WorldWideScience

Sample records for onchocerciasis endemic areas

  1. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Wanji Samuel; Tendongfor Nicholas; Nji Theolbald; Esum Mathias; Che Julious N; Nkwescheu Armand; Alassa Fifen; Kamnang Geremy; Enyong Peter A; Taylor Mark J; Hoerauf Achim; Taylor David W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great pot...

  2. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis

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    Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

  3. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

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    Wanji Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the treatment, 97.5% complied by the end of six weeks. No serious side effect was registered during the six week treatment. Conclusion This study indicates that when empowered the community health implementers can successfully deliver doxycycline for six weeks for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The therapeutic coverage and the compliance treatment rate achieved in this study coupled to the known efficacy of doxycycline on O. volvulus, are indicators that the strategy involving the mass administration of doxycycline can be used to control onchocerciasis in those areas of co-endemicity with loiasis where ivermectin may be contraindicated.

  4. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

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    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2011-01-01

    Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1) the disease symptoms, (2) the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3) the ivermectin distribution process, and (4) the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions. PMID:21637349

  5. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

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    Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

  6. Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania. It has also been introduced in Yemen. Onchocerciasis is also found in some countries of Latin ...

  7. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

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    Tekle Afework; Elhassan Elizabeth; Isiyaku Sunday; Amazigo Uche V; Bush Simon; Noma Mounkaila; Cousens Simon; Abiose Adenike; Remme Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onc...

  8. Prevalence of depigmentation of the shins: a simple and cheap way to screen for severe endemic onchocerciasis in Africa.

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    Carme, B.; Ntsoumou-Madzou, V.; Samba, Y.; Yebakima, A.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of skin depigmentation in the pretibial region is closely correlated in the adult Congolese population with conventional indices (microfilarial index, mean microfilarial density, cyst index) for the evaluation of endemic onchocerciasis. Individuals over 15 years of age in endemic villages who had a microfilarial index of 80-90%, had a cystic index of 60-70% and a pretibial depigmentation index about 20% (30-40% for individuals aged > 50 years). Thus, in Africa, this new evaluat...

  9. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

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    Tekle Afework

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA, and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

  10. Community directed interventions for malaria, tuberculosis and vitamin A in onchocerciasis endemic districts of Tanzania.

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    Kisinza, W N; Kisoka, W J; Mutalemwa, P P; Njau, J; Tenu, F; Nkya, T; Kilima, S P; Magesa, S M

    2008-10-01

    In recognising the success attained through community-directed treatment with Ivermectin, there has been a growing interest to use a similar approach for delivery of interventions against other communicable diseases. This study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the impact of community directed intervention (CDI) on delivering five health interventions namely Vitamin A supplementation (VAS), community-directed treatment with Ivermectin (CDTi), distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), directly observed treatment of tuberculosis (DOTS), and home-based management of malaria (HMM). The study was carried out in onchocerciasis endemic districts of Kilosa, Muheza, Lushoto, Korogwe and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. A total of 250 households were involved in the study for the period of two years. During the first year, one new intervention was added in each study district. A second new intervention was then added in the same manner during the second study year. In the control district all interventions, with the exception of Ivermectin distribution, continued to be delivered in the traditional manner throughout the study period. Results showed that Ivermectin treatment coverage in the CDI districts (88%) was significantly (P0.05). The DOTS treatment completion rate was observed only in Korogwe where 4 out 7 patients had completed their treatment. The proportions of pregnant women and <5 years children sleeping under ITN in the CDI districts (range: 83-100%) were significantly higher (P< 0.05) than those in the control district (40-43%). There was also a higher proportion of malaria cases referred in the intervention districts (42%) than in the control district (21%) (P<0.005). Likewise, the proportion of <5 years children who were presumptively diagnosed with malaria and received appropriated treatment within 24 hours in the intervention districts (17-29%) was higher than those in the control district (4%) (P<0.005). The costs incurred per integrated programme in the intervention districts were much lower than those in the control district. In conclusion, our results showed higher coverage of interventions in the CDI districts without necessarily increasing the cost. PMID:19402585

  11. Feasibility of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: First Evidence from Studies in Mali and Senegal

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    Diawara, Lamine; Traoré, Mamadou O.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konaté, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Sarr, Moussa D.; Seck, Amadou F.; Toé, Laurent; Tourée, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

    2009-01-01

    The control of onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is based on annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment of populations at risk. This has been effective in controlling the disease as a public health problem, but it is not known whether it can also eliminate infection and transmission to the extent that treatment can be safely stopped. Many doubt that this is feasible in Africa. A study was undertaken in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci in Mali and Senegal where treatment has been given...

  12. Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America

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    Cristian Lizarazo O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy

  13. Histochemical enzyme variation in Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae from rain-forest and Sudan-savanna areas of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa

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    Omar, M. S.; Prost, A; Marshall, T. F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Histochemical staining methods for acid phosphatase were used to study the differences among microfilariae of various West African strains of Onchocerca volvulus in both forest and Sudan-savanna onchocerciasis zones. The results have shown statistically significant differences in the staining patterns of microfilarial populations in the two zones. In the rain-forest areas, where onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense and S. squamosum, there were no sig...

  14. Progress in controlling the reinvasion of windborne vectors into the western area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa.

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    Baker, R H; Guillet, P; Sékétéli, A; Poudiougo, P; Boakye, D; Wilson, M D; Bissan, Y

    1990-06-30

    Since vector control began in 1975, waves of Simulium sirbanum and S. damnosum s.str., the principal vectors of severe blinding onchocerciasis in the West African savannas, have reinvaded treated rivers inside the original boundaries of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. Larviciding of potential source breeding sites has shown that these 'savanna' species are capable of travelling and carrying Onchocerca infection for at least 500 km northeastwards with the monsoon winds in the early rainy season. Vector control has, therefore, been extended progressively westwards. In 1984 the Programme embarked on a major western extension into Guinea, Sierra Leone, western Mali, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. The transmission resulting from the reinvasion of northern Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso has been reduced by over 95%, but eastern Mali has proved more difficult to protect because of sources in both Guinea and Sierra Leone. Rivers in Sierra Leone were treated for the first time in 1989 and biting and transmission rates in Sierra Leone and Guinea fell by over 90%. Because of treatment problems in some complex rapids and mountainous areas, flies still reinvaded Mali, though biting rates were approximately 70% lower than those recorded before anti-reinvasion treatments started. It was concluded that transmission in eastern Mali has now been reduced to the levels required to control onchocerciasis. PMID:1976266

  15. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal

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    Traore, Mamadou O.; Sarr, Moussa D.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

    2012-01-01

    The control of onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is based on annual or six-monthly treatment with ivermectin of populations at risk. This has been effective in controlling the disease as a public health problem but it was not known whether it could also eliminate infection and transmission to the extent that treatment could be safely stopped. Many doubted that this was feasible in Africa. A study was undertaken in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci with seasonal transmission in...

  16. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

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    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Parasites Home Share Compartir Onchocerciasis FAQs On this ... infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds in ...

  17. Favus In A Non-endemic Area

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    Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M.; Bansal N

    2002-01-01

    Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

  18. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

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    Carmen Elena Contreras; Marcos de Donato; María Ana Rivas; Hectorina Rodulfo; Robert Mora; María Eulalia Batista; Norka Marcano

    2011-01-01

    In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Pla...

  19. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

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    Higazi TB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is also being considered for repurposing as a macrofilaricide to aid in the achievement of eradication. The managerial challenges existing at the population level also need to be addressed; these include drug-distribution fatigue, the need to include noncompliant people, civil unrest in endemic areas, political cross-border issues, restrictions of age and pregnancy, and complications due to integration with other treatment programs. It is likely that a panel of chemotherapeutic options, new and old, supported by strong and effective distribution systems will be the best way to address challenges of treatment and elimination of this infection. Future research should also address management of treatment and control, and consider how new treatment paradigms can be incorporated to meet time lines set for global elimination by 2025.Keywords: mass drug administration, ivermectin, macrofilaricides, challenges

  20. Laboratory toxicity of potential blackfly larvicides on some African fish species in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area.

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    Yameogo, L; Tapsoba, J M; Calamari, D

    1991-06-01

    The Onchocerciasis Control Programme of the World Health Organization uses larvicides to fight against the aquatic stages of the vector Simulium damnosum s.l., and thereby interrupt transmission of the disease. Since the appearance of resistance to Abate and chlorphoxim in certain cytotypes of the vector, the efficacy of many possible replacement insecticides has been tested and the impact of the best of them (permethrin, cyphenothrin, pyraclofos, and carbosulfan) on the aquatic fauna evaluated. PMID:1868781

  1. Revisión epidemiológica de la Oncocercosis en América Latina / Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guadalupe C, Rodríguez C; Cristian, Lizarazo O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La oncocercosis es una enfermedad exclusiva del ser humano, caracterizada por prurito intenso, lesiones dérmicas y daño ocular que puede llegar a la ceguera. Las regiones endémicas están limitadas a zonas con latitud, relieve, temperatura y humedad relativa óptimas para el desarrollo del parásito y [...] el insecto vector. Estas zonas se encuentran en el oeste de África, Yemen y algunos países de América latina. El parásito es transmitido a través de la mordedura de una mosca del género Simulium, que al alimentarse de sangre deposita larvas del parásito. En América se creó el Programa de Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), cuya estrategia es la administración de ivermectina y la nodulectomía para eliminar la oncocercosis como amenaza de salud pública en la región. Abstract in english The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Th [...] ose zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (OEPA) was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy.

  2. Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.

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    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2010-09-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099

  3. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

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    Carmen Elena Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  4. [Mass treatment of onchocerciasis in 1996].

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    Chovet, M; Carlier, C; Queguiner, P; Mariko, S

    1995-01-01

    Mass treatment of onchocerciasis has changed radically in the last 20 years. With implementation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), use of insecticides to control vector larvae has been effective but has not been extended to all infected areas due to the cost. The consequences of this problem have been lessened thanks to ivermectin, an effective drug that can be administered in a single yearly dose. Although ivermectin does not appear to induce major side-effects, surveillance is necessary after administration in polyparasitized subjects living in zones where loaiasis is present and in hypermicrofilaremic subjects. To assist in the fight against onchocerciasis, ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the Mectizan Foundation by Merck Laboratories. Inexpensive community distribution programs with active participation of the populations at risk have demonstrated their usefulness. The results of mass treatment through the Mectizan Foundation have been excellent. Non-governmental organizations and in particular the Organization for the Prevention of Blindness (OPB) have become increasingly involved in the fight against onchocerciasis. The campaign conducted by the OPB in Mali, Senegal and Guinea illustrate this involvement. The role of non-governmental organizations expanded greatly with the implementation of the APOC programme supported by the World Bank. PMID:10906977

  5. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

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    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  6. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

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    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  7. Modelling onchocerciasis transmission and control

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisier, A. P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the World Health Organization (WHO) coordinated Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) used this slogan for evaluating fifteen years of control of the parasitic disease onchocerciasis and for expressing its optimism about the future. Based on the obvious success of OCP and on the availability of a safe and effective drug (ivermectin), the UNDP/World BanklWHO Special Programme for Research & Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has announced onchocerciasis ...

  8. Use of Geographic Information Systems in the development of prediction models for onchocerciasis control in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; McNally, K

    2005-03-01

    A risk assessment model was developed for onchocerciasis distribution and its control in Ethiopia using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. GIS data analysis was done to generate 3 separate risk models using selected environmental features of (1) earth observing satellite data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) prepared from AVHRR sensor data of the Global land 1-km project for the years 1992 and 1995, (2) FAO agroclimatic databases from the Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region of East Africa, and (3) a climate-based forecast index based on the growing degree days (GDD) and water budget concepts. Parasitological data used for the analysis were published and unpublished reports of onchocerciasis surveillance made between 1969 and 2000 in various parts of the country. Analysis of queries based on 1992 and 1995 annual wet and dry season data of the Global land 1-km project resulted in a predictive value of 95.1%, 94.0% and 96.3%, respectively, using data values extracted from buffers centered on sites above 5% prevalence. The model based on CPSZ data predicted an endemic area that best fit the distribution of sites over 5% prevalence; the query was based on CPSZ values of average altitude (442-2134 m), annual mean temperature (18-28 degrees C), annual rainfall (822-1980 mm), annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938 mm), rain minus potential evapotranspiration (-124 - 792 mm), average NDVI x 100 (2000-5000) and average terrain percent slope (9-34). The climate-based model based on GDD and water-budget predicted high risk to severe risk areas in the western and southwestern parts of the country. All three of the models predicted suitable areas for the transmission of onchocerciasis outside known endemic areas, suggesting the need for ground-based validation and potential application to current community-directed treatment programs with ivermectin (CDTI) for control of onchocerciasis in Ethiopia. PMID:16044682

  9. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teeyapant Punthip; Srijantr Pongsant; Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Wongvilairattana Jintana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North E...

  10. Sibling species distributions of the Simulium damnosum complex in the west African Onchocerciasis Control Programme area during the decade 1984-93, following intensive larviciding since 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, D A; Back, C; Fiasorgbor, G K; Sib, A P; Coulibaly, Y

    1998-10-01

    During the decade from 1984 to 1993, nine species of the Simulium damnosum complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were identified from the area covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. These were S. damnosum s.s., S. dieguerense, S. konkourense, S. leonense, S. sanctipauli, S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, S. squamosum, and S. yahense. Some of these species were found to consist of two chromosomal variant populations. These were S. konkourense 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms, S. sanctipauli sensu stricto and 'Djodji' form, S. soubrense 'Chute Milo' and 'Beffa' forms. The distribution of these twelve cytological taxa was assessed in relation to the two main vegetation zones of West Africa (forest and savanna), topography, river size and other factors. The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement and river water level. The most widely distributed species were S. sirbanum and S. damnosum s.s., associated with savanna areas, recorded from all river basins. Simulium dieguerense was restricted mainly to Western Mali on the Rivers Bafing and Bakoye in the Senegal River basin. Simulium squamosum was identified from rivers draining mountainous areas in both the forest and savanna zones. Simulium yahense was found in small permanent rivers along a wide forested band parallel to the coast and was absent from the plains of Togo and Benin. Members of the S. sanctipauli subcomplex had restricted distributions except for S. sanctipauli s.s., which was widespread in large rivers of the forest zone from Sierra Leone to the Volta Lake in Ghana. Simulium soubrense 'Beffa' form occurred in Togo and Benin, S. soubrense 'Chutes Milo' form in Guinea, both 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms of S. konkourense occurred predominantly in Guinea and S. leonense in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the distribution maps and the importance of the data bank to vector control larvicidal operations are discussed. PMID:9824818

  11. Community participation in the control of onchocerciasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braide, E I; Obono, M O; Bassey, S A

    1990-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis is reported to occur in all States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria with serious medical, social and economic impact on affected communities. Attempted control schemes have failed because of reinvasion caused by limited area coverage, short duration of the scheme and non-involvement of the affected communities. As the Nigeria National Onchocerciasis Control Programme (NOCP) takes off with baseline data collection, it is essential to point out the need for community participation in the programme. Information obtained from group interviews in 8 villages in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, reveal that ignorance of the cause of onchocerciasis. Location of villages and farms near fast flowing waters and outdoor working habits, have resulted in continued endemicity of the disease in the affected poor farming communities. For successful control of the disease, the communities should be involved in all stages of the control programme. During the preparatory stage, control officials should carry out intensive health education; encourage, and assist in, formation of village health committees (VHC) and selection of village based workers (VBW); and work with the VHC and VBW in developing skeletal control plans and deciding on input from community. During screening for prevalence, communities will, if adequately mobilized, accommodate field workers, act as field guides and interpreters and cooperate despite conflicting religions and traditional beliefs and practices. Before chemical treatment of breeding sites of Simulium, permission will be required from the communities, members of which will, if trained, take part in the exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2378223

  12. Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanini Evelim Coelho

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  13. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools.

  14. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  15. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  16. Climatic characteristics of areas with lymnaeid snails in fascioliasis endemic areas of Mendoza Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematodiasis which is both emerging and spreading all over the world, with important human endemic areas in South America. Its prevalence in Argentina, and particularly in Mendoza Province, appear to be high. This study was designed to characterise the main climatic conditions of sites in endemic areas of fascioliasis where freshwater snails of the Lymnaeidae family (the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica) are present. This was done by analysing the sites by digital climatic analysis using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software, coupled with information gained through earlier research. Temperature showed a small dispersion among sites, possibly indicating that temperature may have a greater influence on the distribution of lymnaeids than precipitation. Also there was convergence in the dispersion graphic between the values for 'minimum temperature of the coldest month' and 'precipitation of the driest month', showing that these aspects could be considered as limitations to the snails' survival. It is concluded that lymnaeid snails have great adaptability and survival capacities, enabling them to colonise and survive in extreme and diverse environments such as the high altitudes of the Andes and the arid plains of central Mendoza Province. The impact of global climate change should not be overlooked as a factor enhancing vector spread. (author)

  17. TERRITORIAL INVESTIGATION OF DONJA TRNAVA VILLAGE AS ENDEMIC AREA 22 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojin Savi?

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic nephropathy is a renal disease of unknown aetiology, which occurs endemically and affects individuals from risk families, with latent but progressive natural course and fatal outcome. In earlier territorial investigations, endemic areas were found along the Juzna Morava River: Brestovac, Kutles, Trupale, Gornja i Donja Toponica, Luzane, Nozrina, Moravac and other settlements. The last extensive studies of endemic nephropathy in these villages were conducted in 1981. These investigations showed that 2.7% of inhabitants along the right side of Juzna Morava River, in Donja Trnava village, suffered from endemic nephropathy. In the present study, a total of 291 persons (153 female and 138 male, aged 7 to 77, were investigated. Diagnosis of endemic nephropathy was made according to the natural history, physical examination and urine analysis. Two persons or 0.68 % (one with chronic renal failure, and the other with an end-stage renal disease, on haemodialysis treatments had endemic nephropathy. Eight persons (or 2.75% suffered from other renal diseases. There were no urothelial tumors, which was confirmed in previous studies. Based on these investigations, a total of 39 persons from 29 risk families was selected for further examinations and following-up at the Institute of Nephrology and Haemodialysis in Nis.

  18. Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

  19. Elimination of human onchocerciasis: history of progress and current feasibility using ivermectin (Mectizan(®)) monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, E W; Sauerbrey, M; Richards, F

    2011-09-01

    We review and analyze approaches over a 65 year period that have proven successful for onchocerciasis control in several different epidemiological settings. These include vector control with the goal of transmission interruption versus the use of mass drug administration using ivermectin (Mectizan(®)) monotherapy. Ivermectin has proven exceedingly effective because it is highly efficacious against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae, the etiological agent of onchocercal skin and ocular disease and the infective stage for the vector. For these reasons, the drug was donated by the Merck Company for regional control programs in Africa and the Americas. Recurrent treatment with ivermectin at semi-annual intervals also impacts adult worms and result in loss of fecundity and increased mortality. Using a strategy of 6-monthly treatments with high coverage rates, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas has interrupted transmission in seven of the thirteen foci in the Americas and is on track to eliminate onchocerciasis in the region by 2015. Treatments given annually or semi-annually for 15-17 years in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci in Mali and Senegal also have resulted in a few infections in the human population with transmission levels below thresholds postulated for elimination. Follow-up evaluations did not detect any recrudescence of infection or transmission, suggesting that onchocerciasis elimination could be feasible with Mectizan(®) treatment in some endemic foci in Africa. PMID:20801094

  20. Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazdins Janis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

  1. Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamarozzi Francesca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its implementation to compliment existing control strategies for onchocerciasis, where needed.

  2. Onchocerciasis distribution and severity in five West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sole, G; Baker, R; Dadzie, K Y; Giese, J; Guillet, P; Keita, F M; Remme, J

    1991-01-01

    The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa recently extended its operation to Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the western part of Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. To estimate the number of people infected and blinded by the disease and to determine its distribution and severity in the extension area, 215 villages were selected, using a stratified random sampling procedure, and surveyed. All the relevant entomological information available at the time was used in the sampling procedure and in the selection of 92 non-representative villages that were surveyed to confirm the findings. In addition, the populations of 608 villages were examined to map out in detail the distribution of onchocerciasis in the areas at a high risk of onchocercal blindness. The study estimated that 1,475,367 people were infected and 23,728 were blinded from onchocerciasis out of a rural population of 4,464,183. The northern and western part of the study area and the lower Niger basin presented a low or no risk of onchocercal blindness. The upper Niger basin, the south-central part of Sierra Leone, and three small foci in the Gambia, Bakoye, and lower Niger river basins were areas with a high risk of onchocercal blindness. The other parts of the study area presented a medium risk of onchocercal blindness. By detecting the communities at risk of onchocercal disease this study permits the selection of populations for disease control based on mass distribution of ivermectin, a microfilaricide. PMID:1786617

  3. Onchocerciasis distribution and severity in five West African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, G; Baker, R; Dadzie, K. Y.; Giese, J; Guillet, P.; Keita, F.M.; Remme, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa recently extended its operation to Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the western part of Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. To estimate the number of people infected and blinded by the disease and to determine its distribution and severity in the extension area, 215 villages were selected, using a stratified random sampling procedure, and surveyed. All the relevant entomological information available at the time was used in the sampling procedure and in t...

  4. Reproductive performance in sows in relation to Japanese Encephalitis Virus seropositivity in an endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Johanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Ståhl, Karl; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is considered an important reproductive pathogen in pigs. Most studies of the reproductive impact of JEV have been conducted in areas where the disease occurs in seasonal epidemics. In this study, the associations between seropositivity for JEV, measured with an IgG ELISA, and the number of piglets born alive and stillborn were investigated in a tropical area endemic for JEV in Vietnam. Sixty percent of sows from four farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam were...

  5. Neglected Human Fascioliasis Case in a Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Area, North-Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    "Gh Mowlavi; Mamishi, S.; Mb, Rokni; Mobedi, I.; Mj, Gharaguzlo; Ashrafi, K.; Mas-coma, S.

    2010-01-01

    "nArdabil Province, northwestern Iran, is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis of Mediterranean type from many years ago. This situation might cause to underestimate other important diseases, which occur spo­radically within the same area. In this case, a 6-year-old male patient in this area was treated as in­fected with visceral leishmaniasis initially with seropositive result for visceral leishmaniasis. After­wards, histo­pathological study of crashed mate...

  6. Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

  7. Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta G, Cavalcanti; Margareth MI, Gonçalves; Magali M, Barreto; Aline Helen da, Silva; Kalil, Madi; José Mauro, Peralta; Ricardo P, Igreja.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. ma [...] nsoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

  8. Endemic goiter in Morocco (Skoura-Toundoute areas in the high atlas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaron, R; Zarrouck, K; el Jarari, M; Ababou, R; Talibi, A; Ardissone, J P

    1993-01-01

    Endemic goiter in Morocco is localized in the Rif and Atlas mountains. In this study, performed in the Skoura-Toundoute areas (high Atlas), we demonstrate that iodine deficiency is the main factor involved in the development of endemic goiter. However it may not constitute the only etiological factor. The median urinary iodine excretion, measured on untimed samples, was low both in goitrous patients, m = 18 micrograms/l (n = 109) and in non goitrous subjects, m = 24 micrograms/l (n = 47). The value found in a nonendemic region (Casablanca) was much higher m = 117 micrograms/l (n = 67). Another approach to evaluate iodine intake per day was the analysis of iodine content of some samples of cereals (barley, wheat and corn), drinking water, sea and rock salt, cow and breast milk. Iodine content is low, specially in the endemic area: barley = 90 micrograms/kg (n = 1); wheat = 227 micrograms/kg (n = 1); corn = 91 micrograms/kg (n = 1); water = 0.92 to 1.30 micrograms/l (n = 3); cow milk = 6 to 33 micrograms/l (n = 10) breast milk = 10 to 55 micrograms/l (n = 14); rock salt = 420 to 660 micrograms/kg (n = 8); sea salt = 90 to 160 micrograms/kg (n = 4). Sodium chloride intake per day, estimated by the measurement of sodium and chloride urinary excretion, is normal both in the Skoura-Toundoute areas (10.7 g and 9.8 g for goitrous and nongoitrous subjects, respectively) and in Casablanca (10.9 g for control persons). Altogether the results demonstrate the importance of introducing the practice of iodinated salt in the prophylaxis of endemic goiter in this area. PMID:8445160

  9. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonse Ouédraogo; Tiono, Alfred B.; Amidou Diarra; Christiane Bougouma, Edith C.; Amp Bi Amp, Issa N.; Konat Amp, Amadou T.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4%) contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum). Out of the 369 (28.2%) women with peripheral ...

  10. Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly endemic areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, W. J.; Medley, G. F.; Nokes, D. J.; O Callaghan, C. J.; Whittle, H. C.; Hall, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses meta-analysis of published data and a deterministic mathematical model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission to describe the patterns of HBV infection in high endemicity areas. We describe the association between the prevalence of carriers and a simple measure of the rate of infection, the age at which half the population have been infected (A50), and assess the contribution of horizontal and perinatal transmission to this association. We found that the two main hyper-endemi...

  11. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Tveit Ingvar; Walde Anna; Søbstad Øystein; Schimmer Barbara; Nygård Karin; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped bas...

  12. Are homosexual males a risk group for hepatitis A infection in intermediate endemicity areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, J.; Dal-re?, R.; Gonza?lez, A.; Del Romero, J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A (anti-HAV) in a population of homosexual men compared with that of heterosexual men in an area of intermediate HAV endemicity (Madrid, Spain). A total of 148 patients were recruited in a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic: 74 homosexuals (mean age of 28 +/- 5 years) and 74 heterosexuals (29 +/- 5 years). The prevalence of anti-HAV antibody was 47% and 43% for homo- and heterosexuals, respectively. Among ...

  13. Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires; Luciane Marinoni

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Prim...

  14. Are homosexual males a risk group for hepatitis A infection in intermediate endemicity areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J.; Dal-Ré, R.; González, A.; del Romero, J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A (anti-HAV) in a population of homosexual men compared with that of heterosexual men in an area of intermediate HAV endemicity (Madrid, Spain). A total of 148 patients were recruited in a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic: 74 homosexuals (mean age of 28 +/- 5 years) and 74 heterosexuals (29 +/- 5 years). The prevalence of anti-HAV antibody was 47% and 43% for homo- and heterosexuals, respectively. Among the factors evaluated (age, sexual orientation and practices, travel to high HAV endemicity areas) oral-anal contact was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of anti-HAV antibody (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-7.4; P = 0.03). These results indicated that in an area of intermediate endemicity young homosexual men are not at increased risk of having acquired hepatitis A infection than heterosexuals. Oral-anal contact is an independent risk factor that influences the presence of anti-HAV antibody, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:8760962

  15. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  16. Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

  17. Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amanda Ciprandi, Pires; Luciane, Marinoni.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of [...] two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

  18. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not at all.

  19. Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?

    OpenAIRE

    RASELIMANANA, ACHILLE P; Daniel Rakotondravony; Gilbert Razafimanjato; The Seing Sam; Tolojanahary R. A. Andriamalala; Marius Rakotondratsima; Russell Thorstrom; Lily-Arison Rene de Roland; Jeanneney Rabearivony; Michel Rakotoson

    2010-01-01

    The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar). These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha) and Mandrozo (15,145 ha) in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha) in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of ...

  20. Gentamicin-Attenuated Leishmania infantum Vaccine: Protection of Dogs against Canine Visceral Leishmaniosis in Endemic Area of Southeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, Hamid; Namazi, Mohammad Javad; Kamiabi, Hossein; Burchmore, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Phillips, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    An attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum H-line) has been established by culturing promastigotes in vitro under gentamicin pressure. A vaccine trial was conducted using 103 naive dogs from a leishmaniosis non-endemic area (55 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated) brought into an endemic area of southeast Iran. No local and/or general indications of disease were observed in the vaccinated dogs immediately after vaccination. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated after 24 months (4 s...

  1. Genital Schistosomiasis Leading to Ectopic Pregnancy and Subfertility: A Case for Parasitic Evaluation of Gynaecologic Patients in Schistosomiasis Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Tieru Dassah; Atta Owusu-Bempah; Alexander Tawiah Odoi

    2013-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a significant risk factor for ectopic pregnancy and infertility in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. A case of one previous ectopic pregnancy and subsequent obstruction of the contralateral tube in a secondary subfertility patient with chronic genital schistosomiasis is presented, emphasizing the need for a detailed history and parasitic evaluation of patients presenting with ectopic pregnancy or subfertility in areas where the disease is endemic.

  2. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases)cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  3. O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima / The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Augusto Pinto de, Moraes; Anthony J., Shelley; Antonio Paulino A. Luna, Dias.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da per [...] iferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela. Abstract in english A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located [...] at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

  4. High prevalence of Fasciolopsis buski in an endemic area of liver fluke infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Chaiyakhun, Yunyong

    2002-07-01

    There is a high prevalence of Fasciolopsis buski in Sawasdee Village in the Nam Som District, Udonthani Province in northeastern Thailand, an endemic area of liver fluke infection. From stool examination of 183 villagers participating in the study, the authors detected a fluke parasitic infection rate of 14.8% (27 cases). Of interest, the authors found a similar high prevalence of both Opisthorchis viverrini (16 cases, 8.7%) and F buski (13 cases, 7.1%). This region is the endemic area of liver fluke, not of F buski. The surrounding environment is the hill area of Nayoong Namsom mountain, which is not a suitable area for F buski larvae. However, the village has been inhabited by a number of immigrants from various regions of Thailand over the past few years. The F buski can be carried by these people, possibly explaining the migration of the fluke parasite to this setting. The nonendemic parasite infection was also detected at high prevalence in the community. Wide spectrum control for various parasitic infections in villages like Sawasdee is necessary. PMID:12466749

  5. Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain

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    De la Fe Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

  6. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36 old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

  7. Assessment of fluoride intake through food chain and mapping of endemic areas of Gaya district, Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sumeet; Yasmin, Shahla

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of Fluoride (F) was found in the soil and vegetation of the F-endemic villages of Gaya district, Bihar, India. The mean F level in the groundwater of F non-endemic (control) area was 0.59 ± 0.03 (n = 11), while that of F-endemic area was 2.36 ± 0.23 (n = 27). Water soluble F (WSF) and total F (TF) in the soil of F-endemic villages were significantly higher as compared to the F non-endemic area. Similarly, WSF and TF in the vegetables and the grain crops (cereals, legumes and oilseeds) of the F-endemic area were significantly higher as compared that of the control area. Leafy vegetables showed higher accumulation of F with WSF and TF in spinach ranging from 3.62 to 4.82 and 9.88-12.88 mg/kg respectively. The WSF and TF in coriander ranged from 9.66 to 10.88 and 23.11-25.73 mg/kg respectively. PMID:25293392

  8. Satellite data transmission and hydrological forecasting in the fight against Onchocerciasis in west Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Eric; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Bader, Jean-Claude; Boyer, Jean-Francois

    1990-09-01

    Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is an endemic disease which causes great hardship in west Africa. Within the World Health Organization's Onchocerciasis Control Program (WHO/OCP), reliable data on the discharge of the watercourses have been obtained by using remote satellite transmission. These data are necessary to calculate how much insecticide should be introduced into the rivers. A description of the equipment and its use is followed by an initial report covering the functioning of the equipment, its efficiency and the economies attained. The improvement in the resulting treatment and the reduction in the running costs of the programme are discussed. Software for forecasting the discharge over different time intervals was developed by ORSTOM at the request of the OCP. The different functions of this software (PERLES) are described. In conclusion, the advantages of remote transmission techniques for operational hydrology in general are discussed (flood warning systems, hydrological networks, etc.).

