pereira, Geraldo M B

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population. PMID:22545169

  8. Relationship between arsenic-containing drinking water and skin cancers in the arseniasis endemic areas in Taiwan.

    Cheng, Pai-Shan; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chiang, Chi-Hsuan; Lai, Feng-Jie

    2016-02-01

    Artesian well-water had high concentrations of arsenic that led to the well-known black foot disease in Taiwan around the 1950s, and the associated cancers including skin cancer, bladder cancers and lung cancers. We sought to estimate the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the black foot disease endemic areas (BFDEA) in Taiwan. A nationwide retrospective population-based survey was done with the data from the National Taiwan Cancer Registry Center between 1979 and 2007. Among the 29-year period, there were 11 191 cases with SCC and 13 684 cases with BCC diagnosed pathologically. The incidence rates were 4-6-fold higher for SCC and 3-4-fold higher for BCC in the BFDEA compared with the rest of Taiwan. The SMR decreased after stopping arsenic-containing well-water drinking in the 1970s. The arsenic level in the drinking water, amount of contaminated water intake, occupation and sun-exposure time were not documented. This is the first nationwide, population-based study that shows the relationship between arsenic intoxication and non-melanoma skin cancers (SCC and BCC) through comparing the data in people living in the BFDEA and non-BFDEA in Taiwan. PMID:26283637

  9. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Osorio, Lyda; Uribe, Marcela; Ardila, Gloria Ines; Orejuela, Yaneth; Velasco, Margarita; Bonelo, Anilza; Parra, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors. PMID:25993399

  10. First molecular identification of Leishmania species in a new endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Lorestan, Iran

    Farnaz Kheirandish; Ali Chegeni Sharafi; Bahram Kazemi; Mojgan Bandehpour; Mohamad javad Tarahi; Ali Khamesipour

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify Leishmania using PCR. Methods: This study was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in order to identify Leishmania species in a new endemic area of CL in Lorestan, Iran. Samples were taken from 62 patients that referred to the health centers in different cities of Lorestan province, the presence of Leishmania was confirmed using direct smear and then grown in NNN media and mass cultured in RPMI 1 640 medium supplemented with 10%heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. DNA was extracted from cultured promastigotes and used in ITS-PCR. Results:45(72.6%) samples out of 62 showed a band in the range of 485 bp and 17 (27.4%) with a band in the range of 626 bp which were similar to standard strains of Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania major (L. major), respectively. 50 (65.80%) of samples were collected from people with no history of travel in at least a year prior to the onset which shows that indigenous source of infection. Conclusions:Since the vector and reservoir of the two species are different, so precise and extensive control and prevention methods should be designed and carried out.

  11. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  12. Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.

    Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2015-06-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ≥64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum. PMID:25735816

  13. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil.

    Cláudio Casanova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5% were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi.

  14. Humic substances and the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in groundwater of the Blackfoot Disease endemic area, southwestern Taiwan

    Kulp, T. R.; Jean, J.

    2009-12-01

    Blackfoot Disease (BFD) is a peripheral vascular disease that is endemic to the Chianan Plain area on the southwestern coast of Taiwan. The disease has been linked to long term ingestion of arsenic-contaminated groundwater derived from deep (>100 m) wells that were drilled in the region during the early 1900’s. Victims of BFD typically exhibit symptoms that include ulceration and gangrene in the extremities, which are unique compared to cases of arsenic toxicosis arising in other As-impacted areas. While the exact etiology of BFD is still a subject of some debate, many workers suggest that elevated arsenic in combination with high concentrations of dissolved fluorescent humic compounds in the region’s groundwater are primary causative factors. Despite considerable research over the past 30 years into the occurrence and distribution of As in the region’s groundwater, few studies have been conducted to investigate the geochemical and microbiological processes that influence the element’s speciation and mobility in this aquifer. We measured the concentration and speciation of As associated with sediments and groundwater from wells drilled in the BFD endemic area and conducted sediment microcosm bioassays to investigate the potential for reductive desorption and mobilization of As from the aquifer sediments by endogenous populations of As(V)-reducing bacteria. Samples from 100 -120 m depth were characterized by the highest As concentrations in sediment (1.4 mg/kg) and water (175.4 μg/L). Sediment-adsorbed As was present primarily as As(V) (>87%), whereas ground water samples contained no measurable aqueous As(V). Instead, arsenic in the groundwater samples was present in organo-arsenic complexes and was detectable by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrophotometry only after oxidative treatments to convert all As to As(V). Biological As(V) reduction was observed in live slurries of aquifer sediment from 120 and 140 m sediment depth. Microbial As

  15. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

    Magalhães Ricardo J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps

  16. Contents, Species of Soil Selenium in Kashin-beck Disease-endemic Area, Ruoergai Wetland, Sichuan, China

    Ying-bing Tian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study studied that the amounts, species of Se in four kinds of soil (sandy soil, meadow soil, bog soil and peat soil by a method of successive extraction in order to accumulate scientific data for preventing and curing the selenium response symptom of people and livestock in Ruoergai wetland. The results showed that the content range of Total Se (T-Se in surface soil layer was 65-260 μg/kg in ten sampling sites and the low Se circumstance existed because of soil Se deficiency. Among several kinds of Se forms, Water soluble Se (W-Se, Exchangeable Se (E-Se and Organic Se (O-Se accounted for 1.12-3.08%, 2.91-6.03% and 10.28-45.6% of total Se respectively, unavailable Se including Acid soluble Se (A-Se, Sulfidic Se (S-Se and Residual Se (R-Se accounted for more than 60% of total Se. Of the soil O-Se, 57.84% (on average was associated with the Humic Acid fraction (HA-Se and 42.16% with the Fulvic Acid fraction (FA-Se, the range of C/Se in soil organic matter was 0.65×106-7.28×106 (on average 2.96×106 in surface soil layer. The soil organic matter was the most important factor affecting the content of soil T-Se and O-Se, the rich soil organic matter was helpful to the accumulation of soil T-Se and O-Se. It was clear that the lower utilization ratio of Se due to the low content of soil T-Se, the higher portion of O-Se and HA-Se were the possible reason for a deficiency of selenium in Kashin-Beck Disease-endemic area, Ruoergai wetland, Sichuan, China.

  17. Use of short message service (SMS to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area

    Boutin Jean-Paul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. Methods In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were followed for a 28 day period, with compliance assessed by use of an electronic medication monitoring device, from which several indicators were developed: daily proportion of compliant individuals, average number of pills taken, and early discontinuation. Results Among 424 volunteers randomized to the study, 47.6% were assigned to the SMS group and 52.3% to the control group. Approximately 90% of subjects assigned to the SMS group received a daily SMS at midday during the study. Persons of the SMS group agreed more frequently that SMS reminders were very useful and that the device was not annoying. Compliance did not vary significantly between groups across the compliance indicators. Conclusion SMS did not increase malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance above baseline, likely because the persons did not benefit from holidays after the return and stayed together. So the reminder by SMS was noted by all subjects of the study. Another study should be done to confirm these results on soldiers going on holidays from employment after return or with individual

  18. Severe anemia in Papua New Guinean children from a malaria-endemic area: a case-control etiologic study.

    Laurens Manning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few detailed etiologic studies of severe anemia in children from malaria-endemic areas and none in those countries with holoendemic transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined associates of severe anemia in 143 well-characterized Papua New Guinean (PNG children aged 0.5-10 years with hemoglobin concentration <50 g/L (median [inter-quartile range] 39 [33]-[44] g/L and 120 matched healthy children (113 [107-119] g/L in a case-control cross-sectional study. A range of socio-demographic, behavioural, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory (including genetic variables were incorporated in multivariate models with severe anemia as dependent variable. Consistent with a likely trophic effect of chloroquine or amodiaquine on parvovirus B19 (B19V replication, B19V PCR/IgM positivity had the highest odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 75.8 (15.4-526, followed by P. falciparum infection (19.4 (6.7-62.6, vitamin A deficiency (13.5 (5.4-37.7, body mass index-for-age z-score <2.0 (8.4 (2.7-27.0 and incomplete vaccination (2.94 (1.3-7.2. P. vivax infection was inversely associated (0.12 (0.02-0.47, reflecting early acquisition of immunity and/or a lack of reticulocytes for parasite invasion. After imputation of missing data, iron deficiency was a weak positive predictor (6.4% of population attributable risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that severe anemia is multifactorial in PNG children, strongly associated with under-nutrition and certain common infections, and potentially preventable through vitamin A supplementation and improved nutrition, completion of vaccination schedules, and intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment using non-chloroquine/amodiaquine-based regimens.

  19. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  20. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  1. Measurement of serum TSH level by ultrasensitive method in inhabitants of endemic goiter area supplied with iodized salt for 25 years.

    An, O Y; Su, T S; Pang, X P; Hershman, J M

    1991-12-01

    Recently, we surveyed thyroid function and TSH concentration of villagers in an endemic goiter area where iodized salt had been supplied for 25 years; it was found that the serum FT3 and TSH levels determined with immunoradiometric analysis (IRMA) were higher and the FT4 level was lower than that of the controls. It was shown that the inhabitants of the endemic goiter area had subclinical hypothyroidism based on the "ultrasensitive" method for TSH assay. We suggest that the best biochemical techniques for monitoring the iodized salt prophylaxis program and the physiological response of the villagers to iodine should be the periodical measurement of serum TSH level using ultrasensitive assay and determination of FT4 level. PMID:1782815

  2. Detection of Hantaan virus RNA from anti-Hantaan virus IgG seronegative rodents in an area of high endemicity in Republic of Korea.

    No, Jin Sun; Kim, Won-Keun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Kho, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Daesang; Song, Dong Hyun; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Seong Tae; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-04-01

    Hantaan virus (HTNV), of the family Bunyaviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Although the majority of epidemiologic studies have found that rodents are seropositive for hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin, the discovery of hantavirus RNA in seronegative hosts has led to an investigation of the presence of HTNV RNA in rodents captured in HFRS endemic areas. HTNV RNA was detected in seven (3.8%) of 186 anti-HTNV IgG seronegative rodents in Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2013-2014. RT-qPCR for HTNV RNA revealed dynamic virus-host interactions of HTNV in areas of high endemicity, providing important insights into the epidemiology of hantaviruses. PMID:26917012

  3. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250 kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200 mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18 months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36 months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36 months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6

  4. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Kumar Pradeep; Prajapati P; Saxena Deepak; Kavishwar Abhay; Kurian George

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban a...

  5. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    Sudheendra; Hiremath; Pramod S

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic...

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Yemeni children residing in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah governorate and evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for its detection

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Alkubati, Sameer A.; Alqubaty, Abdulhabib R.; Al-Mikhlafy, Abdullah A.; Al-Eryani, Samira M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdusalam M.; Alhaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common genetic enzymopathy worldwide, is associated with an acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals exposed to primaquine. The present study aimed to determine G6PD deficiency among Yemeni children in malaria-endemic areas as well as to assess the performance of the CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for its detection. Methods A cross-sectional study recruiting 400 children from two rural districts in Hodeidah g...

  7. Characterization of a Strain of Infectious Hepatitis E Virus Isolated from Sewage in an Area where Hepatitis E Is Not Endemic

    Pina, Sonia; Jofre, Joan; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.; Girones, Rosina

    1998-01-01

    Raw sewage samples from an area where hepatitis E is not endemic (Barcelona, Spain) were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by nested PCR. One of the 37 tested samples showed a positive result for hepatitis E virus (HEV). The detected strain was amplified by inoculation into rhesus monkeys, and the course of the infection was studied by analyzing serological and biochemical parameters and by monitoring the presence of HEV in serum and feces. Fecal suspensions from the rhesus monke...

  8. The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Meredith E Stocks; Freeman, Matthew C.; Addiss, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphedema of the leg and its advanced form, known as elephantiasis, are significant causes of disability and morbidity in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), with an estimated 14 million persons affected worldwide. The twin goals of the World Health Organization’s Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis include interrupting transmission of the parasitic worms that cause LF and providing care to persons who suffer from its clinical manifestations, including lymphe...

  9. The Effect of Deworming on Growth in One-Year-Old Children Living in a Soil-Transmitted Helminth-Endemic Area of Peru: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Joseph, Serene A.; Casapía, Martín; MONTRESOR, ANTONIO; Rahme, Elham; Ward, Brian J.; Marquis, Grace S; Pezo, Lidsky; Blouin, Brittany; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate health and nutrition interventions to prevent long-term adverse effects in children are necessary before two years of age. One such intervention may include population-based deworming, recommended as of 12 months of age by the World Health Organization in soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-endemic areas; however, the benefit of deworming has been understudied in early preschool-age children. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled tria...

  10. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen mus...

  11. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  12. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh.

  13. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Mohan; Yash; Ankur

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection...

  14. Evaluation of a conjunctival swab polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs in a non-endemic area.

    Geisweid, K; Weber, K; Sauter-Louis, C; Hartmann, K

    2013-10-01

    Due to the increasing numbers of dogs imported from or visiting Mediterranean countries, canine leishmaniasis has become an important infectious disease in countries where natural transmission typically does not occur. Although conjunctival swabs have recently been described as a useful diagnostic tool in endemic areas, their usefulness in non-endemic areas is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a conjunctival swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dogs in a non-endemic area. Dogs (n=74) that were presented for suspected canine leishmaniasis or for screening purposes after a history of travelling were prospectively included. PCR results from conjunctival swabs were compared to those from bone marrow, lymph nodes and blood and also to antibody results determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dogs were considered infected if bone marrow, lymph node, or blood PCR was positive and were defined as not infected if bone marrow PCR, the gold standard of testing, was negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the conjunctival swab PCR were 78.4% (confidence interval [CI] 95%, 62.8-88.6) and 93.8% (CI 95%, 79.8-98.3), respectively. There was substantial agreement between PCR results from conjunctival swabs and lymph nodes (κ=0.642), fair to moderate agreement between conjunctival swabs and bone marrow (κ=0.483), and almost no agreement between conjunctival swabs and blood (κ=0.070). Dogs with high antibody titres were more likely to be positive on conjunctival swab PCR than dogs with negative or doubtful antibody titres (P<0.001). Thus, conjunctival swab PCR is a good non-invasive test to diagnose Leishmania infection in dogs in non-endemic countries. PMID:23993391

  15. Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso

    Doannio Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In

  16. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

  17. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus)

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A.; Octavio Rojas-Soto; Enrique Martínez-Meyer; Carlos Yáñez-Arenas; Rosario Landgrave Ramírez; Alejandro Espinosa de los Monteros

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for mode...

  18. Detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Areas in Switzerland Where Tick-Borne Fever Is Endemic

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive.

  19. Pathogen-Specific Epitopes as Epidemiological Tools for Defining the Magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Areas Endemic for Leprosy

    Martins, Marcia V. S. B.; Guimarães, Marjorie M. da S.; Spencer, John S.; Mariana A V B Hacker; Luciana S Costa; Fernanda M Carvalho; Annemieke Geluk; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; Pontes, Maria A. A.; Heitor S Gonçalves; de Morais, Janvier P.; Bandeira, Tereza J.P.G.; Pessolani, Maria C. V.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Pereira, Geraldo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the dia...

  20. Immune recognition of Onchocerca volvulus proteins in the human host and animal models of onchocerciasis.

    Manchang, T K; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Ndjonka, D; Eisenbarth, A; Achukwi, M D; Renz, A; Brattig, N W; Liebau, E; Breloer, M

    2015-05-01

    Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-dwelling, vector-borne nematode parasite of humans and is the causative agent of onchocerciasis or river blindness. Natural infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis and of cattle with Onchocerca ochengi were used as models to study the immune responses to O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins (OvALT-2, OvNLT-1, Ov103 and Ov7). The humoral immune response of O. volvulus-infected humans against OvALT-2, OvNLT-1 and Ov7 revealed pronounced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres which were, however, significantly lower than against the lysate of O. volvulus adult female worms. Sera derived from patients displaying the hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis showed a uniform trend of higher IgG reactivity both to the single proteins and the O. volvulus lysate. Sera derived from L. sigmodontis-infected mice and from calves exposed to O. ochengi transmission in a hyperendemic area also contained IgM and IgG1 specific for O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins. These results strongly suggest that L. sigmodontis-specific and O. ochengi-specific immunoglobulins elicited during natural infection of mice and cattle cross-reacted with O. volvulus-derived recombinant antigens. Monitoring O. ochengi-infected calves over a 26-month period, provided a comprehensive kinetic of the humoral response to infection that was strictly correlated with parasite load and occurrence of microfilariae. PMID:24721822

  1. Optimized nuclear techniques, thyroid function studies of newborns in iodine deficient areas and assessment of severity of iodine deficiency of endemic goitre areas

    Cord blood samples, as a sera (n 4753) and as dried blood spots (n 5041) were obtained from subjects in Bangkok and iodine deficient districts in northern Thailand to study for T4 and TSH. The nuclear techniques were optimized by the use of NETRIA bulk reagents and in-house methods were developed and adapted for cost reduction, conveniences and precision/accuracy. The biochemical findings with cut-off values at 50 mIU/L for TSH as confirmed by <1 ng/dl for FT4 showed 0.34% (n16) of neonatal chemical hypothyroidism (NCH) varying in different provinces from 0.18 to 1.6% of 2253 cases of Phase I and 0.34-1.45% of 2500 cases of Phase II. Out of the total 4753 cases, 1.12% (n53) might be benefited by thyroxine administration. In this research project, the screening indicated moderate degree of IDD severity. It is useful for epidemiological evaluations, surveillance and for advocacy of the IDD control programme. Follow-up studies were undertaken in the available three subjects with abnormal serum findings in which all of them appeared to have transient neonatal hypothyroidism to assess the IDD severity. Further studies of dried cord blood spots (n 5041) demonstrated that the percentages of TSH above 5, 20 and 50 mIU/L and of T4 under 3, 5 and 10 ug/dl could be used for follow-up to compare the severity of different districts at the same time intervals and to assess the severity of the same district in different years. By this way, the severity of individual districts and its progress, could be evaluated for the IDD control in any endemic areas

  2. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer

  3. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  4. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops". PMID:24001641

  5. Preliminary pharmaceutical development of antimalarial–antibiotic cotherapy as a pre-referral paediatric treatment of fever in malaria endemic areas

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Kauss, Tina; Marchivie, Mathieu; Ba, Boubakar B.; Lembege, Martine; Fawaz, Fawaz; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; Lindegardh, Niklas; Fabre, Jean-Louis; White, Nicholas J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Millet, Pascal; Gaudin, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Artemether (AM) plus azithromycin (AZ) rectal co-formulations were studied to provide pre-referral treatment for children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic areas. The target profile required that such product should be cheap, easy to administer by non-medically qualified persons, rapidly effective against both malaria and bacterial infections. Analytical and pharmacotechnical development, followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation, were conducted for various AMAZ coformulations. Of the formulations tested, stability was highest for dry solid forms and bioavailability for hard gelatin capsules; AM release from AMAZ rectodispersible tablet was suboptimal due to a modification of its micro-crystalline structure. PMID:24726300

  6. Preliminary pharmaceutical development of antimalarial-antibiotic cotherapy as a pre-referral paediatric treatment of fever in malaria endemic areas.

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Kauss, Tina; Marchivie, Mathieu; Ba, Boubakar B; Lembege, Martine; Fawaz, Fawaz; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; Lindegardh, Niklas; Fabre, Jean-Louis; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero L; Millet, Pascal; Grislain, Luc; Gaudin, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Artemether (AM) plus azithromycin (AZ) rectal co-formulations were studied to provide pre-referral treatment for children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic areas. The target profile required that such product should be cheap, easy to administer by non-medically qualified persons, rapidly effective against both malaria and bacterial infections. Analytical and pharmacotechnical development, followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation, were conducted for various AMAZ coformulations. Of the formulations tested, stability was highest for dry solid forms and bioavailability for hard gelatin capsules; AM release from AMAZ rectodispersible tablet was suboptimal due to a modification of its micro-crystalline structure. PMID:24726300

  7. Serosurveillance to monitor onchocerciasis elimination: the Ugandan experience.

    Oguttu, David; Byamukama, Edson; Katholi, Charles R; Habomugisha, Peace; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank O; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-02-01

    Uganda is the only African country whose onchocerciasis elimination program uses a two-pronged approach of vector control and mass drug distribution. The Ugandan program relies heavily upon the use of serosurveys of children to monitor progress toward elimination. The program has tested over 39,000 individuals from 11 foci for Onchocerca volvulus exposure, using the Ov16 ELISA test. The data show that the Ov16 ELISA is a useful operational tool to monitor onchocerciasis transmission interruption in Africa at the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold of < 0.1% in children. The Ugandan experience has also resulted in a re-examination of the statistical methods used to estimate the boundary of the upper 95% confidence interval for the WHO prevalence threshold when all samples tested are negative. This has resulted in the development of Bayesian and hypergeometric statistical methods that reduce the number of individuals who must be tested to meet the WHO criterion. PMID:24343885

  8. CARPATHIANS ENDEMIC TAXA IN ARGEŞ COUNTY

    Valeriu Alexiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Argeş, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Argeş County.