  9. Lyme arthritis in Southern Norway - an endemic area for Lyme Borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haugeberg, Glenn; Hansen, Inger Johanne W; Skarpaas, Tone; Noraas, Sølvi; Kjelland, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite Southern Norway is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis there is a lack of data on Lyme arthritis (LA). In the literature controversies exist if acute LA can develop into chronic arthritis. Our objective was to identify and characterize patients with LA in Southern Norway and explore disease course after antibiotic treatment.Methods: Patients aged 20 years or older with arthritis and a positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi infection (IgG and/or IgM) suspected of havin...

  10. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 ?g per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 ?g for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 ?g/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 ?g/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 ?g/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the community level in Thailand.

  11. How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?

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    B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DA, Cerino; J, Veloso; TF, Perles; PD, Zanzarini; MVC, Lonardoni; TGV, Silveira.

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent a [...] ntibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  13. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  14. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Mirian Almeida Felipe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8% out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881, only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  15. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilana Mirian Almeida, Felipe; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Oliver, Kuppinger; Max Diego Cruz, Santos; Maurício Eduardo Salgado, Rangel; David Soeiro, Barbosa; Aldina, Barral; Guilherme Loureiro, Werneck; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. [...] infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  16. Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

  17. Predominance of Mycobacterium fortuitum-chelonae complex in Ghatampur field area, endemic for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, M; Katoch, K; Parashar, D; Sharma, P; Das, R; Chauhan, D S; Sharma, V D; Katoch, V M

    2008-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are commonly found in the environment. As exposure to environmental mycobacteria has been reported to immunomodulatory in this study, the presence of environmental mycobacteria was investigated in soil, drinking water and drainage sample in Ghatampur, India, which is known for high endemicity for leprosy. Soil, drinking water from the hand pumps/wells and also drainage water collected in pools was collected in clean containers and cultured for environmental mycobacteria. Samples were processed according to the protocol established earlier. 69 soil, 62 drinking water and 31 drainage water samples were analysed from soil and water collected from 48 villages of this field area. After decontamination, cultures were set upon Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium. Mycobacteria were identified using biochemical tests and molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 kD and rpoB region as well as 16S ribosomal sequencing in case of isolates showing variable biochemical features. NTM (non-tubercular mycobacteria) were isolated from 47.82% of soil samples, 20.69% of drinking water samples and 19.35% of the drainage water samples, overall mycobacteria could be isolated 52/162 of samples (32.09%). Among these mycobacteria, M. fortuitum-chelonae complex was predominant in this area; other species isolated were M. phlei, M. vaccae, M. terrae and M. flavescens. Relevance of exposure to these mycobacteria on endemicity needs to be studied by immunological and epidemiological parameters. PMID:20329381

  18. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

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    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  19. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães Ricardo J; Langa Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo José; Ca, Clements Archie; Nery Susana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predic...

  20. Asymptomatic Infection with Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Disease-Endemic Area in Bihar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topno, Roshan K.; Das, Vidya N. R.; Ranjan, Alok; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmender; Kumar, Nawin; Siddiqui, Niyamat A.; Singh, Vijay P.; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Narendra; Bimal, Sanjeev; Kumar, Annadurai Jeya; Meena, Chetram; Kumar, Ranjeet; Das, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out in a cohort of 355 persons in a leishmaniasis-endemic village of the Patna District in Bihar, India, to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic persons and rate of progression to symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. At baseline screening, 50 persons were positive for leishmaniasis by any of the three tests (rK39 strip test, direct agglutination test, and polymerase chain reaction) used. Point prevalence of asymptomatic VL was 110 per 1,000 persons and the rate of progression to symptomatic cases was 17.85 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate ratio of progression to symptomatic case was 3.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75–15.01, P = 0.09) among case-contacts of VL compared with neighbors. High prevalence of asymptomatic persons and clinical VL cases and high density of Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies can lead to transmission of VL in VL-endemic areas. PMID:20810810

  1. Effects of ethiodol on T3 kinetics in endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T3 kinetics were carried out in 32 children (11-15 years old) of a mild endemic goiter area. The incidence of goiter of the whole school population was 19% (Ia or Ib degree of the WHO). The mean urinary iodine was 84 ? g/d+-3. Six months before this investigation, 10 of the children received 2 ml of ethiodol by mouth and the other 22 (control group-CG) a placebo. The kinetics studies were carried out using less than 0,5 ? Ci of I-125 per Kg b.w. and the single injection method, non compartimental analysis. The CG shows, distribution volumen (V) 20.1+-0.6; serum T3 (sT3) 1.55 ng/ml+-0.03; plasma T3 T1/2 21.6+-0.6 and production rate (PR) 27.4? g/d+-1.2. The treated group (TG): V, 17.3+-0.6; sT3 1.48 ng/ml+-0.09; T1/2 17.6+-0.6 and PR 25.9? g/d+-1.4. The TG, after 6 months of ethiodol administration, showed a decrease of the distribution volume and a slight reduction in serum T3 values. As a consequence a significant diminution on the T3 extrathyroidal pool and an increase on the T3 plasma clearance (0.68 l/h+-0.01 in CG versus 0.73+-0.3 in TG) were observed. The production ratewas similar in both groups. These results indicate that the administration of ethiodol to children of a not severe endemic goiter area, produces moderate changes in the different parameters of T3 peripheral metabolism, which compensate each other and lead to similar final values on T3-PR, that were previously normal in these cases. This mechanism reflects the role of thyroid homeostasis in ma the role of thyroid homeostasis in maintaining euthyroidism in these children of an endemic goiter area with decreased iodine supply. (Author)

  2. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for the majority of the cases.

  3. Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Carabin Hélène; Escalona Marisela; Marshall Clare; Vivas-Martínez Sarai; Botto Carlos; Joseph Lawrence; Basáñez María-Gloria

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged > or =15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the...

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  5. [Childhood malaria in endemic areas: epidemiology, acquired immunity and control strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogier, C

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity in endemic areas. The incidence and severity of malaria depends on various entomological, parasitological, environmental, and human factors. Clinical presentation and epidemiologic features vary according to genetic factors, personal behavior, and immune status. Populations exposed to frequent infection may develop partial labile protective malarial immunity at the price of high morbidity and mortality due to ineffectiveness of antimalarials. Malarial immunity affects not only mortality and severity of malaria but also uncomplicated malarial attacks and plasmodium infection. The number of determining factors involved in relatively limited but, like a game of chess, their possible combinations are numerous. A better understanding of malaria is necessary to plan and implement effective control strategies. That is the aim of this review. PMID:14763300

  6. A Cystic Mass does not Always Mean Hydatid Cyst in Endemic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Abdullah; Oral, Akgun; Akin, Melih; Erginel, Basak; Ali Karadag, Cetin; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Within the medical community, there is a tendency to describe all cystic lesions in the liver and lungs as Hydatid disease (HD) in areas with HD endemics. This approach may sometimes cause a misdiagnosis. We have three cases with children aged between seven, seven and ten year old, all of whom had been diagnosed, via radiologic imaging, with HD cysts and started on treatment without confirmation. The true diagnoses of these cases were undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES) in two and oesophageal duplication in one case, respectively. The indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA) were obtained in two of them. Although their results were negative, albendazole treatment was started in all cases. Confirmatory tests should be run in dubious cases. An IHA test can aid the diagnosis, although its effectiveness is limited. The possibility of false positive and negative results always exists, especially in lung cysts. A percutanous biopsy is strongly advised for differential diagnosis. PMID:25610299

  7. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveit Ingvar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped based on address of residence, and attack rates and relative risks were calculated for each water supply zone. A case control study was conducted among people living in the central area of Bergen using age- and sex matched controls randomly selected from the population register. Results The outbreak investigation showed that the outbreak started in late August and peaked in early October. A total of 1300 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database gave an estimate of 2500 cases treated for giardiasis probably linked to the outbreak. There was a predominance of women aged 20–29 years, with few children or elderly. The risk of infection for persons receiving water from the water supply serving Bergen city centre was significantly higher than for those receiving water from other supplies. Leaking sewage pipes combined with insufficient water treatment was the likely cause of the outbreak. Conclusion Late detection contributed to the large public health impact of this outbreak. Passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases is not sufficient for timely detection of outbreaks with non-endemic infections.

  8. Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies nen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

  9. Study of the incidence and etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in an endemic goiter area after treatment with iodine enriched salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed in a severe endemic goiter area, Chengde district including 7 counties, after treatment with Iodine enriched salt, and Beijing city as a control area. From May 1985 to Sep. 1991, 26570 newborns in Beijing city and 16227 in Chengde were screened. The incidence of primary hypothyroidism in Beijing city was 1/8800 and that in Chengde 1/8100. Of all the 5 Ch detected, 3 from Beijing city and 2 from Chengde, were thyroid dysgenesis. Not a single case of endemic goiter cretinism (including both myxedematous and neurological cretinism) was found in our study. We conclude that Iodine deficiency is the only cause of endemic cretinism and this problem can be solved by Iodine enriched salt treatment

  10. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa, Luz; James Lee, Crainey; Anthony John, Shelley; Miguel, Rubio.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasi [...] te distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  11. Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

  12. Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh

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    Bashar Kabirul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs, pyrethrum spray (PS, and human bait (HB from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. Results In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71% was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67% and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%. All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094, 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784, whereas, six by PS (n = 549 and four species by HB (n = 29. Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (?2 test, P Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%, followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64% and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%. Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63 and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24 showed strong relative preferences (Bi for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others. Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was accessible. The remaining 12 species preferred bovines as hosts. Conclusions The observed high anthropophilic nature of An. baimai, An. minimus s.l., and An. annularis revealed these species to be important malaria vectors in hilly areas of Bangladesh. Higher values of HBI in outdoor-resting mosquitoes indicated that indoor collection alone is not adequate for evaluating malaria transmission in the area.

  13. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  14. Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality. PMID:24291677

  15. Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

  16. Diet of the endemic Madeira Laurel Pigeon Columba trocaz in agricultural and forest areas: implications for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Patricia; Oliveira, Paulo; Nogales, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The diet of the endemic Madeira Laurel Pigeon Columba trocaz in agricultural and forest areas of Madeira Island was studied in 1997 by means of microhistological analysis of 157 faecal samples, 94 from two of the main agricultural zones and 63 from a laurel forest. Cabbage was the most important component of the diet in agricultural areas, representing more than 54% of the optical fields analysed. Samples collected further from the forest contained a higher proportion of cabbage. Native fruit...

  17. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Anayansi Valderrama; Mara Garcia Tavares; José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2011-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in...

  18. Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Mélika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

    2011-01-01

    Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors ...

  19. Effect of Environmental Disturbance on the Population of Sandflies and Leishmania Transmission in an Endemic Area of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Nieves; Luzmary Oraá; Yorfer Rondón; Xe Nchez, Mireya S.; Xe Nchez, Yetsenia S.; Masyelly Rojas; Maritza Rondón; Maria Rujano; Nestor González; Dalmiro Cazorla

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of new wilderness areas with crops is increasing and traditional crop substitution has been modified by new more productive crops. The results show the anthropogenic disturbance effect on the sandflies population and Leishmania transmission in endemic areas of Venezuela. Three agroecosystems with variable degrees of ecological disturbance, forest (conserved), cacao (fragmented), and orangery (disturbed), were selected. Four methods to sandfly capture were used; the specimens ...

  20. Primary motives for demand of ivermectin drug in mass distribution programmes to control onchocerciasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwuoma Abanobi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis is a disease with a spectrum of manifestations suffered by different infected people. Based on individual perceptions and manifestations presented, demand for the drug Ivermectin was due to different motives and priorities during mass distribution programmes. Subjects and Method: This study presents findings from a sample of 594 persons out of a total of 35,763 treated individuals who voluntarily demanded Ivermectin treatment during a community-based Ivermectin distribution exercise. The distribution, which took place in 2008, was mass distribution of the microfilaricide to control onchocerciasis in endemic communities of Ezinihitte in the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. The subjects who were selected by quota sampling procedure on the basis of community and gender, were asked to rank-order six plausible reasons for seeking treatment in terms of their order of importance in motivating them to demand Ivermectin. Results: “To gain treatment and prevention of Skin Problems” and “Desire to be De-wormed” ranked first and second respectively. “To gain promotion of general wellbeing” and “To improve state of vision and prevent blindness” ranked third and fourth respectively. In the fifth and sixth rank-order positions were “To prevent hanging groin” and “to prevent/relieve enlargement of the scrotum or clitoris” in that order. A test of hypothesis to determine if there was significant agreement among treated persons on the rank order of importance of their reasons for demanding Ivermectin gave a Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance of W = 0.62, p <.001. Conclusion: The findings are interpreted within the framework of the major postulations of the health belief model with consideration to perceptions of severity of the conditions and belief that submitting to treatment will abate the perceived risk of the conditions. The role of endemicity of specific manifestations of onchocerciasis in lay assessment of risk of this disease is also discussed.

  1. Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 1dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

  2. Hypothyroidism in women above 35 years in an endemic area recently under iodine supplementation: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of greater Mymensingh is known of iodine endemicity. Association of IDD with hypothyroidism is well established phenomenon. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to thyroid dysfunction. 150 consecutive female patients of 35 plus years, who attended the Resident Physician of Mymensingh Medical College were invited to assay free T3, free T4 and TSH in CNMU, Mymensingh. Residencies of these patients were in the various districts of greater Mymensingh. 150 volunteers were offered to give their blood for the study. 134 attended CNMU, Mymensingh. Mean age was 45.03 + 6.65 y (mean + STD). Age ranged from 35 to 60 years. 24 (17.91%) had overt or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Full blown hypothyroidism with low FT3, FT4 and high TSH were seen in 6 (4.48%) cases. 18 (13.43%) showed elevated TSH level with normal FT4 and T3, suggesting sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is high in this area. (author) 1 fig., 23 refs

  3. Morphology and Histology Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Oil Palm Roots in Ganoderma boninense Endemic Area

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    ELIZABETH CAROLINE SITUMORANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi defined as fungi that colonize internal plant tissues without causing visible damage to their host plant. As they are internal colonisers, therefore more able to compete within the vascular systems with capacity to arrest the spread of pathogens such as Ganoderma boninense causal agent of Basal Stem Rot (BSR disease in oil palm. Endophytic microbes acted against plant pathogen by antibiosis mechanism, nutrient and space competition, and induce plant pathogen resistance by producing metabolites. The objective of the present study was to identify endophytic fungi from oil palm roots in G. boninense endemic area Padang Halaban Estate, North Sumatera, based on morphological and histological character. At each site, five random palms were sampled. Seventy five endophytic fungi had been isolated and selected from BSR symptomless palm root. Identification of fungal endophytes were carried out by observing the reproductive structures (sexual and asexual under a light-field microscope with camera attachment. Seventy five isolates were classified to eight genera, consisting of Trichoderma (20, Fusarium (10, Aspergillus (5, Penicillium (5, Gliocladium (4, Phoma (4, Alternaria (4, and Curvularia (3. Twenty others were unidentified due to sterile mycelia.

  4. Microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fe, C; Assunção, P; Antunes, T; Rosales, R S; Poveda, J B

    2005-09-01

    In this work, we report a microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. undertaken between 2001 and 2002 in 28 goat herds in Gran Canaria, Spain, an area where contagious agalactia is endemic. All herds were randomly selected and represented approximately 15.5% of the total goat population of the island. A variable number of milk, articular and auricular swab samples were collected from each flock and cultured in specific mycoplasma culture media. There was a total of 38.5% positive flocks from which 37 mycoplasma isolates were obtained. In contrast with previous data obtained in Spain, our results showed that the large colony variant of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm LC) was the most commonly isolated agent associated with contagious agalactia. This species was isolated from 90% of the positive herds and accounted for 54.1% of all isolations. M. agalactiae was isolated from 40% of the positive herds (27% of all isolations) and in six herds M. arginini was isolated (18.7% of all isolations). No M. capricolum or M. putrefaciens strains were isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 milk samples, 15 ear canals swabs and one articular sample. The association of several species was reported in several herds. These results are at variance with previous serological studies, which indicated a higher disease prevalence, and suggest that it could be necessary to use detection techniques such PCR to confirm the existence of contagious agalactia in goats. PMID:15964226

  5. Ependymoma misdiagnosed as tuberculoma, misguided by overemphasis on MR spectroscopy in endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futane, Sameer; Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushant; Mulinani, Naveen; Vyas, Sameer

    2013-10-01

    Ependymomas and tuberculomas are common paediatric posterior fossa lesions in developing countries and may be confused with each other due to some overlapping features. The distinction is important as the treatment for each is entirely different. We have described three young children in whom clinical-radiological features and the lipid peak seen on MR spectroscopy suggested the diagnosis of posterior fossa tuberculomas. All of them were started on empirical anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Increase in size/no response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was disregarded as a paradoxical response. Finally, with clinical-radiological signs worsening, surgical excision was undertaken. Histopathology revealed ependymoma in all three children. This report highlights the overdiagnosis of tuberculosis in endemic areas due to biased clinical approach compounded by false positive investigations. Tissue diagnosis, though difficult by minimally invasive methods, should be sought before initiating ATT. The attempts to establish a tissue diagnosis should be continued even after starting empirical therapy, rather than waiting for the response. PMID:23832450

  6. Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rivian Christina Lopes, Faiolla; Mariana Correa, Coelho; Rodrigo de Carvalho, Santana; Roberto, Martinez.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in non-immunosuppressed individuals. [...] Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 and 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

  7. Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. PMID:24018199

  8. Biogeography of freshwater fishes from the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion: distribution, endemism, and area relationships

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila, Camelier; Angela M., Zanata.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ecorregião Mata Atlântica Nordeste (NMAF) inclui parte das drenagens costeiras do leste do Brasil, tem alto grau de endemismo de peixes e grande significado biogeográfico. Um levantamento taxonômico da ictiofauna de água doce de 25 drenagens da ecorregião NMAF e uma análise biogeográfica utilizand [...] o o método de Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismo (PAE) foram realizados. Um total de 192 espécies nativas foi listado. O método PAE foi aplicado a 24 bacias e 37 espécies, resultando em cinco diagramas de áreas igualmente parcimoniosos. O diagrama de consenso estrito indica a existência de dois grupos de bacias principais ao longo da ecorregião NMAF. Estes grupos foram denominados: Grupo Norte e Grupo Centro-Sul. O Grupo Centro-Sul apresenta uma politomia basal composta por dois grupos (Grupo Centro e Grupo Sul) mais a bacia do rio Itapemirim. O Grupo Norte é formado por oito drenagens entre o rio Sergipe e o rio Paraguaçu, o Grupo Centro por cinco drenagens entre o rio Cachoeira e o rio Jequitinhonha e o Grupo Sul por nove drenagens entre o rio Buranhém e rio Doce. Comentários sobre a distribuição das espécies e a fauna compartilhada com ecorregiões adjacentes são fornecidos. Apresentamos também uma comparação da hipótese de relação aqui obtida com filogenias publicadas para alguns táxons relevantes ao presente estudo. Abstract in english The Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion (NMAF) includes part of the eastern Brazilian coastal drainages, has high level of fish endemism and great biogeographic significance. A taxonomic inventory of freshwater fishes from 25 drainages of the NMAF ecoregion and a biogeographic analysis [...] using the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) method were carried out. A total of 192 native species was listed. The PAE method was applied to 24 basins and 37 species, resulting in five equally parsimonious area diagrams. The strict consensus diagram indicates the existence of two main groups of basins throughout the NMAF ecoregion. These groups were denominated: North Group and Central-South Group. The Central-South Group shows a basal polytomy composed by two Groups (Central Group and South Group) plus the rio Itapemirim basin. The North Group is composed by eight drainages from the rio Sergipe to the rio Paraguaçu, the Central Group by five drainages from the rio Cachoeira to the rio Jequitinhonha, and the South Group by nine drainages from the rio Buranhém to the rio Doce. Comments about the species distribution and the fish fauna shared with adjacent ecoregions are provided. We also present a comparison of the hypothesis of river relationships proposed herein with published phylogenetic hypotheses that include taxa relevant to this study.

  9. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Jr, Alberto A.; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K. C.; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H.; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  10. Tuberculous anal fistulas - prevalence and clinical features in an endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Douglas, Stupart; Paul, Goldberg; Anthony, Levy; Dhiren, Govender.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in anal fistulas at a referral hospital in Cape Town, and to document the clinical features and course of patients with tuberculous anal fistulas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of all patien [...] ts who underwent surgery for anal fistulas at the Colorectal Surgery Unit at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, from 2004 to 2006. Tissue was submitted for histopathological examination, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and TB culture. The patients with proven TB were followed up until January 2008. RESULTS: During the 3-year study period, 117 operations were performed on 96 patients. TB was diagnosed in 7 of the 96 patients (7.3%). In 5 of these 7 cases, the diagnosis of TB could be proven on histological examination and ZN staining, while in 2 cases the diagnosis could only be made on TB culture. None of the 7 patients had systemic features suggestive of TB, and only 1 had evidence of TB on a chest radiograph. Five patients were HIV-negative, and 2 declined testing. After a median follow-up of 2 years, 5 of 7 patients had evidence of recurrent or persistent fistulas, despite having completed 6 months of TB treatment. CONCLUSION: At a referral hospital in an endemic area, TB was present in 7.3% of anal fistulas. Histopathological examination including ZN staining was inadequate to make the diagnosis in a third of these patients. Tissue from anal fistulas should therefore routinely be sent for TB culture as well as histopathological examination and ZN staining in areas where TB is prevalent.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of environmental Legionella pneumophila isolates from an endemic area (Alcoy, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Olmos, María Piedad; Camaró, María Luisa; Adrián, Francisco; Calafat, Juan Miguel; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Environmental surveillance of Legionella pneumophila is a key component of the control measures established in urban settlements to ensure water safety and quality, with the aim of minimizing and limiting opportunistic infections in humans. In this work, we present results on the detection and genetic characterization of these bacteria in the outbreak-recurrent region of Alcoy (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) using water and biofilm samples. We were particularly interested in studying the presence and distribution of L. pneumophila in the absence of outbreak or sporadic cases of legionellosis and in comparing the efficacy of culturing from water samples with a biofilm-based detection procedure using molecular amplification. To this end, water samples were taken from 120 sites distributed all around the city and its surroundings, as well as 60 biofilm swabs from half of the sampling sites. L. pneumophila could be isolated from water in just 4 of the locations. Touchdown PCR was applied to DNA extracted from water and also biofilm swabs, as a rapid method for both routine and outbreak investigations. L. pneumophila was detected by this method in 14 of the sites in which both water and biofilms were taken, although 13 of them tested positive using only the biofilm samples. These results show a ten-fold increase in the success rate of Legionella detection over water samples. The application of this method to study the presence of L. pneumophila in the water-supply system and risk facilities of Alcoy revealed different strains distributed in different areas of the city. Sequence Type ST578, endemic in the area and responsible for most clinical cases, was detected in one of the sampling sites. The number of positive samples correlated with water temperature but not with chlorine levels. The direct analysis of biofilm swabs improves the detection rate and genetic characterization of L. pneumophila and can complement analyses based on bacterial culture. PMID:25511251

  12. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

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    Hossein Nahrevanian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP and nitric oxide (NO are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman and Northwestern (NW provinces (Ardabil. The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection. The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

  13. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hossein, Nahrevanian; Jafar, Gholizadeh; Mahin, Farahmand; Mehdi, Assmar.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria g [...] roups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

  14. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrevanian, Hossein; Gholizadeh, Jafar; Farahmand, Mahin; Assmar, Mehdi

    2008-02-01

    In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax) with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear. PMID:18368235

  15. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.A, Otubanjo; G.O, Adeoye; C.A, Ibidapo; B, Akinsanya; P, Okeke; T, Atalabi; E.T, Adejai; E, Braide.

    1635-16-01

    Full Text Available La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con [...] reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC). Abstract in english Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa [...] loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

  16. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A Otubanjo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%, edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%, erupciones cutáneas (3% y debilidad (2%; dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC.

  17. Effects of the application of trichinellosis control program in an endemic area in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teši? M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals, caused by a parasite from the Trichinellidae family and Trichinella genus. Humans get infected by consuming infected and inadequately thermally treated meat from domestic or wild animals containing cocooned infective larvae of T. spiralis. Aside from health problems caused by trichinellosis as a zoonosis, there is no doubt that it represents a serious economic problem for swine meat producers. The research in this paper has been performed in Serbia, in a region which is located at the confluence of two large rivers, and it is the geographical location which makes it an endemic area for the presence of T. spiralis. Epidemiological data pertains to the period of 1995-2003, but also to the period 2003-2009, when the implementation of the program for control and eradication of trichinellosis was complete. The diagnostic testing of cadavers of slaughtered swine for the presence of T. spiralis in the period of 1995-2003 included 41.04% of the slaughtered swine, out of which 0.4281% were positive, and the amount of economic loss was 95301000 dinars or about one million EUR. The infection was confirmed in 432 patients during the research period. The preparation of the program for the control and eradication of trichinellosis has been made in accordance with applicable laws and technological standards, with a clear determination of input and output using a cost-benefit analysis. The effects of its application show a reduction in the number of swine which are positive for the presence of T. spiralis by a factor of three times (p<0.01, and the present net value (PNV and the benefit/cost ratio (B/C show economic and epidemiological justification.

  18. Parasitic infections and immune function: effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boef, Anna G C; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J; Maier, Andrea B; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Eriksson, Ulrika K

    2013-05-01

    According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential allergens. To elucidate the effect of current helminth infections on immune responsiveness in humans, we measured cytokine production in a rural Ghanaian population in an area with multiple endemic parasites including malaria, intestinal helminths and protozoa. Multiplex real-time PCR in stool samples was used for the detection of four gastrointestinal helminths, of which only Necator americanus was commonly present. A similar assay was used to test for Giardia lamblia in stool samples and malaria infection in venous blood samples. Levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-17, IL-6, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-? were determined in whole-blood samples ex vivo-stimulated either with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan (for innate cytokine production) or the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). There were no significant differences in either innate or PHA-stimulated cytokine production dependent on current N. americanus infection. Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection was associated with a pro-inflammatory response indicated by increased innate production of TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-6. There was no clear pattern in cytokine responses dependent on G. lamblia-infection. In conclusion, in this rural Ghanaian population current N. americanus infections are not associated with altered immune function, while infection with P. falciparum is associated with pro-inflammatory innate immune responses. PMID:22999162

  19. Evaluation of a sticky trap for collecting Aedes (Stegomyia) adults in a dengue-endemic area in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Facchinelli, L; Koenraadt, CJ; Fanello, C.; Kijchalao, U; Valerio, L; Jones, JW; Scott, TW; Della Torre, A.

    2008-01-01

    Development of new operational techniques for collection and monitoring of adult Stegomyia mosquitoes is considered a pressing need for surveillance and prevention of arboviruses. Here we report the results from a trial carried out in 2 dengue-endemic villages in Thailand to compare the ability to collect Aedes adults of a sticky trap versus a CDC backpack aspirator, which has been used routinely at the study area for entomological/epidemiological surveys. Our comparison was based on a compar...

  20. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Nahrevanian; Jafar Gholizadeh; Mahin Farahmand; Mehdi Assmar

    2008-01-01

    In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produce...

  1. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Gouveia; Rosely Magalhães de Oliveira; Adriana Zwetsch; Daniel Motta-Silva; Bruno Moreira Carvalho; Antônio Ferreira de Santana; Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel

    2012-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmenta...

  2. Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin Jean-Paul; Baudon Dominique; Migliani René; Pognant Corinne; Todesco Alain; Michel Rémy; Marimoutou Catherine; Romand Olivier; Ollivier Lénaïck

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. Methods In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS) reminder message via mobile device to r...

  3. Atypical memory B cells are greatly expanded in individuals living in a malaria-endemic area1

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Greta E.; Crompton, Peter D.; Li, Shanping; Walsh, Laura A.; Moir, Susan; Traore, Boubacar; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ongoiba, Aissata; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Pierce, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological observations in malaria endemic areas have long suggested a deficiency in the generation and maintenance of B cell memory to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) in individuals chronically reinfected with the parasite. Recently, a functionally and phenotypically distinct population of FCRL4+ hypo-responsive memory B cells (MBCs) was reported to be expanded in HIV-infected individuals with high viral loads. Here we provide evidence that a phenotypically similar atypical MBC population is...

  4. Accumulation of iodine-123 in thyroid and urinary excretion of iodine in an area of endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid radioiodine uptakes decreased from 52.4% (1982, 24-hours, 131J) to 30.5% (1981, 123J). The severity of scintigraphic findings decreased as well, although the incidence of nodules remains definitely high. The excretion of iodine was found to be 53.28 ?g/g creatine and is low compared with the present uptakes. It characterizes an area of endemic goitre degree I, borderline to degree II. (orig.)

  5. Malaria Vector Surveillance in Ganghwa-do, a Malaria-Endemic Area in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Sung Suck; Hur, Myung Je; Joo, Gwang Sig; Kim, Sung Tae; Go, Jong Myoung; Kim, Yong Hee; Lee, Wook Gyo; Shin, E Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the seasonality of Anopheles mosquitoes, including its species composition, density, parity, and population densities of mosquitoes infected with the parasite in Ganghwa-do (Island), a vivax malaria endemic area in the Republic of Korea. Mosquitoes were collected periodically with a dry-ice-tent trap and a blacklight trap during the mosquito season (April-October) in 2008. Anopheles sinensis (94.9%) was the most abundant species collected, followed by Anopheles belenrae (3.8%)...

  6. IgM-Immunofluorescence Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Herminia Yohko Kanamura; Rita Maria da Silva; Silvia Gabriel Chiodelli; Carmen Moreno Glasser; Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    2002-01-01

    The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic areas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schis...

  7. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Costa de Carvalho; Letícia Helena dos Santos Marques; Luciana Inácia Gomes; Ana Rabello; Luiz Cláudio Ribeiro; Kezia Katiane Gorza Scopel; Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá; Elaine Soares Coimbra; Clarice Abramo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive ...

  8. Phylogeography of var gene repertoires reveals fine-scale geospatial clustering of Plasmodium falciparum populations in a highly endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Sofonias K; Monk, Stephanie L; Schultz, Mark B; Tavul, Livingstone; Reeder, John C; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major global health problem that is being targeted for progressive elimination. Knowledge of local disease transmission patterns in endemic countries is critical to these elimination efforts. To investigate fine-scale patterns of malaria transmission, we have compared repertoires of rapidly evolving var genes in a highly endemic area. A total of 3680 high-quality DBL?-sequences were obtained from 68 P. falciparum isolates from ten villages spread over two distinct catchment areas on the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Modelling of the extent of var gene diversity in the two parasite populations predicts more than twice as many var gene alleles circulating within each catchment (Mugil = 906; Wosera = 1094) than previously recognized in PNG (Amele = 369). In addition, there were limited levels of var gene sharing between populations, consistent with local parasite population structure. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrate that while neutrally evolving microsatellite markers identified population structure only at the catchment level, var gene repertoires reveal further fine-scale geospatial clustering of parasite isolates. The clustering of parasite isolates by village in Mugil, but not in Wosera was consistent with the physical and cultural isolation of the human populations in the two catchments. The study highlights the microheterogeneity of P. falciparum transmission in highly endemic areas and demonstrates the potential of var genes as markers of local patterns of parasite population structure. PMID:25482097

  9. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anayansi, Valderrama; Mara Garcia, Tavares; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

    1049-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this s [...] pecies has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  10. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayansi Valderrama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  11. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama. PMID:22241132

  12. Natural infections with promastigotes in man-biting species of sand flies in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Goméz Landires, E A; de Coronel, V V; Mimori, T; Kawabata, M

    1985-05-01

    In order to determine the vectors of leishmaniasis in Ecuador, 1,054 man biting sand flies from the Department of Cañar were dissected and examined for promastigotes. There were 2 man-biting species, Lu. trapidoi and Lu. hartmanni in this endemic area of the disease. The infection rates were 7.7% in the former and 3.9% in the latter species, demonstrating the different rates in various localities and altitudes of the study areas. There was an association between infection rates and the time of day, suggesting some connection with biting activity of sand fly species. In collections using human bait at 7 study areas in 5 Departments, 6 man-biting species were recognized, indicating different dominant species in each area. It was assumed that the dominant species would play an important role as the principal vector of leishmaniasis in each endemic area. As to species determination of the present Leishmania promastigotes, suffice it to say that the parasites are Leishmania sp., presumably L. braziliensis s.l., until the isolates have been typed. PMID:4003661

  13. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID:25996946

  14. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  15. The vector control operations in the onchocerciasis control programme in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchocerciasis is a dermal filariasis transmitted to man by a blood sucking blackfly belonging to the Simulium genus. The most serious manifestations of the disease are blindness and debilitating skin lesions. Africa is by far the most affected continent both in terms of distribution and severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. That is the reason why an ambitious regional onchocerciasis control project, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), was launched in 1974 (Molyneux 1995). The objective is to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem and as an obstacle to socio-economic development and to ensure that the countries are in a position to maintain these achievements. Seven countries were concerned at the beginning of the programme), delimiting the 'initial area' (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo). In 1988, the OCP began operations in the 'western extension', an additional four countries in the West (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone) and extended operations into the 'southeastern extension' (south Benin, Ghana and Togo). The rationale for these extensions related to findings that the vectors were able to migrate and hence re-invade controlled areas over several hundred kilometres (Garms et al. 1979). Until 1989, in the absence of a non-toxic drug which could be used on a wide scale to kill the adult worm, the vector control strategy was the only method to interrupt the transmis the only method to interrupt the transmission of the blinding form of the parasite until the adult worm in the human body was eliminated (the maximum duration of the adult worm is estimated to be about fourteen years). In the late 1980s, ivermectin, a microfilaricide which is the only drug available to date, became an integral part of the OCP control strategy (Webbe 1992). In the extension areas, larviciding is still going on with satisfaction, combined with the distribution of ivermectin. In pursuing this combined therapeutic and vector control strategy, the whole of the basins treated should be freed from blinding onchocerciasis by the year 2002 at the latest, which is the end point of the programme activities

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of a nationwide inoculation programme against viral hepatitis B in an area of intermediate endemicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, G. M.; Berger, S; SHOUVAL, D

    1992-01-01

    The large decrease in the cost of vaccines against hepatitis virus B prompts a re-examination of nationwide vaccination campaign strategies. The present study estimates the costs and benefits that would result from a viral hepatitis B prevention programme (with no prior screening) targeted at all under-16-year-olds in Israel in 1990 and only neonates in the period 1991-2034. Israel is situated in an area of intermediate endemicity, where the majority of HBsAg carriers are anti-HBe positive. S...

  17. Imported African histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient 40 years after staying in a disease-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, Clémence; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Lanternier, Fanny; Benzaquen-Forner, Hélène; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Picard, Capucine; Catherinot, Emilie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is a rare disease outside central and western Africa. In Europe, all cases are imported. We report a case of an African histoplasmosis with isolated pulmonary involvement in a non-immunocompromised patient that occurred 40 years after his stay in a disease-endemic area. The patient was given itraconazole. (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography was used to assess evolution during treatment. The outcome for the patient was favorable. PMID:25246691

  18. IgM-Immunofluorescence Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanamura Herminia Yohko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic areas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schistosomiasis in the rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil. In each survey, blood samples from about 600 schoolchildren were collected on filter paper and submitted to IgM-IFT. When the blood samples were classified for the IgM antibody levels, according to the intensity of fluorescent reaction observed at fluorescence microscopy, and correlated to the egg counts in the Kato-Katz positive patients, no association was observed. This observation might suggest that the intensity of fluorescence observed in the IgM-IFT, as an indicator of IgM antibody levels, could not be an useful seroepidemiological marker for classifying areas of low endemicity according to degrees of infection.

  19. Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals? 1.5 m height and ? 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of the studied population preferred fruit trees while 5% wereinterested in some medicinal plants. Preference of this nature indicates that in the future, the plantdiversity in these home gardens is likely to decline considerably. This might even lead to theextinction of rare, endemic plant species. Therefore, people in northern flank encouraged toincorporate multipurpose endemic plants and plants with less IVI values in their home gardens inorder to maintain high diversity and to conserve endemic and relatively rare plants while gainingsubstantial income through their home gardens.Keywords: Northern Flank, Home gardens, Conservation, Woody-perennials, Endemic species

  20. Onchocerciasis Control: Vision for the Future from a Ghanian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mand Sabine; Hoerauf Achim; Edwards Geoffrey; Debrah Alex; Churcher Thomas S; Boatin Boakye; Bockarie Moses; Boakye Daniel; Biritwum Nana; Basáñez María-Gloria; Awadzi Kwablah; Taylor Mark J; Matthews Graham; Osei-Atweneboana Mike; Prichard Roger K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since 1987 onchocerciasis control has relied on the donation of ivermectin (Mectizan®, Merck & Co., Inc.) through the Mectizan Donation Programme. Recently, concern has been raised over the appearance of suboptimal responses to ivermectin in Ghana – highlighting the potential threat of the development of resistance to ivermectin. This report summarises a meeting held in Ghana to set the research agenda for future onchocerciasis control. The aim of this workshop was to define the rese...

  1. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danillo de Souza, Pimentel; Rafael Antonio Nascimento, Ramos; Marília de Andrade, Santana; Carina Scanoni, Maia; Gílcia Aparecida de, Carvalho; Hernande Pereira da, Silva; Leucio Câmara, Alves.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600), and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with [...] positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (S7(r)Biogene). RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600) presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  2. The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

  3. Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    KA, Oliveira; LS, Oliveira; CCA, Dias; A, Silva Jr; MR, Almeida; G, Almada; DH, Bouyer; MAM, Galvão; CL, Mafra.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF). This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espír [...] ito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi), Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

  4. Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Amir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Gabriel Costa de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

  6. IgM-Immunofluorescence Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herminia Yohko, Kanamura; Rita Maria da, Silva; Silvia Gabriel, Chiodelli; Carmen Moreno, Glasser; Luiz Candido de Souza, Dias.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity and the ability to diagnose schistosomiasis in a very early phase after infection have indicated the detection of IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut antigens by the immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) as a useful serological test for epidemiological studies in low endemic a [...] reas. When applied in a follow-up study for two years, higher rates of seroconversion from IFT negative to positive were observed during the summer months, suggesting seasonal transmission of schistosomiasis in the rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil). In each survey, blood samples from about 600 schoolchildren were collected on filter paper and submitted to IgM-IFT. When the blood samples were classified for the IgM antibody levels, according to the intensity of fluorescent reaction observed at fluorescence microscopy, and correlated to the egg counts in the Kato-Katz positive patients, no association was observed. This observation might suggest that the intensity of fluorescence observed in the IgM-IFT, as an indicator of IgM antibody levels, could not be an useful seroepidemiological marker for classifying areas of low endemicity according to degrees of infection.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Costa de, Carvalho; Letícia Helena dos Santos, Marques; Luciana Inácia, Gomes; Ana, Rabello; Luiz Cláudio, Ribeiro; Kezia Katiane Gorza, Scopel; Sandra Helena Cerrato, Tibiriçá; Elaine Soares, Coimbra; Clarice, Abramo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample [...] from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

  8. [Treatment of human onchocerciasis with ivermectin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, J P; Larivière, M; Gervais, M C; Gaxotte, P; Aziz, A; Deluol, A M; Cenac, J

    1983-11-01

    Twenty immigrants from Mali and West Senegal were treated in Paris. Onchocerciasis was diagnosed by six skin snips using a Holth punch. Ivermectine was given in a single oral dose: ten patients were given 50 mcg/kg, three were given 75 mcg/kg and seven received 100 mcg/kg. No patients had ocular symptoms. The results were as follows: Pruritus disappeared rapidly in 9 out of 11 patients who itched before treatment. The microfilarial load decreased rapidly, especially in cases treated with 75 mcg/kg and 100 mcg/kg as all patients tested on day 60 were negative. Clinical signs of the Mazzotti reaction and ocular reactions were not observed following the treatment. Pruritus was briefly aggravated in only two patients. No cardiovascular, hematological, hepatic or renal toxicity was noted. PMID:6689518

  9. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa? / Le traitement de masse par l'ivermectine peut-il éliminer l'onchocercose en Afrique ? / ¿Es posible eliminar la oncocercosis en África mediante la administración masiva de ivermectina?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Winnen; A.P., Plaisier; E.S., Alley; N.J.D., Nagelkerke; G., van Oortmarssen; B.A., Boatin; J.D.F., Habbema.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar las condiciones en que el tratamiento masivo con ivermectina reduciría la transmisión de Onchocerca volvulus en la medida suficiente para poder eliminar la infección en una comunidad de África. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un modelo de microsimulación de la transmisión de la oncocercosis [...] (ONCHOSIM) para analizar el efecto de diferentes intervalos de tratamiento, niveles de cobertura y niveles de endemicidad preintervención en la probabilidad de eliminación. RESULTADOS: Las simulaciones indican que las estrategias basadas exclusivamente en la administración masiva de ivermectina permitirían eliminar la oncocercosis. La duración del tratamiento requerido para eliminar la infección depende en gran medida del programa de tratamiento y de la endemicidad preintervención. En las zonas con niveles medios/altos de infección se necesitarían al menos 25 años de tratamiento anual masivo con una cobertura del 65%. Las predicciones del modelo muestran asimismo que en una situación de gran heterogeneidad en la exposición a las picaduras del vector, y grandes diferencias individuales por tanto en lo concerniente al recuento de microfilarias, el tratamiento debería prolongarse más de 35 años. Si el intervalo de tratamiento se redujera de 12 a 6 meses, la duración del programa podría reducirse a menos de la mitad y se podría lograr la eliminación en zonas de hiperendemicidad, siempre que cada tratamiento tuviera el mismo efecto que el tratamiento anual. Sin embargo, es dudoso que puedan mantenerse niveles altos de cobertura durante el tiempo suficiente para erradicar la enfermedad a escala mundial. CONCLUSIÓN: La eliminación de la oncocercosis de los focos más endémicos de África parece un objetivo alcanzable. Ahora bien, las condiciones para ello en lo tocante a la duración, cobertura y frecuencia del tratamiento pueden ser prohibitivas en las zonas de alta endemicidad. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implicatio [...] ns of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

  10. Onchocerciasis among school children in Kafa, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaw, H

    1999-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to determine the magnitude, manifestations, and practices related to Onchocerciasis on 1337 students of six junior secondary schools of Kafa Zone in January 1993. Information on symptoms of the disease and the frequency of common practices that would bring the subjects to the breeding sites was collected by interview, while physical measurements and clinical examination was used to collect data on visual acuity, nutritional status and objective manifestations of the disease. Skin snip from both gluteal areas was examined to determine the microfilarial rate and density of infection, while nutritional status using Body Mass Index for Age (BMI-for Age), and visual impairment following the standard procedures was categorized. The majority, 1179 (88.2%) of the subjects, were aged 15 years and less of which males constituted 54.5% (728). The overall microfilarial carrier rate was 15.6% (95% CI = 13.7-17.6%) while the density of infection was 1.4 mf/mg skin snip. The prevalence and density of infection varied significantly among the twelve aggregates of villages identified based on the similarity of the ecological feature and contiguity of home address of the students. Males had significantly higher rate and density of infection but the difference by age was not significant. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher among the students who had reported frequent bathing, swimming, fishing and collecting firewood at/or near the rivers identified as the probable breeding sites of the vector, while there was no statistically significant association between infection and washing clothes, fetching water or crossing over the rivers. Groin lymph nodes enlargement, photophobia and itching were the leading symptoms complained by the infected subjects. However, only itching and the objective features related to the cutaneous Onchocerciasis were significantly associated to the infection. Visual acuity didn't differ among positive and negative subjects. Nutritional status was significantly associated with Onchocercal infection. Based on these findings recommendations are given on the areas of intervention and further study. PMID:11961873

  11. Biting activity of two anthropophilic species of sandflies, Lutzomyia, in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Gomez, E A; De Coronel, V V; Mimori, T; Kawabata, M

    1985-10-01

    The biting patterns of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. hartmanni, vectors of leishmaniasis, were studied using a human bait in an endemic area on the Pacific slope of the Andes in Ecuador. The results suggest that Lu. trapidoi is primarily an early biter at dusk, with the first peak at 20.00-21.00 hours and the second at 03.00-04.00 hours; and that Lu. hartmanni bites more constantly throughout the night, with a pronounced peak between 23.00 and 24.00 hours. The biting activity, however, shows a marked variation at each site and between different collections at the same site. The activity and the biting places on man are discussed in relation to human infection with leishmaniasis in the area and the location of lesions on patients. PMID:4083963

  12. Effects of Annual Mass Treatment with Ivermectin for Onchocerciasis on the Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    Gutman, Julie; Emukah, Emmanuel; Okpala, Njideka; Okoro, Chinyere; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S.; Richards, Frank O.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of annual ivermectin (IV) distribution for onchocerciasis on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PAC) children by comparing children in villages that had received treatment for 13 years to those from socioeconomically similar villages in untreated areas. We enrolled 1,031 SAC and 211 PAC for Kato Katz examinations. Treated areas had a lower prevalence of Ascaris (SAC: 3% versus 12%, P < 0.0001; PAC: 3% v...

  13. Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela / Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexis, Fernández; Jaime, Ramírez-Pérez; Harland, Shuler; Noris, Rodríguez.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las már [...] genes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the [...] proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. and the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

  14. A community-based trial of ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in the forest of southwestern Cameroon: clinical and parasitologic findings after three treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somo, R M; Ngosso, A; Dinga, J S; Enyong, P A; Fobi, G

    1993-01-01

    In the onchocerciasis-endemic rain forest area of the Rumpi Hills in southwestern Cameroon, a community-based trial of ivermectin, given either once or twice a year over a three-year period (1988-1991), confirmed that the drug is a potent microfilaricide. The side effects recorded following the first treatment were edema, fever, pruritus, generalized body pains and lymphadenitis. Following subsequent treatments, the same adverse reactions were recorded, but these were generally milder when compared with those of the first treatment. The prevalence of skin microfilaria (mf) was more reduced in zone two, in which treatment was given every six months (76.9% reduction at the end of one year) than in the zone one, in which treatment was given once a year (7.4% reduction). In both zones, the impact of the drug in reducing the intensity of infection was more significant than that for prevalence. Besides pruritus, other skin symptoms were not significantly modified by ivermectin treatment. Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of ocular mf as well as the mf load of the anterior chamber of the eye, resulting in improvement of certain eye lesions such as punctate keratitis, anterior uveitis, and papillary anomalies. There was also some improvement in visual acuity. The level of participation of the village populations was somewhat low, ranging from 52% to 66%, despite excitement over the drug's additional benefit of expelling intestinal round worms. PMID:8427394

  15. Feeding sources and trypanosome infection index of Rhodnius pallescens in a Chagas disease endemic area of Amador County, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Vanessa; Montalvo, Edilma; Alvarez, Dayra; Santamaría, Ana María; Calzada, Jose Eduardo; Saldaña, Azael

    2008-01-01

    The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3% of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4%) for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4%. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90%). Between 47-51% of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51%) were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic. PMID:18488091

  16. Molecular typing of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from areas endemic for Leishmaniasis in Ecuador by PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yoshimi; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Uezato, Hiroshi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Surveillance of the distribution of sand fly species is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of Leishmania infection in endemic and surrounding areas. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes with the restriction enzyme AfaI and subsequently HinfI successfully identified seven sand fly species in nine endemic areas in Ecuador. Although intraspecific genetic-diversity affecting the RFLP-patterns was detected in a species, the patterns were species specific. The method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification of New World Lutzomyia species. PMID:18840964

  17. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  18. New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Liebherr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp precinctive to Mont Mauru, Tahiti, Society Islands are newly described: M. tutei sp. n., M. tihotii sp. n., M. putaputa sp. n., M. toretore sp. n., M. anaana sp. n., M. pirihao sp. n., and M. poro sp. n. These seven constitute the first representative Mecyclothorax species recorded from Mauru, and their geographic restriction to this isolated massif defines it as a distinct area of endemism along the highly dissected eastern versant of the Tahiti Nui volcano. Each of the new species has a closest relative on another massif of Tahiti Nui, supporting speciation associated with vicariance caused by extensive erosional valley formation, especially the development of Papenoo Valley. Comparison of the known elevational distributions of the new discoveries on Mont Mauru to the elevational diversity profile of the comparatively well-sampled Mont Marau, northwest Tahiti Nui, suggests that numerous Mecyclothorax species remain to be discovered in higher-elevation habitats of Mont Mauru.

  19. Rickettsia Species Infecting Amblyomma cooperi Ticks from an Area in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, Where Brazilian Spotted Fever Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Whitworth, Ted; Horta, Mauri?cio C.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Mcbride, Jere W.; Pinter, Adriano; Popov, Vsevolod; Gennari, Solange M.; Walker, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the potential role of the tick Amblyomma cooperi in the enzootic cycle of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), this study evaluated infection by Rickettsia species in A. cooperi ticks collected from an area in Brazil where BSF is endemic. Among a total of 40 A. cooperi adult ticks collected in an area of BSF endemicity in the state of São Paulo, PCR analysis detected DNA of Rickettsia bellii in 16 ticks (40%), and 3 other ticks (7.5%) were pos...

  20. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  1. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  2. Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

  3. High Prevalence of HTLV-1 Infection among Japanese Immigrants in Non-endemic Area of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Larissa M.; Uehara, Silvia N. O.; Asato, Marcel A.; Aguena, Gabriela S.; Maedo, Cristiane M.; Benites, Nikolas H.; Puga, Marco A. M.; Rezende, Grazielli R.; Finotti, Carolina M.; Cesar, Gabriela A.; Tanaka, Tayana S. O.; Castro, Vivianne O. L.; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana C. P.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Motta-Castro, Ana R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has worldwide distribution and is considered endemic in many world regions, including southwestern Japan and Brazil. Japanese immigrants and their descendants have a high risk of acquiring this infection due to intense population exchange between Brazil and Japan. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV, analyze the main risk factors associated with this infection, identify the main circulating types and subtypes of HTLV in Japanese immigrants and descendants living in Campo Grande-MS (Middle-West Brazil), as well as analyze the phylogenetic relationship among isolates of HTLV. Study Design A total of 219 individuals were interviewed and submitted to blood collection. All collected blood samples were submitted for detection of anti-HTLV-1/2 using the immunoassay ELISA and confirmed by immunoblot method. The proviral DNA of the 14 samples HTLV- 1 positive were genotyped by nucleotide sequencing. Results The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 6.8% (IC 95%: 3,5-10,2). Descriptive analysis of behavioral risk factors showed statistical association between HTLV-1 and age greater than or equal to 45 years. The proviral DNA of HTLV-1 was detected in all HTLV-1 positive samples. Of these, 14 were sequenced and classified as Cosmopolitan subtype, and 50% (7/14) belonged to subgroup A (transcontinental) and 50% (7/14) to the subgroup B (Japanese). Conclusion The high prevalence of HTLV-1 found evidence of the importance of early diagnosis and counseling of individuals infected with HTLV-1 for the control and prevention of the spread of this infection among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in Central Brazil. PMID:25886507

  4. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

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    Haq M Zahirul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in particular the range of spatial autocorrelation, reflect differences in the mode of transmission of cholera and dysentery. Our risk maps for cholera and dysentery incidences should help identifying putative factors of increased disease incidence, leading to more effective prevention and remedial actions in endemic areas.

  5. Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach

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    Carabin Hélène

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae, and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86% villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.

  6. Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico

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    Guillermina García-Juárez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of patients infected with brucellosis compared to a control population from the same geographic region. The quality of life of brucellosis positive and brucellosis negative individuals from rural and urban areas of Mexico was evaluated using the Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. This survey is a generic measure of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Brucellosis patients had lower overall quality of life compared with the controls. Brucellosis patients from rural areas had lower overall quality of life (P < 0.05 compared with brucellosis patients from urban areas. In conclusion, human brucellosis affects quality of life, with patients living in rural areas most severely impacted. This may be due to the lack of local public policies and programs for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of brucellosis.

  7. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  8. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey

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    Bahri Cakabay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years, primary school period (7-12 years and secondary school period (13-14 years. Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14. The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5 but differed by gender (P < 0.001. The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1 The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2 HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3 Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4 We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

  9. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

  10. Epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica em área de baixa endemicidade Epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemic area

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    Luis Candido de S. Dias

    Full Text Available Discutem se padr?es epidemiológicos da esquistossomos mansônica em áreas brasileiras de baixa endemicidade que possuem prevalência inferior a 10%, menos de 96 ovos por grama de fezes (epg e onde os infectados são assintomáticos. Apresentam-se dados do município de Pedro de Toledo (Vale do Ribeira, SP área de baixa endemicidade cujos resultados foram obtidos de amostragem aleatória devida à agregação de Schistosoma mansoni. Sugere-se substituição de métodos parasitológicos por técnicas sorológicas com maiores sensibilidade e especificidade. O principal fator de risco é o lazer. A infecção predomina nos grupos etários de 10-14, 15-19 e 20-24. A intensidade de infecção foi baixa, com 58,5 epg (média geométrica. Há boa correlação (rs = 0,745 entre intensidade de infecção e prevalência. Os mais altos índices de potencial de contaminação ocorreram nas idades de 5 a 20 anos (57,6%. Os casos autóctones mantêm íntimo contato com Biomphalaria tenagophila, com infecção inferior a 2%. Os padrões de prevalência, de incidência e de intensidade de infecção são semelhantes aos de áreas de moderada e alta endemicidade. Questões sócio-culturais merecem estudo para visão global da epidemiologia.We discuss the epidemiological patterns of schistosomiasis mansoni in areas with low transmission in Brazil. We define as areas of low endemicity those where the prevalence is less than 10%, the number Schistosoma mansoni eggs per gram of feces (epg is less than 96, and carriers are asymptomatic. Data are from the county of Pedro de Toledo in the Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State and were collected randomly according to the aggregate pattern of S. mansoni within the hosts. We suggest the replacement of parasitological methods by more sensitive and specific serological techniques. The main risk factor for infection is type of leisure activity. Infection is more frequent in the 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24-year age brackets. Geometric mean epg is 58.5. Intensity of infections correlates well (rs = 0.745 with prevalence. The highest index of potential contamination is in the 5-20-year age bracket (57.6%. Autochthonous cases show close association with Biomphalaria tenagophila, which has a low infection rate (2%. Prevalence, incidence, and intensity of infection patterns are similar to those of moderate and high endemic areas. Social and cultural aspects must be studied in order to obtain a global epidemiological view of schistosomiasis.

  11. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everton Falcão de, Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e, Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Antonio Conceição, Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo, Gamarra; Alisson André, Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distributio [...] n of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

  12. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Wolff, Machado; Pedro Fernando da Costa, Vasconcelos; Eliana Vieira Pinto, Silva; João Barberino, Santos.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases we [...] re present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  13. Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas / Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia Martins, Azeredo; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Maria Cristina Carvalho do, Espírito Santo; Maria Cristina, Chammas; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Aluizio, Prata; Carlos Mauricio Figueiredo, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci; Giovanni Guido, Cerri.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com nívei [...] s distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109); média endemicidade (n = 255) e alta endemicidade (n = 190). Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000). Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência) mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endem [...] icity levels: low (n = 109), medium (n = 255) and high endemicity (n = 190). The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000) protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index), most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand

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    Phompradit Papichaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be optimized, based on endemic areas with supporting data on G6PD variants. Larger sample size from different malaria endemic is required to obtain accurate genetic mapping of G6PD variants in Burmese and Thai population residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand.

  15. Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderson B, Leite; Ana RV de, Lima; Renata B, Leite; Rafael V, Santos; Johnathan EL, Gonçalves; Eliana MM, Rocha; Gilberto, Fontes.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; howeve [...] r, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

  16. Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson B Leite

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; however, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood. As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

  17. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rohani; Nwm, Ali Wan; Nor Zurainee M; Ismail Zamree; Hadi Azahari A; Ibrahim Mohd N; Lim Lee H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite im...

  18. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  19. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? / Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago D., Gonçalves-Coêlho; Matheus D. G., Coêlho.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocisticercose é a infestação do sistema nervoso central pelo Cysticercus cellulosae, a forma larval da Taenia solium. É relacionada a hábitos higiênicos e sanitários precários; embora o Nordeste seja a Região mais pobre do Brasil, foi sempre considerada área não-endêmica para neurocisticercose. [...] Depois da instalação de um serviço de tomografia computadorizada (TC), a incidência da neurocisticercose começou a crescer nos serviços de neurologia em Campina Grande PB, cidade para onde confluem pessoas de todo o interior paraibano à procura de serviços médicos especializados. Analisamos 5.883 TC realizadas no Serviço TomoHPI de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I de agosto de 1993 até dezembro de 1995 e 1,02% foram diagnosticadas como sugestivas de neurocisticercose e classificadas de acordo com idade e sexo, procedência e condições sócio-econômicas. A distribuição dos casos de acordo com a idade é homogênea até os 50 anos de idade (média: 28,36 anos). Homens e mulheres são afetados igualmente. Procedentes de áreas urbanas representam 83.33%. Residentes em Campina Grande representam 48.33% do total; 48,34% residem em cidades ao redor de Campina Grande (até 50 Km de distância) ou em outras cidades da Paraíba. Cincoenta e oito pacientes são dependentes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Concluimos que a neurocisticercose parece ser endêmica em nosso Estado, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados para que tal assertiva possa ser confirmada. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of co [...] mputed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, precedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraíba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  20. Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermina García-Juárez; Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca; Herna?ndez-calva, Luz M.; Va?zquez-va?zquez, Jose? D.; Alfonso Pérez-Sánchez; Budke, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of patients infected with brucellosis compared to a control population from the same geographic region. The quality of life of brucellosis positive and brucellosis negative individuals from rural and urban areas of Mexico was evaluated using the Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. This survey is a generic measure of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey ...

  1. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lyda, Osorio; Marcela, Uribe; Gloria Ines, Ardila; Yaneth, Orejuela; Margarita, Velasco; Anilza, Bonelo; Beatriz, Parra.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical d [...] iagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  2. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos F. D., Rocha; Carla da C., Siqueira; Cristina V., Ariani.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We fo [...] und remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  3. Biting Activities of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito at Filariatic Endemic Area Pabean Village Pekalongan Regency East Java Province

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pabean villages is a filariasis endemic areas caused by Whuchereria bancrofti parasite with incidence rate is 3.4% on year 2007. To determine biting activity of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes that been confirmed as filariasis’s vector, it been conducted a entomological survey as long as 5 months (from August up to December every 2 weeks that aimed to know mosquito???s peak biting and resting density in each hour catching. A survey was conducted using all night landing collection method from 18.00 am up to 06.00 pm. In each hour survey; indoor and outdoor landing mosquitoes and also resting mosquitoes on inside wall and cattle stable, will be caught using aspirator and put onto paper cup. A study result was showed that indoor peak of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes biting densi-ty is 20.00, 22.00 and 23.00 o’clock, whereas the outside peak one is 21.00, 24.00 and 02.00 o’clock; peak of resting on inside wall is 18.00 o’clock and cattle stable resting is 24.00 o’clock.