  9. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. PMID:22285010

  10. An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area

    Rosana Gentile

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

  11. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

    Higazi TB; Geary TG; Mackenzie CD

    2014-01-01

    Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical ...

  12. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

    Higazi, Tarig; Geary,Timothy; Mackenzie, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropi...

  13. The relationship between dental fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentration - a study in an endemic area - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p355

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DF severity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a good predictor/indicator of DF severity.

  14. Malathion Resistance Status and Mutations in Acetylcholinesterase Gene (Ace) in Japanese Encephalitis and Filariasis Vectors from Endemic Area in India.

    Misra, Brij Ranjan; Gore, Milind

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are endemic in estern part of Uttar Pradesh in India and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). JE vaccination and mass drug administration for JE and LF management is being undertaken respectively. In addition to this, indoor residual spraying and fogging are used for the control of mosquito vectors. Organophosphate resistance in mosquito is dependent on alteration in acetylcholinesterase (Ace) gene. Hence, it is important to evaluate organophosphate resistance in Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (JE vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LF vector). The current study showed the presence of resistant populations and F331W mutation in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and G119S mutation in Cx. quinquefasciatus insensitive Ace genes. Resistant populations of these two vectors increase the chances of spreading of resistance in the natural population and may cause failure of intervention programs that include organophosphates against these two vectors in future. PMID:26334819

  15. Diminished CD4+/CD25+ T cell and increased IFN-gamma levels occur in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Ikeda, Fabiana Augusta; Rossi, Cláudio N; Feitosa, Mary Marcondes; Vasconcelos, Rosemeride Oliveira; Nunes, Caris Maroni; Goto, Hiro

    2010-06-15

    The Leishmune vaccine has been used in endemic areas to prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, but cytokine production induced by vaccination has rarely been investigated in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response of dogs vaccinated with Leishmune FML vaccine (Fort Dodge) against total antigen of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (TAg) and FML. Twenty healthy dogs from Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic leishmaniasis area, received three consecutive subcutaneous injection of Leishmune vaccine at 21-day intervals. PBMC were isolated before and 10 days after completing vaccination and lymphoproliferative response and antibody production against FML or total promastigote antigen were tested. Cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-4 and TNF-alpha were measured in culture supernatant and CD4+/CD25+ and CD8+/CD25+ T cell presence was determined. Analysis of the data indicated that the vaccine conferred humoral responses (100%) against both antigens and cellular immunity to FML (85%) and total antigen (80%), the supernatant of cultured cells stimulated with TAg and FML showed an increase in IFN-gamma (P<0.05), and the vaccine reduced CD4+/CD25+ T cell presence compared to that observed before vaccination. These responses may constitute part of the immune mechanism induced by Leishmune. PMID:20132994

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in an endemic area for malaria in Manaus: a cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Marli Stela Santana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information regarding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in endemic areas for malaria in Latin America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study determined the prevalence of the G6PD deficiency in 200 male non-consanguineous individuals residing in the Ismail Aziz Community, on the outskirts of Manaus (Brazilian Amazon. Six individuals (3% were deficient using the qualitative Brewer's test. Gel electrophoresis showed that five of these patients were G6PD A(-. The deficiency was not associated with the ethnic origin (P = 0.571. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, G6PD deficiency protected against three or more episodes of malaria (P = 0.049, independently of the age, and was associated with a history of jaundice (P = 0.020 and need of blood transfusion (P = 0.045 during previous treatment for malarial infection, independently of the age and the previous malarial exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The frequency of G6PD deficiency was similar to other studies performed in Brazil and the finding of a predominant G6PD A(- variant will help the clinical management of patients with drug-induced haemolysis. The history of jaundice and blood transfusion during previous malarial infection may trigger the screening of patients for G6PD deficiency. The apparent protection against multiple malarial infections in an area primarily endemic for Plasmodium vivax needs further investigation.

  17. Multiple insecticide resistance/susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, principal vector of bancroftian filariasis from filaria endemic areas of northern India

    Kaushal Kumar; Abhay K Sharma; Sarita Kumar; Sunita Patel; Manas Sarkar; Chauhan LS

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the insecticide resistance status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae) (Cx. Quinquefasciatus) to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, permethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, DDT and malathion in filarial endemic areas of Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods:Insecticide susceptibility assays were performed on wild-caught adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to deltamethrin (0.05%), cyfluthrin (0.15%), permethrin (0.75%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%), malathion (5.0%) and DDT (4.0%), the discriminating doses recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Results: The data showed that Cx. quinquefasciatus is highly resistant to DDT and malathion;the mortality was 28.33%and 27.5%, respectively and incipient resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, permethrin, and lambdacyhalothrin), where mortality ranged from 95.83%in permethrin to 98.33%in cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Knockdown times (KDT50) in response to synthetic pyrethroids varied significantly between different insecticides (P<0.01) from 31.480 min for permethrin to 21.650 for cyfluthrin. Conclusions:The results presents here provide the status report of the insecticide resistance/susceptibility of Cx. quinquefasciatus in major filaria endemic areas of northern India.

  18. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais

    Elizângela Guedes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp, ompA (457-bp, and ompB (720-bp. The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks.The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

  19. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ji-Lei; Njuabe, Metoh Theresia; Li, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated. Results: Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384); that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384) and 17% (67/384) of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384) of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384) false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384) error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384) undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance. PMID:24954235

  20. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2

  1. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

    Léa Cristina Castellucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA, northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  2. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay

    José M. Venzal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  3. Susceptibility of Culicidae Mosquitoes to Some Insecticides Recommended by WHO in a Malaria Endemic Area of Southeastern Iran

    Mousa Fathian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the national strategy plan on monitoring of insecticides resistance, this study was carried out to determine the base line susceptibility of the Culicidae mosquitoes to the WHO-recommended insecticides in an endemic focus of malaria in southeastern Iran.Methods: Larval collection was carried out by dipping method and adult collection occurred by suction tube from January to December 2010. The susceptibility test was assessed to DDT 4 %, malathion 5 %, propoxur 0.1 %, deltamethrin 0.05 %, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05 %, and cyfluthrin 0.15 % at different interval times (discriminative dose followed by 24 h recovery period . The LT50 and LT90 values were calculated for plotting the regression line using Microsoft office Excel software ver. 2007.Results: Anopheles stephensi was quite resistant to DDT and showed susceptible or tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values to DDT in this species were 29.07, and 98.26 minutes, respectively. Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles dthali were found susceptible or tolerant to insecticides. Culex pipiens was found resistance to DDT, propoxur, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin whereas observed susceptible to malathion and tolerant to deltamethrin. Ochlerotatus caspius sl. was resistant to DDT, whereas found susceptible to other insecticides. Culisita longiareolatawas susceptible to deltamethrin, whereas tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values of Cs. longiareolata to DDT were 17.82, and 51.26 minutes.Conclusion: We suggested the same study in different parts of the country for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.

  4. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  5. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh

    Akter Jasmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few studies on the genetic diversity of P. falciparum have been performed in Bangladesh. Anderson et al. performed a study in Khagrachari, northern Chittagong Hill Tracts in 2002 on 203 patients and found that parasites had a multiplicity of infection of 1.3 by MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genotyping. A total of 94% of the isolates had the K76T Pfcrt chloroquine resistant genotype, and 70% showed the N86Y Pfmdr1 genotype. Antifolate drug resistant genotypes were high with 99% and 73% of parasites having two or more mutations at the dhfr or dhps loci. Methods Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were used to genotype P. falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Results The analysis of polymorphic and drug resistant genotype on 33 paired recrudescent infections after drug treatment in the period 2004 to 2008 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which is just prior to countrywide provision of artemisinin combination therapy. Overall the multiplicity of infection for MSP-1 was 2.7 with a slightly smaller parasite diversity post-treatment. The 13 monoclonal infections by both GLURP and MSP-1 were evenly divided between pre- and post-treatment. The MSP-1 MAD block was most frequent in 66 of the samples. The prevalence of the K76T PfCRT chloroquine resistant allele was approximately 82% of the samples, while the resistant Pfmdr1 N86Y was present in 33% of the samples. Interestingly, the post

  6. Low density parasitaemia, red blood cell polymorphisms and Plasmodium falciparum specific immune responses in a low endemic area in northern Tanzania

    Shekalaghe, Seif; Alifrangis, Michael; Mwanziva, Charles;

    2009-01-01

    occurrence of sub-microscopic parasitaemia or the relation with immune responses.We investigated possible associations between the occurrence of sub-microscopic P. falciparum parasite carriage and antibody responses to the asexual stage antigens, G6PD deficiency and alpha+-thalassaemia in 464 subjects from a...... low endemic area in northern Tanzania. METHODS: We used samples collected from two cross sectional surveys conducted during dry and wet season in 2005. Submicroscopic parasitaemia was detected by using quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA). Genotyping for G6PD and alpha+-thalassaemia...... antibody levels to MSP-1 (p = 0.042) and MSP-2 (p = 0.034) but not to AMA-1 (p = 0.14) while no clear relation between sub-microscopic parasite carriage and G6PD deficiency or alpha+-thalassaemia was observed. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a role for sub-microscopic parasite densities in eliciting or...

  7. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Mariane Angélica Finger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02 and flooding (p = 0.03. Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study.

  8. High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil

    Sandra Maria Alkmim-Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture. Results T. cruzi I (TcI was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1% subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands; however, high similarities (80-100% among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

  9. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  10. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Finger, Mariane Angélica; de Barros, Ivan Roque; Leutenegger, Christian; Estrada, Marko; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Langoni, Hélio; Kikuti, Mariana; Dornbush, Peterson Triches; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02) and flooding (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study. PMID:25351539

  11. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    Sudheendra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic Filariasis which was neglected by the medical practitioners for past one year. A 40 - year - old male farmer visited the Primary Health Centre and BRIMS teaching hospital repeatedly during the past one year with a complaint of excretion of milky white urine with mild weight loss and physical weakness. The patient was undiagnosed for Filariasis. However , his urine examination revealed proteinuria with scanty pyuria , fat glo bules and elevated level of urinary triglyceride. Urine culture was found to be sterile. On physical examination of the patient , there was no visible swelling over the body. No enlarged lymph nodes were seen except non - tender minimal scrotal swelling. Radi ological examination of chest and pelvis had shown no calcification of lymph nodes. Overall , no abnormal findings were observed. Diagnosis revealed presence of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear after Diethylcarbamazine (DEC provocation test. The pati ent was prescribed the 12 days treatment regimen of DEC with Albendazole and asked to visit again for follow up. CONCLUSIONS: As this area is endemic for Filariasis in Karnataka state , it is a warning sign for the medical practitioners not to ignore patien ts presenting with Chyluria and to mandatorily investigate the presence of microfilaria even after mass drug administration. In this case the microbiological investigations helped prevent the patient from morbidity and disability due to Filariasis in futur e.

  12. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  13. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis

    Solano-Gallego Laia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1% including one female, (2.0% and 12 males (15.2%, and in only five dogs (12.2%. Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.

  14. PKDL--A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India.

    Swagata Ganguly

    Full Text Available Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46% for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6-12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period.

  15. Association of leishmaniasis with TNF alpha promoter and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients of two endemic areas in Mexico.

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin; De la Rosa-López, Gabriela; Zavaleta-Villa, Beatriz; Chávez-López, Susana; Pastor-Santiago, Jorge; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2015-05-01

    Some Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukins and other modulatory molecules of the immune response play an important role in susceptibility to infectious diseases, particularly those involving intracellular parasites. In this study, we evaluated allele, genotype and haplotype associations of two SNPs of the TNF-α promoter and seven of the SLC11A1 gene in 79 patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 15 with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), compared with 127 and 89 locality paired controls, respectively, from two endemic areas of Chiapas State, Mexico. None of the TNF-α alleles and genotypes was associated either to CL or to VL. Alleles rs2276631-C (P = 0.02; OR [95%CI] = 2.11 [1.16-3.86]) and rs2279015-G (P = 0.005; OR [95%CI] = 2.42 [1.33-4.41]) of SLC11A1, were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas genotypes rs2276631 C/C (P = 0.003; OR [95%CI] = 2.65 [1.41-5.00]) and rs2279015 G/G (P = 0.018; OR [95%CI] = 2.05 [1.15-3.64]) were significantly increased in CL and VL patients, respectively. Complete haplotypes involved in susceptibility were CGCCGDins with VL and CGCCADins with CL. CGCCA was the minimal susceptibility haplotype for CL and CCG for VL. Our data suggest that SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms might have a relevant role in the pathology of leishmaniasis, directing towards susceptibility outcome of this disease in residents of an endemic area. PMID:25603101

  16. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Zhou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results were calculated.\tResults:\tPlasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384; that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384 and 17% (67/384 of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384 of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384 false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384 error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384 undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases.\tConclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance.

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the bivalent killed, whole-cell, oral cholera vaccine in adults and children in a cholera endemic area in Kolkata, India.

    Dilip Mahalanabis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: An effective vaccine against cholera has been used for public health purposes in Vietnam since the 1990s. This vaccine was reformulated to meet WHO requirements. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the reformulated bivalent (Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139 killed whole cell oral vaccine in a cholera endemic area in Kolkata, India. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: The trial was conducted in the clinical trial ward of the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Kolkata, India. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 101 healthy adults (males and non-pregnant females aged 18-40 years and 100 healthy children (males and non-pregnant females aged 1-17 years. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive either the bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine or placebo (killed oral Escherichia coli K12. OUTCOME MEASURES: For safety: proportion of subjects with adverse events during the duration of study participation. For immunogenicity: Proportion of subjects who had a > or = 4-fold rise in serum vibriocidal antibody titers 14 days after the second dose of vaccine or placebo. RESULTS: Adverse reactions were observed with similar frequency among vaccine and placebo recipients in both age groups. Among adults 4% of vaccine and 8% of placebo recipients and among children 4% of vaccine and 2% of placebo recipients had at least one adverse event within 28 days of the first dose of the vaccine. Following immunization, 53% of adult and 80% of children vaccinees showed a > or = 4 fold rise in serum V. cholerae O1 vibriocidal antibody titers. A less pronounced response to V. cholerae O139 vibriocidal antibody titers post-immunization was noted among vaccinees. CONCLUSIONS: We found the vaccine to be safe and immunogenic in a cholera-endemic area in India. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119197.

  18. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Nadle Joelle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

  19. Morphometric analysis of nodules in human onchocerciasis collected in communities of the southern Chiapas focus, México.

    González-Goméz, B E; Gómez-Priego, A; Méndez-Samperio, P; De-La-Rosa-Arana, J L

    2012-04-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a disease that remains as an important public health problem. The morphometric and physical characteristics of 363 Onchocerca volvulus nodules collected in the major endemic focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas (Soconusco), was assessed. In the present work we found that treatment the morphometry of 363 onchocercal nodules preserved in a 67% glycerol solution was determined by measuring the length, width and thick of each nodule with a Vernier caliper. The mass was determined with an analytical balance and the volume by measuring the water displacement, while the specific gravity was calculated by dividing mass over the volume. Statistical analysis was calculated for each parameter. The results showed that the nodules were rather longer than wider or thicker. Morphometric characteristics were 9.87 +/-3.70 (mean +/- standard deviation), 7.52 +/- 2.81, and 4.62 +/-+/- 2.06 mm for length, width and thick respectively. In regard to the shape, 62.81% of the nodules showed a lenticular shape, while 18.18% were spherical and 19.01% were ovoid. Based on the distribution of frequencies of the length, the nodules were classified in three groups: the "small" (5.77 +/- 0.73 mm; n = 104, 28.65%), the "medium" group (9.86 +/- 2.05 mm; n = 203 nodules, 55.92%), and the group of the "big" ones (16.03 +/- 1.91 mm; n = 56, 15.43%). Moreover, the physical characteristics were: for the mass 0.33 +/- 0.24 g, the volume of displaced water was 0.28 +/- 0.26 ml, and the specific gravity was 1.10 +/- 0.55 g/ml. The results indicated that most of the Mexican Onchocerca nodules have a lenticular shape with average size of 10x7x5 mm, which is useful in the knowledge of the genus biodiversity and can be taken as a parameter in clinical or epidemiological trials, where onchocerciasis remains as a public health problem. PMID:22662599

  20. Immunisation with a multivalent, subunit vaccine reduces patent infection in a natural bovine model of onchocerciasis during intense field exposure.

    Benjamin L Makepeace

    Full Text Available Human onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is controlled almost exclusively by the drug ivermectin, which prevents pathology by targeting the microfilariae. However, this reliance on a single control tool has led to interest in vaccination as a potentially complementary strategy. Here, we describe the results of a trial in West Africa to evaluate a multivalent, subunit vaccine for onchocerciasis in the naturally evolved host-parasite relationship of Onchocerca ochengi in cattle. Naïve calves, reared in fly-proof accommodation, were immunised with eight recombinant antigens of O. ochengi, administered separately with either Freund's adjuvant or alum. The selected antigens were orthologues of O. volvulus recombinant proteins that had previously been shown to confer protection against filarial larvae in rodent models and, in some cases, were recognised by serum antibodies from putatively immune humans. The vaccine was highly immunogenic, eliciting a mixed IgG isotype response. Four weeks after the final immunisation, vaccinated and adjuvant-treated control calves were exposed to natural parasite transmission by the blackfly vectors in an area of Cameroon hyperendemic for O. ochengi. After 22 months, all the control animals had patent infections (i.e., microfilaridermia, compared with only 58% of vaccinated cattle (P = 0.015. This study indicates that vaccination to prevent patent infection may be an achievable goal in onchocerciasis, reducing both the pathology and transmissibility of the infection. The cattle model has also demonstrated its utility for preclinical vaccine discovery, although much research will be required to achieve the requisite target product profile of a clinical candidate.

  1. Utility of Serological Tests in the Era of Molecular Testing for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis in Endemic Area with Limited Resources

    Metgud, Sharada C.; Mutnal, Manohar B; Nagamoti, Mahantesh B; Patil, Chidanand S.

    2016-01-01

    . The SAT was upheld as very good quick, easy to perform and economical screening test for human brucellosis. SAT as rapid screening test and STAT as more definitive test can be very well adopted by laboratories working in resource scarce settings for diagnosis of human brucellosis in absence of PCR even for population with normally elevated antibodies levels due to residing in Brucella endemic areas. PMID:27042465

  2. Adverse reactions following mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine in lymphatic filariasis endemic areas in the Northeast of Brazil

    Ana Wládia Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched with the goal of eliminating this disease via the annual mass drug administration (MDA of a single dose of antifilarial drugs. Adverse drug reactions following MDA are a major factor of poor treatment adherence in several countries. This study assessed the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs following the first round of mass treatment in two communities treated with different dosages of diethylcarbamazine (DEC in the City of Recife, Brazil. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in a random sample of the population living in both communities (Areas I and II. The dose of DEC recommended by the WHO (6mg/kg was calculated based on the individual's weight-for-age. In Area II, weight differences between the genders were also considered when determining dosage. Data were obtained through interviews conducted in the first 12 to 48h and on the 5th day after MDA during household visits. RESULTS: A total of 487 and 365 individuals were interviewed in Areas I and II, respectively. The prevalence of ADRs in Area I (23.6; 95%CI: 19.1-29.5 was higher than in Area II (16.2; 95%CI:11.9-21.5(p=0.0078. The prevalence of ADRs among females was higher than in males in Area I (p=0.0021. In Area II, no significant difference between the genders was observed (p=0.1840. Age was not associated with ADRs in either area. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting MDA dosage schedules according to weight-for-age and sex may be may contribute to reduce the occurrence of adverse drug reactions in the population.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and15 year-old school children in an endemic fluoride area of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature on the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in Nalgonda district, an endemic fluoride belt in India was scanty. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in Nalgonda district. Materials and Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration. The oral examination for dental caries and fluorosis among children who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirror and CPI (Community Periodontal Index probe under natural daylight. The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children was 42.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence was more among females (56.9% than males (34.2%. The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (67% followed by very high fluoride area (56.1%. The lowest prevalence was in medium fluoride area (20.5%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in the gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Defluoridation of water in areas where the concentration of fluoride is more than optimal is an immediate need as dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in these areas.