  4. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Cláudio; Costa, Antonio I P; Natal, Delsio

    2005-11-01

    The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58%) specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings. PMID:16410957

  5. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  6. Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

  7. DNA barcoding for identification of sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Arrunátegui-Jiménez, Martín J; Lañas-Rosas, Máximo F; Yañez-Trujillano, Henrry H; Luna-Caipo, Deysi V; Holguín-Mauricci, Carlos E; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-05-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the only proven vectors of leishmaniases, a group of human and animal diseases. Accurate knowledge of sand fly species identification is essential in understanding the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and vector control in endemic areas. Classical identification of sand fly species based on morphological characteristics often remains difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. Here, we generated DNA barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene using 159 adult specimens morphologically identified to be 19 species of sand flies, belonging to 6 subgenera/species groups circulating in Peru, including the vector species. Neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis based on Kimura 2-Parameter genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for all species. The levels of intraspecific genetic divergence ranged from 0 to 5.96%, whereas interspecific genetic divergence among different species ranged from 8.39 to 19.08%. The generated COI barcodes could discriminate between all the sand fly taxa. Besides its success in separating known species, we found that DNA barcoding is useful in revealing population differentiation and cryptic diversity, and thus promises to be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. PMID:25697864

  8. Retrospective study on the occurrence of the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus spp. in endemic areas of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Eleni, Claudia; De Liberato, Claudio; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Iorio, Raffaella; Malatesta, Daniela; Romanucci, Maria Rita; Bongiovanni, Laura; Cassini, Rudi; Traversa, Donato

    2015-02-01

    Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a metastrongyloid nematode infesting the respiratory system of domestic cats worldwide. Troglostrongylus brevior and Troglostrongylus subcrenatus, two lungworms thought to infest wild felids, have been found recently in domestic cats from Spain and Italy. These unexpected findings have raised doubts about the assumed past and present occurrence of Troglostrongylus spp., especially T.?brevior, in domestic hosts and suggest that there may have been missed detection or misdiagnosis. The present retrospective study evaluated the presence of lungworms in cats from Italy with a diagnosis of respiratory parasitism or with compatible lung lesions from 2002 to 2013. Sixty-eight samples of DNA and larvae from cats with a diagnosis of aelurostrongylosis, and 53 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung samples from cats confirmed as lungworm infested or with compatible lesions, were investigated using two DNA-based assays specific for A.?abstrusus or T.?brevior. All DNA and larval samples were positive for A.?abstrusus and one was additionally positive for T.?brevior. Most paraffin-embedded lung tissues were positive only for A.?abstrusus, but two samples tested positive for both lungworms and one for T.?brevior only. This study supports the major role of A.?abstrusus in causing feline respiratory parasitism in endemic areas of Italy. PMID:25577021

  9. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lyda, Osorio; Marcela, Uribe; Gloria Ines, Ardila; Yaneth, Orejuela; Margarita, Velasco; Anilza, Bonelo; Beatriz, Parra.

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical d [...] iagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  10. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olger, Calderón-Arguedas; Adriana, Troyo; Mayra E, Solano; Adrián, Avendaño; John C, Beier.

    1223-12-01

    Full Text Available La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la [...] otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis celdas (100x100m) fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales). La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii). La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y localidades fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Chi-cuadrado (?=0.05). Ocho de los tipos de larvas encontrados fueron identificados a nivel de especie (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. interrogator, C. nigripalpus, C. corniger, C. tarsalis, Limatus durhamii, Toxorhynchites theobaldi) y dos se identificaron a nivel de género (Culex sp., y Uranotaenia sp). A aegypti fue la especie más frecuente en la Gran Puntarenas. C. quinquefasciatus fue la segunda en frecuencia. Algunas localidades como Carrizal mostraron una importante diversidad de ambientes acuáticos que promovieron la ocurrencia de diferentes especies de culícidos. La distribución de los contenedores positivos por localidad en función de las especies encontradas no mostró homogeneidad (p>0.05). Aunque A. aegypti es el único vector documentado en la zona, otros mosquitos como C. quinquefasciatus y otras especies de Culex podrían ser potenciales vectores de otros agentes etiológicos (virus del Nilo occidental, virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, virus de la encefalitis equina del este). Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad considerar la presencia y la ecología de todas las especies de mosquitos en las campañas preventivas por dengue en el área, y en la vigilancia epidemiológica por otras enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Abstract in english Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry seaso [...] n. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.

  11. Neonatal thyroid screening in a mild iodine deficiency endemic area in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi Mohammad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Evaluated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as an early index for diagnosis of neonatal hypothyroidism, indicates insufficient supply of thyroid hormones. Objective : The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism and assessment of iodine deficiency in the eastern part of Iran. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted in a pilot screening. Materials and Methods : The measurement of blood TSH spotted on filter paper was performed by ELISA method in 59,436 neonates. TSH value equal to 5 mU/L was considered cut off point. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in neonates with the blood TSH higher than the cut off point was based on clinical examinations and laboratory tests (serum TSH and T4. Statistical Analysis: The groups were compared using chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results : In our study, the recall rate and incidence of hypothyroidism were 3.6% and 2 per 1000 neonates respectively. Based on the proposal made by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD, the results of our study showed a mild iodine deficiency in the area. Conclusions : A comprehensive policy should be developed for control of iodine deficiency and treatment of hypothyroidism in the studied population and neighboring countries.

  12. [Seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and associated factors in an endemic area of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Rodríguez-Bonfante, Claudina; Vielma, Belkys Oviol; García, Douglas; Saldivia, Alexander Mogollón; Aldana, Elis; Curvelo, Juan Luis Concepción

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated risk factors associated with positive serological status for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 26 rural communities including 905 households, 2,156 humans, and 333 dogs in Lara State, Venezuela. Serology was performed with ELISA and MABA. Data were obtained from entomological, demographic, and clinical surveys. Risk factors were determined through binary logistic regression. Seroprevalence was 7.24% in humans and 6.9% in canines. Positive serological status was positively associated with the Rhodnius prolixus vector, age, maternal history of Chagas disease, tobacco chewing, presence of mammals and birds in the household, household disarray, mud-and-wattle outbuildings, and animal nests and burrows in the peridomicile, and negatively associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, history of cancer, and storage deposits in the peridomile. In conclusion, Chagas disease in this rural area is an old phenomenon transmitted by R. prolixus or by the transplacental route, associated with socio-cultural habits related to poverty, sylvatic surroundings, and the host's medical history. PMID:22031196

  13. Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

  14. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2?, 5-dichloro-4?-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  15. Population genetic study of Plasmodium falciparum parasites pertaining to dhps gene sequence in malaria endemic areas of Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J; Dutta, P; Khan, S A

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite had developed resistance to almost all the currently used antimalarial drugs. The purpose of the study was to come across the genetic distances in P. falciparum dhps gene sequences circulating in Assam. A partial fragment of P. falciparum dhps gene containing major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sulphadoxine resistance were amplified and sequenced. Thereafter specific bioinformatics tools like BioEdit v7.0.9, ClustalW in Mega 5, DnaSP version v.5.10.01 etc were used for the analysis. A total of 100 P. falciparum positive cases in different malaria endemic areas of Assam were included for the study. Based upon the mutation analysis, a total of seven different P. falciparum dhps genotypes were observed with five variable sites. Maximum five haplotypes were found in the P. falciparum isolates from Jorhat district of Assam. Four polymorphic sites were observed in the P. falciparum dhps gene sequences in Karbi Anglong, NC Hills, Chirang and Jorhat whereas the isolates from other study areas had three polymorphic sites. A statistically significant positive value of Tajima's D were observed among the P. falciparum field isolates in Assam indicating that there is an excess of intermediate frequency alleles and can result from population bottlenecks, structure and/or balancing selection. Extensive gene flow took place among the P. falciparum population of Jorhat with Sivasagar, Chirang with Sivasagar and Chirang with Karbi Anglong. However, large genetic differentiation was observed among the P. falciparum isolates of NC Hills with Lakhimpur, Tinsukia, Dibrugarh and Golaghat and also the parasite population of Karbi Anglong with Lakhimpur and Tinsukia signifying little gene flow among the population. This finding has shown that mutant Pfdhps gene associated with sulphadoxine resistance is circulating in Assam. It is believed that, the parasite population may have undergone high level of breeding. PMID:26068343

  16. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  17. A high resolution melting real time PCR for mapping of filaria infection in domestic cats living in brugian filariosis-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkamchai, Sirichit; Nochote, Hathai; Foongladda, Suporn; Dekumyoy, Paron; Thammapalo, Suvit; Boitano, John J; Choochote, Wej

    2014-03-17

    We present here a real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for determining the prevalence and distribution of filarial species in domestic cats residing in brugian filariosis endemic areas of Narathiwat province, Thailand. Filarial species can be clearly distinguished in a single well using a single pair of primers. Blood samples were taken from a total of 2039 domestic cats living in endemic areas. Microfilariae were detected in 5.7% of the sample, while the overall prevalence of filaria infection by HRM analysis was 6.6%. The filariae species found in the infected cats were Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens as well as Acanthocheilonema (Dipetalonema) reconditum. This is the first report of A. reconditum infection from Thailand. The study also observed an overlapping of the distribution areas of animal and human filariae. From a public health perspective, the distribution and prevalence of these nematodes warrant an appropriate drug-based prophylaxis to be administered to cats in the endemic areas to reduce the number of diseased carriers. Furthermore, this molecular approach is more sensitive than microfilariae detection, enables species identification and greatly facilitates the collection of epidemiological data. Thus, the present study may help to bridge human-animal interface by coordinating research outcomes with the control of zoonoses that is vitally important for human and veterinary public health. PMID:24462253

  18. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina / Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego E., Cargnelutti; María Cristina, Salomón.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de [...] Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas. Abstract in english Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. [...] We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  19. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  20. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

    2011-03-01

    An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses. PMID:21138380

  1. T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

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    Rita C Bittar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10 production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10. The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10 and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma, leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

  2. Sociocultural aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil Aspectos sócio-culturais da esquistossomose mansoni em área endêmica de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Gazzinelli; Maria Flávia Gazzinelli; Matilde Miranda Cadete; Samuel Pena Filho; Ilcéia Ribeiro Sá; Helmut Kloos

    1998-01-01

    A study to determine the sociocultural factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from a small community toward Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out in an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used qualitative approaches to collect data from school-aged children and teachers. Specific findings were that the individuals interviewed were aware of the disease, but also held inaccurate popular beliefs about transmission. Misconceptions c...

  3. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Margarete Martins Dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, Jose? Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positiv...

  4. Validation of an Excretory/Secretory Antigen Based-Elisa for the Diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus Infection in Humans from Low Trematode Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Go?mez-morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis...

  5. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Gallego, Laia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods: Indiv...

  6. Deficient Knowledge on Hepatitis B Infection in Pregnant Women and Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Carriage in an Endemic Area: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oi Ka Chan; Lao, Terence T.; Suen, Stephen S. H.; Tak Yeung Leung

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B infection is a major global health problem. Vertical transmission is the commonest route of spreading hepatitis B virus (HBV) in many endemic areas. In order to control such transmission in Hong Kong, neonatal immunization programme was implemented for more than two decades. A declining prevalence of HBV infection was expected. However, the prevalence remained unabated at around 10% in recent studies. We suspect that one of the explanations of this persistent high prevalence is de...

  7. Seasonality of Ixodes ricinus Ticks on Vegetation and on Rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Genospecies Diversity in Two Lyme Borreliosis–Endemic Areas in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?rez, David; Kneubu?hler, Yvan; Rais, Olivier; Gern, Lise

    2012-01-01

    We compared Ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis (LB)-endemic areas in Switzerland (Portes-Rouges [PR] and Staatswald [SW]) from 2003 to 2005. There were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. Questing nymphs were globally more abundant at PR than at SW, but the proportion of rodents ...

  8. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250?kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200?mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18?months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36?months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36?months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6.5% in untreated and 11% in no net villages. PI in LN villages was 16.4 in comparison to 24.8 and 44.2 in untreated polyester net and no net villages respectively. In surveys carried out after three years of initial distribution, 78.7% (737/936 nets were still in possession with the households, of which 68% were used every night. An. culicifacies mortality was >80% in cone bioassays done on LNs washed up to 20 times in laboratory. Mean alpha-cypermethrin content was 43.5?±?31.7?mg/m2 on Interceptor LNs withdrawn after three years of household use against the baseline specification of 200?mg/m2. A gradual increase in the proportion of holed nets was observed with the increased period of usage. Conclusion Interceptor nets were highly effective in reducing vector densities as well as malaria incidence in the study villages. Availability of 78% nets with the households in usable condition clearly indicated durability of Interceptor LNs up to three years in the rural setting of India. The nets were found to contain an effective concentration of alpha-cypermethrin against malaria vector after three years of household use.

  9. High prevalence anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, among blood donors in the State of Puebla, a non-endemic area of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Sánchez-Guillén

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is the second most common transmission route of Chagas disease in many Latin American countries. In Mexico, the prevalence of Chagas disease and impact of transfusion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated blood is not clear. We determined the seropositivity to T. cruzi in a representative random sample, of 2,140 blood donors (1,423 men and 647 women, aged 19-65 years, from a non-endemic state of almost 5 millions of inhabitants by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests using one autochthonous antigen from T. cruzi parasites, which were genetically characterized like TBAR/ME/1997/RyC-V1 (T. cruzi I isolated from a Triatoma barberi specimen collected in the same locality. The seropositivity was up to 8.5% and 9% with IHA and ELISA tests, respectively, and up to 7.7% using both tests in common. We found high seroprevalence in a non-endemic area of Mexico, comparable to endemic countries where the disease occurs, e.g. Brazil (0.7%, Bolivia (13.7% and Argentina (3.5%. The highest values observed in samples from urban areas, associated to continuous rural emigration and the absence of control in blood donors, suggest unsuspected high risk of transmission of T. cruzi, higher than those reported for infections by blood e.g. hepatitis (0.1% and AIDS (0.1% in the same region.

  10. High prevalence anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, among blood donors in the State of Puebla, a non-endemic area of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MC, Sánchez-Guillén; C, Barnabé; JF, Guégan; M, Tibayrenc; M, Velásquez-Rojas; J, Martínez-Munguía; H, Salgado-Rosas; E, Torres-Rasgado; MI, Rosas-Ramírez; R, Pérez-Fuentes.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is the second most common transmission route of Chagas disease in many Latin American countries. In Mexico, the prevalence of Chagas disease and impact of transfusion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated blood is not clear. We determined the seropositivity to T. cruzi in a representat [...] ive random sample, of 2,140 blood donors (1,423 men and 647 women, aged 19-65 years), from a non-endemic state of almost 5 millions of inhabitants by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests using one autochthonous antigen from T. cruzi parasites, which were genetically characterized like TBAR/ME/1997/RyC-V1 (T. cruzi I) isolated from a Triatoma barberi specimen collected in the same locality. The seropositivity was up to 8.5% and 9% with IHA and ELISA tests, respectively, and up to 7.7% using both tests in common. We found high seroprevalence in a non-endemic area of Mexico, comparable to endemic countries where the disease occurs, e.g. Brazil (0.7%), Bolivia (13.7%) and Argentina (3.5%). The highest values observed in samples from urban areas, associated to continuous rural emigration and the absence of control in blood donors, suggest unsuspected high risk of transmission of T. cruzi, higher than those reported for infections by blood e.g. hepatitis (0.1%) and AIDS (0.1%) in the same region.

  11. Evaluation of rK-39 strip test using urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Rashidul

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by demonstration of parasites in tissue smears obtained from bone marrow, spleen or lymph nodes is risky, painful, and difficult. The rK-39 strip test is widely used for the diagnosis of VL using blood/serum samples in endemic countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rK-39 strip test using urine sample as a non-invasive means for the diagnosis of VL. The rk-39 strip test was performed using urine from 100 suspected VL cases along with 25 disease control (malarial febrile cases and 50 healthy control (from endemic and non-endemic areas. All the VL suspected cases were positive with the rK-39 strip test using serum. The sensitivity and specificity of the rK-39 strip test using urine samples was 95% and 93.3%, respectively, compared to serum based rK-39 test. The findings suggest that the urine based rK-39 test could be a practical and efficient tool for the diagnosis of VL patients in rural areas, particularly where resources are limited.

  12. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

  13. Primera descripción del hábitat acuático de Simulium guianense s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) en el área endémica de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela / First description of the Simulium guianense s.l. larval habitat in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis, southern Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nestor, Villamizar; José, Cortez; Oscar, Noya Alarcón; Marisela, Escalona; Carlos, Botto; María Eugenia, Grillet.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulium guianense sensu lato es el vector de Onchocerca volvulus en el foco amazónico de oncocercosis, al sur de Venezuela. En esta nota presentamos la primera identificación geográfica, caracterización ecológica y descripción del paisaje del hábitat acuático de las formas pre-adultas de este compl [...] ejo de especies, en el área de transmisión de esta parasitosis. Las larvas y pupas de esta especie fueron muestreadas sobre plantas Podostemaceas presentes en un raudal de aguas claras (pH= 7, conductividad = 158 umhos/cm, y caudal = 0.12 m³/s) del río Orinoquito, en el área de la Reserva de Biosfera del Alto Orinoco-Casiquiare. El paisaje del área de muestreo correspondió a un bosque húmedo ombrófilo macrotérmico y el raudal del río estudiado fluye sobre una planicie aluvial de sustrato de arena y gravas de cuarzo. El presente hallazgo contribuirá con la estratificación epidemiológica de la endemia y orientará las medidas de eliminación de la oncocercosis al sur de Venezuela. Abstract in english Simulium guianense sensu lato is the main vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, southern Venezuela. Here, we present the first report of the pre-adult aquatic habitat spatial distribution as well as the landscape and the habitat ecological characterization of this spec [...] ies complex within the endemic area. Larvae and pupae were collected on submerged aquatic plants (Podosteamaceas) located in a waterfall (pH = 7, conductivity = 158 umhos/cm, discharge = 0.12 m3/s) of the Orinoquito river, in the Upper Orinoco-Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve. These results will help with the epidemiological stratification and control program of the onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela.

  14. Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Fernando R.; FABIANA CUEZZO; PABLO A GOLOBOFF; CLAUDIA SZUMIK; MERCEDES LIZARRALDE DE GROSSO; M. GABRIELA QUINTANA

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1,100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest), located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion i...

  15. [Pathomorphism of endemic goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopchuk, V S

    1985-01-01

    Pathomorphism of goiter developing against the background of goiter prevention in the Bukovina endemic area was studied. Subdivision of goiter into endemic and sporadic lost its significance due to the stabilization and levelling of the goiter morbidity. The true (simple or benign) goiter is characterized by an euthyroid course, predominant affection of adult women and domination of the nodular variants. A goiter node is a hyperplastic structural-functional gland unit--the thyron. The leading role in the goiter etiology belongs to endogenous deficiency of thyroid hormones, local factors are significant in the goiter pathogenesis. PMID:3901976

  16. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2.10-19.29] are positive predictors of compliance to ivermectin. Conclusion Interventions to improve compliance in the area should focus on health education using epidemiological data in order to increase risk perception and dispelling misconceptions. Motivation and continued support to improve CDD's performance including training and incentives are crucial.

  17. Prevalence of Deletional Alpha Thalassemia and Sickle Gene in a Tribal Dominated Malaria Endemic Area of Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Prasanta; Dehury, Snehadhini; Patel, Siris; Patel, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Inherited hemoglobin disorders like alpha thalassemia and sickle gene are common in the Indian subcontinent. These disorders in the heterozygous state act as malaria resistance genes and influence the susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. There is inadequate knowledge about the epidemiology of these malaria resistance genes in the tribal dominated malaria endemic region of the state of Odisha in eastern India. A cross sectional prevalence study was undertaken in 594 subjects in fiv...

  18. Characterization of overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among HTLV-1 positive healthy carriers in the Northeast of Iran; AN HTLV-I endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, Maryam; Norouzi, Mehdy; Ghalichi, Leila; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Yari, Atefe; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    To date, no studies have provided data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence among asymptomatic, healthy human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) positive carriers. This sero- and molecular epidemiology study was performed on patients in the Northeast of Iran, which is an endemic area for HTLV-I infection. A total of 109 sera were collected from HTLV-I positive healthy carriers who were admitted to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad City. All were tested for HBV serology and subsequently, real time PCR was carried out on the samples, regardless of the results of the serology. Standard PCR and direct sequencing were applied on positive samples. All cases were negative for HBsAg, Anti-HBc, and anti-HBs were positive in 34 (31.1%), and 35 (32%) individuals, respectively. There were 19 (17.4%) cases that were positive only for anti-HBs, and they had already received HBV vaccine. 16 (15%) were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, indicating a past-resolved HBV infection. 18 (16.5%) were isolated as anti-HBc, and 56 (51.3%) were negative for all HBV serological markers. Only one subject (0.9%) had detectable HBV DNA (2153?copy/ml), and assigned as being an occult HBV infection. The low prevalence of HBsAg, despite the high percentage of anti-HBc positive cases, might be related to the suppression effect of HTLV-I on surface protein expression. The low prevalence of HBV infection among HTLV-I positive healthy carriers from an endemic region, indicates that the epidemiology of HTLV-I and HBV coinfection is related to the endemicity of HBV in that region, rather than HTLV-I endemicity. PMID:25132488

  19. Optimized nuclear techniques, thyroid function studies of newborns in iodine deficient areas and assessment of severity of iodine deficiency of endemic goitre areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cord blood samples, as a sera (n 4753) and as dried blood spots (n 5041) were obtained from subjects in Bangkok and iodine deficient districts in northern Thailand to study for T4 and TSH. The nuclear techniques were optimized by the use of NETRIA bulk reagents and in-house methods were developed and adapted for cost reduction, conveniences and precision/accuracy. The biochemical findings with cut-off values at 50 mIU/L for TSH as confirmed by <1 ng/dl for FT4 showed 0.34% (n16) of neonatal chemical hypothyroidism (NCH) varying in different provinces from 0.18 to 1.6% of 2253 cases of Phase I and 0.34-1.45% of 2500 cases of Phase II. Out of the total 4753 cases, 1.12% (n53) might be benefited by thyroxine administration. In this research project, the screening indicated moderate degree of IDD severity. It is useful for epidemiological evaluations, surveillance and for advocacy of the IDD control programme. Follow-up studies were undertaken in the available three subjects with abnormal serum findings in which all of them appeared to have transient neonatal hypothyroidism to assess the IDD severity. Further studies of dried cord blood spots (n 5041) demonstrated that the percentages of TSH above 5, 20 and 50 mIU/L and of T4 under 3, 5 and 10 ug/dl could be used for follow-up to compare the severity of different districts at the same time intervals and to assess the severity of the same district in different years. By this way, the severity of individual districts and its progress, could be evaluated for the IDD control in any endemic areas

  20. The origin of unique diversity in deglaciated areas: traces of Pleistocene processes in north-European endemics from the Galium pusillum polyploid complex (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolá?, Filip; Píšová, So?a; Záveská, Eliška; Fér, Tomáš; Weiser, Martin; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The role of glacial oscillations in shaping plant diversity has been only rarely addressed in endemics of formerly glaciated areas. The Galium pusillum group represents a rare example of an ecologically diverse and ploidy-variable species complex that exhibits substantial diversity in deglaciated northern Europe. Using AFLP and plastid and nuclear DNA sequences of 67 populations from northern, central, and western Europe with known ecological preferences, we elucidate the evolutionary history of lineages restricted to deglaciated areas and identify the eco-geographic partitioning of their genetic variation. We reveal three distinct endemic northern lineages: (i) diploids from southern Sweden + the British Isles, (ii) tetraploids from southern Scandinavia and the British Isles that show signs of ancient hybridization between the first lineage and populations from unglaciated central Europe, and (iii) tetraploids from Iceland + central Norway. Available evidence supports a stepwise differentiation of these three lineages that started at least before the last glacial maximum by processes of genome duplication, interlineage hybridization and/or allopatric evolution in distinct periglacial refugia. We reject the hypothesis of more recent postglacial speciation. Ecological characteristics of the populations under study only partly reflect genetic variation and suggest broad niches of postglacial colonizers. Despite their largely allopatric modern distributions, the north-European lineages of the G. pusillum group do not show signs of rapid postglacial divergence, in contrast to most other northern endemics. Our study suggests that plants inhabiting deglaciated areas outside the Arctic may exhibit very different evolutionary histories compared with their more thoroughly investigated high-arctic counterparts. PMID:25678149

  1. Prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection and influence of HIV infection on malaria disease severity in population residing in malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapunya, Siwalee; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection and assess the effect of HIV coinfection on malaria disease severity in malaria patients from the endemic area of Thailand along the Thai-Myanmar border. Blood samples were collected from a total of 867 patients with malaria (all species and severity) who attended Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during 2005-2007 (439 samples), 2008-2010 (273 samples), and 2011-2013 (155 samples). The average prevalence rate of malaria and HIV coinfected cases in this malaria endemic area of the country during the three periods was 1.85%. HIV coinfection was observed only in samples with mono-infection of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax, with similar proportions (0.81 vs. 1.04%). Patients' admission parasite density, an indicator of disease severity, was significantly higher in cases with HIV coinfection observed during 2008-2010. Anemia was found at a significantly higher frequency in patients coinfected with malaria and HIV observed during 2005-2007 compared with those infected with malaria alone. No association was observed between malaria and HIV coinfection and gender, and infected malaria species during the three observation periods. Patients with malaria and HIV coinfection had a significantly lower hemoglobin level than those with malaria infection alone. In conclusion, the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection in population of the malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border is low. HIV coinfection tended to increase parasite density, an indicator of malaria disease severity. PMID:25728746

  2. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  3. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer

  4. Two endemic foci of heterophyids and other intestinal fluke infections in southern and western coastal areas in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Song, Tae-Eui; Han, Eun-Taek; Guk, Sang-Mee; Park, Yun-Kyu; Choi, Min-Ho; Lee, Soon-Hyung

    1998-01-01

    Two endemic foci of heterophyid infections were discovered in coastal villages of Puan-gun, Chollabuk-do, and Sachon-gun. Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. Fecal examinations were performed on 153 inhabitants of Puan-gun and 138 of Sachon-gun, using cellophane thick smear and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The helminth egg and/or protozoan cyst positive rate was 21.5% (33/153) in Puan-gun and 39.1% (54/138) in Sachon-gun. In Puan-gun, the egg positive rate of heterophyids was the highest, 17.6...

  5. A study of onchocerciasis with severe skin and eye lesions in a hyperendemic zone in the forest of southwestern Cameroon: clinical, parasitologic, and entomologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somo, R M; Enyong, P A; Fobi, G; Dinga, J S; Lafleur, C; Agnamey, P; Ngosso, A; Ngolle, E M

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of an onchocerciasis control program based on the mass administration of ivermectin in the rain forest of southwestern Cameroon, a preliminary baseline study of the area was conducted. The results of this study showed that onchocerciasis was hyperendemic in the area. Skin symptoms and signs were observed including pruritus (67.4% of the population examined), onchocerca nodules (51.6%), skin depigmentation (18.5%), and hanging groins (5.7%). Except for pruritus, the prevalence of these symptoms increased with age. Of the eyes examined, 44.9% had microfilariae in the anterior chamber, 33.5% had choroidoretinitis, 28.0% had punctate keratitis, 8.3% had papillary abnormalities, and 3.6% had sclerosing keratitis. Vision in 10.5% of the eyes examined was classified as blind or very poor (visual acuity = 0-0.10), in 15.7% as poor (visual acuity = 0.11-0.39), and in 73.8% as good (visual acuity = 0.4-1.00). Unlike previous reports that have linked serious ocular damage mainly to savanna onchocerciasis, the present study showed that forest onchocerciasis also caused significant ocular pathology, including blindness. Parasitologically, positive skin snips were recorded for 92.7% of the persons examined, with both sexes being equally infected. The parasite load, expressed as the geometric mean number of microfilariae per skin snip, was 53.6, and was much higher in males than in females. The flv vector, Simulium squamosum, had a high infection rate of 7.5% infective females in Bakumba and 6.8% infective females in Ngbandi, the two fly-catching points. The transmission potential was 266 infective larvae per person per month in Bakumba and 189 in Ngbandi. PMID:8427383

  6. HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscilla, Alexandrino-de-Oliveira; Joanna Reis, Santos-Oliveira; Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Dorval; Francisco das Chagas Brandão, Da-Costa; Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite, Pereira; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha; Anamaria Mello Miranda, Paniago; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was [...] to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

  7. Tuberculosis as a cause or comorbidity of childhood pneumonia in tuberculosis-endemic areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliwa, Jacquie N; Karumbi, Jamlick M; Marais, Ben J; Madhi, Shabir A; Graham, Stephen M

    2015-03-01

    Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide, with most cases occurring in tuberculosis-endemic settings. Studies have emphasised the potential importance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in acute severe pneumonia in children as a primary cause or underlying comorbidity, further emphasised by the changing aetiological range with rollout of bacterial conjugate vaccines in high mortality settings. We systematically reviewed clinical and autopsy studies done in tuberculosis-endemic settings that enrolled at least 100 children aged younger than 5 years with severe pneumonia, and that prospectively included a diagnostic approach to tuberculosis in all study participants. We noted substantial heterogeneity between studies in terms of study population and diagnostic methods. Of the 3644 patients who had culture of respiratory specimens for M tuberculosis undertaken, 275 (7·5%) were culture positive, and an acute presentation was common. Inpatient case-fatality rate for pneumonia associated with tuberculosis ranged from 4% to 21% in the four clinical studies that reported pathogen-related outcomes. Prospective studies are needed in high tuberculosis-burden settings to address whether tuberculosis is a cause or comorbidity of childhood acute severe pneumonia. PMID:25648115

  8. Alternative PCR protocol using a single primer set for assessing DNA quality in several tissues from a large variety of mammalian species living in areas endemic for leishmaniasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo C, Ferreira; Célia M, Gontijo; Israel, Cruz; Maria Norma, Melo; Aristóbolo M, Silva.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish a modified pre-diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol using a single primer set that enables successful amplification of a highly conserved mammalian sequence in order to determine overall sample DNA quality for multiple mammalian species that inhab [...] it areas endemic for leishmaniasis. The gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), but not other conserved genes, was efficiently amplified in DNA samples from tail skin, ear skin, bone marrow, liver and spleen from all of the species tested. In tissue samples that were PCR-positive for Leishmania, we found that DNA from 100%, 55% and 22% of the samples tested resulted in a positive PCR reaction for the IRBP, beta-actin and beta-globin genes, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of an IRBP amplicon resolved any questions regarding the taxonomical classification of a rodent, which was previously based simply on the morphological features of the animal. Therefore, PCR amplification and analysis of the IRBP amplicon are suitable for pre-diagnostically assessing DNA quality and identifying mammalian species living in areas endemic to leishmaniasis and other diseases.

  9. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teiliane Rodrigues, Carneiro; Regina Helena Saramago, Peralta; Marta Cristhiany Cunha, Pinheiro; Sara Menezes de, Oliveira; Jose Mauro, Peralta; Fernando Schemelzer Moraes, Bezerra.