  4. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  5. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens. PMID:15652331

  6. Multiplicative synergistic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among hepatitis B and C co-infected subjects in HBV endemic area: a community-based cohort study

    There has been limited study on the effect of infection with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic regions of Asia. Hazard ratios of HCC development were estimated for HBV and HCV co-infected subjects among a community-based prospective cohort. HCV genotype was determined in HCV RNA-positive samples. Incident HCC cases were identified through linkage to the cancer registry. HCC incidence was 79 per 100,000 person-years in the study population (50 incident cases among 6,694 individuals within 63,170 person-years with an average of 9.4 years of follow-up); seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 5.2% and 5.6%. Adjusted hazard ratios of HCC by HBsAg positivity and anti-HCV positivity were 13.3 (CI: 7.3-24.4) and 6.7 (CI: 3.6-12.6). HRs of HBV and HCV monoinfection, and HBV/HCV coinfection were 17.1 (CI: 8.4-34.8), 10.4 (CI: 4.9-22.1) and 115.0 (CI: 32.5-407.3). Multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk was also observed (synergy index: 4.5, CI: 1.3-15.5). Infection with HCV genotype 1 (HR: 29.7, CI: 13.6-46.8) and mixed infection with genotype 1 and 2 (HR: 68.7, CI: 16.4-288.4) significantly elevated HCC risk, much higher than HBV infection. The effect of differences in HCV genotype and the multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk shown in the present study underline the need for comprehensive identification of hepatitis infection status in order to prevent and control HCC in this HBV endemic area

  7. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  8. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  9. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Carlos Frederico Loiola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

  10. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico. PMID:27280348

  11. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Flávio França; Ednaldo L. Lago; Philip D. Marsden

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - ...

  12. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    Pfeffer Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

  13. Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B. Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Nelymar M Mendes

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third stream (C remained untreated for negative control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of 100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides. Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated

  14. Genetic homogeneity within Leishmania (L.) infantum isolated from human and dogs: the relationship with the sandfly fauna distribution in endemic areas of Nueva Esparta State, Venezuela.

    Rodriguez, N M; De Guglielmo, Z; Barrios, M A; Barrios, R M; Zerpa, O; Feliciangeli, M D

    2005-06-01

    Leishmania infantum has been described as a highly polymorphic group of parasites, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this paper we report the life-cycle of L. (L.) infantum in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, by using molecular diagnosis and characterization of parasites isolated from dogs, humans with visceral leishmaniasis and sand flies. The molecular characterization was carried out by use of kDNA restriction analysis, dot-blot hybridization with species-specific probes and RFLP of the PCR products. The results demonstrated that L. (L.) infantum is the parasite responsible for VL in the island. The parasites were revealed to be genetically homogeneous with no intra-specific differences between isolates from different individuals. The highest homology of the isolates was with L. (L.) infantum from the Old World rather than with L. (L.) chagasi from the New World. Additionally, we report the geographical distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis, and the relationship with the transmission of L. (L.) infantum in the studied area. PMID:15977897

  15. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Vanessa Wolff Machado; Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos; Eliana Vieira Pinto Silva; João Barberino Santos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of im...

  16. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  17. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.

  18. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

  19. Mapping of the environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii by georeferencing isolates from chickens in an endemic area in Southeast Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Luciana Casartelli-Alves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii in an endemic area in Brazil was mapped by georeferencing isolates from chickens in farms in the Southeast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Tissue samples obtained from 153 adult chickens were analyzed by the mouse bioassay for T. gondii infection. These animals were reared free-range on 51 farms in the municipalities of Rio Bonito and Maricá. The ArcGIS kernel density estimator based on the frequency of T. gondii-positive chickens was used to map the environmental contamination with this parasite. A questionnaire was applied to obtain data on the presence and management of cats and the type of water consumed. Of the farms studied, 64.7% were found to be located in areas of low to medium presence of T. gondii, 27.5% in areas with a high or very high contamination level and 7.8% in non-contaminated areas. Additionally, 70.6% kept cats, 66.7% were near water sources and 45.0% were in or near dense vegetation. Humans used untreated water for drinking on 41.2% of the farms, while all animals were given untreated water. The intensity of environmental T. gondii contamination was significantly higher on farms situated at a distance >500 m from water sources (P=0.007 and near (≤500 m dense vegetation (P=0.003. Taken together, the results indicate a high probability of T. gondii infection of humans and animals living on the farms studied. The kernel density estimator obtained based on the frequency of chickens testing positive for T. gondii in the mouse bioassay was useful to map environmental contamination with this parasite.

  20. Mapping of the environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii by georeferencing isolates from chickens in an endemic area in Southeast Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Casartelli-Alves, Luciana; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Ferreira, Luiz Cláudio; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo; Nicolau, José Leonardo; de Freitas Trindade, Eloiza Paula; de Barros Peixoto, Julia Novaes; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2015-01-01

    The environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii in an endemic area in Brazil was mapped by georeferencing isolates from chickens in farms in the Southeast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Tissue samples obtained from 153 adult chickens were analyzed by the mouse bioassay for T. gondii infection. These animals were reared free-range on 51 farms in the municipalities of Rio Bonito and Maricá. The ArcGIS kernel density estimator based on the frequency of T. gondii-positive chickens was used to map the environmental contamination with this parasite. A questionnaire was applied to obtain data on the presence and management of cats and the type of water consumed. Of the farms studied, 64.7% were found to be located in areas of low to medium presence of T. gondii, 27.5% in areas with a high or very high contamination level and 7.8% in non-contaminated areas. Additionally, 70.6% kept cats, 66.7% were near water sources and 45.0% were in or near dense vegetation. Humans used untreated water for drinking on 41.2% of the farms, while all animals were given untreated water. The intensity of environmental T. gondii contamination was significantly higher on farms situated at a distance >500 m from water sources (P=0.007) and near (≤500 m) dense vegetation (P=0.003). Taken together, the results indicate a high probability of T. gondii infection of humans and animals living on the farms studied. The kernel density estimator obtained based on the frequency of chickens testing positive for T. gondii in the mouse bioassay was useful to map environmental contamination with this parasite. PMID:26054514

  1. The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka

    Rajakaruna, R S; Weerasinghe, M; Alifrangis, M;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment is particularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge about antimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use of antimalarials...... and improve adherence to the government's malaria drug policy. Results of a study on the knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka, mostly in malarious areas are presented. METHODS: Data on awareness of government's malaria drug policy, practice of...... issuing antimalarials, knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs were collected from the drug vendors using pre-tested questionnaire in vernacular language. Data were statistically analysed using Stata 8.2. Chi-square test was carried out for individual explanatory variables and a logistic regression...

  2. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas

    Guderian Joy R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology, Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology, La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology, and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology. A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

  3. Prevalence and distribution of ocular onchocerciasis in three ecological zones in Nigeria.

    Umeh, R E; Mahmoud, A O; Hagan, M; Wilson, M; Okoye, O I; Asana, U; Biritwum, R; Ogbu-Pearce, P; Elhassan, E; Yaméogo, L; Braideo, E I; Seketeli, A

    2010-12-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsored a baseline study in Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 on the prevalence and distribution of Onchocerciasis. The randomly selected 1,064 subjects in the baseline study underwent detailed eye examination in Cross River (rain forest), Taraba (savanna) and Kogi (forest-savanna) States. This paper compares and contrasts the public health significance of ocular onchocerciasis in these ecological zones. A blindness prevalence of 2.4% was recorded in the study, onchocerciasis being responsible for 30.2% of the bilaterally blind subjects. Onchocerciasis-induced blindness prevalence was relatively high in the rain forest and forest savanna zones of Cross River and Kogi States, Cross River having the highest site-specific prevalence (50.0%), followed by Kogi (41.7%). Taraba recorded only 27.3%. Other conditions identified included glaucoma, optic nerve disease and cataract rates of which were also found to be high among the population (6.9%, 6.5 % and 8.9% respectively). Anterior segment onchocercal lesions, punctate and sclerosing keratitis were the predominant features of the infection in the savanna zone (14.1% and 6.3% respectively), while posterior segment lesions were much more common in the forest zone. The need to sustain the present efforts to control onchocerciasis through mass ivermectin treatment is recommended. PMID:21735992

  4. Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province

    F Ahmadipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

  5. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  6. Retrospective and spatial analysis tools for integrated surveillance of cystic echinococcosis and bovine cysticercosis in hypo-endemic areas

    Rudi Cassini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE and bovine cysticercosis (BC are two important parasitic zoonoses, whose prevalence varies among European countries. Few data are available on prevalence and geographic distribution of these two diseases in Veneto region in north-eastern Italy, where they are generally perceived as minor public health problems. Available data from regional farms on cattle positive to CE and BC and slaughtered in the period 2006-2010 were analysed by spatial scan statistic using a Bernoulli probability model. Out of 576 bovines testing positive to CE, 467 were found to be autochthonous cases. Three significant CE clusters were identified, the most likely one (P <0.001 located in the eastern part of the Veneto region. As for BC, two clusters were identified from 148 animals testing positive, 91 of which were autochthonous. An epidemiological survey was conducted and the most likely CE cluster was centred, collecting faecal samples from 28 dogs living in the farms of the area. Out of five animals (all shepherd dogs found positive for taenid eggs by copromicroscopy, one was confirmed positive for Echinococcus granulosus by means of polymerase chain reaction. The study demonstrates the usefulness of integration of slaughterhouse data and geographical coordinates of farms involved for effective surveillance of CE and BC. The reliability of the spatial analysis in the identification of clusters of EC cases was confirmed by the finding of one dog positive for E. granulosus.

  7. Evaluation of fresh and stored rainwater quality in fluoride and arsenic endemic area of Thar Desert, Pakistan.

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Rafique, Tahir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Ullah, Naeem; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Salma

    2014-12-01

    In the current study, the chemistry of fresh and stored rainwater of Thar Desert, Pakistan, was estimated during two consecutive monsoon periods. The present research deals with the variation in physicochemical parameters, total arsenic (As(t)), inorganic arsenic species (As(i), As(V), As(III)), and fluoride (F(-)) in stored rainwater (SRW) at different time intervals (1 week to 3 months). The pH of fresh rainwater (FRW) samples showed slightly acidic to neutral in nature (6.08-7.06) which were inconsistent with the reference pH value (5.6) of rainwater. The resulted data indicated that As(t) and F(-) levels in SRW were enhanced with time duration. The levels of As(t) and F(-) in SRW after different time intervals were found in the range of 194-683 μg/L and 10-35.4 mg/L, respectively. The values of As(t) and F(-) were 20-70 and 7-24 times higher than those of WHO permissible limits, 10 μg/L and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. The As(III) was dominant species in SRW, which corresponds to >60 % of As(i). The characteristics of the SRW revealed an unacceptable quality to consume for drinking and agricultural purposes in the studied area. PMID:25223532

  8. Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa

    Conway David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older

  9. Reduction in dengue cases observed during mass control of Aedes (Stegomyia) in street catch basins in an endemic urban area in Colombia.

    Ocampo, Clara B; Mina, Neila Julieth; Carabalí, Mabel; Alexander, Neal; Osorio, Lyda

    2014-04-01

    Dengue incidence continues to increase globally and, in the absence of an efficacious vaccine, prevention strategies are limited to vector control. It has been suggested that targeting the most productive breeding sites instead of all water-holding containers could be a cost-effective vector control strategy. We sought to identify and continuously control the most productive Aedes (Stegomyia) breeding site in an endemic urban area in Colombia and followed the subsequent incidence of dengue. In the urban area of Guadalajara de Buga, southwestern Colombia, potential breeding sites inside and outside houses were first characterized, and local personnel trained to assess their productivity based on the pupae/person index. Simultaneously, training and monitoring were implemented to improve the dengue case surveillance system. Entomological data and insecticide resistance studies were used to define the targeted intervention. Then, a quasi-experimental design was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of the positivity index of the targeted and non- targeted breeding sites, and the impact on dengue cases. Street catch basins (storm drains) were the potential breeding site most frequently found containing Aedes immature stages in the baseline (58.3% of 108). Due to the high resistance to temephos (0% mortality after 24h), the intervention consisted of monthly application of pyriproxyfen in all the street catch basins (n=4800). A significant decrease in catch basins positivity for Aedes larvae was observed after each monthly treatment (p<0.001). Over the intervention period, a reduction in the dengue incidence in Buga was observed (rate ratio 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.30, p<0.0001) after adjusting for autocorrelation and controlling with a neighboring town, Palmira, This study highlights the importance of street catch basins as Aedes breeding sites and suggests that their targeted control could help to decrease dengue transmission in such areas. PMID:24388794

  10. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  11. Risk factors for seroconversion by Leishmania infantum in a cohort of dogs from an endemic area of Brazil.

    Wendel Coura-Vital

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has recently emerged in various urban and peri-urban areas of Brazil and other countries. Understanding the urbanization of VL requires identification of risk factors associated with human and canine infection. To determine the predictors of risk for canine VL, a survey was conducted of 1,443 dogs, from which a cohort was selected (n = 455 and evaluated for approximately 26 months. Serology was conducted with two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA: one conducted in the Laboratory of Zoonosis of the Belo Horizonte Health Department (LZOON and the other in the Laboratory of Immunopathology of the Federal University of Ouro Preto (LIMP. A molecular diagnostic method (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and a structured questionnaire were also used. To identify the factors associated with seroconversion, two time-dependent Cox regression models were performed with different sensitivities (model 1, seroconversion by ELISA/LZOON; model 2, seroconversion by ELISA/LIMP. The overall incidences of seroconversion were 6.5/1000 dogs-months and 11.2/1000 dogs-months for ELISA/LZOON and ELISA/LIMP, respectively. Increased risk of seroconversion was associated with short fur (model 1: hazard ratio [HR] 1.9, the presence of dry leaves (model 1: HR 2.8 or manure (model 1: HR 3.5 in the backyard, dogs sleeping predominantly in the backyard (model 2: HR 2.1, the presence of symptoms (model 2: HR 2.0, and positive molecular results during follow-up (model 2: HR 1.5. Decreased risk was associated with insecticide spraying in the house (model 2: HR 0.5. These results indicate that more-vulnerable domiciles, certain dog behaviors, lack of vector control measures, and positive molecular results were associated with the occurrence of canine VL. Furthermore, it is important to emphasize that PCR-positive dogs should be monitored, owing to the possibility of seroconversion. Identifying risk factors for seroconversion in dogs is

  12. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion. PMID:26164468

  13. The impact of repeated treatment with praziquantel of schistosomiasis in children under six years of age living in an endemic area for Schistosoma haematobium infection

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel was given every eight weeks for two years to children aged under six years of age, living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Infection with S. haematobium and haematuria were examined in urine and antibody profiles (IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 against S. haematobium adult worm and egg antigens were determined from sera collected before each treatment. Chemotherapy reduced infection prevalence and mean intensity from 51.8% and 110 eggs per 10 ml urine, respectively, before starting re-treatment programme to very low levels thereafter. Praziquantel is not accumulated after periodic administration in children. Immunoglobulin levels change during the course of treatment with a shift towards 'protective' mechanisms. The significant changes noted in some individuals were the drop in 'blocking' IgG2 and IgG4 whereas the 'protecting' IgA and IgG1 levels increased. The antibody profiles in the rest of the children remained generally unchanged throughout the study and no haematuria was observed after the second treatment. The removal of worms before production of large number of eggs, prevented the children from developing morbidity.

  14. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26608724

  15. Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.

    Fish, D; Dowler, R C

    1989-05-01

    Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

  16. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Ana Maria Marassa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  17. Blood donors screening for malaria in non-endemic area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Is it necessary to introduce immunological testing?

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al Gharawi, Ali; Alrasheed, Mohammed; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Saudi Arabia, where malaria is not endemic, the incidence is very low. However, malaria transmission cases have been reported, mainly in Asir and Jazan provinces along the Southwestern border with Yemen. Imported cases also have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria in blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in the central area of Saudi Arabia and to assess the effectiveness of malaria screening methods used by transfusion services in Prince Sultan Military Medical City. Methods This study was conducted on 180,000 people who donated blood during 2006–2015. All blood smears from blood donors were screened for malaria infection using Giemsa staining, low power and high power microscopic examinations, and using oil immersion lens. The data were analyzed and reported in descriptive statistics and prevalence. Results From the total of 180,000 blood donors who were screened for malaria, 156,000 (87%) and 23.400 (13%) were Saudi Arabia citizens and non-Saudi residents, respectively. The mean age of the blood donors was 32 (ranging from 18 to 65), 97% and 3% were male and female, respectively. Using our current method for malaria screening, the prevalence of malaria in the study population was zero. Conclusion The current methods of malaria screening in blood donors is not suitable for screening low-level parasiotemia. Adding the immunoassay and molecular screening methods is suggested. PMID:27054011

  18. Fluoride Levels in Urine, Blood Plasma and Serum of People Living in an Endemic Fluorosis Area in the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    Fluoride (F/sup -/) levels in the urine, blood plasma and serum samples of people living in a village in the Thar Desert have been analysed where fluorosis is endemic and groundwater contains fluoride as high as 9.76 mg/L. Average values of fluoride levels in these human specimens i.e. urine, blood plasma and serum have been found to be 12.98 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than the normal values reported from other parts of the world. It was observed that urinary fluoride levels increase with age of an individual but with an insignificant correlation (r = 0.116), however, fluoride levels in plasma and serum samples did not vary considerably with age in male and female subjects. It has been found that after the age of 50 years the urinary fluoride decreases with its concomitant increase in serum fluoride level. Since groundwater is the only available source of water for human consumption and it contains higher fluoride (av. 7.09 mg/L) than WHO limit (1.5 mg/L), therefore, it is the main cause of fluorosis in the area. (author)

  19. Serological based monitoring of a cohort of patients with chronic Chagas disease treated with benznidazole in a highly endemic area of northern Argentina

    Niborski, Leticia L; Grippo, Vanina; Lafón, Sonia O; Levitus, Gabriela; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Ramirez, Juan C; Burgos, Juan M; Bisio, Margarita; Juiz, Natalia A; Ayala, Vilma; Coppede, María; Herrera, Verónica; López, Crescencia; Contreras, Ana; Gómez, Karina A; Elean, Juan C; Mujica, Hugo D; Schijman, Alejandro G; Levin, Mariano J; Longhi, Silvia A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate well-documented diagnostic antigens, named B13, 1F8 and JL7 recombinant proteins, as potential markers of seroconversion in treated chagasic patients. Prospective study, involving 203 patients treated with benznidazole, was conducted from endemic areas of northern Argentina. Follow-up was possible in 107 out of them and blood samples were taken for serology and PCR assays before and 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after treatment initiation. Reactivity against Trypanosoma cruzi lysate and recombinant antigens was measured by ELISA. The rate of decrease of antibody titers showed nonlinear kinetics with an abrupt drop within the first three months after initiation of treatment for all studied antigens, followed by a plateau displaying a low decay until the end of follow-up. At this point, anti-B13, anti-1F8 and anti-JL7 titers were relatively close to the cut-off line, while anti-T. cruzi antibodies still remained positive. At baseline, 60.8% (45/74) of analysed patients tested positive for parasite DNA by PCR and during the follow-up period in 34 out of 45 positive samples (75.5%) could not be detected T. cruzi DNA. Our results suggest that these antigens might be useful as early markers for monitoring antiparasitic treatment in chronic Chagas disease. PMID:27223650

  20. Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged children in an area co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium.

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied. METHODOLOGY: We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years in the Azaguié district, south Côte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR, 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR, 96.7% and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%. POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation, were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of C

  1. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  2. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  3. Assessment of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in a low endemicity area by using multiplex fluorescent microsphere-based serological assays

    Sarr Jean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of malaria transmission intensity is a crucial indicator for estimating the burden of malarial disease. In this respect, entomological and parasitological methods present limitations, especially in low transmission areas. The present study used a sensitive multiplex assay to assess the exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infection in children living in an area of low endemicity. In three Senegalese villages, specific antibody (IgG responses to 13 pre-erythrocytic P. falciparum peptides derived from Lsa1, Lsa3, Glurp, Salsa, Trap, Starp, Csp and Pf11.1 proteins were simultaneously evaluated before (June, at the peak (September and after (December the period of malaria transmission, in children aged from 1 to 8 years. Results Compared to other antigens, a high percentage of seropositivity and specific antibody levels were detected with Glurp, Salsa1, Lsa3NR2, and Lsa1J antigens. The seropositivity increased with age for all tested antigens. Specific IgG levels to Glurp, Salsa1, Lsa3NR2, and Lsa1J were significantly higher in P. falciparum infected children compared to non-infected and this increase is significantly correlated with parasite density. Conclusion The multiplex assay represents a useful technology for a serological assessment of rapid variations in malaria transmission intensity, especially in a context of low parasite rates. The use of such combined serological markers (i.e. Glurp, Lsa1, Lsa3, and Salsa could offer the opportunity to examine these variations over time, and to evaluate the efficacy of integrated malaria control strategies.

  4. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    B.O. Rikhotso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi among wild and domestic mammals in different areas of the Abaetetuba municipality (Pará State, Brazil), an endemic Chagas disease transmission area.

    Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta C C; Gerhardt, Marconny; Silva, Miguel F O; Lima, Valdirene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Jansen, Ana M

    2013-03-31

    The presence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) due to oral transmission is growing and expanding in several South American countries. Within the Amazon basin, the Abaetetuba municipality has been a site of recurrent cases spanning across distinct landscapes. Because Chagas disease is primarily a zoonotic infection, we compared the enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles in three different environmental areas of Abaetetuba to better understand this new epidemiological situation. Philander opossum was the most abundant mammalian species collected (38% of the collected mammals) with a T. cruzi prevalence of 57%, as determined by hemocultures. Didelphis marsupialis was abundant only in the area with the higher level of environmental disturbance (approximately 42%) and did not yield detectable parasitemia. Despite similarities observed in the composition of the small mammalian fauna and the prevalence of T. cruzi infection among the studied areas, the potential of these hosts to infect vectors differed significantly according to the degree of land use (with prevalences of 5%, 41%, and 64% in areas A3, A1 and A2, respectively). Domestic mammals were also found to be infected, and one canine T. cruzi isolate was obtained. Our data demonstrated that the transmission of T. cruzi in the Amazon basin is far more complex than had been previously taught and showed that the probability of humans and domestic mammals coming into contact with infected bugs can vary dramatically, even within the same municipality. The exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection (indicated by positive serology) was the common feature among the studied localities, stressing the importance of selecting domestic mammals as sentinels in the identification of T. cruzi transmission hotspots. PMID:23261089

  6. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Leptospira infection in dogs during a one-year period in an endemic urban area in Southern Brazil

    Vivien Midori Morikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dogs in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ≥100 of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6 to 19% (14.1 - 25.2, the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6 to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2, and the global seroincidence density rate of infection was 11% (9.1 - 13.2 per dog-trimester. Canicola and Icterohaemorraghiae were the most frequent incident serogroups observed in all follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-ups with mean trimester intervals were incapable of detecting any increase in seroprevalence due to seroincident cases of canine leptospirosis, suggesting that antibody titers may fall within three months. Further studies on incident infections, disease burden or risk factors for incident Leptospira cases should take into account the detectable lifespan of the antibody.

  7. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter polymorphism on cancer risk by histological subtype: A prospective study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan.

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Lee, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Ling-I; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Lee, Te-Chang; Wang, Yuang-Hung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-04-15

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is upregulated by many stressful stimuli, including arsenic. A GT-repeat ((GT)n) polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter inversely modulates the levels of HO-1 induction. Previous HO-1 (GT)n polymorphism studies in relation to cancer risk have shown disparate results. We prospectively investigated the associations between HO-1 (GT)n polymorphism and cancer risk related to arsenic from drinking water. Totally, 1,013 participants from community-based cohorts of arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan were followed for 13 years. Allelic polymorphisms were classified into long (L, ≥ 27 (GT)n) and short (S, Bowen's disease (HR = 10.49; 95% CI: 2.77-39.7), invasive skin cancer (HR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.13-7.87), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.15-9.95) versus those with L/S or L/L genotype. The S/S genotype combined with high arsenic exposure (>300 μg/L) had a greater risk of skin cancer compared to the genotype alone. Consistent with previous findings, participants with the S-allele had a reduced risk of lung adenocarcinoma (HR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.03-0.68) versus those with L/L genotype. There were no significant differences in risk of urothelial carcinoma among the three genotypes. Associations of HO-1 (GT)n polymorphism with cancer risk differs by histological subtype and the polymorphism should be considered a modifier in the risk assessment of arsenic exposure. PMID:26566708

  9. What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever

    Faucher Jean-François

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria attack in children with submicroscopic malaria. Methods PCR data were prospectively collected in the setting of an exposed (with fever/non exposed (without fever study design. All children had a negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT at baseline, were followed up to day 14 and did not receive drugs with anti-malarial activity. The index group was defined by children with fever at baseline and the control group by children without fever at baseline. Children with submicroscopic malaria in these two groups were defined by a positive PCR at baseline. Results PCR was positive in 66 (27% children of the index group and in 104 (44% children of the control group respectively. The only significant factor positively related to PCR positivity at baseline was the clinical status (control group. When definition of malaria attacks included PCR results, no difference of malaria incidence was observed between the index and control groups, neither in the whole cohort, nor in children with submicroscopic malaria. The rate of undiagnosed malaria at baseline was estimated to 3.7% at baseline in the index group. Conclusions Treating all children with fever and a positive PCR would have led to a significant increase of anti-malarial consumption, with few benefits in terms of clinical events. Non malarial fevers do not or do not frequently trigger malaria attacks in children with submicroscopic malaria.

  10. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  11. The choice of healthcare providers for febrile children after introducing non-professional health workers in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea

    Takahiro eTsukahara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease burden of malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG is the highest in Asia and the Pacific, and prompt access to effective drugs is the key strategy for controlling malaria. Despite the rapid economic growth, primary healthcare services have deteriorated in rural areas; the introduction of non-professional health workers [village health volunteers (VHVs] is expected to improve antimalarial drug deliveries. Previous studies on PNG suggested that distance from households negatively affected the utilization of health services; however, price effect on healthcare demand decisions has not been explored. Empirical studies on household’s affordability as well as accessibility of healthcare services contribute to policy implications such as efficient introduction of out-of-pocket costs and effective allocation of health facilities. Therefore, we investigate price responsiveness and other determinants of healthcare provider choice for febrile children in a malaria endemic rural area wherein VHVs were introduced.Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted using a structured questionnaire distributed in a health center’s catchment area of East Sepik Province in the 2011/2012 rainy seasons. Caretakers were interviewed and data on fever episodes of their children in the preceding two weeks were collected. Mixed logit model was employed to estimate the determinants of healthcare provider choice.Results: Among 257 fever episodes reported, the main choices of healthcare providers were limited to self-care, VHV, and a health center. Direct cost and walking distance negatively affected the choice of a VHV and the health center. An increase of VHV’s direct cost or walking distance did not much affect predicted probability of the health center, but rather that of self-care. While, drug availability and illness severity increased the choice probability of a VHV and the health center. Conclusion: The results suggest that the net healthcare demand

  12. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    S.P. Krotneva (Stanimira P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M. Noma (Mounkaila); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); L. Bakoné (Lalle); U.V. Amazigo (Uche); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSince its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other c

  13. Comparison of concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma in endemic area: experience of 128 consecutive cases with 5 year follow-up

    Wu, Shang-Yin; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Ming-Wei; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Chang, Jeffrey S.; Yen, Chia-Jui

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy is considered the standard of care for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) in Epstein-Barr virus infection endemic area. This study compared the long-term outcomes between LA-NPC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (NACT) and those treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods From 2003 to 2007, a total of 128 histopathologically proven LA-NPC patients receiving either NACT or CCRT...

  14. Simulium metallicum cytospecies E larval habitat characterization in the Altamira focus of onchocerciasis, northern Venezuela.

    Grillet, M E; Barrera, R; Conn, J

    1995-04-01

    Simulium metallicum sibling species E was identified cytotaxonomically from an onchocerciasis focus at Altamira in northern Venezuela. S. metallicum E larvae were sampled monthly from two small mountain streams over a 15-month period (July 1990 to September 1991) and eleven habitat variables were measured at two altitudes. One stream consistently harboured much higher densities of S. metallicum E larvae than the other, with three annual peaks of abundance: during the dry season and at the beginning and end of the rainy season. These peak densities were correlated with high rainfall 4 months previously. Larvae were most abundant on submerged rocks and fallen leaves, in small shallow areas characterized by slow water current, high conductivity and sparse terrestrial vegetation cover. Stream variables which best explained the temporal changes in abundance were water discharge and conductivity. The population dynamics of S. metallicum E appeared to be influenced primarily by interactions between stream discharge and substrate stability. Relevance of these results to vector control with larvicides is discussed. PMID:7787229

  15. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan

    Takaoka H.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable and young (thin cuticle. Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus, O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax. Diagnostic charactets of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus. The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92 %.

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT in a malaria endemic area in Ghana, Africa.

    Dennis Adu-Gyasi

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the "gold standard". Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval.The sensitivity (SE and specificity (SP of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199 change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the "gold standard".The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  17. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  18. The Effect of Deworming on Growth in One-Year-Old Children Living in a Soil-Transmitted Helminth-Endemic Area of Peru: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Serene A Joseph

    Full Text Available Appropriate health and nutrition interventions to prevent long-term adverse effects in children are necessary before two years of age. One such intervention may include population-based deworming, recommended as of 12 months of age by the World Health Organization in soil-transmitted helminth (STH-endemic areas; however, the benefit of deworming has been understudied in early preschool-age children.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of deworming (500 mg single-dose crushed mebendazole tablet on growth in one-year-old children in Iquitos, Peru. Children were enrolled during their routine 12-month growth and development clinic visit and followed up at their 18 and 24-month visits. Children were randomly allocated to: Group 1: deworming at 12 months and placebo at 18 months; Group 2: placebo at 12 months and deworming at 18 months; Group 3: deworming at both 12 and 18 months; or Group 4: placebo at both 12 and 18 months (i.e. control group. The primary outcome was weight gain at the 24-month visit. An intention-to-treat approach was used. A total of 1760 children were enrolled between September 2011 and June 2012. Follow-up of 1563 children (88.8% was completed by July 2013. STH infection was of low prevalence and predominantly light intensity in the study population. All groups gained between 1.93 and 2.05 kg on average over 12 months; the average difference in weight gain (kg compared to placebo was: 0.05 (95% CI: -0.05, 0.17 in Group 1; -0.07 (95%CI: -0.17, 0.04 in Group 2; and 0.04 (95%CI: -0.06, 0.14 in Group 3. There was no statistically significant difference in weight gain in any of the deworming intervention groups compared to the control group.Overall, with one year of follow-up, no effect of deworming on growth could be detected in this population of preschool-age children. Low baseline STH prevalence and intensity and/or access to deworming drugs outside of the trial may have

  19. Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia.

    Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K N; Hailu, Asrat

    2012-04-01

    Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo District of West Wellega zone during a period of 1 month: from mid-August to mid-September 2006. Data on socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire prepared for this purpose. All persons were examined clinically for skin signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. Two skin snips, one from each side of the gluteal fold were taken using blood lancet and sterilized razor blade and examined for microfilaria. All data were categorized, coded, entered in a data base and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. for windows. A total of 1114 individuals ≥15 years were examined for microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and onchocercal skin disease (OSD). The prevalence of onchocercal (mf) carrier was 74.8% (833/1114). In both genders, the prevalence of onchocerciasis showed direct correlations with the age of individuals (R (2) = 0.79, P < 0.05). The infection rate varied with the occupation of the study subjects, with preponderance among farmers. Among the subjects with onchocerciasis, the mf density ranged from 1.0 to 711.0 per mg of skin snip with a mean density (SD) and median values of 32.1 (61.5) and 10.4 respectively. The overall community microfilariae load (CMFL), the most sensitive parasitological indicator of onchocerciasis was 19.6. The pervasiveness of OSD among the study subjects was 26.4%. OSD was more frequent in males (32.4%) than their female counterparts (20.8%, P < 0.05). The overall prevalence of onchocercal nodule carrier, the

  20. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Sagar and Damoh Districts, Madhya Pradesh

    Arvind Sharma, P K Kasar, Richa Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the oldest and most debilitating of the neglected tropical diseases. An estimated 120 million people in 73 endemic countries are currently infected with LF, 53 countries are implementing MDA to interrupt transmission. The mass drug administration (MDA) with single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was carried out for the eligible population in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh to eliminate LF. Objective: To asses programme in terms o...

  1. Dental Fluorosis. Impact on Quality of Life and Treatment Need among Adolescents with Dental Fluorosis in an Endemic Area, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    Roman, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Dental fluorosis is the hypomineralization of dental enamel caused by chronic ingestion of fluoride during the formative stages of the dental hard tissues. Fluoride in excess of 1.5 mg/L in water is the principle cause of endemic dental fluorosis. Other causes of dental fluorosis are fluoride supplements (e.g. toothpaste) and food additives like traditional salt "trona". Dental fluorosis has social and psychological effects, whereby individuals affected even with the mild form demonstrate sig...

  2. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia

    P. Craven

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi: chemotherapy with benznidazole in mice inoculated with strains from Paraná State and from different endemic areas of Brazil

    Max Jean de Ornelas TOLEDO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi from different geographical areas have shown different levels of susceptibility to trypanocidal drugs. The susceptibility in vivo to benznidazole was investigated in eighteen strains of T. cruzi. Twelve were isolated from chronic chagasic patients from different Chagas’ disease endemic areas. The other six strains were isolated from the northwestern region of Paraná state; two of them from patients three from triatomines (Triatoma sordida and one from wild reservoir (Didelphis sp.. To test drug the infected mice were divided into two groups of twenty. One group was treated with benznidazole for twenty consecutive days and the other group was used as untreated control. The treatment began after detection of the infection by direct blood examination or haemoculture. The control of cure was done through haemoculture and indirect immunofluorescence test. The drug eliminated the inflammatory lesions of the skeletal muscle of mice considered cured and from the heart of most of them. Moreover, the inflammatory lesions were reduced in treated but not cured animals. The T. cruzi strains studied showed a gradient of drug susceptibility that varied from 0% to 100%. Ten strains were considered sensitive to the treatment (61 to 100% of cure, one strain was partially sensitive (50% of cure and seven strains were considered resistant to the treatment (0 to 40% of cure. This variation was observed both in strains of T. cruzi isolated from domestic and sylvatic cyclesCepas de Trypanosoma cruzi de diferentes áreas geográficas têm mostrado diferentes graus de suscetibilidade a drogas tripanocidas. A suscetibilidade in vivo ao benzonidazol foi investigada em 18 cepas de T. cruzi. Doze foram isoladas de pacientes chagásicos crônicos de diferentes áreas endêmcias da doença de Chagas. Seis cepas foram procedentes da região Noroeste do Paraná: 2 isoladas de humanos, 3 de triatomíneos da espécie Triatoma sordida e 1 do

  4. Amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae from a freshwater environment in a cholera-endemic area, India

    Sharma Naresh C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The region around Chandigarh in India has witnessed a resurgence of cholera. However, isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the environment is infrequent. Therefore, to study whether environmental nonO1-nonO139 isolates, which are native to the aquatic ecosystem, act as precursors for pathogenic O1 strains, their virulence potential and evolutionary relatedness was checked. Methods V. cholerae was isolated from clinical cases of cholera and from water and plankton samples collected from freshwater bodies and cholera-affected areas. PCR analysis for the ctxA, ctxB, tcpA, toxT and toxR genes and AFLP with six primer combinations was performed on 52 isolates (13 clinical, 34 environmental and 5 reference strains. Results All clinical and 3 environmental isolates belonged to serogroup O1 and remaining 31 environmental V. cholerae were nonO1-nonO139. Serogroup O1 isolates were ctxA, tcpA (ElTor, ctxB (Classical, toxR and toxT positive. NonO1-nonO139 isolates possessed toxR, but lacked ctxA and ctxB; only one isolate was positive for toxT and tcpA. Using AFLP, 2.08% of the V. cholerae genome was interrogated. Dendrogram analysis showed one large heterogeneous clade (n = 41, with two compact and distinct subclades (1a and 1b, and six small mono-phyletic groups. Although V. cholerae O1 isolates formed a distinct compact subclade, they were not clonal. A clinical O1 strain clustered with the nonO1-nonO139 isolates; one strain exhibited 70% similarity to the Classical control strain, and all O1 strains possessed an ElTor variant-specific fragment identified with primer ECMT. Few nonO1-nonO139 isolates from widely separated geographical locations intermingled together. Three environmental O1 isolates exhibited similar profiles to clinical O1 isolates. Conclusion In a unique study from freshwater environs of a cholera-endemic area in India over a narrow time frame, environmental V. cholerae population was found to be highly heterogeneous

  5. Required duration of mass ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis elimination in Africa: a comparative modelling analysis

    W.A. Stolk (Wilma); M. Walker (Martin); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M-G. Basáñez (María-Gloria); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The World Health Organization (WHO) has set ambitious targets for the elimination of onchocerciasis by 2020-2025 through mass ivermectin treatment. Two different mathematical models have assessed the feasibility of reaching this goal for different settings and treatment scena

  6. Biting behaviour and potential vector status of anthropophilic blackflies in a new focus of human onchocerciasis at Minaçu, central Brazil.

    Shelley, A J; Maia-Herzog, M; Dias, A P; Camargo, M; Costa, E G; Garritano, P; Lowry, C A

    2001-03-01

    Monthly collections were made of man-biting female blackflies: Simulium auripellitum Enderlein, S. guianense Wise, S. minusculum Lutz and S. nigrimanum Macquart (Diptera: Simuliidae) from four catching stations in the newly discovered focus of human onchocerciasis at Minaçu (13 degrees 35 minutes S 48 degrees 18 minutes W), 300 km north of Brasília in Goiás State. These provided baseline data on biting habits, population density and seasonal prevalence during the year before completion of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam on the Rio Tocantins near Minaçu, in a project investigating the effect of dam construction on onchocerciasis transmission in the area. All four simuliid species were most abundant during the dry season, and only bit in low numbers (S. auripellitum S. minusculum, S. nigrimanum) or were absent (S. guianense) in the wet season. Simulium minusculum was the predominant species at all catching stations, being particularly abundant by the large River Tocantins. The other three species were mainly associated with smaller rivers. In the dry season, biting rhythms of S. minusculum varied with catching site, while S. nigrimanum showed peaks of activity in early morning and during the afternoon. Experimental infection with Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), from a human volunteer, showed that this parasite could develop fully in the four simuliid species, which are all considered to be potential vectors in the area. PMID:11297099

  7. Endemic treponemal diseases.

    Marks, M; Solomon, AW; Mabey, DC

    2014-01-01

    : The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecologic...

  8. The impact of Merowe Dam on Simulium hamedense vector of onchocerciasis in Abu Hamed focus - Northern Sudan

    Zarroug, Isam MA; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Abuelmaali, Sara A.; Hanan A. Mohamed; Wigdan A ElMubarak; Hashim, Kamal; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Tarig B Higazi

    2014-01-01

    Background Abu Hamed, the northernmost onchocerciasis focus in the world, is located along the River Nile banks in the Nubian Desert. Hydroelectric dams can alter activity of black flies and may provide breeding sites for black fly. Merowe Dam, the largest hydropower project in Africa, was built west of Abu Hamed focus in 2009. The impact of the Dam on onchocerciasis and its black fly vectors in Abu Hamed focus was measured in this study. Findings Entomological surveys for aquatic stages and ...

  9. Assessing the role of routine chest radiography in asymptomatic students during registration at a university in an endemic area of tuberculosis

    Moifo Boniface

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Routine chest radiographs are usually obtained from asymptomatic individuals during routine medical visits probably to detect the presence of occult disease. In sub-Saharan countries tuberculosis is endemic among young individuals; primary tuberculosis might be the most probable occult disease sought for. Aims: The aim was to determine the diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness of routine chest radiography in an asymptomatic student population in Yaounde during registration at a university. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in a University-affiliated hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: Postero-anterior (PA chest radiographs were obtained from students during a routine medical visit before university admission. Radiographic results were coded as normal, minor, or major findings. The estimated cost per radiograph was that of the study setting at the time of the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Epi Info software version 3.3.2 of February 9 2005 (CDC Atlanta was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 758 students enrolled, there were 280 males and 478 females (sex ratio 1:2. The mean age of the study population was 21 years (age range 15-33 years. All enrolled cases were asymptomatic. There were 739 normal radiographs (97.5%, while 19 radiographs (2.5 % showed minor abnormalities. No major abnormality was seen. The estimated direct cost of all the radiographs obtained was 3,941,600 F CFA ($ 8,760. Conclusions: Routine chest radiography has a low diagnostic yield in asymptomatic students even in a setting where tuberculosis is endemic, and is therefore not cost-effective.

  10. Serum hyaluronan and collagen IV as non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni: a field-based study in Brazil

    Carolina Coimbra Marinho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive markers of fibrosis have been used to diagnose liver fibrosis in a variety of diseases. Hyaluronic acid (HA and collagen IV (C-IV levels were measured in the sera of patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil to diagnose and to rank the intensity of liver fibrosis. Seventy-nine adult patients with schistosomiasis, in the age range of 21-82 years (49 ± 13.4 were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic examinations. Ultrasound was employed to diagnose and categorise liver fibrosis according to World Health Organization patterns. Serum HA and C-IV levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Ultrasound revealed six patients with intense liver fibrosis, 21 with moderate, 23 with light and 29 without. Serum HA was able to separate individuals with fibrosis from those without (p < 0.001 and light from intense fibrosis (p = 0.029, but C-IV was not (p = 0.692. The HA diagnostic accuracy for fibrosis was 0.89. The 115.4 ng/mL cut-off level diagnosed patients with fibrosis (sensitivity 0.98, specificity 0.64. HA correlated positively with portal hypertension. Periportal fibrosis (subjective evaluation, age and collateral circulation predicted HA increase. In conclusion, we propose that serum HA can be used to identify patients with liver fibrosis in an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil.

  11. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  12. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali.

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal; Keita, Adama D; Traoré, Mamadou S; Landouré, Aly; Doucouré, Aïssata; Madsen, Henry; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in two different endemic settings: Koulikoro district, along the river and Selingué dam area in the Niger River Basin in order to compare and describe morbidity related to Schistosoma haematobium infection. A total of 667 children aged 7-14 were enrolled in the study. Among these, 333 were from Koulikoro district (175 boys and 158 girls) and 334 from Selingué dam area (169 boys and 165 girls). The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the two areas was 91.5%; Koulikoro (97.0%) and Selingué (85.9%) and this difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. Prevalence of heavy infection (≥ 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine), 57.6% in Koulikoro and 43.8% in Selingué, did not differ significantly after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. The transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was mainly confined to Selingué dam area (12.5%) and was nearly absent in Koulikoro district (1.1%). Blood in urine was the most frequently reported clinical symptom, more common in Koulikoro (76.8%) than in Selingué (57.6%). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for sex, age group, egg intensity category and clustering within villages, Selingué had higher prevalence of macro-haematuria, urinary tract pathology, upper urinary tract pathology and total pathology than Koulikoro, while micro-haematuria did not differ between the two areas. Morbidity measures increased to some extent with egg intensity category, especially micro-haematuria. The results obtained from this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali. PMID:21195046

  13. 2008年重庆市燃煤型氟中毒病区环境氟调查分析%Analysis of environmental fluoride of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas in Chongqing

    陈静; 肖邦忠; 晏维; 周倩如; 张洁; 王正虹; 赵舰; 郭小琳; 罗兴建

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out the distribution pattern of environmental fluoride in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas to provide scientific evidence for establishing prevention and remedial measures in Chongqing. Methods According to historical data in Chongqing In 2008, 4 endemic villages(Lingyun and Lizi Villages of Wushan County, and Taiping and Daqing Villages of Pengshui County) and 2 non-endemic villages (ShuangLou and XianLong Villages of Yongchuan County) were investigated. Dental fluorosis of children in 8 to 12 year old and residents over 16 years of age for clinical skeletal fluorosis were examined in four endemic villages. Five households from each of 6 villages were taken, where 500 g of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, coal cinder, soil were sampled; 15 people were taken in each village, each household gathering 500 g of corn, rice, potatoes, vegetables, grain and vegetable, 100 g of dried pepper and 250 ml of drinking water were sampled from 15 families of each village. Household drinking water samples were collected 1, each 250 ml. For those having tea-drinking habit, each household was collected 50 g of tea and 600 ml of drinking tea, the amount of fluoride were determined. Indoor and outdoor air was collected and measured in 5 households in each village. Results The detected rate of dental fluorosis of children in endemic areas was 74.65% (736/986). The detected rate of skeletal fluorosis of adult was 7.20%(736/986). The average fluoride content of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, cinder coal, soil in the endemic villages was (310.56±209.46), (360.51±224.96), (293.62±65.15), (186.59±133.66), (497.54±294.70)mg/kg. The average fluoride content in non-endemic villages was (48.68±10.62), (275.66±62.69), (152.20±34.43), (209.14±188.66),269.98±58.21)mg/kg. The fluoride content level of endemic villages was significantly higher than that of non-endemic villages(t=7.67,31.54,5.82, 5.82, all P0.05]. The amount of

  14. Interim strategies to control animal trypanosomiasis in two selected villages along the white volta river in the onchocerciasis free zone of Northern Ghana

    The onchocerciasis eradication campaign in the west African subregion was a remarkable success which made formally deserted lands now suitable for settlement. Recent tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys along the White Volta river indicate that livestock development would virtually be impossible in these areas without some form of intervention to contain animal trypanosomiasis. Apparent fly densities are in the order of 5-10 flies/trap/day (biconica traps) with fly infection rate being in the order of 1-8.0%. Trypanosomiasis is particularly prevalent in small ruminants (12-30%) with several reported cases of abortion. In view of the sparse human population in some of these areas, large scale control programmes would not be advisable unless there is a clear land-use plan. In the interim, however, efforts could be made to control the disease at the village level. This paper outlines some village-based strategies that could be adopted by settlers in these areas. (author)

  15. Rickettsioses emergentes e reemergentes numa região endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Emerging and reemerging rickettsiosis in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Márcio A. M. Galvão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve um inquérito sorológico para rickettsioses em escolares e cães de Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 1998. Trezentos e trinta e um escolares pertenciam a uma área endêmica e 142 a uma área não endêmica do município. Trinta e nove (10,1% soros foram reativos à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI para Rickettsia rickettsiino título de 1:64, sendo que dentre esses reativos, 35 eram de estudantes de escolas de área endêmica. Dentre os 73 cães analisados quanto à presença de anticorpos anti R. rickettsii, anti Ehrlichia chaffeensise anti Ehrlichia canisà RIFI no título de 1:64, 3 (4,11%, 11 (15,07% e 13 (17,81% desses animais foram reativos respectivamente aos antígenos testados. Conclui-se que, a sororeatividade para R. rickettsiiem indivíduos sadios sem história prévia de febre maculosa brasileira, uma doença marcante por sua alta letalidade, e a presença de sororeatividade para Ehrlichiacom potencial patogênico para o homem em cães, nos leva a indagar sobre a transmissão ao homem de outras espécies da família Rickettsiae na área estudada.This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the county. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clinical symptoms of Brazilian spotted fever prior to the serological survey. Some 35 children in the endemic area were reactive to Rickettsia rickettsiiby indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA with a titer of 1:64, corresponding to 10.6%. Sera from 73 dogs were tested, showing seroreactivity (IFA 1:64 to Rickettsia rickettsi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canisin 3 (4.11%, 11 (15.07%, and 13 (17.81%, respectively. The results in schoolchildren and the presence of canine seroreactivity to

  16. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Sagar and Damoh Districts, Madhya Pradesh

    Arvind Sharma, P K Kasar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is one of the oldest and most debilitating of the neglected tropical diseases. An estimated 120 million people in 73 endemic countries are currently infected with LF, 53 countries are implementing MDA to interrupt transmission. The mass drug administration (MDA with single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC was carried out for the eligible population in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh to eliminate LF. Objective: To asses programme in terms of coverage and compliance of MDA against filariasis, reasons for non compliance in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh. Material and Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sagar and Damoh district of MP. A total of eight clusters, one urban and three rural clusters were selected in each district. The data were collected in pretested Performa and analyzed. Results: The study includes 240 families with a total eligible population was 1155 in two districts of eight clusters. The compliance rate were 85.52% in Sagar, 42.82% in Damoh district and total compliance was 66.66% observed by us which was below the expected target .The important cause of non compliance was drug distributor not asked to take drug in front of him 50% and in 23% did not received drug or not present at home at the time of drug distribution. Conclusion: There is urgent need to strengthen MDA programme implementation and effective drug delivery strategies which increase compliance of drug.

  17. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.

  18. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  19. A murine macrofilaricide pre-clinical screening model for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    Halliday, Alice; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Metuge, Haelly Mejane; Patrick, Chounna Ndongmo Winston; Arnaud, Kengne-Ouafo Jonas; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Forsbrook, George; Steven, Andrew; Cook, Darren; Enyong, Peter; Wanji, Samuel; Taylor, Mark J; Joseph D Turner

    2014-01-01

    Background New drugs effective against adult filariae (macrofilaricides) would accelerate the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Anti-Onchocerca drug development is hampered by the lack of a facile model. We postulated that SCID mice could be developed as a fmacrofilaricide screening model. Methods The filaricides: albendazole (ABZ), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), flubendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM) and the anti-Wolbachia macrofilaricide, minocycline (MIN) were tested in Brug...

  20. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Sara Lustigman; Fidelis Cho-Ngwa; David Williams; Rascón, Alberto A; Nancy Tricoche; Moses Samje; Aaron Bell; Brian Suzuki; K C Lim; Nonglak Supakorndej; Prasit Supakorndej; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infe...

  1. Human onchocerciasis in Brazil: an overview Oncocercose humana no Brasil: uma revisão

    Anthony J. Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis was recently discovered in Brazil among Yanomámi Indians living along the border region with Venezuela in the States of Amazonas and Roraima. The article reports on the history of the disease's discovery, its distribution, and incrimination of vector simuliid species. The literature that has been generated on the parasite, its vectors, and control of the disease is critically analyzed as well as the organization of epidemiological surveys and the control program developed...

  2. Onchocerciasis and trachoma control: what has changed in the past two decades?

    Daniel Etya’ale

    2008-01-01

    Trachoma and onchocerciasis are the two major infectious causes of blindness worldwide. Twenty years ago, the possibility of achieving worldwide and long-term control of these ancient scourges seemed remote and existing control programmes were deemed to have limited prospects. The picture is very different today: large-scale interventions to control both diseases are not only expanding, but control and even elimination are now being discussed as real achievable goals in a growing number of co...

  3. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceović, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  4. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic card test (ICT is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon.A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20, and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1-39.0; p < 0.001. Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman's rho = 0.900; p = 0.037 was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area: a rate of 1% or more of positive

  5. Seasonality in cholera dynamics : a rainfall-driven model explains the wide range of patterns of an infectious disease in endemic areas

    Baracchini, Theo; Pascual, Mercedes; King, Aaron A.; Bouma, Menno J.; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An explanation for the spatial variability of seasonal cholera patterns has remained an unresolved problem in tropical medicine te{pascual_2002}. Previous studies addressing the role of climate drivers in disease dynamics have focused on interannual variability and modelled seasonality as given te{king_nature}. Explanations for seasonality have relied on complex environmental interactions that vary with spatial location (involving regional hydrological models te{bertuzzo_2012}, river discharge, sea surface temperature, and plankton blooms). Thus, no simple and unified theory based on local climate variables has been formulated te{emch_2008}, leaving our understanding of seasonal variations of cholera outbreaks in different regions of the world incomplete. Through the analysis of a unique historical dataset containing 50 years of monthly meteorological, demographic and epidemiological records, we propose a mechanistic, SIR-based stochastic model for the population dynamics of cholera driven by local rainfall and temperature that is able to capture the full range of seasonal patterns in this large estuarine region, which encompasses the variety of patterns worldwide. Parameter inference was implemented via new statistical methods that allow the computation of maximum-likelihood estimates for partially observed Markov processes through sequential Monte-Carlo te{ionides_2011}. Such a model may provide a unprecedented opportunity to gain insights on the conditions and factors responsible for endemicity around the globe, and therefore, to also revise our understanding of the ecology of Vibrio cholerae. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a decisive driver determining the seasonal dynamics of cholera. It was found that rainfall and longer water residence times tend to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to a dilution effect, while also enhancing cholera incidence in dry regions. This indicates that overall water levels matter and appear

  6. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal

    Kunal Kanti Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants

  7. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  8. Measurements of 131I-Labelled Triiodothyronine Uptake by a Resin as a Means of Diagnosing Iodine-Basedow Produced by Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil in an Area of Endemic Goitre

    The authors gave intramuscular injections of iodized oil with a view to studying its prophylactic effects on endemic goitre and related defects (such as endemic cretinism) in isolated areas where more traditional techniques have serious limitations. This system had been tried earlier in New Guinea, where the results showed a reduction in the prevalence of goitre and proved the technique to be both safe and practical. However, because of the remoteness of the population in question it was impossible to continue the observations and no information was obtained regarding the effectiveness of iodized oil in reducing the incidence of defects associated with endemic goitre, Ecuador's program, involving studies of the whole population of two rural communities in the Andes, was begun in March 1966. The final control check came three years later. Ethiodol (37% iodized oil, 450 mg iodine per cm3, obtained from Fougera, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y. United States of America) was injected intramuscularly, 2 cm3 being administered to subjects 12 years of age and older and proportionately smaller doses to younger children. The ethiodol produced extensive changes in the physiological behaviour of the thyroid. 131I uptake was depressed for six months and afterwards remained normal. Similarly, BEI and T4 returned to and stayed at normal levels from the very first control checks onwards, which indicated that even during the first few months the thyroid glands of these subjects were maintaining a normal capacity to secrete thyronines, i.e. that they were not exhibiting the effect described by Wolff and Chaikoff, PBI and BII maintained high livels in all the controls. Urinary excretion of iodine followed a double exponential path: calculations indicated that the subjects would still be excreting significant amounts five years after the injection. Six months after injection there was an unequivocal diagnosis of Iodine-Basedow in three older women with large nodular goitres. Among the

  9. The endemic treponematoses.

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2014-01-01

    The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervous system and fetus, although the accuracy of these purported differences is debated among investigators and no biological basis for these differences has been identified to date. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially set a goal for yaws eradication by 2020. This challenging but potentially feasible endeavor is favored by the adoption of oral azithromycin for mass treatment and the currently focused distribution of yaws and endemic treponematoses and has revived global interest in these fascinating diseases and their causative agents. PMID:24396138

  10. Quality of life and its determinants among residents in endemic fluorosis areas with integrated intervention program%氟中毒干预病区人群生命质量及影响因素分析

    杨梨丽; 黄文湧; 杨敬源; 官志忠; 于燕妮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life and its influencing factors among local residents in endemic fluorosis areas under integrated intervention program for controlling endemic fluorosis.Methods By using the MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey(SF-36),666 residents from 453 households in 4 towns were interviewed to assess the quality of life of the residents after implementing the integrated intervention program for controlling endemic fluorosis in Bijie city of Guizhou province.The determinants of the quality of life were analyzed with multiple linear regression models.Results The rates of dental fluorosis in all residents and children aged 8-15 years were 84.2% and 53.2%,respectively.The rate of endemic fluorosis was 32.5 %.The degree of the fluorosis of bone was related to 8 dimensions on quality of life.Age,two-week disease prevalence,extent of the fluorosis of bone,dental fluorosis,and baking food with coal fire were inversely correlated with the quality of life (P < 0.05) ; higher education,higher family income,improved stoves,and the stretched out chimney were positively correlated with the quality of life (P < 0.05).Conclusion The health attitude of local residents has been raised gradually with continuous implemention of the integrated intervertion program and the establishment of a long-term management mechanism.The change of unhealthy life style in the residentsalso has a significant importance to improve the quality of life among the residents in edemic fluorosis areas.%目的 了解贵州省毕节市氟中毒综合治理干预病区人群的生命质量状况,分析该病区居民生命质量的影响因素.方法 对病区4个乡镇453户共666人进行问卷调查,采用自编量表及生命质量量表(SF-36)评价研究对象综合干预措施实施情况及生命质量状况,生命质量各维度影响因素分析采用多元线性回归分析.结果 氟斑牙检出率为84.2%,8~15岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为53.2

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Elizabeth Gloria O. Barbosa Santos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS with Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF. 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5% and mucocutaneous lesions (31.6%, multiple cutaneous (25.0% and mucocutaneous lesions associated with cutaneous ulcers (4.0%. Twelve (15.8% isolates from biopsies were analyzed by zimodeme and schizodeme and identified as L. (V. braziliensis. The overall prevalence of canine infection that was evaluated with the skin test was of 40.5% and with IF it was of 25.5%. Both tests showed a high positive rate with relation to the animals with mucosal lesions, as in the case of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The comparison of the two tests showed the skin test to have a better performance although there was no statistical difference (p>0.05 between them. The proportional sensitivity and specificity was of 84.0% and 74.0%, respectively. The Immunoleish skin test and IF are useful tools to be employed in CTL field epidemiological surveys.Um inquérito epidemiológico em população canina foi realizado em 7 localidades endêmicas de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA entre os anos de 1986 a 1993, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duzentos e setenta cães foram examinados, segundo os parâmetros: clínicos, desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia e dosagem de anticorpos por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. 28,2% dos animais possuíam lesões e 3,3% eram portadores de cicatrizes compatíveis com infecção prévia de Leishmania sp. De um total de 98 lesões ulceradas detectadas, 39,5% eram cutâneas únicas, 25,0% lesões cutâneas múltiplas, 31,6% lesões de mucosa e 4,0% lesões de

  12. Endemic time-spaces of Finland: Aquatic regimes

    Tero Mustonen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the endemic time-spaces of Finnish aquatic regimes. More precisely, it examines the socio-ecological relationships between Finns and lakes, rivers, and marshes-mires. First, the 'engine' of endemic time-space research, land use, and occupancy documentation, is explored in the Finnish context. Then two catchment areas, Kokemäenjoki in Western Finland and Vuoksi in Eastern Finland, provide cases which illustrate both past endemic time-spaces and surviving aspects of cultural readings of lakes and rivers. The ongoing winter seining in Lake Puruvesi in North Karelia emerges as an unbroken practice, with deep roots, that maintains the endemic time-spaces of a traditional Finnish relationship with a lake. As industrial uses of catchment areas, zoning, and environmental permitting exclude endemic readings inherent on the land and waterscapes, solutions are explored through mapping, along with its limitations, as a form bridging the gap between local realities and resource extraction.

  13. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

    Mutabingwa TK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable component. Methods A retrospective analysis was completed of stillbirth differences between primigravidae and multigravidae in relation to malaria cases and transmission patterns for two different areas of Tanzania with a focus on the effects of the El Niño southern climatic oscillation (ENSO. One area, Kagera, experiences outbreaks of malaria, and the other area, Morogoro, is holoendemic. Delivery and malaria data were collected over a six year period from records of the two district hospitals in these locations. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of low birthweight in primigravidae compared to multigravidae for both data sets. Low birthweight and stillbirth prevalence (17.5% and 4.8% were significantly higher in Kilosa compared to Ndolage (11.9% and 2.4%. There was a significant difference in stillbirth prevalence between Ndolage and Kilosa between malaria seasons (2.4% and 5.6% respectively, p Conclusion Malaria exposure during pregnancy has a delayed effect on birthweight outcomes, but a more acute effect on stillbirth risk.

  14. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

    U. Uddenfeldt Wort; I. Hastings; T.K. Mutabingwa; B.J. Brabin

    2006-01-01

    Background: The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable co

  15. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  16. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    D K Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along with adequate access to LLIN needs to be strengthened.

  17. The choice of healthcare providers for febrile children after introducing non-professional health workers in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea

    Takahiro eTsukahara; Seiritsu eOgura; Takuma eSugahara; Makoto eSekihara; Takuro eFurusawa; Naoki eKondo; Toshihiro eMita; Hiroyoshi eEndo; Francis eHombhanje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease burden of malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the highest in Asia and the Pacific, and prompt access to effective drugs is the key strategy for controlling malaria. Despite the rapid economic growth, primary healthcare services have deteriorated in rural areas; the introduction of non-professional health workers [village health volunteers (VHVs)] is expected to improve antimalarial drug deliveries. Previous studies on PNG suggested that distance from households negatively...

  18. Detection of filarial specific IgG4 antibodies in individuals residing in endemic areas using panLFRAPID test card

    K Athisaya Mary; Hoti, S. L.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Das, P K; Rahmah, N.

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of global programme for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (GPELF), chemotherapy programmes are underway to interrupt transmission of the disease. At this point, detection of exposure will be more appropriate to monitor the programme and to certify areas cleared of active transmission as disease-free. A recently available cassette form of rapid test, panLFRAPID is a filarial IgG4 antibody detection test that may be useful for the programme. Therefore, we carried ...

  19. An Integrated Multiomics Approach to Identify Candidate Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Human Onchocerciasis.

    McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Fischer, Peter U; Rumsey, Jeanne M; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Curtis, Kurt C; Specht, Sabine; Townsend, R Reid; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-12-01

    Improved diagnostic methods are needed to support ongoing efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness). This study used an integrated approach to identify adult female Onchocerca volvulus antigens that can be explored for developing serodiagnostic tests. The first step was to develop a detailed multi-omics database of all O. volvulus proteins deduced from the genome, gene transcription data for different stages of the parasite including eight individual female worms (providing gene expression information for 94.8% of all protein coding genes), and the adult female worm proteome (detecting 2126 proteins). Next, female worm proteins were purified with IgG antibodies from onchocerciasis patients and identified using LC-MS with a high-resolution hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A total of 241 immunoreactive proteins were identified among those bound by IgG from infected individuals but not IgG from uninfected controls. These included most of the major diagnostic antigens described over the past 25 years plus many new candidates. Proteins of interest were prioritized for further study based on a lack of conservation with orthologs in the human host and other helminthes, their expression pattern across the life cycle, and their consistent expression among individual female worms. Based on these criteria, we selected 33 proteins that should be carried forward for testing as serodiagnostic antigens to supplement existing diagnostic tools. These candidates, together with the extensive pan-omics dataset generated in this study are available to the community (http://nematode.net) to facilitate basic and translational research on onchocerciasis. PMID:26472727

  20. Onchocerciasis and trachoma control: what has changed in the past two decades?

    Daniel Etya’ale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma and onchocerciasis are the two major infectious causes of blindness worldwide. Twenty years ago, the possibility of achieving worldwide and long-term control of these ancient scourges seemed remote and existing control programmes were deemed to have limited prospects. The picture is very different today: large-scale interventions to control both diseases are not only expanding, but control and even elimination are now being discussed as real achievable goals in a growing number of countries. As we will show in this mainly programmatic review, this is a remarkable achievement over only two decades!