    2013-12-06

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 [...] of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

  10. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Maia; Lidia, Dionisio; Maria Odete, Afonso; Luis, Neto; Jose Manuel, Cristovao; Lenea, Campino.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood m [...] eal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  11. Detection of areas of endemism on two spatial scales using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE): the Neotropical region and the Atlantic Forest / Detecção de áreas de endemismo em duas escalas espaciais utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos: região Neotropical e Mata Atlântica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais desafios para este século reside em impedir a perda de biodiversidade. A biogeografia é o campo das ciências biológicas que busca desvendar os padrões de distribuição dos organismos. Um conceito básico em biogeografia diz respeito à existência de áreas de endemismo, caracterizadas [...] pela presença de espécies de distribuição restrita. Áreas de endemismo são definidas como unidades históricas de congruência distribucional entre dois ou mais táxons monofiléticos, provavelmente formadas por fatores históricos não aleatórios que definem condições específicas para elevadas taxas de especiação. Conseqüentemente, a delimitação de áreas de endemismo possui importantes implicações para a eficácia dos esforços conservacionistas. Até o momento, a maioria dos estudos tem delimitado estas áreas por meio da sobreposição de mapas de distribuição das espécies. Entretanto, esta abordagem pode acarretar delimitações arbitrárias quando analisado um amplo conjunto de dados distribucionais. No presente estudo foi utilizado método da Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos (PAE) baseada em quadrículas georeferenciadas a fim delimitar áreas de endemismo. Este método é importante devido a sua natureza empiricamente testável, além da possibilidade de inferência dos relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas. O método foi aplicado aos dados distribucionais de 19 táxons não relacionados, de modo a definir os padrões gerais de endemismo na região de Neotropical e na Mata Atlântica utilizando diferentes tamanhos de quadrícula. Foram encontradas 13 áreas endêmicas Neotropicais, situadas sobre as regiões do Panamá, norte dos Andes e Mata Atlântica, sendo esta última composta por dois componentes distintos (Norte e Sul). As áreas de endemismo delimitadas na Mata Atlântica por meio de quadrículas menores devem ser consideradas prioritárias para conservação, uma vez que demonstraram endemismo tanto em escala regional quanto local. Os resultados foram comparados a outros estudos utilizando deferentes táxons e metodologias. Considerações gerais sobre escala de análise e perspectivas futuras são apresentadas. Abstract in english An important biological challenge today is the conservation of biodiversity. Biogeography, the study of the distribution patterns of organisms, is an important tool for this challenge. Endemism, the co-occurrence of several species unique to the same area, has important implications for the preserva [...] tion of biodiversity, since many areas of endemism are also areas with large human impact. More rigorously defined, areas of endemism are historical units of distributional congruence of monophyletic taxa. These areas often assumed to be due to nonrandom historical events that favored conditions associated with high rates of speciation. Thus, understanding endemism and the delimitation of endemic areas has important implications for conservation. Today, most studies delimit areas of endemism by superimposing maps of distribution for various species. This approach suffers from arbitrary delimitations, however, when a great distributional data is used. In this paper we used the method of Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on georeferenced quadrats in order to delimit areas of endemism. This modality of the method is important due to its testable nature and can also be used to infer area relationships. We applied the method to raw distributional data from 19 unrelated taxa to delimit general patterns of endemism in the Neotropical Region and in the Atlantic forest domain using different grid scales. Neotropical areas found are comprised over the Panama region, northern Andean region and the Atlantic forest. Atlantic forest showed a major division into two distinct components (northern x southern). Endemic areas delimited using smaller scale grids on the Atlantic forest should be considered for conservation priorities once they showed endemism at regional and local scales. The results were also compar

  12. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA) AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herminia Yohko, KANAMURA; Luiz Cândido de Souza, DIAS; Rita Maria da, SILVA; Carmen Moreno, GLASSER; Rosa Maria de Jesus, PATUCCI; Sylvia Amaral Gurgel, VELLOSA; José Leopoldo Ferreira, ANTUNES.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O potencial diagnóstico dos anticorpos IgM e IgA contra antígenos do tubo digestivo do Schistosoma mansoni, detectados através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta utilizando-se cortes parafinados de vermes adultos, foi avaliado, comparativamente aos resultados do exame parasitológico de fezes, [...] para fins epidemiológicos em áreas de baixa endemicidade para a esquistossomose. Amostras de sangue em papel de filtro foram coletadas de escolares, residindo em duas localidades diferentes dentro do município de Itariri (São Paulo, Brasil), com características epidemio-lógicas distintas em relação à esquistossomose. Os dados parasitológicos e sorológicos foram comparados aos obtidos com um outro grupo de escolares, residentes em uma área não endêmica para esquistossomose. Os resultados demonstraram a falta de sensibilidade do método parasitológico para detecção de indivíduos com baixa carga parasitária e indicam a potencialidade do método sorológico como importante instrumento a ser incorporado aos programas de controle e de vigilância da esquistossomose, para verificação da real situação da esquistossomose em áreas de baixa endemicidade. Abstract in english The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT) on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemi [...] c areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil) with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  13. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Blanks J; Richards F; Beltrán F; Collins R; Álvarez E; Flores G. Zea; Bauler B; Cedillos R; Heisler M; Brandling-Bennett D; Baldwin W; Bayona M; Klein R; Jacox M

    1998-01-01

    The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Sin...

  14. Wolbachia-Induced Neutrophil Activation in a Mouse Model of Ocular Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)

    OpenAIRE

    Gillette-Ferguson, Illona; Hise, Amy G.; McGarry, Helen F.; Turner, Joseph; Esposito, Andrew; Yan SUN; Diaconu, Eugenia; Taylor, Mark J.; Pearlman, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria are abundant in the filarial nematodes that cause onchocerciasis (river blindness), including the larvae (microfilariae) that migrate into the cornea. Using a mouse model of ocular onchocerciasis, we recently demonstrated that it is these endosymbiotic bacteria rather than the nematodes per se that induce neutrophil infiltration to the corneal stroma and loss of corneal clarity (Saint Andre et al., Science 295:1892-1895, 2002). To better understand the role of...

  15. Urine Turbidity and Microhaematuria as Rapid Assessment Indicators for Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School Children in Endemic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Adesola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Urinary schistosomiasis is highly endemic in Nigeria and for effective control measure, an efficient, quick and yet cheap diagnosis should be integrated. This will ensure the proper management of infection due to Schistosoma haematobium in low resource communities of Nigeria. Approach: This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 456 (252 males, 204 females school children aged 3-20 years between November 2010 and June 2011. Urine samples were examined macroscopically for turbidity and subsequently screened for microhaematuria using diagnostic reagent strips. The microscopic examination of urine samples for schistosome eggs was used as the standard for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of S. haematobium and geometric mean intensity of infection were 54.8% and 13.9 ± 0.67 eggs/10 mL of urine respectively. The age and sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis showed no significant differences (p>0.05. The prevalences of urine turbidity and microhaematuria were 37.1 and 53.9% respectively and these varied significantly across age groups (p0.05 with their corresponding specificities 80.2 and 65.8% respectively. Intensity of infection was significantly correlated with the indirect diagnostic methods, urine turbidity (r = 0.203, pConclusion: The possible use of urine turbidity as an indicator for rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in low resource communities is implied.

  16. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Léa Cristina, Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de, Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth, Jamieson; Michaela, Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino de, Carvalho; Jenefer Mary, Blackwell.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,00 [...] 0 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  17. Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis infection by indirect fluorescence antibody assay: test development and application to a population in an area of bartonellosis endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, J; Laughlin, L; Gordon, S; Romero, S; Solórzano, N; Regnery, R L

    2000-11-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis causes bartonellosis, a potentially life-threatening emerging infectious disease seen in the Andes Mountains of South America. There are no generally accepted serologic tests to confirm the disease. We developed an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test for the detection of antibodies to B. bacilliformis and then tested its performance as an aid in the diagnosis of acute bartonellosis. The IFA is 82% sensitive in detecting B. bacilliformis antibodies in acute-phase blood samples of laboratory-confirmed bartonellosis patients. When used to examine convalescent-phase sera, the IFA is positive in 93% of bartonellosis cases. The positive predictive value of the test is 89% in an area of Peru where B. bacilliformis is endemic and where the point prevalence of infection is 45%. PMID:11060108

  18. Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis Infection by Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay: Test Development and Application to a Population in an Area of Bartonellosis Endemicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Judith; Laughlin, Larry; Gordon, Scott; Romero, Sofia; Solórzano, Nelson; Regnery, Russell L.

    2000-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis causes bartonellosis, a potentially life-threatening emerging infectious disease seen in the Andes Mountains of South America. There are no generally accepted serologic tests to confirm the disease. We developed an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test for the detection of antibodies to B. bacilliformis and then tested its performance as an aid in the diagnosis of acute bartonellosis. The IFA is 82% sensitive in detecting B. bacilliformis antibodies in acute-phase blood samples of laboratory-confirmed bartonellosis patients. When used to examine convalescent-phase sera, the IFA is positive in 93% of bartonellosis cases. The positive predictive value of the test is 89% in an area of Peru where B. bacilliformis is endemic and where the point prevalence of infection is 45%. PMID:11060108

  19. High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Maria, Alkmim-Oliveira; Henrique Borges, Kappel; Cristiane Pontes, Andrade; Aluízio, Prata; Luis Eduardo, Ramirez; Dalmo, Correia; Eliane, Lages-Silva.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including [...] 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture). Results T. cruzi I (TcI) was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1%) subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands); however, high similarities (80-100%) among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

  20. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh

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    Akter Jasmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few studies on the genetic diversity of P. falciparum have been performed in Bangladesh. Anderson et al. performed a study in Khagrachari, northern Chittagong Hill Tracts in 2002 on 203 patients and found that parasites had a multiplicity of infection of 1.3 by MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genotyping. A total of 94% of the isolates had the K76T Pfcrt chloroquine resistant genotype, and 70% showed the N86Y Pfmdr1 genotype. Antifolate drug resistant genotypes were high with 99% and 73% of parasites having two or more mutations at the dhfr or dhps loci. Methods Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were used to genotype P. falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Results The analysis of polymorphic and drug resistant genotype on 33 paired recrudescent infections after drug treatment in the period 2004 to 2008 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which is just prior to countrywide provision of artemisinin combination therapy. Overall the multiplicity of infection for MSP-1 was 2.7 with a slightly smaller parasite diversity post-treatment. The 13 monoclonal infections by both GLURP and MSP-1 were evenly divided between pre- and post-treatment. The MSP-1 MAD block was most frequent in 66 of the samples. The prevalence of the K76T PfCRT chloroquine resistant allele was approximately 82% of the samples, while the resistant Pfmdr1 N86Y was present in 33% of the samples. Interestingly, the post-treatment samples had a small but significantly higher frequency of the sensitive PfCRT alleles by RT-PCR. Conclusion The parasite population retains high population diversity despite hypo-endemic transmission with retention, but decrease in the chloroquine-resistant allele and Pfmdr1 resistant alleles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

  1. Uso do paradigma de risco para a esquistossomose em áreas endêmicas no Brasil The use of risk factor determination for schistosomiasis in endemic areas in Brazil

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    Pedro Coura-Filho

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo são confrontados os resultados do uso do paradigma de risco na infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em áreas endêmicas no Brasil. Foi observada associação da infecção pelo S. mansoni com algumas condições gerais: ausência de água potável intradomiciliar, baixa renda individual, analfabetismo e residência atual ou anterior em área endêmica por mais de cinco anos. Além dessas condições ocorreu associação com alguns hábitos (fatores de risco exercer atividades agrícolas e domésticas em águas a céu aberto, nadar e pescar. A análise das condições gerais que podem estar determinando os fatores de risco, apontou o fornecimento de água potável intradomiciliar e o acesso ao tratamento como medidas abrangentes que muitas vezes podem ser adotadas, visando à prevenção e/ou controle da morbidade da endemia. É questionada a eficácia do uso do paradigma de risco na indicação de medidas de controle dessa endemia.This study shows the results of risk factor determination for infection with Schistosoma mansoni in endemic areas in Brazil. An association was observed between infection with S. mansoni and a number of general conditions: absence of drinking water in the home, low individual income, illiteracy, and residence in an endemic area for more than five years. In addition to these conditions there was also association with a number of habits (risk factors: agricultural and domestic activities in open water supplies, swimming, and fishing. Analysis of the general conditions that may determine these risk factors indicated that provision of drinking water in the home and access to treatment are basic measures that could be adopted in many cases in order to prevent or control the morbidity of the disease. The efficacy of the use of risk factor determination for indication of control measures for this disease is questioned.

  2. Feasibility of flow cytometry for measurements of Plasmodium falciparum parasite burden in studies in areas of malaria endemicity by use of bidimensional assessment of YOYO-1 and autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Joseph J; Aponte, John J; Nhabomba, Augusto J; Sacarlal, Jahit; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Alonso, Pedro L; Dobaño, Carlota

    2011-03-01

    The detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum in studies of malaria endemicity primarily relies upon microscopy. High-throughput quantitative methods with less subjectivity and greater reliability are needed for investigational studies. The staining of parasitized erythrocytes with YOYO-1 for flow cytometry bears great potential as a tool for assessing malaria parasite burden. Capillary blood was collected from children presenting to the pediatric ward of the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique for parasitemia assessment by thick and thin blood films, flow cytometry (YOYO-1(530/585)), and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Whole blood was fixed and stained with YOYO-1 for acquisition on a cytometer to assess the frequency of infected erythrocyte events. qRT-PCR was used as the gold standard for the detection of P. falciparum. The YOYO-1(530/585) method was as sensitive and specific as conventional microscopy (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.9 for both methods). The interrater mean difference for YOYO-1(530/585) was near zero. Parasite density using flow cytometry and complete blood counts returned density estimates with a mean difference 2.2 times greater than results by microscopy (confidence interval, 1.46 to 3.60) but with limits of agreement between 10 times lower and 50 times higher than those of microscopy. The YOYO-1(530/585) staining pattern was established exactly as demonstrated in animal models, but the assay was limited by the lack of appropriate negative-control samples for establishing background levels and the definition of positives in areas in which malaria is endemic. YOYO-1(530/585) is a high-throughput tool with great potential if the limitations of negative controls and heterogeneous levels of background signal can be overcome. PMID:21227985

  3. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis

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    Solano-Gallego Laia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1% including one female, (2.0% and 12 males (15.2%, and in only five dogs (12.2%. Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.

  4. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Valero, M Adela; Peixoto, Raquel V; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. In any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infection must always be considered the starting point before implementing any control measure. Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of different epidemiological, pathological and control characteristics depending on the endemic area and the causal agent, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciolagigantica. Classically it has been accepted that F. hepatica is present worldwide, while the distribution of the two species overlaps in many areas of Africa and Asia. Fascioliasis caused by F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms is present in Guilan province, a complicated epidemiological situation where the highest human infection rates have been described in Iran. Morphometric tools were used to analyse the possible relationship between liver-fluke metric traits and geographical and altitudinal distribution. This is the first study in which a detailed distribution of both Fasciola species is analysed in a human fascioliasis endemic area with a zonal overlap transmission pattern. An accurate analysis was conducted to phenotypically discriminate between fasciolids from naturally infected livestock (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats). The distribution of the % F. hepatica-like (F.h.) and F. gigantica-like (F.g.) flukes detected in each liver versus altitude (m) in each group was analysed. The presence of F.g. specimens mainly in locations below sea level (average: 11.23% F.h., 88.77% F.g.), the presence of both species with similar intensity at 1-99m (average: 56.95% F.h., 43.05% F.g.) and the presence of F.h. specimens mainly from 100 to 999m (average: 71.69% F.h., 28.31% F.g.) as well as in locations with an altitude above 1000m (average: 97.48% F.h., 2.52% F.g.) are noteworthy. A significant positive correlation was obtained between altitude and % F.h., and a significant negative correlation was obtained between altitude and % F.g. The results show that F.g. populations in cattle, buffaloes and sheep share larger size values, but smaller specimens are present mainly in lowland populations located below sea level, independently of the host species (cattle, buffalo). F.g. from lowland cattle presented larger worm size variability. Four different fascioliasis transmission areas may be distinguished in Guilan: (a) lowland coastal areas neighbouring the Caspian Sea shore, below sea level, where basically F. gigantica-like specimens are found; (b) a coastal plain with an altitude between 1 and 100m where both species co-exist; (c) areas with altitude values of 100-999m where mainly F. hepatica-like specimens are found; (d) highland mountainous areas, where basically F. hepatica-like specimens are found. The study of the influence of the host species on the liver fluke was also carried out by a size-out analysis. This is the first report concerning the decisive influence exercised by the host species on the metric traits of F. gigantica adults. PMID:25602718

  5. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain

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    Mas-Coma Santiago

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. Methods The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1 climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2 monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3 ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; 4 evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Results Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. Conclusions The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour transmission. The temperature increase has favoured a widening of the monthly potential transmission window with respect to when malaria was endemic. The combined application of modified climate diagrams and GMR index, together with spatial characterization conforms a useful tool for assessing potential areas at risk of malaria resurgence. NDVI is a good marker when dealing with a rice field area.

  6. Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N., Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F., Hipatia; Romero A., Daniel; Gomez L., Eduardo; Martini R., Luiggi; Zambrano C., Flavio; Calvopina H., Manuel; Caceres G., Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  7. Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança / Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerusa, Dreyer; Joaquim, Norões; Denise, Mattos.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancr [...] oftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas) e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo. Abstract in english In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for ban [...] croftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

  8. Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Dreyer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo.In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

  9. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  10. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Davi Marcos Souza de, Oliveira; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Edna Aoba Yassui, Ishikawa; Adelson Alcimar Almeida de, Sousa; Edilene Oliveira da, Silva; Ivoneide Maria da, Silva.

    1039-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandf [...] lies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%), which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25%) and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  11. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

  12. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  13. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  14. A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene

    Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental intermediate hosts such as humans. The disease, human alveolar echinococcosis, is fatal in untreated patients and results in reduced survival rates in continuously treated patients. Finland, Ireland, Malta, UK and mainland Norway consider themselves free from Em. The first case of Em was reported in Sweden in 2011.These countries therefore require dogs, cats and ferrets to be treated with an appropriate drug to prevent accidental introductions. Ireland, UK and Malta requires dogs to be treated 24-48 hours before entry, while Sweden and Finland allow treatment up to 10 and 30 days respectively prior to entry. Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel to be administrated 10 and 30 days prior to entering Sweden and Finland respectively. Because the drug is only effective 24 hours after oral intake, these strategies leaves 9 and 29 days for the dogs to be reinfected in endemic areas. The lifespan of the worms is only 90 days and the maximum prevalence is therefore reached after 90 days exposure. A reinfection period of e.g. 9 days will thus allow for 10% of the maximum prevalence to be reached in the period between treatment and crossing the border. In the worst case the Swedish and the Finnish strategies only reduce the probability of importing an infected dog with 90% and 68 % respectively. EFSA therefore recommended that pet animals are treated with a single dose of Praziquantel 24 to 48 hours prior to departure. The EFSA risk assessment model defines risk as the probability of introducing a dog with an Em infection. However, I suggest Em may not be so contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern is establishing the parasite ina free area rather than the risk of importing an infected dog, I propose risk should be defined as the number of eggs excreted in a non-endemic area. Furthermore I suggest that the probability of establishing the parasite in a free area is linearly proportional to the number of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing or still in the immature stage or whether the worm are young or old and thus likely to have a long or short remaining lifespan. I here present an alternative deterministic mathematical model which calculates the average number of eggs excreted in a free country by a dog exposed in an endemic area. The model quantifies the risk as the cumulative number of eggs excreted by a dog in the free country. In order to calculate the number of eggs excrete

  15. Temporal variation in the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Japanese encephalitis virus in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Pauiraj Philip; Arunachalam, Natarajan; Rajendran, Rathinasamy; Leo, Soosaimanickam Victor Jerold; Ayanar, Krishnan; Balasubramaniam, Ramakrishnan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore

    2010-12-01

    The study area, Cuddalore, is one of the endemic districts for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in southern India and there is a strong seasonality in JE case incidence, as well as JE virus (JEV) infection in the principal vector Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles. In a longitudinal 3-year study (July 2003 to June 2006), we determined the susceptibility of wild-caught female Cx. tritaeniorhynchus for JEV infection over several seasons from several villages. The susceptibility varied in all four seasons with the lowest value (4.82 geometric mean [GM]) in hot and wet seasons and highest (13.22 GM) in cool and wet seasons. Infection rate was significant between seasons (7.08-11.85 GM) and years (4.82-13.22 GM). Although the vector was abundant throughout the year, with an average per man-hour density ranging from 58 to 652, the JEV infection rates showed no correlation with vector abundance during different seasons in the index villages. The temporal and spatial changes in the competency of the vector appeared to influence the JEV infection rate in vector, which may at least partially explain the seasonality in JEV human cases in the study area. PMID:20426689

  16. Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis / Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Rubinstein; Blanca, Marticorena; Diana, Masih; Noemi, Borletto; Raul, Vega; Haydee, Varengo; Ricardo, Negroni.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia) y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. im [...] mitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores). En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%. Abstract in english The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia) and the previous findings of a high incidence of c [...] occidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores). In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8%) and cryptococcin (31.9%) in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.

  17. Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Aislamiento de hongos patogenos de suelo. Identificación de areas endémicas de Cryptococcus neoformans y Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubinstein

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores. In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8% and cryptococcin (31.9% in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. immitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores. En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%.

  18. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Elizabeth C, Dorval; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand f [...] lies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

  19. Control of onchocerciasis in Africa: threshold shifts, breakpoints and rules for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Hans P; Raddatz, Günter; Eichner, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Control of onchocerciasis in Africa is currently based on annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) which has been assumed to be not efficient enough to bring about elimination. However, elimination has recently been reported to have been achieved by CDTI alone in villages of Senegal and Mali, reviving debate on the eradicability of onchocerciasis in Africa. We investigate the eradicability of onchocerciasis by examining threshold shifts and breakpoints predicted by a stochastic transmission model that has been fitted extensively to data. We show that elimination based on CDTI relies on shifting the threshold biting rate to a level that is higher than the annual biting rate. Breakpoints become relevant in the context of when to stop CDTI. In order for the model to predict a good chance for CDTI to eliminate onchocerciasis, facilitating factors such as the macrofilaricidal effect of ivermectin must be assumed. A chart predicting the minimum efficacy of CDTI required for elimination, dependent on the annual biting rate, is provided. Generalisable recommendations into strategies for the elimination of onchocerciasis are derived, particularly referring to the roles of vectors, the residual infection rate under control, and a low-spreader problem originating from patients with low parasite burdens. PMID:21255577

  20. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilaria...

  1. Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    De la Fe Christian; Amores Joaquín; Tardy Florence; Sagne Eveline; Nouvel Laurent-Xavier; Citti Christine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA) isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA) was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and ta...

  2. Mapping of the environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii by georeferencing isolates from chickens in an endemic area in Southeast Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli-Alves, Luciana; Reis Amendoeira, Maria Regina; Cardoso Boechat, Viviane; Ferreira, Luiz Cláudio; Araujo Carreira, João Carlos; Nicolau, José Leonardo; De Freitas Trindade, Eloiza Paula; De Barros Peixoto, Julia Novaes; De Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Mônica; De Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Raquel; Pacheco Schubach, Tânia Maria; Caldas Menezes, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii in an endemic area in Brazil was mapped by georeferencing isolates from chickens in farms in the Southeast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Tissue samples obtained from 153 adult chickens were analyzed by the mouse bioassay for T. gondii infection. These animals were reared free-range on 51 farms in the municipalities of Rio Bonito and Maricá. The ArcGIS kernel density estimator based on the frequency of T. gondii-positive chickens was used to map the environmental contamination with this parasite. A questionnaire was applied to obtain data on the presence and management of cats and the type of water consumed. Of the farms studied, 64.7% were found to be located in areas of low to medium presence of T. gondii, 27.5% in areas with a high or very high contamination level and 7.8% in non-contaminated areas. Additionally, 70.6% kept cats, 66.7% were near water sources and 45.0% were in or near dense vegetation. Humans used untreated water for drinking on 41.2% of the farms, while all animals were given untreated water. The intensity of environmental T. gondii contamination was significantly higher on farms situated at a distance >500 m from water sources (P=0.007) and near (?500 m) dense vegetation (P=0.003). Taken together, the results indicate a high probability of T. gondii infection of humans and animals living on the farms studied. The kernel density estimator obtained based on the frequency of chickens testing positive for T. gondii in the mouse bioassay was useful to map environmental contamination with this parasite. PMID:26054514

  3. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeffer Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

  4. Evolutive pattern of schistosomiasis and life-span of S. mansoni in patients living in non-endemic area in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Rodrigues, Coura; Bodo, Wanke; Norton de, Figueiredo; C.A., Argento.

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre 2.484 portadores de esquistossomose estudados no Rio de Janeiro, 1.197 estavam afastados da área endêmica, permanentemente, de um a 30 anos. Apesar disso mais de 55% deles ainda estavam com infecção ativa após 6 anos de afastamento, 26,5% permaneciam infectados por mais de 10 anos e mais de 10 [...] % ainda estavam infectados depois de 15 anos de afastamento da área endêmica, o que demonstra a longa sobrevida e permanência da postura do S. mansoni no organismo humano, no Brasil, ao contrário das observações de Hairston (5) no Egito, que avaliou o tempo médio da fecundidade (postura) da fêmea do S. mansoni em 3 anos e meio. Dos 1.197 pacientes estudados 90,1% eram da forma intestinal ou hepatointestinal e 9,9% da forma hepato-esplênica. Nenhum paciente de forma intestinal ou hepato-intestinal desenvolveu a forma hepato-esplênica, durante o período de observação fora da área endêmica o que demonstra uma parada na evolução da doença, possivelmente pela redução progressiva da carga parasitária. Os pacientes da forma hepato-esplênica com baços não muito aumentados, tiveram uma evolução muito lenta e agravamento discreto e pouco freqüente durante o periodo de observação, enquanto que os hepato-esplênicos com baços muito grandes (grau IV) tiveram hemorragias freqüentes. O padrão evolutivo dos portadores de esquistossomose fora da área endêmica parece diferente daquele observado na área endêmica (7, 8). Abstract in english Out of 2484 patients harboring S. mansoni seen in Rio de Janeiro, 1197 had been living permanently out of endemic area frorn one to 30 years, without any possibility of reinfection; 90.1% of these 1197 patients were first seen with, hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis and only 9.9% with hepatosplenic [...] form. 55% of thern still had S. mansoni active infection 6 years or more after they had left the endemic area and 26.5% remained infected for more than 10 years. The patients with intestinal or hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis did not develop the most severe form whether they had been treated or not, and the hepatosplenic patients had a long time to deteriorate.

  5. Historical relationships among areas of endemism in the tropical South America using Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA) / Relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas na região tropical da América do Sul utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Brooks (BPA)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Áreas de endemismo são consideradas as menores unidades de análise biogeográfica, podendo ser definidas como regiões de concentração de organismos de distribuição restrita, gerada por fatores históricos. O presente estudo buscou examinar os relacionamentos históricos entre áreas de endemismo na regi [...] ão tropical da América do Sul por meio do método da Análise de Parcimônia de Brooks (BPA). Para tal, foram selecionados 12 taxa filogeneticamente distintos, distribuídos dentro de duas classificações de áreas endêmicas previamente propostas, visando: (1) comparar as classificações de áreas endêmicas; (2) examinar se a Amazônia e a Mata Atlântica são unidades biogeográficas verdadeiras; (3) avaliar se a inclusão de áreas de vegetação aberta influencia os relacionamentos entre áreas florestais vizinhas. Os cladogramas gerais de áreas revelaram uma separação basal entre as áreas Amazônicas e Atlânticas, sugerindo um longo período de isolamento. As áreas endêmicas da Mata Atlântica foram agrupadas em um único grupo, com uma seqüência de eventos vicariantes do norte em direção ao sul. A hipótese de que a Amazônia é uma área composta por unidades históricas distintas foi corroborada. A inclusão do Cerrado e Caatinga, alterou os relacionamentos internos entre áreas Amazônicas, indicando que os esquemas de classificação de áreas endêmicas que incluem tanto áreas florestais quanto abertas devem ser preferidos devido a complementaridade entre as histórias evolucionárias destas áreas. Abstract in english Areas of endemism are the smallest units of biogeographical analysis. One of its definitions is that these areas harbor organisms with restricted distributions caused by non random historical factors. The aim of this study was to examine historical relationships among areas of endemism in the Neotro [...] pics using Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). We applied BPA to 12 unrelated taxa distributed within two sets of endemic areas in order to: (1) compare the proposed endemic area classifications; (2) examine whether Amazonia and Atlantic Forest are true biogeographic units and, (3) examine whether the inclusion of open area formations influence area relationships of the surrounding forests. General area cladograms revealed a basal split between Amazonian and Atlantic forests, suggesting that these areas have been isolated for a long period of time. All Atlantic forest endemic areas formed a monophyletic cluster, showing a sequence of vicariant events from north to south. The hypothesis that Amazonia is a composite area, made up of different historical units, is herein corroborated. When Cerrado and Caatinga (grasslands and savannas) are included, internal area relationships within Amazonia change, indicating that area classification schemes comprising forests and open formations should be preferred given the complementary history of these areas.

  6. Immunity to Onchocerciasis: Cells from Putatively Immune Individuals Produce Enhanced Levels of Interleukin-5, Gamma Interferon, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Response to Onchocerca volvulus Larval and Male Worm Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Turaga, Prasad S. D.; Tierney, Tracy J.; Bennett, Kristine E.; McCarthy, Maggie C.; Simonek, Scott C.; Enyong, Peter A.; Moukatte, Daniel W.; Lustigman, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Antigen-specific interleukin-5 (IL-5), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) responses in individuals living in an area of hyperendemicity for onchocerciasis in Cameroon were examined. The responses against antigens prepared from Onchocerca volvulus third-stage larvae (L3), molting L3 (mL3), and crude extract from adult males (M-OvAg) were compared to the responses against antigens from adult female worms and skin microfilariae. Cytokine respo...

  7. Hospital use of chlorine disinfectants in a hepatitis B endemic area--a prevalence survey in twenty hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, T Y; Seto, W H

    1989-07-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the uses of chlorine disinfectants in twenty hospitals in Hong Kong. In the 149 areas visited, the charge nurses were interviewed on the use of chlorine disinfectants. A high proportion of uses (44%) were not at the recommended dilution and only 88 (57%) of the 154 samples were within +/- 10% of the manufacturers quoted chlorine content. Samples with inadequate chlorine were found among all six types of chlorine disinfectants, although sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets conformed to the quoted strength on 88% occasions. Higher usage frequency and better dilution practices were noted for hospitals with a disinfectant policy. PMID:2570101

  8. Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina / ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FERNANDO R, NAVARRO; FABIANA, CUEZZO; PABLO A, GOLOBOFF; CLAUDIA, SZUMIK; MERCEDES, LIZARRALDE DE GROSSO; M. GABRIELA, QUINTANA.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar si las areas de endemismo pueden ser caracterizadas cuantitativamente utilizando insectos, los cuales generalmente se encuentran mucho más pobremente muestreados que vertebrados y plantas. La búsqueda de areas de endemismo fue realizada utilizando un [...] criterio de optimalidad sobre aproximadamente 1,100 georreferencias de 288 especies de insectos holometábolos presentes en la región de estudio. Esta corresponde al noroeste de la Argentina, específicamente en las Yungas (un bosque lluvioso montano muy húmedo). El software NDM/VNDM, que aplica dicho criterio de optimalidad, fue usado para buscar areas de endemismo (i.e. conjuntos de celdas definidos por dos o más especies). Se utilizaron cinco tamaños de grilla: tres cuadrados (Iº, 0.5° y 0.25°) y dos rectangulares (0.25° x 0.5° y 0.5° x 0.25°). Los resultados de este estudio indican que las Yungas pueden ser caracterizadas como una unidad biogeográfica con identidad propia y estos resultados concuerdan con propuestas biogeográficas previas. Se obtuvieron 26 areas de endemismo con 23 especies endémicas de insectos (en 14 familias) restringidas a Yungas y 46 especies (en 10 familias) endémicas, presentes en Yungas y hábitats adyacentes. Nuestro análisis sugiere que el uso de insectos puede ser una herramienta poderosa para identificar areas de endemismo, aun considerando lo fragmentario del conocimiento actual de estos grupos en América del Sur. El uso de diferentes tamaños de grilla fue crucial. Tamaños pequeños y medianos son altamente recomendados para identificar patrones diferentes. El método cuantitativo utilizado permitió identificar areas de endemismo difíciles de reconocer con métodos biogeográficos tradicionales, tales como areas disyuntas o parcialmente superpuestas. Abstract in english The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1, [...] 100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest), located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion is implemented with the programs NDM/VNDM, used to evaluate areas of endemism (i.e. a set of cells defined by two or more endemic species). Five grid sizes were used, three square (Iº, 0.5°, and 0.25°) and two rectangular (0.25° x 0.5° and 0.5° x 0.25°). In agreement with the traditional biogeographic proposal, the results of the present study indicate that the Yungas can be characterized as a biogeographic unit with its own identity. Twenty six areas related to Yungas have shown 23 species of insects (in 14 families) as endemic, restricted to Yungas environment, and 46 species (in 10 families) as endemic, present in Yungas and surrounding habitats. Our analysis suggests that the use of insects to identify areas of endemism is a powerful tool, even considering the current fragmentary knowledge of these groups in South América. Given that there is no criterion to choose an optimal grid size, the use of different grid sizes is crucial; medium and small sizes are highly recommended because both identify seemingly different patterns. The quantitative method used here is useful to identify areas of endemism, such as disjoint areas or partially overlapping areas, which are difficult to see with other traditional biogeographic methods.

  9. Clinical profile of naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for “Leishmania chagasi” (infantum) in Bahia State, Brazil Quadro clínico de cães infectados naturalmente por Leishmania chagasi em uma área endêmica do estado da Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Fred da Silva Julião; Rafael Lyra Gaspar da Costa; Diana Vianna Bittencourt; Alisson Azevedo Pinheiro; Silvana Ornelas Santos; Paulo Henrique Palis Aguiar; Washington Luis Conrado dos Santos; Stella Maria Barrouin Melo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a description of the clinical profile of naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for Leishmania chagasi (infantum)-caused visceral leishmaniosis in Brazil, where a wide range of clinical signs are attributed to the infection in dogs. Sixty one dogs, seropositives for anti-L. chagasi antibodies by ELISA, from the urban and peri urban areas of Jequie, in Bahia State were studied. Each clinical sign of disease was recorded. Parasitological diagnosis o...

  10. The use of milbemycin oxime in a prophylactic anthelmintic programme to protect puppies, raised in an endemic area, against infection with Spirocerca lupi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, D J; Williams, E J; Schenker, R; Archer, N J; Horak, I G

    2010-12-15

    Spirocerca lupi is primarily a parasite of dogs and other carnivores. Clinical signs of infection are regurgitation, vomiting, weight loss, coughing and dyspnoea. Sudden death can also occur due to a ruptured aortic aneurysm. In this study, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was identified as an area with a high prevalence of S. lupi. A subsequent investigation, to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime as a prophylactic agent for canine spirocercosis, involved 58 puppies that were raised in this area in accordance with local husbandry procedures. Approximately half of the puppies served as untreated controls. Puppies in the treatment group received milbemycin oxime (minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg body weight) when they were between 2 and 6 weeks old. They then received five further treatments at approximately 28-day intervals. The treatment was orally administered in tablet form. After the sixth treatment, puppies from both the treated and control groups were euthanized and post-mortem examinations were performed. Twenty-four out of 27 dogs in the untreated control group had become infected by S. lupi. In comparison, only 19 out of 31 dogs in the treatment group had evidence of spirocercosis as demonstrated by aortic nodules. The prophylactic regimen reduced the severity of aortic lesions and prevented 86.5% of S. lupi from becoming established in the thoracic aorta. It also prevented 89.4% of S. lupi from becoming established in the oesophagus and significantly reduced the number of oesophageal nodules. Milbemycin oxime markedly reduced the level and severity of S. lupi infection in treated puppies raised in an endemic area of South Africa. It deserves further evaluation as a potential prophylactic treatment for spirocercosis. PMID:20869809

  11. Molecular characterization of Fasciola samples, collected from different host species coming from the endemic area of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosay-Akbulut, Mine; Köse, Mustafa; Erdo?an, Metin; U?uz, Cevdet; Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Lenger, Omer F

    2014-01-01

    Economical animal breeding programs are important for achieving maximum gain, and any factors resulting in economical loss should be minimized or eliminated. An organism of concern is the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, which causes decreased yield and even death in sheep and dairy cattle. In an effort to eliminate or minimize the detrimental effect of this parasite in animals, it is important to understand the genetic diversity within the liver flukes and the relationship between this parasite and the host in the particular geographic area. The aim of this study was to explore genetic diversity by analyzing the mitochondrial ND1 and cyt b genes and Ribosomal ITS1-2 regions. With these analyses, the individual differences, the host animal differences and combined effects of these factors on genetic relationships have been determined. PMID:24881270

  12. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kalidia Felipe de Lima, Costa; Sthenia Santos Albano, Amóra; Camila Fernandes de Amorim, Couto; Celeste da Silva Freitas de, Souza; Luanna Fernandes, Silva; Luiz Ney, d' Escoffier; Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de, Sousa; Thais Aparecida, Kazimoto.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regar [...] ding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and significance was determined using chi-square (?2) and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032). Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

  14. The impact of repeated treatment with praziquantel of schistosomiasis in children under six years of age living in an endemic area for Schistosoma haematobium infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Mduluza; PD, Ndhlovu; TM, Madziwa; N, Midzi; R, Zinyama; CMR, Turner; SK, Chandiwana; N, Nyazema; P, Hagan.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel was given every eight weeks for two years to children aged under six years of age, living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Infection with S. haematobium and haematuria were examined in urine and antibody profiles (IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) against S. haematobi [...] um adult worm and egg antigens were determined from sera collected before each treatment. Chemotherapy reduced infection prevalence and mean intensity from 51.8% and 110 eggs per 10 ml urine, respectively, before starting re-treatment programme to very low levels thereafter. Praziquantel is not accumulated after periodic administration in children. Immunoglobulin levels change during the course of treatment with a shift towards 'protective' mechanisms. The significant changes noted in some individuals were the drop in 'blocking' IgG2 and IgG4 whereas the 'protecting' IgA and IgG1 levels increased. The antibody profiles in the rest of the children remained generally unchanged throughout the study and no haematuria was observed after the second treatment. The removal of worms before production of large number of eggs, prevented the children from developing morbidity.

  15. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  16. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

  17. Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI, and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI and absence (GI of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-? may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

  18. Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibodyresponse induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-a may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

  19. Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Rose, Pratt-Riccio; Cesare, Bianco-Junior; Paulo Renato Rivas, Totino; Daiana De Souza, Perce-Da-Silva; Luciene Aquino, Silva; Evelyn Kety Pratt, Riccio; Vítor, Ennes-Vidal; Ana Gisele Costa, Neves-Ferreira; Jonas, Perales; Surza Lucia Gonçalves Da, Rocha; Fabrício, Dias-Da-Silva; Maria de Fátima, Ferreira-da-Cruz; Cláudio Tadeu, Daniel-Ribeiro; Joseli De, Oliveira-Ferreira; Michael, Theisen; Leonardo José De Moura, Carvalho; Dalma Maria, Banic.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has [...] been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-? may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

  20. Brucella spp. infection in large ruminants in an endemic area of Egypt: cross-sectional study investigating seroprevalence, risk factors and livestock owner's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tras Wael F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is regarded as one of the major zoonotic infections worldwide. It was first reported in Egypt in 1939 and is now endemic, the predominate species of Brucella in cattle and buffalo in Egypt is B. melitensis. The aim of the study was to estimate seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle and buffalo reared in households in an Egyptian village, identify risk factors for animals testing seropositive and to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs of livestock owners with regards to brucellosis. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a village in Menufiya Governorate of Egypt. In June and July 2009, 107 households were selected using systematic sample and all lactating cattle and buffalo present in the household were sampled and tested for antibodies against Brucella spp. In addition, a questionnaire collecting information on potential risk factors for Brucella spp. infection in cattle and buffalo was administered to the household member responsible for rearing the livestock. Between December 2009 and February 2010 households were revisited and a second questionnaire regarding KAPs associated with brucellosis was administered. Results True individual and household seroprevalence were estimated to be 11.0% (95% CI: 3.06% to 18.4% and 15.5% (95% CI: 6.61% to 24.7%, respectively. Cattle and buffalo kept in a household with sheep and goats had 6.32 (95% CI: 1.44 to 27.9 times the odds of testing seropositive for Brucella spp., compared to cattle and buffalo that were not. Most participants in the study stated that livestock owners assist in the parturition of ruminants without wearing gloves and that some farmers sell animals which they suspect are Brucella infected to butchers or at market. Many participants made their livestock's milk into cheese and other dairy products without pasteurising it. Conclusions Brucellosis was endemic at high levels, in the current study. Although livestock owners had good general knowledge of brucellosis, they still appeared to participate in high-risk behaviours, which may contribute to the high seroprevalence in the area. Veterinarians, public health authorities and other community leaders need to collaborate to control the disease in animals and to manage the risk of human exposure.

  1. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93 entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT. Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001 y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  2. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica / Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús, Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos, Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco, Hernández-Sierra.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y [...] MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93) entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT). Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001) y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001). CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific [...] index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI) was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93) between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001), and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  3. Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ahmadipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

  4. Combined methods for the study of water contact behavior in a rural schistosomiasis-endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Helmut; Rodrigues, Julio Cézar Alves Paixão; Pereira, Wesley Rodrigues; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Loverde, Phillip; Oliveira, Rodrigo Corrêa; Gazzinelli, Andréa

    2006-01-01

    A new combined methodology consisting of direct observation and two types of interviews (internal and external interviews) was evaluated for use in exposure risk assessment in schistosomiasis. Specific objectives were to determine its usefulness in achieving equitable coverage of gendered exposure risk and its efficiency in identifying water contact behavior in a rural area in Brazil with different settlement patterns, land use and domestic water supplies. Of the 2476 water contacts recorded, 1223 (49.4%) were identified by direct observation, 946 (38.2%) by internal interviews and 307 (12.4%) by external interviews. Significantly longer mean durations of contacts were recorded for females and greater mean percentage of body surface exposed for males (Pfetching water, washing utensils, washing multiple parts of the body, and bathing. The three methods also recorded differentially frequencies and exposure intensities in the three study communities, among different age groups, by gender and for individual study members. These activity-, locality-, age/gender- and person-specific patterns reflect the relative efficiency and complementarity of the three methods in settlements with different land use, access to streams and water supplies. PMID:16212926

  5. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio, França; Ednaldo L., Lago; Philip D., Marsden.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b), na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usa [...] das para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae) usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae) 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae) 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae) 2%. Abstract in english This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to trea [...] t skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae.) 2%.

  6. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

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    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  7. Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa

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    Conway David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older children.

  8. Behaviour and population dynamics of the major anopheline vectors in a malaria endemic area in southern Nigeria

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    I.O. Oyewole

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheline mosquitoes consist of a large number of species each of whichdiffers from another in population, resting and feeding behaviour in relation to the prevailing conditionsin the locality. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the population dynamics, restingand feeding behaviour of the major anopheline species found in a rain forest zone of Nigeria.Methods: Mosquitoes resting and biting indoors were collected using WHO standard techniques andsupplemented with outdoor-biting collections in the study areas between January and December2004. Samples were sorted and identified microscopically for morphological features while molecularidentification was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques.Results: PCR-based tests showed that both indoor and outdoor collections constitute three groups ofAnopheles mosquitoes, An. gambiae s.l. Giles (68.6%, An. funestus Giles (30.7% and An. mouchetiEvans (0.7%. Of the 1,342 female Anopheles mosquitoes collected indoors, 799 were caught restingand 543 were caught biting. The outdoor-biting population accounted for 28.8% of the total collections(n =1885. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the biting activities (indoors and outdoorsof these species in four villages. However, An. arabiensis and An. moucheti were more exophagicwith >60% of their biting occurring outdoors while An. gambiae and An. funestus were moreendophagic with >55% of their biting occurring indoors. The human-vector contact with An. gambiaeand An. funestus (indoors was about 73.3 and 66.7%, respectively as against 27.7% in An. arabiensisand 25.3% in An. moucheti. This gave the corresponding man-biting rates (MBR of 17.5 bites/man/night for An. gambiae, 14.6 bites/man/night for An. funestus, 6.7 bites/man/night for An. arabiensisand 4.3 bites/man/night for An. moucheti. Moreover, the number of An. gambiae and An. funestuscaught resting indoors was significantly higher than the other two species (p <0.05. The wet seasoncollections showed that An. gambiae caught were more than 67% of the total catch while An. arabiensiswas predominant in the dry season (?2 = 75.44, df = 3, p <0.01.Interpretation & conclusion: The present study highlights some aspects of the behaviour ofanopheline mosquitoes in southern Nigeria which is an important component of epidemiologicalstudy of malaria. This information provides basis to the understanding of the role played by theidentified anopheline species in malaria transmission and a baseline to formulate malaria controlprogramme.

  9. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

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    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  10. Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State

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    E. Pittner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

  11. Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná / Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Pittner; E., Voltarelli; T.F., Perles; S.M.A.A., Arraes; T.G.V., Silveira; M.V.C., Lonardoni.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA), entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresento [...] u lesão, mas 12 (24,0%) tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8%) tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7%) apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença. Abstract in english The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immu [...] nofluorescent test (IIF) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0%) had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8%) out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7%) were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

  12. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with STh and STp genotypes is associated with diarrhea both in children in areas of endemicity and in travelers.

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    Bölin, Ingrid; Wiklund, Gudrun; Qadri, Firdausi; Torres, Olga; Bourgeois, A Louis; Savarino, Stephen; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2006-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea among children in developing countries and in travelers to areas of ETEC endemicity. ETEC strains isolated from humans may produce a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and two types of the heat-stable enterotoxin STa, called STh and STp, encoded by the estA gene. Two commonly used assay methods for the detection of STa, the infant mouse assay or different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are unable to distinguish between the two subtypes of ST. Different genotypic methods, such as DNA probes or PCR assays, may, however, allow such discrimination. Using gene probes, it has recently been reported that ETEC strains producing STp as the only enterotoxin are not associated with diarrhea. In this study, we have used highly specific PCR methods, including newly designed primers for STh together with previously described STp primers, to compare the relative distribution of STh and STp in ETEC isolated from children with diarrhea in three different geographically distinct areas, i.e., Bangladesh, Egypt, and Guatemala, and from travelers to Mexico and Guatemala. It was found that ETEC strains producing STp were as commonly isolated from cases of diarrhea as strains producing STh both in Egypt and Guatemala, whereas STp strains were considerably less common in Bangladesh. No difference was found in the relative distribution of STh and STp in ETEC strains isolated from travelers with diarrhea and from asymptomatic carriers. Irrespective of ST genotype, the disease symptoms were also similar in both children and travelers. PMID:16943355

  13. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with STh and STp Genotypes Is Associated with Diarrhea Both in Children in Areas of Endemicity and in Travelers?

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    Bölin, Ingrid?; Wiklund, Gudrun; Qadri, Firdausi; Torres, Olga; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Savarino, Stephen; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea among children in developing countries and in travelers to areas of ETEC endemicity. ETEC strains isolated from humans may produce a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and two types of the heat-stable enterotoxin STa, called STh and STp, encoded by the estA gene. Two commonly used assay methods for the detection of STa, the infant mouse assay or different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are unable to distinguish between the two subtypes of ST. Different genotypic methods, such as DNA probes or PCR assays, may, however, allow such discrimination. Using gene probes, it has recently been reported that ETEC strains producing STp as the only enterotoxin are not associated with diarrhea. In this study, we have used highly specific PCR methods, including newly designed primers for STh together with previously described STp primers, to compare the relative distribution of STh and STp in ETEC isolated from children with diarrhea in three different geographically distinct areas, i.e., Bangladesh, Egypt, and Guatemala, and from travelers to Mexico and Guatemala. It was found that ETEC strains producing STp were as commonly isolated from cases of diarrhea as strains producing STh both in Egypt and Guatemala, whereas STp strains were considerably less common in Bangladesh. No difference was found in the relative distribution of STh and STp in ETEC strains isolated from travelers with diarrhea and from asymptomatic carriers. Irrespective of ST genotype, the disease symptoms were also similar in both children and travelers. PMID:16943355

  14. Validation of an excretory/secretory antigen based-ELISA for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus infection in humans from low trematode endemic areas.

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    Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis, fibrosis of the periportal system, cholecystitis, and gallstones. Consequently, an early diagnosis prevents chronicity and loss of working days. The detection of specific antibodies has been considered as a complementary tool to the fecal examination to establish the definitive diagnosis of this infection and for the follow up. Therefore the aim of this work was the development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) from O. felineus adult worms to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera. A total of 370 human sera were tested: 144 sera from persons with a confirmed diagnosis of opisthorchiasis, 110 sera from healthy Italian people, and 116 sera from people with other parasitic or non-parasitic infections. Results were analyzed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The accuracy of the test, calculated by the area under curve (AUC), yielded a 0.999 value, indicating the high performance of the test. The sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 97.40% to 100%) and no false-negative sera were detected; the specificity was 99.09% (95% CI: 95.02% to 99.83%). The validated ELISA shows a good performance in terms of sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility, and it is suitable to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera for diagnostic purposes and for the follow up to assess the efficacy of drug treatment. PMID:23671589

  15. Assessment of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in a low endemicity area by using multiplex fluorescent microsphere-based serological assays

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    Sarr Jean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of malaria transmission intensity is a crucial indicator for estimating the burden of malarial disease. In this respect, entomological and parasitological methods present limitations, especially in low transmission areas. The present study used a sensitive multiplex assay to assess the exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infection in children living in an area of low endemicity. In three Senegalese villages, specific antibody (IgG responses to 13 pre-erythrocytic P. falciparum peptides derived from Lsa1, Lsa3, Glurp, Salsa, Trap, Starp, Csp and Pf11.1 proteins were simultaneously evaluated before (June, at the peak (September and after (December the period of malaria transmission, in children aged from 1 to 8 years. Results Compared to other antigens, a high percentage of seropositivity and specific antibody levels were detected with Glurp, Salsa1, Lsa3NR2, and Lsa1J antigens. The seropositivity increased with age for all tested antigens. Specific IgG levels to Glurp, Salsa1, Lsa3NR2, and Lsa1J were significantly higher in P. falciparum infected children compared to non-infected and this increase is significantly correlated with parasite density. Conclusion The multiplex assay represents a useful technology for a serological assessment of rapid variations in malaria transmission intensity, especially in a context of low parasite rates. The use of such combined serological markers (i.e. Glurp, Lsa1, Lsa3, and Salsa could offer the opportunity to examine these variations over time, and to evaluate the efficacy of integrated malaria control strategies.

  16. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  17. Environmental infestation and rickettsial infection in ticks in an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever / Infestacao ambiental e infeccao por rickettsias em carrapatos de area endemica para Febre Maculosa Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose, Brites-Neto; Fernanda Aparecida, Nieri-Bastos; Jardel, Brasil; Keila Maria Roncato, Duarte; Thiago Fernandes, Martins; Cecilia Jose, Verissimo; Amalia Regina Mar, Barbieri; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma antropozoonose endêmica no município de Americana/SP, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida pelo carrapato Amblyomma cajennense. Este estudo avaliou a fauna de carrapatos e a infecção por riquétsias em carrapatos de vida livre capturados me [...] nsalmente com armadilhas de CO2, em áreas de risco para FMB de Americana, de julho de 2009 a junho de 2010. Duas espécies foram capturadas, A. cajennense (6.122 larvas; 4.265 ninfas; 2.355 adultos) e Amblyomma dubitatum (7.814 larvas; 3.364 ninfas; 1.193 adultos). Os estágios imaturos de A. cajennense e A. dubitatum apresentaram uma distribuição anual semelhante, com larvas de ambas as espécies sendo coletadas em maior número no período de abril a julho e ninfas de junho a outubro. Maior número de adultos de A. cajennense foi coletado de outubro a dezembro, enquanto que os adultos de A. dubitatum foram coletados em número relativamente semelhante durante todo o ano. A infecção por Rickettsia foi avaliada pela PCR em 1157 carrapatos A. cajennense e 1040 A. dubitatum, com apenas 41 (3,9%) A. dubitatum infectados com Rickettsia bellii. Este estudo demonstrou que as áreas de risco para FMB de Americana são caracterizadas por elevadas infestações ambientais de A. cajennense e A. dubitatum. Abstract in english Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is endemic in the municipality of Americana, southeastern Brazil, where the disease is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma cajennense. This study evaluated the tick fauna and rickettsial infection in free-living ticks that were captured m [...] onthly using dry ice traps in areas endemic for BSF in Americana, from July 2009 to June 2010. Two tick species were captured: A. cajennense (6,122 larvae; 4,265 nymphs; 2,355 adults) and Amblyomma dubitatum (7,814 larvae; 3,364 nymphs; 1,193 adults). The immature stages of A. cajennense and A. dubitatum had similar distribution through the 12-month period, with larvae of both species collected in highest numbers between April and July, and nymphs between June and October. The highest numbers of A. cajennense adults were collected between October and December, whereas A. dubitatum adults were collected in relatively similar numbers throughout the 12-month period. Rickettsial infection was evaluated by means of PCR in 1,157 A. cajennense and 1,040 A. dubitatum ticks; only 41 (3.9%) A. dubitatum were found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. The present study showed that the areas of Americana that are endemic for BSF are characterized by high environmental burdens of A. cajennense and A. dubitatum.

  18. Myeloperoxidase activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism in the population living in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis area in Guizhou of China.

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    Zhang, Ting; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tu, Xi; He, Yan; Pei, Jin-Jing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism were investigated in the population who live in the endemic fluorosis area. In the study, 150 people were selected from the coal-burning endemic fluorosis area and 150 normal persons from the non-fluorosis area in Guizhou province of China. The blood samples were collected from these people. The activity of MPO in the plasma was determined by spectrophotometer; the expression of MPO mRNA was measured by employing real-time polymerase chain reaction; DNAs were extracted from the leucocytes in blood and five SNP genotypes of MPO promoter gene detected by a multiplex genotyping method, adapter-ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification. The results showed that the MPO activity and its corresponding mRNA in blood were significantly increased in the population living in the area of fluorosis. The different genotype frequencies of MPO, including -1228G/A, -585T/C, -463G/A, and -163C/T, and the three haplotypes with higher frequencies, including -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276T, -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276C, and -163C-463G-585T-1228A-1276T, were significantly associated with fluorosis. The results indicated that the elevated activity of MPO induced by endemic fluorosis may be connected in mechanism to the stimulated expression of MPO mRNA and the changed gene polymorphism. PMID:23436245

  19. Identification of areas of endemism from species distribution models: threshold selection and Nearctic mammals / Identificación de áreas de endemismo a partir de modelos de distribución de especies: selección de umbrales y mamíferos neárticos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Escalante; Gerardo, Rodríguez-Tapia; Miguel, Linaje; Patricia, Illoldi-Rangel; Rafael, González-López.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos la relevancia de la selección del umbral en los modelos de distribución de especies en la delimitación de las áreas de endemismo, usando como un caso de estudio a los mamíferos de América del Norte. Modelamos 40 especies de mamíferos endémicos de la región Neártica con Maxent, y transforma [...] mos esos modelos a mapas binarios usando cuatro umbrales diferentes: presencia mínima de entrenamiento, percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento, igual sensibilidad y especificidad de entrenamiento, y probabilidad logística de 0.5. Los mapas binarios los analizamos con el método de optimación con el objeto de identificar áreas de endemismo y comparar nuestros resultados con estudios previos. La mayoría de las especies mostró tendencias hacia valores muy bajos de la presencia mínima de entrenamiento, mientras que la mayoría tuvo un valor del percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento alrededor de 0.5, y de igual sensibilidad y especificidad de entrenamiento alrededor de 0.3. Únicamente con el percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento se recuperaron tres de los cuatro patrones de endemismo identificados para América del Norte y se detectaron más especies endémicas. La identificación de áreas de endemismo más eficiente se obtuvo usando el umbral del percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento, el cual parece recuperar mejor las áreas de distribución de los mamíferos analizados. Abstract in english We evaluated the relevance of threshold selection in species distribution models on the delimitation of areas of endemism, using as case study the North American mammals. We modeled 40 species of endemic mammals of the Nearctic region with Maxent, and transformed these models to binary maps using fo [...] ur different thresholds: minimum training presence, tenth percentile training presence, equal training sensitivity and specificity, and 0.5 logistic probability. We analyzed the binary maps with the optimality method in order to identify areas of endemism and compare our results regarding previous analyses. The majority of the species tend to have very low values for the minimum training presence, whereas most of the species have a value of the tenth percentile training presence around 0.5, and the equal training sensitivity and specificity was around 0.3. Only with the tenth percentile threshold we recovered three out of the four patterns of endemism identified in North America, and detected more endemic species. The best identification of areas of endemism was obtained using the tenth percentile training presence threshold, which seems to recover better the distributional area of the mammals analyzed.

  20. What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faucher Jean-François

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria attack in children with submicroscopic malaria. Methods PCR data were prospectively collected in the setting of an exposed (with fever/non exposed (without fever study design. All children had a negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT at baseline, were followed up to day 14 and did not receive drugs with anti-malarial activity. The index group was defined by children with fever at baseline and the control group by children without fever at baseline. Children with submicroscopic malaria in these two groups were defined by a positive PCR at baseline. Results PCR was positive in 66 (27% children of the index group and in 104 (44% children of the control group respectively. The only significant factor positively related to PCR positivity at baseline was the clinical status (control group. When definition of malaria attacks included PCR results, no difference of malaria incidence was observed between the index and control groups, neither in the whole cohort, nor in children with submicroscopic malaria. The rate of undiagnosed malaria at baseline was estimated to 3.7% at baseline in the index group. Conclusions Treating all children with fever and a positive PCR would have led to a significant increase of anti-malarial consumption, with few benefits in terms of clinical events. Non malarial fevers do not or do not frequently trigger malaria attacks in children with submicroscopic malaria.

  1. Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Sedimentary microcosm showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). ? Addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but not arsenic. ? An As(V)-reducing bacterium (ARS-3) native to aquifer sediments was isolated. ? ARS-3 showed microbial reduction of As(V) to As(III) in pore water in this aquifer. - Abstract: High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23 ± 0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7 ± 21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27 ± 0.01 mM and 571.4 ± 63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments.

  2. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Leptospira infection in dogs during a one-year period in an endemic urban area in Southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivien Midori, Morikawa; Daniele, Bier; Maysa, Pellizzaro; Leila Sabrina, Ullmann; Igor Adolfo Dexheimer, Paploski; Mariana, Kikuti; Hélio, Langoni; Alexander Welker, Biondo; Marcelo Beltrão, Molento.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dog [...] s in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ?100) of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer) density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6) to 19% (14.1 - 25.2), the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6) to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2), and the global seroincidence density rate of infection was 11% (9.1 - 13.2) per dog-trimester. Canicola and Icterohaemorraghiae were the most frequent incident serogroups observed in all follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-ups with mean trimester intervals were incapable of detecting any increase in seroprevalence due to seroincident cases of canine leptospirosis, suggesting that antibody titers may fall within three months. Further studies on incident infections, disease burden or risk factors for incident Leptospira cases should take into account the detectable lifespan of the antibody.

  4. Dual time-point FDG PET/CT for differentiating benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules in a TB endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mike Machaba, Sathekge; Alex, Maes; Hans, Pottel; Anton, Stoltz; Christophe, van de Wiele.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)-positronemission tomography (PET) is an accurate non-invasive imaging test for differentiating benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). We aimed to assess its diagnostic accuracy for differentiating benign from malignant SPNs in a tuberculosis (TB)- [...] endemic area. METHODS: Thirty patients, 22 men and 8 women, mean age 60 years, underwent dual time point FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, followed by histological examination of the SPN. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) with the greatest uptake in the lesion were calculated for two time points (SUV1 and SUV2), and the percentage change over time per lesion was calculated (%DSUV). Routine histological findings served as the gold standard. RESULTS: Histological examination showed that 14 lesions were malignant and 16 benign, 12 of which were TB. SUVmax for benign and malignant lesions were 11.02 (standard deviation (SD) 6.6) v. 10.86 (SD 8.9); however, when tuberculomas were excluded from the analysis, a significant difference in mean SUV1max values between benign and malignant lesions was observed (p=0.0059). Using an SUVmax cut-off value of 2.5, a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 25% was obtained. Omitting the TB patients from analysis resulted in a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. Mean %DSUV of benign lesions did not differ significantly from mean %DSUV of malignant lesions (17.1% (SD 16.3%) v. 19.4% (SD 23.7%)). Using a cut-off of %DSUV >10% as indicative of malignancy, a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 50% was obtained. Omitting the TB patients from the analysis yielded a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 75%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that FDG-PET cannot distinguish malignancy from tuberculoma and therefore cannot reliably be used to reduce futile biopsy/thoracotomy.

  5. Automated Detection of Malaria-Associated Pseudoeosinophilia and Abnormal WBC Scattergram by the Sysmex XE-2100 Hematology Analyzer: A Clinical Study with 1,801 Patients and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis in Vivax Malaria-Endemic Area

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jong-Ha; Song, Jaewoo; Lee, Kyung-a; Sun, Young-Kyu; Kim, Young-Ah; Park, Tae Sung; Choi, Jong Rak

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the XE-2100 hematology analyzer was investigated in a rather small patient group; pseudoeosinophilia or abnormal white blood cell (WBC) scattergrams reported by this instrument were considered as significantly valuable diagnostic parameters in detecting vivax malaria. This study was conducted not only to assess the usefulness of pseudoeosinophilia or abnormal WBC scattergram in vivax malaria-endemic areas with large patient groups (N = 1,801) but also to investigate the correlation ...