  1. Use of immunoradiometric assays employing monoclonal antibodies or synthetic peptides for the study of malaria transmission and immunity in migrant population of endemic areas in the Amazon Basin

    Immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) and immunofluorence tests were used in combination with entomological techniques to study malaria epidemiology in areas in the Amazon Basin where non-immune migrant individuals have settled in recent years. Anopheles darlingi was found to be the most important vector accounting for 77% of the anophelines positive for sporozoites by the IRMA. The prevalence of anti-sporozoite and anti-blood stage antibodies was low and decreased with time after the last episode of malaria. Anti-sporozoite antibodies did not indicate immune status of the individual but may reflect malaria transmission. (author). 9 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Precore mutant of hepatitis B virus prevails in acute and chronic infections in an area in which hepatitis B is endemic.

    Chu, C. M.; Yeh, C T; Chiu, C T; Sheen, I S; Liaw, Y F

    1996-01-01

    By using an amplification-created restriction site method, the precore TAG mutant of hepatitis B virus was detected in 6 (75%) of 8 acute fulminant hepatitis B patients, 7 (58%) of 12 acute self-limiting hepatitis B patients, 35 (81%) of 43 hepatitis B virus surface antigen carriers with fulminant hepatitis, and 42 (70%) of 60 hepatitis B virus surface antigen carriers with chronic hepatitis. The precore TAG mutant prevails in acute and chronic hepatitis B of various severity in this area whe...

  3. Origin and differentiation of endemism in the flora of China

    WU Zhengyi; SUN Hang; ZHOU Zhekun; PENG Hua; LI Dezhu

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyzed 239 endemic genera in 67 families in the flora of seed plants in China.The results showed that there are five families containing more than ten endemic genera,namely,Gesneriaceae (27),which hereafter refers to the number of endemic genera in China,Composite (20),Labiatae (12),Cruciferae (11),and Umbelliferae (10),15 families with two endemic genera,and another 30 families with only one endemic genus.Four monotypic families (Ginkgoaceae,Davidiaceae,Eucommiaceae and Acanthochlamydaceae)are the most ancient,relict and characteristic in the flora of seed plants in China.Based on integrative data of systematics,fossil history,and morphological and molecular evidence of these genera,their origin,evolution and relationships were discussed.In gymnosperms,all endemic genera are relicts of the Arctic-Tertiary flora,having earlier evolutionary history,and can be traced back to the Cretaceous or to the Jurassic and even earlier.In angiosperms,the endemic genera are mostly relicts,and are represented in all lineages in the"Eight-Class System ofClassification of Angiosperms",and endemism can be found in almost every evolutionary stage of extant angiosperms.The relict genera once occupied huge areas in the northern hemisphere in the Tertiary or the late Cretaceous,while neo-endemism mostly originated in the late Tertiary.They came from Arctic-Tertiary,Paleo-tropical-Tertiary and Tethys-Tertiary florisitic elements,and the blend of the three elements with many genera of autochthonous origin.The endemism was formed when some dispersal routes such as the North Atlantic Land Bridge,and the Bering Bridge became discontinuous during the Tertiary,as well as the climate change and glaciations in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary.Therefore,the late Tertiary is the starting point of extant endemism of the flora in China.

  4. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique

    Hogh, B; Thompson, R; Lobo, V;

    1994-01-01

    We examined the impact of chemoprophylaxis on the cellular and humoral immune responses to polypeptides of the asexual Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigens, the glutamate rich protein GLURP and Pf155/RESA, both of which in previous field studies have been identified as potentially protective...... antigens. The study was carried out in the Escola Primária de Lingamo, a primary school in a suburban area of Maputo, Mozambique. A cohort of 392 schoolchildren (aged 7-12 years) was randomly allocated to two equal groups, one receiving chemoprophylaxis with dapsone/pyrimethamine (Maloprim), the other...... responses to the GLURP molecule and partly to the Pf155/RESA antigen in this study population were shortlived and dependent on frequent boostering, but whether these antigens play a role in the development of natural clinical immunity remains open. In the experimental group of schoolchildren weekly...

  5. The endemic flora of Greece

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  6. The influence of health education on the prevalence of schist some infected learners in aschistosome endemic area in the Limpopo Province

    Corrie Wolmarans

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During this study selected direct and indirect educational methods were evaluated as a means of decreasing the prevalence of schist some infections in school children living in a schistosomeendemic area. Two direct (puppet show and flip chart and three indirect (notice board, poster and education via parents or guardians educational methods were evaluated. Schist some infected learners were identified by means of parasitological methods, their knowledge concerningschistosomiasis was tested in a questionnaire and information regarding water and sanitation facilities at their disposal was collected. Local health authorities facilitated treatment for this disease, while local teachers were involved in conveying the various educational programmes. Anoticeable increase in the learner’s knowledge regarding schistosomiasis was evident after only two educational opportunities, while a significant decrease in the cumulative prevalence of infection was recorded during the investigation among all the groups receiving education. Statistical analyses revealed that the puppet show, flipchart and poster were the most effective methods used to lower the prevalence of infection, while involving parents or guardians in the process proved to be the least effective method employed during the study. 

  7. High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand:A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Napadol Sudsom; Kuaanan Techato; Suwich Thammapalo; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To examine the resurgence rate, house density index (HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team, and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume (SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team. Methods:Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters (6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared. Results:The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups. Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations. However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.

  8. High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand:A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Napadol; Sudsom; Kuaanan; Techato; Suwich; Thammapalo; Virasakdi; Chongsuvivatwong; Theerakamol; Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the resurgence rate, house density index(HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team,and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume(SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team.Methods: Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters(6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared.Results: The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups.Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations.However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.

  9. Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study

    Selma Patricia Diniz Cantanhede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. This paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species, which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1% from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study.

  10. Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area

    Diego Mendicino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Chagas disease live in remote communities that lack both equipment and trained personnel to perform a diagnosis by conventional serology (CS. Thus, reliable tests suitable for use under difficult conditions are required. In this study, we evaluated the ability of personnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC. We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA tests. The readings of the IC test results showed 100% agreement (POA = 1. The IC test on whole blood showed the following values: S = 87.3%; Sp = 98.8%; PPV = 96.9% and NPV = 95.9%. Additionally, the IC test on serum displayed the following results: S = 95.7%; Sp = 100%; PPV = 100% and NPV = 98.2%. Using whole blood, the agreement with ELISA was 96.3% and the agreement with IHA was 94.1%. Using serum, the agreement with ELISA was 97.8% and the agreement with IHA was 96.6%. The IC test performance with serum samples was excellent and demonstrated its usefulness in a PHCC with minimal equipment. If the IC test S value and NPV with whole blood are improved, then this test could also be used in areas lacking laboratories or specialised personnel.

  11. Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area.

    Mendicino, Diego; Stafuza, Mariana; Colussi, Carlina; Barco, Mónica del; Streiger, Mirtha; Moretti, Edgardo

    2014-12-01

    Many patients with Chagas disease live in remote communities that lack both equipment and trained personnel to perform a diagnosis by conventional serology (CS). Thus, reliable tests suitable for use under difficult conditions are required. In this study, we evaluated the ability of personnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC) tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC). We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA) between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests. The readings of the IC test results showed 100% agreement (POA = 1). The IC test on whole blood showed the following values: S = 87.3%; Sp = 98.8%; PPV = 96.9% and NPV = 95.9%. Additionally, the IC test on serum displayed the following results: S = 95.7%; Sp = 100%; PPV = 100% and NPV = 98.2%. Using whole blood, the agreement with ELISA was 96.3% and the agreement with IHA was 94.1%. Using serum, the agreement with ELISA was 97.8% and the agreement with IHA was 96.6%. The IC test performance with serum samples was excellent and demonstrated its usefulness in a PHCC with minimal equipment. If the IC test S value and NPV with whole blood are improved, then this test could also be used in areas lacking laboratories or specialised personnel. PMID:25466624

  12. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India

    K Gunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C was calculated using the Macdonald′s formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net. Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. Results: The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv. The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.

  13. Evaluation of a combined lysate/recombinant antigen anti-HTLV-I/II ELISA in high and low endemic areas of HTLV-I/II infection.

    Vrielink, H; Sisay, Y; Reesink, H W; Woerdeman, M; Winkel, C; de Leeuw, S J; Lelie, P N; van der Poel, C L

    1995-06-01

    The Wellcozyme HTLV-I/II ELISA (Murex Diagnostics) was evaluated in 7800 samples of various serum panels. Repeat activity was found by Wellcozyme in (A) 1/2181 (0.05%) Dutch blood donors, (B) 44/3036 (1.4%) Curaçao (Caribbean area) blood donors, (C) 46/2533 (1.8%) individuals of different Ethiopian population subsets, (D) 30/30 (100%) confirmed anti-HTLV-I positive samples and (E) 20/20 (100%) HTLV-II PCR-positive samples. All 91 Wellcozyme-positive samples were tested for confirmation by Western blot (WB, Diagnostic Biotechnology). Among Wellcozyme HTLV-I/II ELISA-positive individuals, HTLV-I/II WB positivity was found in 0/1 Dutch blood donors, 40/44 (88.9%) Curaçao blood donors and 20/46 (43.5%) Ethiopian individuals. HTLV-I positivity was found in 40 (1.3%) WB-positive Curaçao blood donors and in 9 (0.35%) Ethiopian individuals. HTLV-II positivity was found in 11 (0.43%) WB-positive Ethiopian individuals. The Wellcozyme HTLV-I/II ELISA had a specificity of 99.95% in Dutch blood donors and a sensitivity of 100% on confirmed HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-positive samples. In Ethiopia 55% of the HTLV-I/II WB-positive individuals were exclusively HTLV-II positive, whereas in Curaçao no HTLV-II infections were found. PMID:7655577

  14. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

    Tatiana García-Betancourt

    Full Text Available The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach.Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information.Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3. The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking.It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation.

  15. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  16. The distribution of drinking water iodine and delimitation standard for the endemic areas of iodine in China%中国饮水碘分布与病区划分标准

    申红梅

    2016-01-01

    我国在20世纪80年代开展了大规模的饮水碘和碘缺乏病病情调查,绘制了全国水碘含量图,除上海市外,其他各省、自治区、直辖市都有地方性甲状腺肿流行.2002年和2011年碘缺乏病监测发现,水碘中位数为50 ~<100μg/L的地区人群碘营养水平均有所提高,孕妇和哺乳妇女碘营养处于适宜水平,但儿童碘营养已经达到或接近碘过量水平.建议水碘中位数50~<100 μg/L的地区可以初步考虑划定为适碘地区,同时还需要考虑人群碘营养水平.%The survey of a large-scale water iodine had been carried out in the 1980 s in China,and the map of iodine content in drinking water of China was drawn.Endemic goitre was prevalent in all the provinces of China except Shanghai.It was found in the surveillances of 2002 and 2011 that the people's iodine nutrition level was enhanced in the areas of media water iodine 50-< 100 μg/L,pregnant and breastfeeding women's iodine nutrition level was appropriate,but the children's had reached or closed to excess.The areas of median water iodine 50 ~ < 100 μg/L may be considered as adequate iodine areas preliminarily,at the same time the people's iodine nutrition level also need to be considered.

  17. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    Swenson Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a

  18. Simuliidae and the transmission and control of human Onchocerciasis in Latin America

    A. J. Shelley

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors that affect the propensity of a simuliid species to act as a host to Onchocerca volvulus and to naturally transmit this filarial worm in nature are discussed. Presence or absence of a cibarial armature is believed to be a major factor that has been previously overlooked and this is considered in relation to the choice of control methods currently advocated for onchocerciasis. The current epidemiological studies, transmission dynamics and relevant control measures are discussed for each onchocerciasis focus in Latin America.Neste trabalho são discutidos os fatores que interferem na suscetibilidade de espécies de simulídeos atuarem como hospedeiros do Onchocerca volvulus e de transmitir a filária em condições naturais. Acredita-se que a presença ou não da armadura do cibário pode ser um fator central, que anteriormente foi subestimado. Este aspecto é discutido em relação às opções em voga de métodos de controle na oncocercose. São também discutidos os estudos epidemiológicos correntes, a dinâmica de transmissão e principais medidas de controle para cada foco de oncocercose na América Latina.

  19. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  20. Density-dependent mortality of the human host in onchocerciasis: relationships between microfilarial load and excess mortality.

    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasite Onchocerca volvulus has, until recently, been regarded as the cause of a chronic yet non-fatal condition. Recent analyses, however, have indicated that in addition to blindness, the parasite can also be directly associated with human mortality. Such analyses also suggested that the relationship between microfilarial load and excess mortality might be non-linear. Determining the functional form of such relationship would contribute to quantify the population impact of mass microfilaricidal treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP collected from 1974 through 2001 were used to determine functional relationships between microfilarial load and excess mortality of the human host. The goodness-of-fit of three candidate functional forms (a (log- linear model and two saturating functions were explored and a saturating (log- sigmoid function was deemed to be statistically the best fit. The excess mortality associated with microfilarial load was also found to be greater in younger hosts. The attributable mortality risk due to onchocerciasis was estimated to be 5.9%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incorporation of this non-linear functional relationship between microfilarial load and excess mortality into mathematical models for the transmission and control of onchocerciasis will have important implications for our understanding of the population biology of O. volvulus, its impact on human populations, the global burden of disease due to onchocerciasis, and the projected benefits of control programmes in both human and economic terms.

  1. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  2. Use of PCR, IFAT and in vitro culture in the detection of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs and evaluation of the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in a low endemic area in Tunisia

    Chargui N.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the use of parasitological, serological and molecular methods for the detection of Leishmania infection in blood of 67 dogs and to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL in Kairouan (central Tunisia, an area known to be of reduced endemicity and has not been studied since 1973. Veterinarians clinically examined all dogs, and the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies was determined by indirect immune-fluorescence antibody test. The presence of Leishmania was performed by PCR and in vitro culture. IFAT was positive in 12% of dogs and promastigote form of the parasite was isolated by in vitro culture from only 4.5% of them. However, DNA of Leishmania was detected by PCR in 20.9% of dogs. PCR was more sensitive than IFAT (p = 0.004 and in vitro culture (p < 10–5. A prevalence of 21% was found in Kairouan, which is significant high (p < 10–3 when compared to that of thirty years ago. This state is in correlation with the increase in other Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, 50% of positive dogs were asymptomatic. Preventive measures must be taken against these dogs as for symptomatic ones since their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors has been proven.

  3. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  4. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%. A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p < 0,05. However, some MosquiTRAPs (28.12% contained immature Ae. aegypti after 18 days of exposure in the field and could be pointed as an oviposition site for female mosquitoes. Both trapping methods, designed to collect gravid Ae. aegypti females, seem to be efficient, reliable and may aid routine Ae. aegypti surveillance.

  5. Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas

    Gerusa Dreyer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo.In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

  6. Comparison of the prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in endemic and non-endemic Bulgarian locations

    Ivanka Gergova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Balkans is an endemic region for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV. Several Bulgarian regions comprised of smaller locations are categorized either as endemic or non-endemic for CCHF. However, little is known about the dynamics that underlie the development of endemicity within the locations throughout the years. Methods: Seven locations categorized as endemic in one central Bulgarian region (Stara Zagora were compared to seven non-endemic areas. During the period 2006-12, a total of 1775 blood samples from cattle, were tested for anti-CCHFV antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Also, the infestation of 617 mature ticks for CCHFV was studied using a combination of an immunofluorescence haemocytes assay and molecularvirological methods. Results: Anti-CCHFV antibodies were established in 7.89% (140/1775 of the sera. The average CCHFV-infestation in the ticks was 1.46% (9/617. CCHFV was detected in three tick species: H.m. marginatum (3.73%, 6/161, being the main vector of the infection; R. sanguineus (1.63%, 2/123; and I. ricinus (1.96%, 1/51. Interpretation & conclusion: The data for the endemic and non-endemic locations did not reveal significant differences for the prevalence of CCHFV. Mosaic dispersion of the virus was determined in the studied region and the results did not vary significantly throughout the investigated years.

  7. Fluoride analysis of drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong province from 2005 to 2007%2005-2007年山东省地方性氟中毒病区水氟测定结果分析

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 马爱华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of water-borne fluoride and the current status of water defluoridation project by improving drinking water quality in endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong province,and to provide scientific basis for making strategies in prevention and control of the disease. Methods According to "the National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2004, 2005 and 2006", 113 endemic fluorosis diseased counties(cities, and districts) of the province's 17 cities were screened in order to investigate the fluoride level in drinking water in fluorosis villages, recheck the fluoride level after implementing the water defluoridation project, and investigate the current status of the water defluoridation project. The fluoride level in drinking water was determined by F-ion selective electrode. Results There were a total of 5816 water defluoridation projects in the province. Most of them were carried out by drilling a deep well to get under-ground water. The wells still in good condition were accounted for 72.80% (4234/5816). Intermittent operated wells were accounted for 3.11% (181/5816). Abandoned wells were accounted for 24.09%(1401/5816). Level of water fluoride was determined in 6940samples from fluorosis villages(villages that not carry out the water defluoridation project as well as villages carried out the water defluoridation project with abandoned wells were included) and the value that lower or equal to 1.00mg/L was determined in 2987 villages which accounted for 43.04% (2987/6940). Level of water fluoride that over 1.00 mg/L was found in 3953 villages which accounted for 56.96% (3593/6940), and the highest level of water fluoride was 11.33 mg/L. Level of water fluoride were determined in 4415 samples from water defluoridation project and the value lower or equal to 1.00 mg/L was in 2983 wells which accounted for 65.53%(2983/4415). The value over 1.00 mg/L was in 1522 wells which accounted for 34.47%(1522/4415), the highest value

  8. Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity

    Jihong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species β-diversity, and phylogenetic β-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

  9. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but rela...

  10. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    Ana María Abréu-Vélez; Ana Maria Roselino; Howard, Michael S.; Iara J. de Messias Reason

    2010-01-01

    Background : Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El ...

  11. Study on diet-related behavior of pupils in Kaschin-Beck disease endemic areas of Xi'an City%西安市大骨节病区小学生饮食行为研究

    陈伟; 柳明; 时学花; 李平; 靳玲; 董璐; 姚培杰; 杨钢; 谢龙

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解西安市大骨节病区小学生饮食行为情况,为大骨节病病因研究和防治提供科学依据.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样法,用自行设计的问卷对1 076名小学生进行自填式问卷调查.结果 调查对象中当地小麦的食用率为78.81%,其次为外地大米(58.92%)和当地玉米(52.51%).调查对象中坚持食用大米的行为率为51.30%,食用富硒食品的行为率为21.28%;中、重病区食用大米和富硒食品的行为率均低于轻病区(x2=9.351、54.818,均P<0.05).五年级学生坚持食用大米和富硒食品的行为率高于三年级(x2=17.104、6.262,均P<0.05).50.93%的调查对象愿意食用大米,24.67%的调查对象愿意食用富硒食物.四、五年级学生食用大米的意愿高于三年级(x2=19.384,P<0.05),轻病区学生食用富硒食物的意愿高于重中病区(x2=33.331,P<0.05).病区学生最近1周内副食食用情况中蔬菜(73.04%)、新鲜水果(57.43%)和奶及奶制品(44.05%)食用率较高,而家禽及禽产品(18.40%)、猪牛羊肉(15.33%)、鱼类(13.01%)较低.结论 西安市大骨节病病区小学生的饮食行为不合理,存在主食种类单一,以当地小麦、玉米为主,肉类、家禽、鱼类等食用率偏低的情况.相关部门应加强对病区居民大骨节病防治知识的健康教育,促进居民改善不良的饮食行为,提高病区儿童身体素质.%[Objective] To understand the diet-related behavior of pupils in Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD) endemic areas of Xi'an City,provide a scientific basis for etiological study and prevention of KBD.[Methods] Using the stratified random cluster sampling method,the self-administered questionnaire survey was performed among 1076 pupils with a self-designed questionnaire.[Results] The consumption rate of local wheat among respondents was 78.81%,followed by the nonlocal rice (58.92%) and local corn (52.51%).51.30% of respondents insisted on eating rice

  12. Investigation of wild feces pollution in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Yun-nan Province%云南省血吸虫病流行区野粪污染调查

    张云; 冯锡光; 熊孟韬; 孙佳昱; 宋静

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To understand the status of wild feces distribution and pollution in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Yunnan Province. Methods According to the distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails and characteristics of human and ani-mal activities in recent five years 6 schistosomiasis endemic villages in Weishan Nanjian and Midu counties 2 villages each county were selected as the investigated areas and more than 4 hm2 area with snails around each village were investigated for the types and densities of wild feces. The schistosome infested feces was detected with the hatching method. Results Totally 63 hm2 were investigated and 420 wild feces were found in all kinds of environments. The densities of wild feces were 0.066 7 piles/100 m2 and the densities of wild feces of the road and the hillside were the highest 0.098 7 piles/100 m2 and 0.088 0 piles/100 m2 respectively . Totally 260 fresh wild feces were collected including the feces of human being cattle horse dog sheep and pig and the feces of cattle and dog was the most 37.38%and 30.71% respectively . No schistosome positive feces was found. Conclusions There are a lot of wild feces in snail areas in Yunnan Province and the risk of schistosomiasis transmission is still high. Therefore we should strengthen the banning grazing measures and the investigation of dogs.%目的:了解云南省血吸虫病流行区野粪分布及污染情况,以评价传染源控制为主的综合防治措施的效果。方法根据近5年螺点分布及人畜活动特点,在云南省巍山、南涧、弥渡3个县各随机抽取2个血吸虫病流行村,每村选定总面积>4 hm2的有螺自然片区为调查范围,调查野粪种类与密度。取查获的全部新鲜野粪采用集卵孵化法或塑料杯顶管孵化法检测,观察野粪血吸虫病原阳性情况。结果3个县共调查63 hm2,发现野粪420份,野粪平均密度0.0667堆/100 m2。各类环境均有野粪分布,其中路边和山坡野

  13. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora.