  6. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas; Roberto Costa Peres; Fernando Alves; Mauro Blanco Brandolini

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%). A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and M...

  7. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis

    OpenAIRE

    Solano-Gallego Laia; Rossi Luca; Scroccaro Anna; Montarsi Fabrizio; Caldin Marco; Furlanello Tommaso; Trotta Michele

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Method...

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi among wild and domestic mammals in different areas of the Abaetetuba municipality (Pará State, Brazil), an endemic Chagas disease transmission area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta C C; Gerhardt, Marconny; Silva, Miguel F O; Lima, Valdirene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Jansen, Ana M

    2013-03-31

    The presence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) due to oral transmission is growing and expanding in several South American countries. Within the Amazon basin, the Abaetetuba municipality has been a site of recurrent cases spanning across distinct landscapes. Because Chagas disease is primarily a zoonotic infection, we compared the enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles in three different environmental areas of Abaetetuba to better understand this new epidemiological situation. Philander opossum was the most abundant mammalian species collected (38% of the collected mammals) with a T. cruzi prevalence of 57%, as determined by hemocultures. Didelphis marsupialis was abundant only in the area with the higher level of environmental disturbance (approximately 42%) and did not yield detectable parasitemia. Despite similarities observed in the composition of the small mammalian fauna and the prevalence of T. cruzi infection among the studied areas, the potential of these hosts to infect vectors differed significantly according to the degree of land use (with prevalences of 5%, 41%, and 64% in areas A3, A1 and A2, respectively). Domestic mammals were also found to be infected, and one canine T. cruzi isolate was obtained. Our data demonstrated that the transmission of T. cruzi in the Amazon basin is far more complex than had been previously taught and showed that the probability of humans and domestic mammals coming into contact with infected bugs can vary dramatically, even within the same municipality. The exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection (indicated by positive serology) was the common feature among the studied localities, stressing the importance of selecting domestic mammals as sentinels in the identification of T. cruzi transmission hotspots. PMID:23261089

  9. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of CareStart G6PD Deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) in a Malaria Endemic Area in Ghana, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyasi, Dennis; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Newton, Sam; Dosoo, David; Amoako, Sabastina; Adjei, George; Amoako, Nicholas; Ankrah, Love; Tchum, Samuel Kofi; Mahama, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Veronica; Kayan, Kingsley; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the “gold standard”. Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval. Results The sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199) change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the “gold standard”. Conclusions The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy. PMID:25885097

  10. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in two different endemic settings: Koulikoro district, along the river and Selingué dam area in the Niger River Basin in order to compare and describe morbidity related to Schistosoma haematobium infection. A total of 667 children aged 7-14 were enrolled in the study. Among these, 333 were from Koulikoro district (175 boys and 158 girls) and 334 from Selingué dam area (169 boys and 165 girls). The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the two areas was 91.5%; Koulikoro (97.0%) and Selingué (85.9%) and this difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. Prevalence of heavy infection (? 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine), 57.6% in Koulikoro and 43.8% in Selingué, did not differ significantly after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. The transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was mainly confined to Selingué dam area (12.5%) and was nearly absent in Koulikoro district (1.1%). Blood in urine was the most frequently reported clinical symptom, more common in Koulikoro (76.8%) than in Selingué (57.6%). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for sex, age group, egg intensity category and clustering within villages, Selingué had higher prevalence of macro-haematuria, urinary tract pathology, upper urinary tract pathology and total pathology than Koulikoro, while micro-haematuria did not differ between the two areas. Morbidity measures increased to some extent with egg intensity category, especially micro-haematuria. The results obtained from this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali.

  11. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal; Keita, Adama D; Traoré, Mamadou S; Landouré, Aly; Doucouré, Aïssata; Madsen, Henry; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in two different endemic settings: Koulikoro district, along the river and Selingué dam area in the Niger River Basin in order to compare and describe morbidity related to Schistosoma haematobium infection. A total of 667 children aged 7-14 were enrolled in the study. Among these, 333 were from Koulikoro district (175 boys and 158 girls) and 334 from Selingué dam area (169 boys and 165 girls). The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the two areas was 91.5%; Koulikoro (97.0%) and Selingué (85.9%) and this difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. Prevalence of heavy infection (? 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine), 57.6% in Koulikoro and 43.8% in Selingué, did not differ significantly after adjusting for age, sex and clustering within villages. The transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was mainly confined to Selingué dam area (12.5%) and was nearly absent in Koulikoro district (1.1%). Blood in urine was the most frequently reported clinical symptom, more common in Koulikoro (76.8%) than in Selingué (57.6%). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for sex, age group, egg intensity category and clustering within villages, Selingué had higher prevalence of macro-haematuria, urinary tract pathology, upper urinary tract pathology and total pathology than Koulikoro, while micro-haematuria did not differ between the two areas. Morbidity measures increased to some extent with egg intensity category, especially micro-haematuria. The results obtained from this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali. PMID:21195046

  12. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis / Ecologia de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia migonei em uma área endêmica para Leishmaniose Visceral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafaella Albuquerque, Silva; Fabricio Kassio Moura, Santos; Lindemberg Caranha de, Sousa; Elizabeth Ferreira, Rangel; Claudia Maria Leal, Bevilaqua.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O principal vetor de leishmaniose visceral (LV) no Brasil é Lutzomyia longipalpis. Entretanto, a ausência de L. longipalpis em área com casos autóctones de LV demonstra a existência de outras espécies na transmissão dessa doença. Estudo realizado na cidade de La Banda, Argentina, e São Vicente Férre [...] r, Brasil, correlacionou a ausência de L. longipalpis e a presença de Lutzomyia migonei com casos autóctones de LV. Em São Vicente Férrer, foi comprovada a infecção natural de L. migonei por Leishmania infantum chagasi. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ecologia dos flebotomíneos L. longipalpis e L. migonei no município de Fortaleza, área endêmica para LV. A captura de flebotomíneos foi realizada em 22 pontos de coleta distribuídos nas quatro regiões do município de Fortaleza. No total, foram capturados 32.403 flebotomíneos. Destes, 18.166 (56%) eram da espécie L. longipalpis e 14.237 (44%) eram L. migonei. Houve diferença significativa de densidade entre os vetores em cada local de captura (intra e peri) (p Abstract in english The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Fé [...] rrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p

  13. Sociocultural aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil Aspectos sócio-culturais da esquistossomose mansoni em área endêmica de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Gazzinelli

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the sociocultural factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from a small community toward Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out in an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used qualitative approaches to collect data from school-aged children and teachers. Specific findings were that the individuals interviewed were aware of the disease, but also held inaccurate popular beliefs about transmission. Misconceptions coexisted with accurate knowledge both in children and teachers. The disease was not seen as a major health problem and did not affect their activities since it did not cause severe symptoms in most of the individuals. Although the majority of the participants related transmission to water and lack of sanitation, they did not take any preventive measures since their subsistence is highly dependent on irrigation, farming, fishing, and other essential work that is directly related to water activities. The authors discuss the development of a health education program based on the knowledge and perception of individuals about the disease and its determinants as being important for the context and behavioral change.Este estudo foi realizado em área endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar os fatores sócio-culturais que influenciam o conhecimento, as atitudes e práticas dos indivíduos da comunidade em relação a esquistossomose mansoni. Os resultados mostraram que tanto crianças quanto professores conhecem a doença e possuem concepções corretas e incorretas sobre a transmissão. A doença não é vista como um problema importante de saúde pública e não afeta as atividades pelo fato de não causar sintomas graves na maior parte da população. Apesar da maioria dos entrevistados relacionar a transmissão da doença à água e falta de saneamento básico, não utiliza nenhuma medida preventiva para evitar a infecção, tendo em vista que sua subsistência depende em grande parte da agricultura, pesca e outras atividades relacionadas à água. Neste trabalho, os autores discutem o desenvolvimento de um programa de educação em saúde baseado na percepção e conhecimento dos indivíduos sobre a doença e seus determinantes como sendo de utilidade para a modificação não só do seu comportamento mas também do contexto.

  14. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watsierah Carren A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P?=?0.039 and P?=?0.039 and severe malaria (P?P?=?0.002 in children and adults, respectively. Most (82.3% of private outlets sell partial packs of AL while 72.4% do not request for written prescription for AL. In-service training influenced request for written prescription (P?=?0.001, AL prescription (P?P? Conclusion Public-sector providers have higher knowledge on treatment policy and dosing regimen on recommended anti-malarials. Changes in treatment guidelines should be accompanied by subsequent implementation activities involving all sector players in unbiased strategies.

  15. Serotipo, Patrón de Infección y Dengue Hemorrágico en Área Endémica Colombiana Dengue hemorrhagic fever serotype and infection pattern in a Colombian endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel E Ocazionez

    Full Text Available Objetivo La relación entre serotipo del virus, patrón de infección y dengue hemorrágico es presentada. Métodos Se estudiaron 1 545 pacientes febriles de municipios del Departamento de Santander, Colombia, entre 1998-2004. El dengue se confirmó por ELISA-IgM y el aislamiento viral se hizo en células C6/36. El patrón de infección se estableció investigando anticuerpos IgG en suero agudo. El título de anticuerpos neutralizantes se determinó usando la prueba de neutralización por reducción de placa (PRNT. Resultados Predominancia del DEN-1 en 1998 y re-introducción del DEN-3 en 2001 coincidieron con epidemias. El dengue hemorrágico fue más frecuente en infecciones por virus DEN-2 que DEN-3 (24,5 % vs 11,2 %; pObjective Describing the relationship between viral serotypes, infection pattern and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Methods 1 545 febrile patients were studied from 1998-2004 in the Santander department of Colombia. Dengue infection was confirmed by IgM ELISA and the virus was isolated in C6/36 cells. Infection pattern was established by detecting IgG antibodies in acute serum. Neutralising antibody titres were investigated in dengue cases occurring during years when less (1998 and more (2001 dengue hemorrhagic cases were reported by using PRNT. Results DEN-1 predominance in 1998 and the re-introduction of DEN-3 in 2001 coincided with an epidemic. DEN-2 infection caused more hemorrhagic cases than DEN-3 infection (24,5 % cf 11,2 %; p<0.05. DEN-2 was more associated with secondary infection than DEN-3 (56,8 % cf 15,7 %; p<0.001. An annual decrease of DHF was correlated with decreased DEN-2 dominance (r=0.95; p= 0.01, and secondary infection (r=0.9; p=0.03 and increased DEN-3 predominance (r=-0.91; p=0.03. There were no differences in neutralising antibody titres amongst analysed cases. DEN-1 neutralising antibodies presented the highest titres. Conclusions Change in relative dengue virus serotype abundance was associated with changed infection pattern and DHF frequency. Continuing virological surveillance should become a priority for preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever in endemic areas.

  16. Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area / Status sorológico e de infecção canina em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Farias, Laranjeira; Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da, Matta; Thaíse Yumie, Tomokane; Mary, Marcondes; Carlos Eduardo Pereira, Corbet; Márcia Dalastra, Laurenti.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Foi investigado o status sorológico de cães, em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral, e sua correlação com a infecção parasitológica dos animais. MÉTODOS A resposta humoral canina foi avaliada no soro de 134 cães pelo método ELISA e pela imuno-histoquímica, para detectar parasitos na [...] pele, linfonodo e baço desses animais. Os anticorpos específicos investigados foram IgG, IgG1, IgG2 e IgE. RESULTADOS De acordo com os achados parasitológicos, laboratoriais e clínicos, os cães foram alocados em um dos quatro grupos: assintomáticos com (AP+, n = 21) e sem (AP-, n = 36) parasitismo tecidual por Leishmania e sintomáticos com (SP+, n = 52) ou sem (SP-, n = 25) parasitismo. Níveis mais elevados de IgG e IgE se correlacionaram positivamente com o status de infecção e a carga parasitária, mas não com a condição clínica. Em todos os grupos, IgG total foi o anticorpo predominante, com maior concentração de IgG2 que IgG1. O anticorpo IgG foi positivo em proporção elevada nos animais infectados (SP+ 98,1%; AP+ 95,2%), mas não o IgE (SP+ 80,8%; AP+ 71,2%). O achado mais relevante refere-se aos cães não infectados que apresentaram elevada positividade para anticorpos IgG anti-Leishmania (SP- 60,0%; AP- 44,4%), IgE (SP- 44,0%; AP- 27,8%), IgG1 (SP- 28,0%; AP- 22,2%) e IgG2 (SP- 56,0%; AP- 41,7%). CONCLUSÕES O status sorológico dos cães, determinado por qualquer classe ou subclasse de anticorpos, não distinguiu com acurácia cães infectados por L. (L.) infantum chagasi daqueles não infectados. A imprecisão do resultado sorológico pode prejudicar não só o diagnóstico, mas também as investigações epidemiológicas e as estratégias para o controle da leishmaniose visceral. Esse complexo cenário sorológico observado na área endêmica mostra quão desafiador é o diagnóstico canino, e aponta a dificuldade enfrentada pelos médicos veterinários e coordenadores dos programas de controle. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay a [...] nd immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs.

  17. Urine Turbidity and Microhaematuria as Rapid Assessment Indicators for Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School Children in Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Adesola; Ntiaidem Uduak; Morenikeji Olajumoke; Nwuba Roseangela; Anumudu Chiaka; Adejuwon Sunday; Salawu Oyetunde; Jegede Ayodele; Odaibo Alex

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Urinary schistosomiasis is highly endemic in Nigeria and for effective control measure, an efficient, quick and yet cheap diagnosis should be integrated. This will ensure the proper management of infection due to Schistosoma haematobium in low resource communities of Nigeria. Approach: This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 456 (252 males, 204 females) school children aged 3-20 years between November 2010 and June 2011. Urine samples were examined macroscopically f...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Santos Elizabeth Gloria O.; Marzochi Mauro Célio de A.; Conceição Nilton Francisco; Brito Célia Maria M.; Pacheco Raquel S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL) has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS) with Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF). 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5%) and mucocutaneous lesion...

  19. Feasibility of Flow Cytometry for Measurements of Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Burden in Studies in Areas of Malaria Endemicity by Use of Bidimensional Assessment of YOYO-1 and Autofluorescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Joseph J.; Aponte, John J; Nhabomba, Augusto J.; Sacarlal, Jahit; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Pedro L. Alonso; Dobaño, Carlota

    2011-01-01

    The detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum in studies of malaria endemicity primarily relies upon microscopy. High-throughput quantitative methods with less subjectivity and greater reliability are needed for investigational studies. The staining of parasitized erythrocytes with YOYO-1 for flow cytometry bears great potential as a tool for assessing malaria parasite burden. Capillary blood was collected from children presenting to the pediatric ward of the Manhiça District Hos...

  20. Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was perform...

  1. Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Area of High Malaria Endemicity in India and Its Correlation with Blood Concentration of Lumefantrine

    OpenAIRE

    Valecha, Neena; Mohanty, Suman; Srivastava, Prakriti; Sharma, Surya; Tyagi, Prajesh; Bergqvist, Yngve; Ringwald, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to correlate blood concentrations of lumefantrine with treatment outcome for patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria when the drug was given without specific instructions for administration with food. Patients with P. falciparum malaria in the highly endemic state of Orissa, India, were enrolled during 2008 and followed-up for 28 days after admistration of artemether-lumefantrine for three days according to a World Health Organization protocol. Drug concentration ...

  2. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B; BOUYER, DONALD H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Cláudio L. Mafra; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Po...

  3. [Endemic dengue: surveillance strategy challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between clinical infection, vector, and population serotype immunity defines dengue epidemic risk. An endemic-sporadic epidemiological situation is an acceptable control target in metropolitan regions deficient in urban upgrading, sanitation, and health agents' access to residences, besides low residual power of biological insecticides and social mobilization problems. Surveillance requires continued action by government and society (particularly when incidence decreases) and adequate proposals. To establish a sensitive and specific surveillance system for endemic periods, the authors propose the sentinel clinical component as part of emergency care (detecting serious tip-of-the-iceberg cases) and reference services for acute febrile diseases, defining clinical forms and providing diagnostic confirmation. Although complex, sample serotype surveys should be conducted in strategic areas, evaluating: immunity and susceptibility of age groups to circulating serotypes; estimation of sub-clinical cases; and Surveillance and Control System reach. PMID:15361960

  4. Determinación de áreas de endemismo en mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Venezuela, mediante criterios explícitos de optimización / Determination of areas of endemism in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela, through explicit optimization criteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiola, Del Ventura; Jonathan, Liria; Juan-Carlos, Navarro.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Familia Culicidae ha sido estudiada ampliamente debido a su importancia en la salud pública y veterinaria. Varias especies de esta Familia son vectores de múltiples patógenos que causan enfermedades que generan altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad, así como numerosas pérdidas económicas. El con [...] ocimiento de la distribución geográfica de este grupo y el análisis de su biogeografía histórica nos permitirán obtener más conocimientos acerca de su historia natural, de las razones geológicas y ecológicas de su distribución, así como de patrones epidemiológicos de las enfermedades de las cuales son vectores. La delimitación de Áreas de Endemismo (AE) es un paso inicial y fundamental para la realización de análisis de biogeografía histórica, para ello se elaboró una base de datos de 9.610 registros, 435 localidades, 20 géneros y 261 especies de Venezuela, a partir del cual se realizaron mapas de distribución, análisis explícitos de áreas de endemismos (AE) y parsimonioso de endemicidad (PAE) en los programas (software) NDM/VNDM. Los registros compilados de la Familia Culicidae se distribuyen principalmente al Norte del país, con distribuciones particulares hacia zonas montañosas o la región del Macizo Guayanés, entre otras. Se proponen tres áreas de endemismo para mosquitos: Macizo Guayanés-Pantepui, Región Norte-central y Cordillera Andina, las cuales son concordantes con las zonas ancestrales y recientes de la historia geológica del territorio. Abstract in english The Family Culicidae has been studied extensively because of its importance in veterinary and public health. Several species of this family are vectors of pathogens causing multiple diseases which to generate high rates of morbidity and mortality and numerous economic losses. Studies of the geograph [...] ical distribution of Culicidae and its historical biogeography analysis will allow us to obtain more knowledge about the natural history and explanations of geological and ecological reasons of the distribution and also the epidemiological patterns of diseases which are involved. The delimitation of areas of endemism (AE) is a crucial initial step for the analysis of historical biogeography and for this we developed a database of 9,610 records in 435 localities, 20 genera and 261 species from Venezuela, map distribution, and explicit analyzes of areas of endemism (AE) and parsimonious of endemicity (PAE) software NDM / VNDM. The records compiled of Culicidae are mainly distributed in the north of the country, with particular distributions to mountainous or Guayana Shield region, among others. The results suggest the proposal of three endemism areas for mosquitoes: Guayana Shield-Pantepui, North-Central Region and Andean mountains cordillera, which are concordant with recent and ancestral areas of the geological history of the country.

  5. Uncertainty Surrounding Projections of the Long-Term Impact of Ivermectin Treatment on Human Onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Hugo C.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Walker, Martin; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Prichard, Roger K; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal suggest that, in some settings, it is possible to eliminate onchocerciasis after 15–17 years of ivermectin distribution. Computer models have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. Some models assume that annual ivermectin treatment reduces the fertility of the causing parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, by 30–35% each time the drug is taken. Other analyses suggest that ivermectin may not have such an effec...

  6. Primary motives for demand of ivermectin drug in mass distribution programmes to control onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Okwuoma Abanobi; Uchechukwu Chukwuocha; Celestine Onwuliri; Kenneth Opara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Onchocerciasis is a disease with a spectrum of manifestations suffered by different infected people. Based on individual perceptions and manifestations presented, demand for the drug Ivermectin was due to different motives and priorities during mass distribution programmes. Subjects and Method: This study presents findings from a sample of 594 persons out of a total of 35,763 treated individuals who voluntarily demanded Ivermectin treatment during a community-based Ivermectin dist...

  7. Punção biópsia aspirativa de tireóide em região endêmica de bócio colóide / Fine needle aspiration citology in an endemic colloid goiter area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus A., Lima; Adriano F., Yamada; Fábio C., Navarro; Elisabete M., Resende; Beatriz P., Ferreira; Maria F., Borges.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Propusemo-nos verificar a freqüência de tireoidopatias em região endêmica de bócio colóide através de punção biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina (PBAAF). Foram avaliados os diagnósticos obtidos por este método em 1265 pacientes portadores de tireoidopatias difusas ou nodulares tratados na cidade de U [...] beraba, Minas Gerais, no período de 1989 a 2000, correlacionando-os com o sexo e a idade. As tireoidopatias mais freqüentemente encontradas foram bócio colóide (54,38%), tireoidite crônica de Hashimoto (22,70%) e tumor folicular (8,61%), predominantemente no sexo feminino (92%) e na faixa etária entre 30 e 60 anos (64,12%). Em conclusão, além do predomínio de bócio colóide, a tireoidite crônica de Hashimoto apresentou incidência maior que aquelas relatadas em outras regiões endêmicas e não endêmicas de bócio e houve elevada freqüência de tumores foliculares, cerca de treze vezes mais freqüentes que o carcinoma papilífero. Abstract in english The frequency of thyroid diseases was verified in an endemic goiter region, based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thyroid diseases, in its nodular or diffuse form, were evaluated through 1265 FNAC in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1989 and 2000, according to sex and age. Colloid g [...] oiter was found in 54.39%, followed by Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis (22.70%) and follicular tumors (8,61%), mainly in females (92%) between 30 and 60 years old (64.12%). To conclude, besides the prevalence of colloid goiter, Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis presented a higher frequency than those seen in endemic regions and non-endemic goiter region and there was also a high frequency of follicular tumors, around 13 times higher than papillary carcinoma.

  8. Punção biópsia aspirativa de tireóide em região endêmica de bócio colóide Fine needle aspiration citology in an endemic colloid goiter area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A. Lima

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Propusemo-nos verificar a freqüência de tireoidopatias em região endêmica de bócio colóide através de punção biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina (PBAAF. Foram avaliados os diagnósticos obtidos por este método em 1265 pacientes portadores de tireoidopatias difusas ou nodulares tratados na cidade de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, no período de 1989 a 2000, correlacionando-os com o sexo e a idade. As tireoidopatias mais freqüentemente encontradas foram bócio colóide (54,38%, tireoidite crônica de Hashimoto (22,70% e tumor folicular (8,61%, predominantemente no sexo feminino (92% e na faixa etária entre 30 e 60 anos (64,12%. Em conclusão, além do predomínio de bócio colóide, a tireoidite crônica de Hashimoto apresentou incidência maior que aquelas relatadas em outras regiões endêmicas e não endêmicas de bócio e houve elevada freqüência de tumores foliculares, cerca de treze vezes mais freqüentes que o carcinoma papilífero.The frequency of thyroid diseases was verified in an endemic goiter region, based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid diseases, in its nodular or diffuse form, were evaluated through 1265 FNAC in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1989 and 2000, according to sex and age. Colloid goiter was found in 54.39%, followed by Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis (22.70% and follicular tumors (8,61%, mainly in females (92% between 30 and 60 years old (64.12%. To conclude, besides the prevalence of colloid goiter, Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis presented a higher frequency than those seen in endemic regions and non-endemic goiter region and there was also a high frequency of follicular tumors, around 13 times higher than papillary carcinoma.

  9. [African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC): Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium damnosum s. l. in two regions of the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyong, P; Traoré, S; Louango, E; Fobi, G; Noma, M; Yaméogo, L; Kayembé, D; Sékétéli, A

    2006-03-01

    Entomological baseline data were collected in the villages of Zinga and Boali-Falls in Central African Republic (CAR) in view of the long term impact assessment of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). Morphological determinations revealed that flies caught in both sites belong to the sub-group Sou/Sq. In Boali, the nuisance was relatively high with biting rates averaging 243 bites/man/day, with a parous rate of 61.6% and a crude annual transmission potential (ATP) of 8,259 infective larvae/man/year; and the average number of infective larvae per 1,000 parous flies was 177. In Zinga, the mean biting rate was 191 bites/man/day, with a parous rate of 51.6%, a crude ATP of 3,422, and 86 infective larvae per 1,000 porous flies. In conclusion, the vectorial capacity and the entomological indices recorded are characteristic of high onchocerciasis transmission zones. However, some of the infective larvae found, maybe of animal origin, need identification to better determine the real level of endemicity. PMID:16605065

  10. Clinical importance of solitary solid nodule of the thyroid in endemic goiter region

    OpenAIRE

    Gurleyik Emin; Coskun Ozgur; Aslaner Arif

    2005-01-01

    Context: Endemic area and iodine supplementation may affect the pathogenesis of the nodule which commonly occurs in endemic thyroid enlargement due to iodine deficiency. Aims: To establish pathological changes in solitary solid and larger nodule of the thyroid in endemic area. Setting and Design: Retrospective study in Surgical Department of University Hospital. Methods and Material: We determined 44 surgically treated patients with solitary solid nodule in endemic goiter area in which...

  11. [National entomological teams of the western extension zone of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in west Africa from 1986 to 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sékétéli, A; Guillet, P; Coloussa, B; Philippon, B; Quillévéré, D; Samba, E M

    1993-01-01

    The western extension area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) covers five countries: Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali (western part), Senegal and Sierra Leone. From 1986 to 1990, national teams employed by the respective governments have been regularly collecting entomological data on the vectors of onchocerciasis in these countries. As in the initial programme area of the OCP, the entomological surveillance network was composed of entomological sectors and subsectors (the latter are called "operational bases" in the western extension). In 1990, 308 staff in 47 capture teams were employed for the entomological surveillance activities in seven sectors and twenty-five operational bases. They included a national coordinator as head of the teams for each country, a wide range of technicians, and administrative support staff to assist the national coordinator in the overall management of available resources. The national teams worked under the technical responsibility and supervision of WHO/OCP but with no employee/employer relationship between them and WHO, since they were employed and their salaries were paid by their governments. The OCP, however, paid additional lump sum allowances to each worker, as well as daily subsistence allowances when away from their duty station. Vehicles, entomological equipment, office supplies and furniture, fuel and lubricants were provided by WHO/OCP. Despite the difficulties encountered in the field, which were often great, and their lower salaries (compared with colleagues paid by WHO/OCP), the technical workers in the national teams performed well by OCP standards, with results as satisfactory as those obtained by the WHO/OCP teams in the rest of the programme area. The main reasons for the efficiency and dynamism of the national entomological teams are described. The future of these teams after OCP has ceased its activities is also discussed. PMID:8313491

  12. Susceptibilidad dE Lutzomyia verrucarrum a piretroides en zonas endémicas de Enfermedad de Carrión de Ancash / Pyrethroids susceptibility of Lutzmoyia verrucarum in endemic areas of Carrion disease from Ancash

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Lucero; Paul P., Pachas.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Carrión es una infección metaxénica endémica del Perú, el control vectorial de la Lutzomyia verrucarum con insecticidas es una de las formas más usadas para reducir su morbilidad. Se determinó la susceptibilidad de este vector a los piretroides más usados (cyflutrina, alfacipermetri [...] na y deltametrina) en dos zonas endémicas altoandinas de Ancash (Llumpa: 3200 msnm y Maya: 2600 msnm), Perú en junio de 1999. Se expuso a 50 mosquitos por cada zona e insecticida usando la prueba de contacto para anophelinos modificada. Se encontró una mortalidad del 100% para cada piretroide ensayado. Si bien se demostró una susceptibilidad total de L. verrucarum es necesario implementar la vigilancia de la resistencia a insecticidas como se hace con otros vectores en el Perú. Abstract in english Carrion disease is an endemic vector-borne infection of Peru, the vector control of the Lutzomyia verrucarum with insecticides is one of the most commonly used to reduce morbidity. It was determined the susceptibility of this vector to the most pyrethroids widely used (cyfluthrin, alfacypermethrin a [...] nd deltamethrin) in two endemic areas of highlands from Ancash (Llumpa: 3200 and Maya: 2600 meters above sea level), Peru in June 1999. Were exposed to 50 mosquitoes from each area and insecticide, using an anopheline contact test modified. We found a mortality rate of 100% for each pyrethroid tested. While total susceptibility of L. verrucarum showed, is necessary the implement of surveillance to insecticides resistance as is done with other vectors in Peru.

  13. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Charalambous; P. D., Ready; A. J., Shelley; M., Arzube; C. A., Lowry.

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (o [...] f the Cayapa cytotype) by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure) collection.

  14. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  15. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceovi?, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  16. INVESTIGATION OF BALCAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY IN MEMBERS OF ENDEMIC FAMILIES IN THE ENDEMIC VILLAGE MORAVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Miti?

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The village Moravac, situated on the left bank of the River South Morava, has been known as endemic area for fifty years. The highest prevalence of Balcan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN was noted during the seventh and eight decade in the last century, and after that period, permanent decreasing has been shown. The present study involved fifty members of endemic families. In all investigated subjects, clinical observations included anamnesis, physical examinations and urinalysis. In twelve (24% subjects, urinary abnormalities were proven (proteinuria, microhaematuria, leucocyturia. These subjects further underwent the additional functional and morphological examinations at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Center Nis. In 11 (22% subjects, clinical examinations showed different forms of renal diseases, but BEN was proven in four (one of them suffered from BEN since 2004 and he was treated by haemodialyses, while the others were diagnosed during the investigation. Other renal diseases in the examined patients were: cystic kidney disease (6%, nephrolithiasis (4%, diabetic nephropathy (2%, obstructive nephropathy (4% and tumores of kidney (2%. In our opinion, based on this investigation, BEN showed the rising tendency. Our retrograde study on the incidence of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer in the endemic village Moravac showed the highest frequency, like BEN, in the seventh and eight decade in the last century. Despite encouraging results, further detailed and larger investigations are needed along the River South Morava, because a number of studies suggested lower progression and middle clinical course of disease, and also a rare appearance of the upper urinary tract cancer, which is why the patients seldom visit the health institutions, mostly in advanced stage of renal insufficiency. The aim of further investigations is to detect such subjects in the initial, early phase of disease, when prevention of progressive course and therapy are more successful.