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C; Borges, Paulo A V; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62-87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  14. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G.; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M.; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62–87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  15. Molecular markers associated with resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate-Yemen during the transmission season.

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-10-01

    Since 2005, artesunate (AS) plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) combination has been adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Yemen in response to the high level of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency distribution of molecular markers associated with resistance to CQ and AS plus SP combination among P. falciparum isolates from a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate, Yemen. Fifty P. falciparum isolates were collected during a cross-sectional study in Mawza district, Taiz, in the period from October 2013 to April 2014. The isolates were investigated for drug resistance-associated molecular markers in five genes, including P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) 86Y as markers of resistance to CQ, mutations in the Kelch 13 (K13) propeller domain for resistance to AS, and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes for resistance to SP. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify target genes in DNA extracts of the isolates followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism for detecting 76T and 86Y mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1, respectively, and by DNA sequencing for detecting mutations in K13, pfdhfr and pfdhps. All the investigated isolates from Mawza district were harboring the pfcrt 76T mutant and the pfmdr1 N86 wild-type alleles. The pfdhfr 51I/108N double mutant allele was found in 2.2% (1/45) of the isolates; however, no mutations were detected at codons 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613 of pfdhps. All P. falciparum isolates that were successfully sequenced (n=47) showed the K13 Y493, R539, I543 and C580 wild-type alleles. In conclusion, the pfcrt 76T mutant allele is fixed in the study area about six years after the official withdrawal of CQ, possibly indicating its over-the-counter availability and continued use as a

  16. Effects of drinking water defluoride in endemic fluorosis areas in Shantou city of Guangdong province%广东省汕头市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟效果评价

    王军义; 李伯灵; 赵新华; 黄奕祥; 陈俊凯; 陈思湖; 欧汉宏; 陈少贤

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对汕头市地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区水氟及氟中毒状况的调查,为进一步改水工作提供依据.方法 于2001、2009年,对4个地氟病病区村(仙港村、范溪村、义英村、溪北村)和一个非地氟病病区村(上南村)检测水氟,每个村抽取约100名(男女各半)8~ 12岁儿童检查氟斑牙及采集尿样.水氟及尿氟测定采用氟离子选择电极法,按照Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙诊断.结果 4个地氟病病区村改水后饮用水氟含量均< 1.0 mg/L.2001年儿童氟斑牙检出率[63.29%(1505/2378)]高于2009年[14.12%(462/3271),x2=1466.48,P< 0.01].在2009年,与上南村[5.88%(77/1309)、(0.54±0.25)mg/L]相比,仙港村儿童氟斑牙检出率[30.95%(321/1037)]和尿氟水平[(0.75±0.58)mg/L]均较高(x2=258.20,t=17.40,P均<0.05).结论 汕头市改水降氟效果显著,管理部门仍应坚持地氟病病区的定期监测工作.%Objective To provide a scientific basis for drinking-water improvement and defluoridation by survey water fluoride level and situation of fluorosis in the endemic fluorosis areas of Shantou city.Methods Four endemic fluorosis villages and a non-fluorosis village were detected of water fluoride in 2001 and 2009.Randomly selected subjects of about 100 children(men and women in equal,aged 8 to 12) were checked dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in each village.Fluoride content in water was determined by fluoride selective ion electron.And diagnosis of dental fluorosis of children was made according to Deans method.Results Through monitoring drinking water in 4 villages of the fluorosis areas after water improvement,we found that fluoride content in water source was under the standardlimitation of 1.0 mg/L,and prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased from 63.29%(1505/2378) in 2001 to 14.12%(462/3271) in 2009,the difference was significant(x2 =1466.48,P < 0.01).But compared with Shangnan village[5.88%(77/1309),(0.54 ± 0.25) mg/L] in

  17. Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland.

    Sormunen, Jani J; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Tonteri, Elina; Penttinen, Ritva

    2016-02-01

    Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous study mapping tick densities was conducted 12 years earlier. A total of 1940 ticks were collected from five different biotopes by cloth dragging during May-September 2012. The overall tick density observed was 5.2 ticks/100m(2) for nymphs and adults. Seasonal questing activity of ticks differed between biotopes and life stages: bimodal occurrences were observed especially for nymphal and adult ticks in forested biotopes, while larvae in pastures exhibited mostly unimodal occurrence. Prevalence of Borrelia and TBEV in ticks was evaluated using conventional and real-time PCR. All samples were negative for TBEV. Borrelia prevalence was 25.0% for adults (n=44) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) 5.6% for pooled nymph samples (191 samples, 1-14 individuals per sample; 30/191 positive). No Borrelia were detected in pooled larval samples (63 samples, 1-139 individuals per sample). Five species of Borrelia were identified from the samples: B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi. In Finland, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi have previously been reported from the Åland Islands but not from the mainland or inner archipelago. The results of the present study suggest an increase in I. ricinus abundance on the island. PMID:26548608

  18. THE ARTHROPOD-BORNE ONCHOCERCIASIS: IS IT DESERVED TO BE NEGLECTED?.

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-12-01

    Onchocerciasis a filarial parasitic nematode, also known as river blindness and Robles disease, is a neglected tropical disease infecting more than 18 million people mainly in sub-Saharan of Africa, the Middle East, South and Central America and many other countries. Disease infectivity initiates from Onchocerca volvulus (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) transmitted by the blackfly, Simulium sp. which introduces the infective stage larva with its saliva into the skin. Within human body, adult females (macrofilaria) produce thousands of larvae (microfilariae) which migrate in skin and eye. Infection results in severe visual impairment or blindness for about 2 million, as being the world's second-leading cause of blindness after trachoma, as well as skin onchocercomata. PMID:26939243

  19. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  20. Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State

    E. Pittner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

  1. Aspectos epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar em área endêmica do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1992 e 1993 um inquérito epidemiológico para leishmaniose tegumentar (LT envolvendo 684 indivíduos de uma população de aproximadamente 1400 pessoas de seis localidades agrícolas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos e Fazenda Mururê de uma área endêmica nos Municípios de Jussara e Terra Boa, no Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Do total de 684 indivíduos estudados, 19,9% tinham história de LT. Ressalta-se que na Fazenda Jussara ocorreu o maior percentual de pessoas com história de LT (51/126 ou 40,5%. Das 684 reações de imunofluorescência indireta realizadas, 58 (8,5% tiveram títulos significativos, e destas, 17 (29,3% eram de pessoas sem história de LT. A intradermorreação de Montenegro foi realizada em 97 indivíduos com história de LT, sendo positiva em 80 (82,5% deles. No momento do inquérito, sete indivíduos apresentavam lesão característica de LT, e em quatro deles a pesquisa de Leishmania sp. foi positiva. A cepa de Leishmania isolada de um destes indivíduos foi identificada como Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis.An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%. Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5% presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3% of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%. During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions

  2. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    Kelly L. Johnston; Louise Ford; Indira Umareddy; Simon Townson; Sabine Specht; Kenneth Pfarr; Achim Hoerauf; Ralf Altmeyer; Taylor, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial sym...

  3. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 750C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environement, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles. (author)

  4. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    Davies, J.E. (Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK))

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75/sup 0/C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environment, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles.

  5. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common

  6. Emergence of travel: Associated dengue fever in a non-endemic, hilly state

    Santwana Verma; Anil Kanga; Digvijay Singh; Ghanshyam K Verma; Kiran Mokta; Sunite A Ganju; Vineeta Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Background: We assessed the occurrence of dengue fever in association with travel in a non-endemic hilly region. The clinical presentation and laboratory parameters of febrile patients with a travel history to an endemic region were studied, and the role of the laboratory in the diagnosis was affirmed. Materials and Methods: Febrile patients presenting with clinical features defining dengue with a history of travel to an endemic area constituted the study group.Serum samples were tested ...

  7. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Diaz Espinoza, Carlos Enrique; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Crovella Valdez, Carol Guillermina; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9-69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ. PMID:26503275

  8. Sociocultural aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil Aspectos sócio-culturais da esquistossomose mansoni em área endêmica de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Andréa Gazzinelli

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the sociocultural factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from a small community toward Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out in an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used qualitative approaches to collect data from school-aged children and teachers. Specific findings were that the individuals interviewed were aware of the disease, but also held inaccurate popular beliefs about transmission. Misconceptions coexisted with accurate knowledge both in children and teachers. The disease was not seen as a major health problem and did not affect their activities since it did not cause severe symptoms in most of the individuals. Although the majority of the participants related transmission to water and lack of sanitation, they did not take any preventive measures since their subsistence is highly dependent on irrigation, farming, fishing, and other essential work that is directly related to water activities. The authors discuss the development of a health education program based on the knowledge and perception of individuals about the disease and its determinants as being important for the context and behavioral change.Este estudo foi realizado em área endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar os fatores sócio-culturais que influenciam o conhecimento, as atitudes e práticas dos indivíduos da comunidade em relação a esquistossomose mansoni. Os resultados mostraram que tanto crianças quanto professores conhecem a doença e possuem concepções corretas e incorretas sobre a transmissão. A doença não é vista como um problema importante de saúde pública e não afeta as atividades pelo fato de não causar sintomas graves na maior parte da população. Apesar da maioria dos entrevistados relacionar a transmissão da doença à água e falta de saneamento básico, não utiliza nenhuma medida preventiva para evitar a infec

  9. Comparison of two 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity

    Bronsvoort, B.M.D.; Sørensen, K.J.; Anderson, J.;

    2004-01-01

    The development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for FMDV....... The nonstructural polyprotein 3ABC has recently been proposed as such an antigen, and a number of diagnostic tests are being developed. This paper evaluates the performance of two FMDV tests for antibodies to nonstructural proteins in an unvaccinated cattle population from a region of Cameroon with endemic multiple...

  10. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  11. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  12. Vertebrate distributions indicate a greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of endemism

    Şerban Procheş

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km2 was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1 refines the delimitation of the MPA hotspot, (2 defines zoogeographical units and (3 identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near endemic to the MPA hotspot, updating previous checklists. Then the distributions of 495 vertebrate taxa endemic to south-eastern Africa were reviewed and 23 endemic vertebrate distributions (EVDs: distribution ranges congruent across several endemic vertebrate taxa were recognised, amongst which the most frequently encountered were located in the Eastern Escarpment, central KwaZulu-Natal, Drakensberg and Maputaland. The geographical patterns illustrated by the EVDs suggest that an expansion of the hotspot to incorporate sections of the Great Escarpment from the Amatola-Winterberg-Sneeuberg Mountains through the Drakensberg to the Soutpansberg would be justified. This redefinition gives rise to a Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA region of vertebrate endemism adding 135% more endemics with an increase of only 73% in surface area to the MPA hotspot. The GMPA region has a more natural boundary in terms of EVDs as well as vegetation units. An accurate delimitation of this hotspot, as well as a better understanding of biogeography in the region, would greatly benefit conservation planning and implementation. Towards these aims, we used EVDs to delimit non-overlapping zoogeographical units (including 14 areas of vertebrate endemism, facilitating numerical biogeographical analyses. More importantly, this study opens up possibilities of refining hotspot delimitation and identifying local conservation priorities in regions of the world where data do not allow numerical analyses.

  13. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  14. The significance of some observations on African ocular onchocerciasis described by Jean Hissette (1888-1965).

    Kluxen, G; Hoerauf, A

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant contributions to tropical medicine and ophthalmology was made by Jean Hissette: African ocular onchocerciasis. During his extensive investigations in the Babindi country, he found numerous adults with river blindness. Their eye disease was caused by the filaria Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart. He noticed the signs of interstitial keratitis and band keratopathy, faint iritis or iridocyclitis, posterior synechiae and often a downward distortion of the pupil. He was the first to describe chorioretinal scarring of the fundus, what became known as the Hissette-Ridley fundus. People reported to him their entoptic phenomena which he unequivocally interpreted to be the images of microfilariae in the patient's own eye. During his stay in Belgium in 1932, he elucidated the pathogenesis of blindness since he was able to provide histological proof of the presence of microfilariae in various ocular tissues of an enucleated eye from a patient living near the Sankuru river. Like other serious health impairments, the severe inflammatory lesions in the eye occurred only after the microfilariae had died. Hence he realized that dying microfilariae play a key role in the mechanisms leading to blindness. Hissette's precise descriptions were the logical fruit of his outstanding observational abilities and enabled him as a man of great intuition to speculate about causal relationships. He evidently benefited from the fact that he took the native Africans seriously and asked them their opinion. In 1933, his friend and teacher Dr. De Mets in Antwerp already wrote on Hissette's discovery in the Belgian Congo: "This study is of exceptional value to specialists which is not only a tribute to its author, but to our common native country (Belgium)." PMID:18546927

  15. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  16. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard;

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  17. Estudo comparativo de áreas endêmicas de filariose bancroftiana na região metropolitana do Recife, Brasil Comparative studies on endemic areas of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife, Brazil

    Maria Amélia V. Maciel

    Full Text Available Para se realizar o estudo comparativo da filariose bancroftiana na área metropolitana do Recife, foram selecionados dois bairros da cidade do Recife (Santo Amaro e Campo Grande e dois bairros da cidade de Olinda (Sapucaia e Salgadinho, segundo critério apoiado na semelhança das características sócio-econômicas e demográficas e dos níveis endêmicos de filariose. As áreas foram divididas em conglomerados, com 25 casas em média. A amostra populacional foi estratificada por sexo e faixa etária de 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 e igual ou superior a 60 anos. Os dados parasitológicos foram obtidos por meio da gota espessa mensurada (60µl de sangue, coletada entre as 20 e 24 horas, processada e corada pelo método de Carrazi. Os dados obtidos foram descritos em tabelas, e a densidade parasitária e freqüência microfilarêmica analisadas através de gráficos com expressão logarítima. De maneira global, Recife apresentou prevalência de 13,5%, e Olinda, 12,3%. Quando comparamos a densidade parasitária, Olinda apresentou valor médio de 70 microfilárias por 60µl de sangue, e Recife, 41. Em relação aos índices microfilarêmicos, o maior ocorreu na faixa etária de 20-29 anos. Em Olinda, por outro lado, situou se entre 30-39 anos e em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Os autores concluem que a endemia apresenta níveis endêmicos do passado, e os dados descritos alertam para uma reavaliação das campanhas de controle realizadas pela Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS, já que a endemia atinge dimensões ainda não mensuradas.Two districts in Recife (Santo Amaro and Campo Grande and two districts in Olinda (Sapucaia and Salgadinho, were selected for a comparative study of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife. Selection parameters included similar socio-economic, demographic, and endemic levels of lymphatic filariasis. In the districts studied, streets were chosen randomly. These clusters consisted of 110 people

  18. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010.

    Peter W Gething

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We first updated to the year 2010 our earlier estimate of the geographical limits of P. vivax transmission. Within areas of stable transmission, an assembly of 9,970 geopositioned P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR surveys collected from 1985 to 2010 were used with a spatiotemporal Bayesian model-based geostatistical approach to estimate endemicity age-standardised to the 1-99 year age range (PvPR(1-99 within every 5×5 km resolution grid square. The model incorporated data on Duffy negative phenotype frequency to suppress endemicity predictions, particularly in Africa. Endemicity was predicted within a relatively narrow range throughout the endemic world, with the point estimate rarely exceeding 7% PvPR(1-99. The Americas contributed 22% of the global area at risk of P. vivax transmission, but high endemic areas were generally sparsely populated and the region contributed only 6% of the 2.5 billion people at risk (PAR globally. In Africa, Duffy negativity meant stable transmission was constrained to Madagascar and parts of the Horn, contributing 3.5% of global PAR. Central Asia was home to 82% of global PAR with important high endemic areas coinciding with dense populations particularly in India and Myanmar. South East Asia contained areas of the highest endemicity in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and contributed 9% of global PAR. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This detailed depiction of spatially varying endemicity is intended to contribute to a much-needed paradigm shift towards geographically stratified and evidence-based planning for P. vivax control and elimination.

  19. A Long Neglected World Malaria Map: Plasmodium vivax Endemicity in 2010

    Gething, Peter W.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; Price, Ric N.; Müeller, Ivo; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite. Methodology and Findings We first updated to the year 2010 our earlier estimate of the geographical limits of P. vivax transmission. Within areas of stable transmission, an assembly of 9,970 geopositioned P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) surveys collected from 1985 to 2010 were used with a spatiotemporal Bayesian model-based geostatistical approach to estimate endemicity age-standardised to the 1–99 year age range (PvPR1–99) within every 5×5 km resolution grid square. The model incorporated data on Duffy negative phenotype frequency to suppress endemicity predictions, particularly in Africa. Endemicity was predicted within a relatively narrow range throughout the endemic world, with the point estimate rarely exceeding 7% PvPR1–99. The Americas contributed 22% of the global area at risk of P. vivax transmission, but high endemic areas were generally sparsely populated and the region contributed only 6% of the 2.5 billion people at risk (PAR) globally. In Africa, Duffy negativity meant stable transmission was constrained to Madagascar and parts of the Horn, contributing 3.5% of global PAR. Central Asia was home to 82% of global PAR with important high endemic areas coinciding with dense populations particularly in India and Myanmar. South East Asia contained areas of the highest endemicity in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and contributed 9% of global PAR. Conclusions and Significance This detailed depiction of spatially varying endemicity is intended to contribute to a much-needed paradigm shift towards geographically stratified and evidence-based planning for P. vivax control and elimination. PMID:22970336

  20. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha in Iran

    Fariba Mozaffarian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas.In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed.

  1. Investigation on prevalent condition of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis after Water-improvement Projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病调查

    李胜玲; 周进才

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病情况,以评价其改水防治效果.方法 采用流行病学抽样调查的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队,高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(原高桥4队),未改水的大坝镇滑石沟5队共670名儿童和1 400名25岁以上成人分别进行了氟斑牙和氟骨症的调查.结果 改水与未改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=9.954,P<0.05);改水与未改水地区氟骨症患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.098,P<0.05);改水后水氟浓度为0.24~0.32 mg/L.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,还未达到完全控制.%OBJECTIVE The survey is conducted to evaluate the result of water-improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City.METHODS By applying epidemiological sample survey method,some 670 children and 1 400 adults (> 25 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team of Yesheng Township,where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; in Xinqiao 5th team Daba Township,endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huashigou 5th team in Daba Township was not included in water-improvement area.RESULTS There was an evident difference in the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without sater-improvement projects (x2 =9.954,P< 0.05).There was an evident difference in skeletal fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without water-improvement projects areas (x2 =13.098,P< 0.05).Since the drinking water improvement,the fluoride content in drinking water was 0.24-0.32 mg/L.CONCLUSION After water-improvement projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City

  2. Anti-Wolbachia drug discovery and development: safe macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    Taylor, Mark J; Hoerauf, Achim; TOWNSON, SIMON; Slatko, Barton E; Ward, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Anti-Wolbachia therapy delivers safe macrofilaricidal activity with superior therapeutic outcomes compared to all standard anti-filarial treatments, with the added benefit of substantial improvements in clinical pathology. These outcomes can be achieved, in principle, with existing registered drugs, e.g. doxycycline, that are affordable, available to endemic communities and have well known, albeit population-limiting, safety profiles. The key barriers to using doxycycline as an mass d...

  3. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.;

    2002-01-01

    species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed....... For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution...

  4. REVIEW: Endemic plants of serpentine soils

    SUDARMONO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.

  5. Herd-level risk factors for the seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia among fattening pigs in areas of endemic infection and high pig density.

    Nathues, H; Chang, Y M; Wieland, B; Rechter, G; Spergser, J; Rosengarten, R; Kreienbrock, L; Grosse Beilage, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential risk factors for the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in herds situated in a region of high pig density, where a majority of herds is endemically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Between 2006 and 2010, overall 100 herds were enrolled in a case-control study. Data were collected through personal interview with the farmers, clinical examination of pigs and their environments, and serological testing for M. hyopneumoniae, swine influenza virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. There were 40 case herds (coughing index high, seroprevalence high) with a mean coughing index of 4.3 and a seroprevalence of 86.6%. There were two control groups. Control group I consisted of 25 herds (coughing index low, seroprevalence low) with mean values of 0.7 and 11.2%, and 35 herds were allocated to control group II (coughing index low, seroprevalence high) where the mean coughing index was 0.9 and seroprevalence 86.3%. Case herds and control II herds had an increased age of piglets at weaning compared to control I herds. Any contact between fattening pigs of different age during restocking of compartments increased the risk for the occurrence of EP in a herd. Finally, farms that use living animals for the exposure to gilts during the acclimatization and farms that had increased number of weaned piglets per sow and year were less likely to test positive for M. hyopneumoniae and less likely to develop clinical symptoms of EP in fattening pigs. PMID:23199301

  6. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)

  7. Definiability of combinatorial functions and their linear recurrence relationships within a polylogarithmic triangularizable matrix employing surjective bilipschitz functions and other isomorphisms of metric spaces for forecasting seasonal endemic onchoc

    B.G. Jacob

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research,prevalence values based on Monthly Biting Rates (MBR were employed as aresponse variable in a Poisson probability model framework for quantitativelyregressing multiple georefernced explanatory environmental-related explanatorycovariates of seasonally-sampled larval habitat of Similium damnosum s.l.ablack fly vector of Onchocerciasis  in ariverine study site in Burkina Faso. Results from both a Poisson and then anegative binomial (i.e., a Poisson random variable with a gamma distrustedmean revealed that the covariates rendered from the model were significant,but furnished virtually no predictive power for mapping endemic transmissionzones. Inclusion of indicator variables denoting the time sequence and thelocational spatial structure was then articulated with Thiessen polygons whichalso failed to reveal meaningful covariates. Thereafter, a spatiotemporalautocorrelation analyses was performed and an Autoregressive Integrated MovingAverage (ARIMA model was constructed which revealed a prominent first-ordertemporal autoregressive structure in the sampled covariate coefficients. Arandom effects term was then specified which included a specific intercept termthat was a random deviation from the overall intercept term based on a drawfrom a normal frequency distribution. The specification revealed a non-constantmean across the riverine study site. This random intercept represented thecombined effect of all omitted covariates that caused the sampled georeferencedriverine –based villages at the study site to be more prone to onchocerciasisbased on regressed seasonal prevalence rates. Additionally, inclusion of arandom intercept assumed random heterogeneity in the propensity or, underlyingrisk of onchocerciasis which persisted throughout the entire duration of thetime sequence under study. This random effects term displayed serialcorrelation, and conformed closely to a bell-shaped curve. The model’s varianceimplied a substantial

  8. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I

    Ana María Abréu-Vélez; Iara J. de Messias Reason; Howard, Michael S.; Ana Maria Roselino

    2010-01-01

    Background : Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim : We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods : By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this...

  9. Optimization of the Esperanza window trap for the collection of the African onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

    Toé, Laurent D; Koala, Lassane; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Traoré, Bizini M; Sanfo, Moussa; Kambiré, Sié Roger; Cupp, Eddie W; Traoré, Soungalo; Yameogo, Laurent; Boakye, Daniel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    A simple inexpensive trap (Esperanza window trap) was shown recently to collect significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, a major vector of Onchocerca volvulus in Mesoamerica. Here, we report studies optimizing this trap for the collection of Simulium damnosum s.l., the major vector of O. volvulus in Africa. A shortened, blue and black striped version of the Esperanza window trap, when baited with a combination of CO2 and worn trousers, rivalled human landing collections in the number of S. damnosum s.l. females collected. Traps baited with a commercially available human skin lure and CO2 resulted in collections that were not significantly different than those obtained from traps baited with worn trousers and CO2. This suggests that the Esperanza window trap may offer a replacement for human landing collections for monitoring onchocerciasis transmission in Africa. PMID:24794201

  10. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: changes in prevalence of ocular lesions in Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals over the period 1980-1990

    Philip J Cooper

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Trends in prevalence rates of onchocercal ocular lesions were examined over the period 1980 to 1990 using data from two cross-sectional surveys. There was evidence for increasing prevalence of anterior chamber microfilariae, iridocyclitis, optic atrophy, and chorioretinopathy. Large increases in prevalence, in particular, were seen for posterior segment lesions: optic atrophy increased from 2.7% to 6.4% and chorioretinopathy from 8.8% to 35.6%. Greatest increases in these lesions were seen in the Chachi which was attributed to the large increases in prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior chamber particularly in those aged 30 years or greater. The study findings suggest that ocular onchocerciasis is evolving in parallel with the well documented parasitological changes.

  11. Clinical importance of solitary solid nodule of the thyroid in endemic goiter region

    Gurleyik Emin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Endemic area and iodine supplementation may affect the pathogenesis of the nodule which commonly occurs in endemic thyroid enlargement due to iodine deficiency. Aims: To establish pathological changes in solitary solid and larger nodule of the thyroid in endemic area. Setting and Design: Retrospective study in Surgical Department of University Hospital. Methods and Material: We determined 44 surgically treated patients with solitary solid nodule in endemic goiter area in which the population routinely receives iodinated salt. The thyroid nodule was preoperatively evaluated with blood chemistry, ultrasound, nuclear scanning and FNAC. The results of preoperative evaluation, surgical interventions, and histopathological examination were analyzed. Statistical analysis: Student t test and Fisher′s exact test. Results: Twenty (45%;20/44 patients with hot (autonomous nodule have received the diagnosis of toxic adenoma. Twenty four patients had solitary solid and cold nodule. Total thyroidectomy was performed on two patients with papillary cancer (PTC diagnosed by FNAC from cold nodules. Forty two patients have been treated with total excision of the lobe including hyper or hypoactive solitary solid nodule. Pathological examination has reported two more cases of PTC and one case of insular cancer arising from cold nodules. Completion thyroidectomy was performed on these 3 patients. Conclusions: Solitary solid and large nodule is a common indication for thyroid surgery in endemic goiter area. High incidence of hyperthyroidism due to single autonomous nodule, and high rate of malignant change (mainly papillary cancer in solitary hypoactive nodule arises from this series in endemic thyroid enlargement.

  12. High prevalence of the EBER variant EB-8m in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    Zhi-chao Shen

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant, between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8 were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50 than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95 (p<0.0001, and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74 than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92 (p<0.0001. More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001. The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC.

  13. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the...

  14. Sacred groves of north Malabar: treasure trove of endemic and rare medicinal plants

    K. Subrahmanya Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010  Sacred groves are one of the finest examples of traditional in situ conservation practices and act as treasure house of endemic, endangered and rare plants. Endemic species of any geographical region, throw light on the biogeography of the area, areas of extinction and evolution of the flora. Twelve famous sacred groves of north Malabar region of Kerala were selected for study. Studies were aimed at the documentation of floristic diversity with special reference to endemic as well as RET medicinal plants and to know threats to them. Present inventory accounted for a total of 99 endemic angiosperms, of which 28 qualified for RET categories. Their role in germplasm conservation is evident from the fact that not a single plant is common to the groves studied and restriction of 47 endemic plants to any one of the grove. There are 59 endemic plants, of which 18 belong to RET category are in high demand due to their medicinal properties. Medicinal plant diversity varies from a minimum of 65% to a maximum of 91% while that of endemic plants ranges from 11% in Andallur to 18% in Edayilakkad. Present study revealed the endemic plant diversity of these groves and also their role in the conserving germplasms of wild yam, figs, pepper, mango and a variety of endemic medicinal plants. Like other groves of Kerala, these are also facing the threat of extinction from increasing anthropogenic activities and there is an urgent need of complete protection and public awareness for the existence of these near-climax communities.

  15. Vigilância de doenças endêmicas em áreas urbanas: a interface entre mapas de setores censitários e indicadores de morbidade Surveillance of endemic diseases in urban areas: the interface between census tract maps and morbidity data

    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se o eixo metodológico utilizado na construção de modelo de vigilância de endemias em áreas urbanas, orientado por uma análise de situações de risco e por indicadores epidemiológicos espaciais. São apresentadas as premissas básicas do modelo, os critérios de seleção de variáveis sócio-econômicas e as etapas metodológicas necessárias na construção do indicador sintético de risco. Comenta-se, também, como algumas questões operacionais relativas à construção de mapas digitais de setores censitários e vinculação de bancos de dados foram equacionadas. Essa abordagem, incorporando o componente da organização do espaço na vigilância de doenças endêmicas, tendo como exemplo a hanseníase e a tuberculose, privilegia o uso integrado de sistemas de informação já existentes, na perspectiva de estratificar áreas urbanas diferenciadas que permite discriminar riscos desiguais para ocorrência de endemias. Essa é uma ferramenta para o planejamento e o gerenciamento das ações voltadas para o controle das endemias nas cidades.In this article we discuss the methodological issues associated with the creation of a surveillance system for endemic diseases in urban areas based on analysis of populations at risk and on spatially referenced epidemiological indicators. We comment on the system's basic requirements, selection criteria for socioeconomic variables, and methodological steps to combine these variables so as to construct a census-based deprivation index. We also present the ways we solved some operational problems related to generation of digitized census tracts maps and linkage of morbidity data from different sources. This approach, spatial organization into account in surveillance of endemic diseases, exemplified here by tuberculosis and leprosy, allows for the interaction of several official data sets from census and health services in order to geographically discriminate inner-city risk

  16. Strategies for monitoring and conservation of troglobitic endemic fauna in some subterranean sites od Sardinia

    Marcia, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    From the biogeographic and biospeleological points of view, the subterranean fauna of Sardinia is one of the most interesting in the Mediterranean area: very rich in taxa, mostly endemic and highly specialised, it is apparently well known and currently investigated. Nevertheless, the amount of unexpected discoveries is still increasing every year. In the present thesis, at first, owing to the general low interest of the public for the protection of invertebrate endemic, trog...

  17. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  18. Mapping phylogenetic endemism in R using georeferenced branch extents

    Guerin, Greg R.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2015-12-01

    Applications are needed to map biodiversity from large-scale species occurrence datasets whilst seamlessly integrating with existing functions in R. Phylogenetic endemism (PE) is a biodiversity measure based on range-restricted phylogenetic diversity (PD). Current implementations use area of occupancy (AOO) or frequency to estimate the spatial range of branch-length (i.e. phylogenetic range-rarity), rather than extent of occurrence (EOO; i.e. georeferenced phylogenetic endemism), which is known to produce different range estimates. We present R functions to map PD or PE weighted by AOO or EOO (new georeferenced implementation), taking as inputs georeferenced species occurrences and a phylogeny. Non-parametric statistics distinguish PD/PE from trivial correlates of species richness and sampling intensity.

  19. Deforestation and apparent extinctions of endemic forest beetles in Madagascar.

    Hanski, Ilkka; Koivulehto, Helena; Cameron, Alison; Rahagalala, Pierre

    2007-06-22

    Madagascar has lost about half of its forest cover since 1953 with much regional variation, for instance most of the coastal lowland forests have been cleared. We sampled the endemic forest-dwelling Helictopleurini dung beetles across Madagascar during 2002-2006. Our samples include 29 of the 51 previously known species for which locality information is available. The most significant factor explaining apparent extinctions (species not collected by us) is forest loss within the historical range of the focal species, suggesting that deforestation has already caused the extinction, or effective extinction, of a large number of insect species with small geographical ranges, typical for many endemic taxa in Madagascar. Currently, roughly 10% of the original forest cover remains. Species-area considerations suggest that this will allow roughly half of the species to persist. Our results are consistent with this prediction. PMID:17341451

  20. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal; Keita, Adama D.;

    2011-01-01

    prevalence of macro-haematuria, urinary tract pathology, upper urinary tract pathology and total pathology than Koulikoro, while micro-haematuria did not differ between the two areas. Morbidity measures increased to some extent with egg intensity category, especially micro-haematuria. The results obtained...

  1. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  2. The endemic mimic: blastomycosis an illness often misdiagnosed.

    Bradsher, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    One of the endemic fungi, Blastomyces dermatitidis, can cause epidemics of infection with multiple persons involved in a point source outbreak but more commonly causes sporadic cases of infection within the areas of endemicity. Blastomycosis can present as an acute pneumonia which is often misdiagnosed as acute pneumococcal pneumonia or the infection may present as a chronic pneumonia along with weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and a lung mass suggesting tuberculosis or carcinoma of the lung. Extrapulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis is protean with many different manifestations. Most commonly, skin or subcutaneous lesions are found with either a verrucous or warty appearance or in an ulcerative form. Cases have been misidentified as keratoacanthoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, carcinoma, or as Weber-Christian panniculitis if there are nodular subcutaneous lesions. Essentially any site or organ can have lesions of disseminated blastomycosis. In our series, cases of laryngeal carcinoma, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid nodules, granulomatous hypercalcemia, abnormal mammograms thought to represent breast carcinoma, otitis media with cranial extension, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause have been misdiagnosed and blastomycosis subsequently identified as the cause. This infection causes manifestations which mimic many other more commonly diagnosed conditions and must always be considered by clinicians practicing in the endemic region. PMID:25125734

  3. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  4. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil Febre maculosa brasileira em cavalo de carroceiro em área não-endêmica no Sul do Brasil

    Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira Freitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose, muitas vezes fatal, causada pela bactéria intracelular obrigatória Rickettsia rickettsii. A doença é transmitida para humanos pelo carrapato Amblyomma spp. Sorologia positiva por R. rickettsii foi relatada em cavalos, entretanto a patogenia de R. rickettsii em cavalos é desconhecida. Cavalos de carroceiros ainda são largamente utilizados em áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas no Brasil e estes animais podem representar sentinelas ideais para FMB nestas áreas, como exemplo, São José dos Pinhais, onde o primeiro caso humano de FMB foi descrita no Paraná. Amostras de soro foram obtidas aleatoriamente de 75 cavalos de carroceiros entre abril de 2005 e junho de 2006 e testados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI com anticorpos contra riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa. Um total de 9,33% dos animais foi considerado positivo, com títulos entre 64 e 1.024. Estes resultados indicam

  5. Serología para triquinosis en dadores de sangre en área no endémica de la Argentina Trichinellosis serology in blood-donors from a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Mariana S. Barlasina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la presencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada históricamente libre de esta parasitosis en la Argentina. Se evaluó la parasitosis mediante técnicas inmunoserológicas y su relación con los hábitos alimenticios de riesgo mediante un cuestionario realizado a 150 donantes de sangre. Las encuestas revelaron que el 98.0% (n=147 de los individuos consumía carne de cerdo y/o derivados con elevada frecuencia. Los principales productos porcinos incorporados a la alimentación habitual fueron los chacinados. El 80.3% (n=118 de los individuos adquirían los productos en carnicerías, el 38.1% (n=56 en faenas domiciliarias y el 34.0% (n=50 en supermercados. Las técnicas inmunoserológicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico de triquinosis fueron: enzimoinmunoanálisis, inmunofluorescencia indirecta y/o inmunoelectrotransferencia. En el 8.0% (n=12 de los sueros de los individuos se detectaron anticuerpos anti-Trichinella por más de una de las técnicas realizadas, considerándose este resultado diagnóstico confirmatorio de triquinosis. Los estudios realizados demuestran la existencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada libre de esta parasitosis y sugieren su relación con la ingesta de carne porcina y/o sus subproductos, hábito alimenticio de riesgo. Estos resultados indican que la falta de denuncia de casos de la enfermedad no debe ser el único criterio a tener en cuenta para considerar a una región área libre de triquinosis. El conocimiento de la presencia del parásito en un área determinada favorece la instauración de medidas de control y prevención evitando la diseminación de la parasitosis.The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease. This parasitosis was assessed on 150 blood donors by means of immunoserological tests, and their relation with risk

  6. The relationship between arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions in endemic arsenism area in Shanyin County of Shanxi Province%山西省山阴县地方性砷中毒病区饮水砷与皮肤病变间关系调查

    李贞; 王三祥; 王正辉; 王彤; 乔小艳; 张向东; 吴赵明; 安艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析山西省山阴县地方性砷中毒(简称地砷病)病区居民饮水砷暴露与皮肤病变间的关系,为地砷病防治研究提供流行病学依据.方法 在山西省山阴县地砷病病区抽取17个村的189例地砷病患者和59例非患者(对照)作为调查对象.入户采集所有调查对象饮用水,用水砷快速检测试剂盒半定量检测水砷,并用高效液相色谱一等离子体质谱联用仪(HPLC-ICP-MS)定量检测水砷.地砷病皮肤病变按<地方性砷中毒诊断标准)(WS/T211-2001)进行诊断.结果 在抽取的134份水样中,砷超标率达64.9%(87/134).水砷中位数为91.43μg/L.饮水砷暴露水平(>50μg/L为高砷暴露,≤50μg/L为低砷暴露)与掌跖角化、色素沉着和脱失间的关联强度OR(95%CI)值分别为2.46(1.22~4.94)、3.34(1.50-7.44)和2.86(1.50-5.46).随着水砷暴露水平(按≤10、≤50、≤200、>200μg/L分组)升高,患掌跖角化、色素沉着和色素脱失组间OR值呈增加趋势,尤其是水砷>200μg/L组以≤10μg/L组作为参考,OR值分别为6.15、13.96、11.41,组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).皮肤色素Ⅲ度脱失患者水砷暴露水平(318.300μg/L)明显高于0、Ⅰ、Ⅱ度脱失患者(86.670、131.800、110.590μg/L,P<0.05).结论 山阴县属于中度砷暴露地区,水砷暴露是皮肤病变的危险因素.随着水砷暴露量增加,病变程度加重.%Objective To investigate the relationship between arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions in endemic arsenism area in Shanyin County of Shanxi Province,in order to provide epidemiologic data for further arsenism research.Methods One hundred and eighty-nine endemic arsenism patients and 59 controls were randomly selected in 17 endemic amenism countries in Shanyin County of Shanxi Province.The content of arsenic in drinking water which wa8 collected indoom was half-quantitatively screened by a kit made by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

  7. Preliminary study on temporal variations in biting activity of Simulium damnosum s.l. in Abeokuta North LGA, Ogun State Nigeria

    Adeofun Clement O; Mafiana Chiedu F; Ekpo Uwem F; Oluwole Akinola S; Idowu Olufunmilayo A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Simulum damnosum Theobald sensu lato (s.l.) is the vector of the parasitic filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart which causes onchocerciasis. In order to understand the vector population dynamics, a preliminary 12 months entomological evaluation was carried out at Abeokuta, the Southwest Zone of Nigeria, an onchocerciasis endemic area, where vector control has not been previously initiated. S.damnosum s.l. flies were caught on human attractants between 700 to1800 hour...

  8. Discriminating malaria from dengue fever in endemic areas: clinical and biological criteria, prognostic score and utility of the C-reactive protein: a retrospective matched-pair study in French Guiana.

    Loïc Epelboin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue and malaria are two major public health concerns in tropical settings. Although the pathogeneses of these two arthropod-borne diseases differ, their clinical and biological presentations are unspecific. During dengue epidemics, several hundred patients with fever and diffuse pain are weekly admitted at the emergency room. It is difficult to discriminate them from patients presenting malaria attacks. Furthermore, it may be impossible to provide a parasitological microscopic examination for all patients. This study aimed to establish a diagnostic algorithm for communities where dengue fever and malaria occur at some frequency in adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A sub-study using the control groups of a case-control study in French Guiana--originally designed to compare dengue and malaria co-infected cases to single infected cases--was performed between 2004 and 2010. In brief, 208 patients with malaria matched to 208 patients with dengue fever were compared in the present study. A predictive score of malaria versus dengue was established using .632 bootstrap procedures. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, age, tachycardia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and CRP>5 mg/l were independently associated with malaria. The predictive score using those variables had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.82-0.89, and the CRP was the preponderant predictive factor. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP>5 mg/L to discriminate malaria from dengue were of 0.995 (95%CI: 0.991-1 and 0.35 (95%CI 0.32-0.39, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The clinical and biological score performed relatively well for discriminating cases of dengue versus malaria. Moreover, using only the CRP level turned to be a useful biomarker to discriminate feverish patients at low risk of malaria in an area where both infections exist. It would avoid more than 33% of unnecessary parasitological examinations with a very low risk of missing a malaria attack.

  9. Evaluation of real-time PCR assay to detect Schistosoma mansoni infections in a low endemic setting

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Botelho-Lima, Lívia Souza; Moreira, João Paulo; Amorim, Maria; Pedro Luiz Silva PINTO; Heath, Ashley R; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, and 200 million people are estimated to be infected with schistosomiasis worldwide. In Brazil, schistosomiasis has been reported in 19 states, showing areas of high and medium endemicity and a wide range of areas of low endemicity (ALE). Barra Mansa in Rio de Janeiro state has an estimated prevalence of 1%. ALE represent a new challenge for the helminth control because about 75% of infected individuals are asymptomatic and ...

  10. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    Ana María Abréu-Vélez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  11. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    Ana María Abréu-Vélez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion : A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  12. Onchocerciasis transmission levels and Simulium damnosum complex biting activity at riverside and rice field sites in Sierra Leone.

    Davies