  17. Vigilância de doenças endêmicas em áreas urbanas: a interface entre mapas de setores censitários e indicadores de morbidade Surveillance of endemic diseases in urban areas: the interface between census tract maps and morbidity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se o eixo metodológico utilizado na construção de modelo de vigilância de endemias em áreas urbanas, orientado por uma análise de situações de risco e por indicadores epidemiológicos espaciais. São apresentadas as premissas básicas do modelo, os critérios de seleção de variáveis sócio-econômicas e as etapas metodológicas necessárias na construção do indicador sintético de risco. Comenta-se, também, como algumas questões operacionais relativas à construção de mapas digitais de setores censitários e vinculação de bancos de dados foram equacionadas. Essa abordagem, incorporando o componente da organização do espaço na vigilância de doenças endêmicas, tendo como exemplo a hanseníase e a tuberculose, privilegia o uso integrado de sistemas de informação já existentes, na perspectiva de estratificar áreas urbanas diferenciadas que permite discriminar riscos desiguais para ocorrência de endemias. Essa é uma ferramenta para o planejamento e o gerenciamento das ações voltadas para o controle das endemias nas cidades.In this article we discuss the methodological issues associated with the creation of a surveillance system for endemic diseases in urban areas based on analysis of populations at risk and on spatially referenced epidemiological indicators. We comment on the system's basic requirements, selection criteria for socioeconomic variables, and methodological steps to combine these variables so as to construct a census-based deprivation index. We also present the ways we solved some operational problems related to generation of digitized census tracts maps and linkage of morbidity data from different sources. This approach, spatial organization into account in surveillance of endemic diseases, exemplified here by tuberculosis and leprosy, allows for the interaction of several official data sets from census and health services in order to geographically discriminate inner-city risk strata. Criteria for constructing these risk strata were considered a useful tool for health planning and management activities for the control of endemic diseases in cities.

  18. Host immune response to Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides in a highly endemic area: evidence of parasite co-immunomodulation properties influencing the outcome of both infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lílian MG, Bahia-Oliveira; Juliana Azevedo da, Silva; Alba Lucinia, Peixoto-Rangel; Marcela Santana Bastos, Boechat; Annelise M Wilken Abreu, Oliveira; Cristiano L, Massara; Ricardo Guerra, Peixe.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and ascaridiasis evoke polar Th-1 and Th-2 host immune responses, respectively. A study to investigate the specific cytokine profile production by in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals living under precarious sanitary conditions in a highly endemic ar [...] ea for the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris lumbricoides was conducted. High levels of both IFN-³ (Th-1) and IL-13 (Th-2) were observed in groups of co-infected individuals presenting toxoplasmic ocular lesions. Significantly lower IL-10 and TGF-² levels were produced by co-infected individuals in comparison with groups of individuals not infected with A. lumbricoides and either positive or negative for T. gondii living under good sanitary conditions (control groups). The possible influence of co-parasitism on the clinical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis is discussed.

  19. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership / Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Blanks; F, Richards; F, Beltrán; R, Collins; E, Álvarez; G. Zea, Flores; B, Bauler; R, Cedillos; M, Heisler; D, Brandling-Bennett; W, Baldwin; M, Bayona; R, Klein; M, Jacox.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La decisión tomada en 1987 por la Merck & Co., fabricante de productos farmacéuticos, de proveer Mectizan® (ivermectina) gratuitamente a los programas de control de la oncocercosis ha obligado a la comunidad sanitaria internacional a buscar formas de distribuir el medicamento a las poblaciones rural [...] es que se ven más afectadas por la enfermedad. En las Américas, la OPS respondió al reto con un llamado a eliminar de la Región toda morbilidad por oncocercosis para el año 2007 mediante la distribución de ivermectina al público. Desde 1991, una alianza multinacional de diversas entidades (la OPS, países con oncocercosis endémica, agencias de desarrollo no gubernamentales, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades en Atlanta, Georgia, instituciones académicas y agencias de financiamiento) ha generado el apoyo político, económico y técnico necesario para tratar de alcanzar esa meta. Esta alianza está representada por el Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), subvencionado por la Fundación Ceguera de los Ríos y actualmente por el Centro Carter. El OEPA se creó como iniciativa de alcance regional destinada a eliminar una enfermedad que no merece atención prioritaria. Desde su aparición en 1993, el OEPA ha aportado más de US$2 millones en ayuda económica, administrativa y técnica para fomentar y subvencionar programas en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México y Venezuela, logrando así aprovechar al máximo la donación de la Merck & Co. Ahora que hemos llegado a la mitad de una subvención de 5 años y US$ 4 millones aportada por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, se sabe que el OEPA tiene la capacidad para apoyar la iniciativa regional hasta fines de 1999. Abstract in english The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis [...] . In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies) has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA), which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF) and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.

  20. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Blanks

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA, which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.La decisión tomada en 1987 por la Merck & Co., fabricante de productos farmacéuticos, de proveer Mectizan® (ivermectina gratuitamente a los programas de control de la oncocercosis ha obligado a la comunidad sanitaria internacional a buscar formas de distribuir el medicamento a las poblaciones rurales que se ven más afectadas por la enfermedad. En las Américas, la OPS respondió al reto con un llamado a eliminar de la Región toda morbilidad por oncocercosis para el año 2007 mediante la distribución de ivermectina al público. Desde 1991, una alianza multinacional de diversas entidades (la OPS, países con oncocercosis endémica, agencias de desarrollo no gubernamentales, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades en Atlanta, Georgia, instituciones académicas y agencias de financiamiento ha generado el apoyo político, económico y técnico necesario para tratar de alcanzar esa meta. Esta alianza está representada por el Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA, subvencionado por la Fundación Ceguera de los Ríos y actualmente por el Centro Carter. El OEPA se creó como iniciativa de alcance regional destinada a eliminar una enfermedad que no merece atención prioritaria. Desde su aparición en 1993, el OEPA ha aportado más de US$2 millones en ayuda económica, administrativa y técnica para fomentar y subvencionar programas en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México y Venezuela, logrando así aprovechar al máximo la donación de la Merck & Co. Ahora que hemos llegado a la mitad de una subvención de 5 años y US$ 4 millones aportada por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, se sabe que el OEPA tiene la capacidad para apoyar la iniciativa regional hasta fines de 1999.

  1. Estudo comparativo de áreas endêmicas de filariose bancroftiana na região metropolitana do Recife, Brasil Comparative studies on endemic areas of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia V. Maciel

    Full Text Available Para se realizar o estudo comparativo da filariose bancroftiana na área metropolitana do Recife, foram selecionados dois bairros da cidade do Recife (Santo Amaro e Campo Grande e dois bairros da cidade de Olinda (Sapucaia e Salgadinho, segundo critério apoiado na semelhança das características sócio-econômicas e demográficas e dos níveis endêmicos de filariose. As áreas foram divididas em conglomerados, com 25 casas em média. A amostra populacional foi estratificada por sexo e faixa etária de 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 e igual ou superior a 60 anos. Os dados parasitológicos foram obtidos por meio da gota espessa mensurada (60µl de sangue, coletada entre as 20 e 24 horas, processada e corada pelo método de Carrazi. Os dados obtidos foram descritos em tabelas, e a densidade parasitária e freqüência microfilarêmica analisadas através de gráficos com expressão logarítima. De maneira global, Recife apresentou prevalência de 13,5%, e Olinda, 12,3%. Quando comparamos a densidade parasitária, Olinda apresentou valor médio de 70 microfilárias por 60µl de sangue, e Recife, 41. Em relação aos índices microfilarêmicos, o maior ocorreu na faixa etária de 20-29 anos. Em Olinda, por outro lado, situou se entre 30-39 anos e em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Os autores concluem que a endemia apresenta níveis endêmicos do passado, e os dados descritos alertam para uma reavaliação das campanhas de controle realizadas pela Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS, já que a endemia atinge dimensões ainda não mensuradas.Two districts in Recife (Santo Amaro and Campo Grande and two districts in Olinda (Sapucaia and Salgadinho, were selected for a comparative study of bancroftian filariasis in Greater Recife. Selection parameters included similar socio-economic, demographic, and endemic levels of lymphatic filariasis. In the districts studied, streets were chosen randomly. These clusters consisted of 110 people each. A population sample was stratified by sex and age: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60 years old and over. The parasitological data were obtained by measuring thick blood smears (60µl, collected from 8:00 to 12:00 PM and processed and stained with hematoxylin. The data were described in tables, and logarithimic expression graphics were used to analyze parasitic densities. In general, Recife showed a prevalence of 13.5%, and Olinda 12.3%. Mean parasitic densities were 41 and 70 microfilariae/60µl (mf/60µl, respectively. Higher microfilaremic rates were observed in Recife for the 20-29-year age bracket and in Olinda in the 30-39-year bracket. The authors concluded that the disease has returned to former endemic levels, and the data described call for a reevaluation of control campaigns carried out by the Brazilian National Health Foundation, since the endemic has already reached serious proportions.

  2. Estudio preliminar de Citocinas en suero de perros con Leishmaniasis visceral en una zona endémica Venezolana / Preliminary Study of Cytokines in Sera from Dogs with Visceral Leishmaniasis from a Venezuelan Endemic Area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orquídea L, Rodríguez; Maira, Cabrera; Vestalia, Rodríguez; Marian, Ulrich; José D, Quijada; Martín A, Sánchez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios en modelos de ratones han demostrado que la inmunidad protectora frente a Leishmania es mediada por linfocitos T, células presentadoras de antígeno y citocinas. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han realizado para evaluar citocinas en perros infectados en forma natural con Leishmania [...] infantum/chagasi. El perro doméstico es el principal reservorio del parásito, en tal sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las citocinas en suero de 33 perros con Leishmaniasis Visceral Canina (LVC), provenientes del estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela (foco endémico). Los perros fueron clasificados en sintomáticos o asintomáticos, de acuerdo al análisis de los signos clínicos de la enfermedad, coincidentes con los títulos de anticuerpos contra las kinesinas recombinantes de Leishmania rK39 y rK26. Otros dos grupos incluyeron: 10 perros de la misma zona endémica como grupo control endémico (CE) y 10 perros de la zona no endémica como control sano (CS). Las concentraciones (pg/mL) de las citocinas solubles IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 e IL-2 se determinaron por citometría de flujo (Kit CBA Hu Th1/Th2, BD TM). Los resultados mostraron concentraciones estadísticamente mayores (p Abstract in english Different experimental murine models have shown that protective immunity against Lesihmania depends upon T cells, cytokines, and antigen presenting cells. However, the role of cytokines in naturally-infected hosts like domestic dogs is controversial. Few studies have evaluated cytokines in dogs natu [...] rally-infected with Leishmania infantum/chagasi. Since the domestic dog is the main reservoir of the parasite, a study was conducted to determine cytokines in serum of 33 dogs with Canine Visceral Lesihmaniasis from endemic areas of the State of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Dogs were classified as symptomatic (SD) and asymptomatic (AD), according to the expression of three or more clinical signs and levels of  antibodies for rK39 and rK26. Ten non-infected, rK39 negative controls were included from an endemic area (EA) and ten dogs from a non-endemic area were used as healthy controls (HC). The following cytokines (pg/mL) were measured in serum by flow cytometry (CBA Hu Th1/Th 2, BD TM kit): IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2. Results show a higher  concentration (P

  3. Identification and sequence characterization of novel Theileria genotypes from the waterbuck (Kobus defassa) in a Theileria parva-endemic area in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Bishop, Richard; Odongo, David; Lekolool, Isaac; Kariuki, Edward; Gakuya, Francis; Kamau, Lucy; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-28

    Waterbuck (Kobus defassa), an ungulate species endemic to the Eastern African savannah, is suspected of being a wildlife reservoir for tick-transmitted parasites infective to livestock. Waterbuck is infested by large numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the tick vector for Theileria parva, and previous data suggests that the species may be a source of T. parva transmission to cattle. In the present study, a total of 86 cattle and 26 waterbuck blood samples were obtained from Marula, a site in Kenya endemic for East Coast fever (ECF) where the primary wildlife reservoir of T. parva the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also common. To investigate for the presence of cattle-infective Theileria parasites, DNA specimens extracted from the blood samples were subjected to two diagnostic assays; a nested PCR based on the p104 gene that is specific for T. parva, and a reverse line blot (RLB) incorporating 13 oligonucleotide probes including all of the Theileria spp. so far described from livestock and wildlife in Kenya. Neither assay provided evidence of T. parva or Theileria sp. (buffalo) infection in the waterbuck DNA samples. By contrast, majority of the cattle samples (67.4%) were positive for T. parva using a nested PCR assay. The RLB assay, including a generic probe for the genus Theileria, indicated that 25/26 (96%) of the waterbuck samples were positive for Theileria, while none of the 11 Theileria species-specific probes hybridized with the waterbuck-derived PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences within the RLB-positive waterbuck samples revealed the occurrence of three Theileria genotypes of unknown identity designated A, B and C. Group A clustered with Theileria equi, a pathogenic Theileria species and a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis in domestic equids. However, DNA from this group failed to hybridize with the T. equi oligonucleotide present on the RLB filter probe, suggesting the occurrence of novel taxa in these animals. This was confirmed by DNA sequencing that revealed heterogeneity between the waterbuck isolates and previously reported T. equi genotypes. Group B parasites clustered closely with Theileria luwenshuni, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep and goats reported from China. Group C was closely related to Theileria ovis, an apparently benign parasite of sheep. Together, these findings provided no evidence that waterbuck plays a role in the transmission of T. parva. However, novel Theileria genotypes detected in this bovid species may be of veterinary importance. PMID:24690249

  4. Seasonal dynamics and altitudinal distributions of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Cukurova region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen, Asl?; Alten, Bülent

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an entomological survey in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Cukurova region of Turkey. A total of 8,927 specimens belonging to eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species were captured with sticky papers and CDC light traps from 52 stations. Phlebotomus tobbi Adler, was found to be the most abundant species. Sand fly activity started in May and ended in October. Abundance was highest in August. According to the frequency distributions among certain temperature intervals the observed number of individuals was significantly different from the expected values between 22-24° C and 28-30° C. There was no significant correlation between the abundance of sand flies and altitude. However, sand fly species showed great aggregation at the 100-199 m and 200-299 m altitude intervals. The Shannon-Weinner index indicated no difference between the diversity and abundance of sand flies at different altitudes. Diversity and evenness reached maximum values at 500 m. Jaccard's coefficient indicated that similarity was the highest between 0-99 and 300-399, 0-99 and 500-599 and 100-199 and 200-299 m and lowest between 100-199 and 300-399 and 100-199 and 500-599 m. PMID:21366785

  5. Serum hyaluronan and collagen IV as non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni: a field-based study in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Thales, Bretas; Izabela, Voieta; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Antônio Lúcio, Teixeira; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; Aluízio, Prata; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive markers of fibrosis have been used to diagnose liver fibrosis in a variety of diseases. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen IV (C-IV) levels were measured in the sera of patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil to diagnose and to rank the intensity of liver fibrosis. Se [...] venty-nine adult patients with schistosomiasis, in the age range of 21-82 years (49 ± 13.4) were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic examinations. Ultrasound was employed to diagnose and categorise liver fibrosis according to World Health Organization patterns. Serum HA and C-IV levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Ultrasound revealed six patients with intense liver fibrosis, 21 with moderate, 23 with light and 29 without. Serum HA was able to separate individuals with fibrosis from those without (p

  6. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Maciel-de-Freitas; Roberto Costa, Peres; Fernando, Alves; Mauro Blanco, Brandolini.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured si [...] milar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%). A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p

  7. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluation of mediastinal lymph node staging of non-small-cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic area: A 5-year prospective observational study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J A, Shaw; E M, Irusen; F, von Groote-Bidlingmaier; J M, Warwick; B, Jeremic; R, du Toit; C F N, Koegelenberg.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) is a well-validated modality for assessing mediastinal lymph node metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which determines management and predicts survival. Tuberculosis (TB) is known to lead to false-positive [...] PET-CT findings. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of PET-CT in identifying mediastinal lymph node involvement of NSCLC in a high TB-endemic area. METHODS: Patients who underwent both PET-CT and lymph node tissue sampling for the investigation of suspected NSCLC were prospectively included in this observational study. Results were analysed per patient and per lymph node stage. A post-hoc analysis was performed to test the validity of a maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off for lymph node positivity. RESULTS: PET-CT had a sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 48.6%, positive predictive value of 56.8% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.0% in the per-patient analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 67.2%. Similar values were obtained in the per-lymph node stage analysis. TB was responsible for 21.1% of false-positive results. A SUVmax cut-off of 4.5 yielded an improvement in diagnostic accuracy from 64.0% to 84.7% compared with a cut-off of 2.5, but at the cost of decreasing the NPV from 90.6% to 83.5%. CONCLUSION: In a high TB-endemic area, PET-CT remains a valuable method for excluding mediastinal lymph node involvement in NSCLC. Patients with a negative PET-CT may proceed to definitive management without further invasive procedures. However, PET-CT-positive lymph nodes require pathological confirmation, and the possibility of TB must be considered.

  8. Coccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis: Endemic Mycotic Co-Infections in the HIV Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Waqas; Tadepalli, Geeta Santoshi; Sen, Shuvendu; Regevik, Nina; Sen, Purnendu

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections including aspergillosis species, candida species, and fusarium can be found in HIV-infected patients. Disseminated diseases due to endemic mycoses including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis are all being reported among HIV patients who reside in the known endemic areas. However, in the non-endemic areas, or due to the rarity of these pathogens, it might be difficult to recognize these unfamiliar disease presentations. We report a patient with HIV who had dual infections with endemic mycotic infections of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, as he had a brief stay in the endemic area. PMID:25584108

  9. Seasonality in cholera dynamics : a rainfall-driven model explains the wide range of patterns of an infectious disease in endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, Theo; Pascual, Mercedes; King, Aaron A.; Bouma, Menno J.; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An explanation for the spatial variability of seasonal cholera patterns has remained an unresolved problem in tropical medicine te{pascual_2002}. Previous studies addressing the role of climate drivers in disease dynamics have focused on interannual variability and modelled seasonality as given te{king_nature}. Explanations for seasonality have relied on complex environmental interactions that vary with spatial location (involving regional hydrological models te{bertuzzo_2012}, river discharge, sea surface temperature, and plankton blooms). Thus, no simple and unified theory based on local climate variables has been formulated te{emch_2008}, leaving our understanding of seasonal variations of cholera outbreaks in different regions of the world incomplete. Through the analysis of a unique historical dataset containing 50 years of monthly meteorological, demographic and epidemiological records, we propose a mechanistic, SIR-based stochastic model for the population dynamics of cholera driven by local rainfall and temperature that is able to capture the full range of seasonal patterns in this large estuarine region, which encompasses the variety of patterns worldwide. Parameter inference was implemented via new statistical methods that allow the computation of maximum-likelihood estimates for partially observed Markov processes through sequential Monte-Carlo te{ionides_2011}. Such a model may provide a unprecedented opportunity to gain insights on the conditions and factors responsible for endemicity around the globe, and therefore, to also revise our understanding of the ecology of Vibrio cholerae. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a decisive driver determining the seasonal dynamics of cholera. It was found that rainfall and longer water residence times tend to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to a dilution effect, while also enhancing cholera incidence in dry regions. This indicates that overall water levels matter and appear to determine whether the seasonality is uni- or bimodal, as well as whether it is pre-, post-, or in-phase with the monsoon te{akanda_2009}. We present evidence that the environmental reservoir is responsible for the persistence of the disease, and therefore its endemicity. Given the interplay between the seasonality of cholera and the environment, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could allow for the better management and planning of public health policies with respect to climate. We provide an interpretation of those dynamics and discuss their implications. In terms of disease prevention and mitigation strategies this is of paramount importance today, as changes in the population dynamics of infectious diseases are expected in response to fast anthropogenic climate change. M. Pascual, M. J. Bouma, and A. P. Dobson, "Cholera and climate: revisiting the quantitative evidence", Microbes and infections, 2002. A. A. King, E. L. Ionides, M. Pascual, M. J. Bouma, "Inapparent infections and cholera dynamics", Nature, 2008. E. Bertuzzo, L. Mari, L. Righetto, M. Gatto and R. Casagrandi et al., "Hydroclimatology of dual-peak annual cholera incidence: Insights from a spatially explicit model", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 39, num. 5, p. -, 2012. M. Emch, C. Feldacker, M. S. Islam, and M. Ali, "Seasonality of cholera from 1974 to 2005: a review of global patterns", International Journal of Health Geographics, 2008. E. L. Ionides, A. Bhadra, Y. Atchade, A. A. King, "Iterated filtering", Annals of Statistics, 2011. A. S. Akanda, A. S. Jutla, S. Islam, "Dual peak cholera transmission in Bangal Delta: A hydroclimatological explanation", Geophysical Reseach Letters, 2009.

  10. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Elisa, Colla-Jacques; Cláudio, Casanova; Ângelo Pires do, Prado.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period [...] of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  11. Measurements of 131I-Labelled Triiodothyronine Uptake by a Resin as a Means of Diagnosing Iodine-Basedow Produced by Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil in an Area of Endemic Goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors gave intramuscular injections of iodized oil with a view to studying its prophylactic effects on endemic goitre and related defects (such as endemic cretinism) in isolated areas where more traditional techniques have serious limitations. This system had been tried earlier in New Guinea, where the results showed a reduction in the prevalence of goitre and proved the technique to be both safe and practical. However, because of the remoteness of the population in question it was impossible to continue the observations and no information was obtained regarding the effectiveness of iodized oil in reducing the incidence of defects associated with endemic goitre, Ecuador's program, involving studies of the whole population of two rural communities in the Andes, was begun in March 1966. The final control check came three years later. Ethiodol (37% iodized oil, 450 mg iodine per cm3, obtained from Fougera, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y. United States of America) was injected intramuscularly, 2 cm3 being administered to subjects 12 years of age and older and proportionately smaller doses to younger children. The ethiodol produced extensive changes in the physiological behaviour of the thyroid. 131I uptake was depressed for six months and afterwards remained normal. Similarly, BEI and T4 returned to and stayed at normal levels from the very first control checks onwards, which indicated that even during the first few months the thyroid glands of these subjects were maintaining a normal capacity to secrete thyronines, i.e. that they were not exhibiting the effect described by Wolff and Chaikoff, PBI and BII maintained high livels in all the controls. Urinary excretion of iodine followed a double exponential path: calculations indicated that the subjects would still be excreting significant amounts five years after the injection. Six months after injection there was an unequivocal diagnosis of Iodine-Basedow in three older women with large nodular goitres. Among the indices which proved useful for this diagnosis were BEI, T4, BMR and, among the various tests with radioiodine (uptake, conversion ratio, PBI %/1/d, urinary excretion, saliva/total plasma, saliva/PBI, salivary clearance, KSCN suppression test) only the measurements of T3 - 131I uptake by resin. (author)

  12. Inmunopatología de sujetos sanos de un área endémica para pénfigo foliáceo en Perú: Estudio comparativo con familiares / Immunopathologic characterization of healthy subjects in an endemic area for pemphigus foliaceus: Comparative study with relatives.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willy, Ramos; Alex G., Ortega-Loayza; Jorge, Hancco; Ericson, Gutiérrez; Jorge, Hurtado; Gerardo, Jiménez; Gerardo, Ronceros; Isabel, Rojas; Carlos, Galarza.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el pénfigo foliáceo endémico (PFE) ha sido descrito a principios de los años 50 en la selva peruana. En el 2006, Ortega y col. reportaron la presencia de anticuerpos anti-desmogleina 1 en Pueblo Libre, Ucayali. Sin embargo, no existen reportes inmunológicos sobre los familiares de paci [...] entes con PFE en la zona. Objetivos: comparar las características inmunopatológicas de los sujetos sanos de Pueblo Libre (Campo Verde-Ucayali) endémico para pénfigo foliáceo, con familiares sanos de pacientes con PFE y controles sanos de áreas no endémicas. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico realizado de junio a agosto del 2006 que incluyó a 41 sujetos sanos de la comunidad de Pueblo Libre, 11 familiares de pacientes con PFE y 20 sujetos sanos de áreas no endémicas de la enfermedad de los que se obtuvo muestras de sangre para la realización del estudio inmunopatológico (ELISA para anticuerpos anti desmogleína 1 y anti desmogleína 3) comparándose las características de cada grupo de investigación. Para fijar los valores de corte se realizó la estandarización del ELISA usando el análisis de características operativas del receptor (ROC). Resultados: en Pueblo Libre se encontró una prevalencia de anticuerpos anti desmogleína 1 de 46,3%. El patrón predominante fue el IgG2 (62,5%) y el IgG1 (56,3%). En el 31,7% se detectó anticuerpos anti-desmogleína 3. Existió alta correlación entre los valores índice de anticuerpos anti desmogleína 1 y anti desmogleína 3 (r=0,76), significativa a un nivel ?=0,01. Para los familiares de los pacientes con PFE, el 45,5% fueron positivos para anticuerpos anti-desmogle?na 1 con un patr?n predominante IgG1 (63,6%) e IgG2 (54,5%). Se detectó anticuerpos anti-desmogleína 1 en el 10 % de sujetos sanos de áreas no endémicas; no se detectó anticuerpos anti desmogleína 3 en este grupo. Conclusiones: las personas sanas expuestas a factores ambientales de los focos endémicos de PFE y los familiares de pacientes desarrollan anticuerpos no patogénicos anti desmogleína 1 y 3 con características inmunopatológicas similares. Abstract in english Introduction: endemic pemphigus foliaceus (PFE) has been described at the beginning of the 50s in the peruvian forest. In 2006,Ortega & col. reported the presence of desmoglein 1 antibodies in Pueblo Libre, Ucayali. Nevertheless, immune reports does not exist on patients’ relatives with PFE in the z [...] one. Objetives: to compare the immunopathologic profiles of healthy subjects from Pueblo Libre (an area in Ucayali, endemic for pemphigus foliaceus), with healthy relatives of patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) and healthy controls from non-endemic areas. Materials and methods: this is a prospective multicentric study performed from June to August 2006. The sample consisted of 41 healthy subjects from the Pueblo Libre community, 11 relatives of EPF patients and 20 healthy subjects from non-endemic areas. Blood samples were obtained for immunopathologic studies (ELISA technique for antibodies against desmoglein-1 and desmoglein- 3). The immunopathologic profiles of each group were compared. Standardization of ELISA was performed using the analysis of receptor operative characteristics (ROC) to find appropriate cut-off values. Results: in Pueblo Libre, the prevalence of antibodies against desmoglein-1 was 46,3%. The predominant pattern was 56,3% for IgG1 and 62,5% for IgG2. Antibodies against desmoglein-3 were found in 31,7% of the sample. A high correlation was found between the index values of antibodies against desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3. (r=0.76); this is statistically significant, with an alpha = 0,001. The frequency of antibodies against desmoglein-1 was 45,5% in the relatives of EPF patients; the predominant pattern was 63,6% for IgG1 and 54,5% for IgG2. Antibodies against desmoglein-1 were detected in two healthy subjects from non-endemic areas; antibodies against desmoglein-3 were not detected. Conclusion: healthy subjects who are exposed to environme

  13. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Robert A.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T.; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13–41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  14. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  15. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia / Vigilância ativa da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em áreas endêmicas na Bolívia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vladimir Luna, Tedesqui; Guido Noel, Chuquimia Calleja; Rolando, Parra; Javier, Palacios Pabón; Márcio Neves, Bóia; Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA), incluindo a leishmaniose mucocutânea (LMC) e a leishmaniose cutânea (LC), é endêmica em várias regiões da Bolívia. Descreve-se um sistema de vigilância da LTA conduzido entre 2001 e 2006 e avaliando-se dados demográficos relacionados à epidemiol [...] ogia da doença. MÉTODOS: O sistema de busca ativa foi realizado conjuntamente pelas instituições SERVIR e CÁRITAS e pelo Servicio de Salud de La Paz (SEDES), cujos arquivos foram revisados, retrospectivamente. Um estudo transversal foi realizado em duas comunidades para aquisição de dados sócio-demográficos. RESULTADOS: Dois mil novecentos e nove casos de LTA, sendo 2.488 (85,5%) de LC e 421 (14,5%) de LMC foram diagnosticados de 2001 a 2006. Foi observada redução na proporção de casos mucosos ao longo do período. A proporção de LMC aumentou proporcionalmente à idade dos pacientes, sendo mais frequente entre pessoas do sexo masculino (15,5% versus 12,1%, p = 0,018). A taxa de detecção do parasita nos raspados cutâneos e no cultivo foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com LC do que em pessoas com LMC (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in t [...] he Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5%) corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5%) to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018). The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p

  16. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia Vigilância ativa da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em áreas endêmicas na Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Luna Tedesqui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in the Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5% corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5% to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018. The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (pINTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, incluindo a leishmaniose mucocutânea (LMC e a leishmaniose cutânea (LC, é endêmica em várias regiões da Bolívia. Descreve-se um sistema de vigilância da LTA conduzido entre 2001 e 2006 e avaliando-se dados demográficos relacionados à epidemiologia da doença. MÉTODOS: O sistema de busca ativa foi realizado conjuntamente pelas instituições SERVIR e CÁRITAS e pelo Servicio de Salud de La Paz (SEDES, cujos arquivos foram revisados, retrospectivamente. Um estudo transversal foi realizado em duas comunidades para aquisição de dados sócio-demográficos. RESULTADOS: Dois mil novecentos e nove casos de LTA, sendo 2.488 (85,5% de LC e 421 (14,5% de LMC foram diagnosticados de 2001 a 2006. Foi observada redução na proporção de casos mucosos ao longo do período. A proporção de LMC aumentou proporcionalmente à idade dos pacientes, sendo mais frequente entre pessoas do sexo masculino (15,5% versus 12,1%, p = 0,018. A taxa de detecção do parasita nos raspados cutâneos e no cultivo foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com LC do que em pessoas com LMC (p < 0,001 e p = 0,009 respectivamente. A reatividade à reação de Montenegro foi mais frequente em pessoas com LMC (p = 0.012. O estudo transversal mostrou que 40% das famílias nas comunidades estudadas emigraram do Altiplano. CONCLUSÕES: Faz-se necessária uma contínua busca ativa de casos de LTA na região, onde a doença é hiperendêmica. As elevadas taxas de incidência parecem estar relacionadas à imigração e ao desflorestamento para expansão das áreas cultivadas.

  17. Estudo radiológico do megacólon em área endêmica de doença de Chagas / Radiological study on megacolon cases in an endemic area for Chagas disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleudson, Castro; Esperanza Bernal, Hernandez; Joffre, Rezende; Aluizio, Prata.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Foi realizado estudo radiológico do cólon em pacientes de zona endêmica da doença de Chagas usando-se a técnica do enema opaco simplificado de Ximenes e cols. MÉTODOS: Participaram 291 pacientes, com idade media de 48,8 (±12,5) anos, sendo 222 soropositivos para doença de Chagas. Fizeram [...] radiografias na posição ântero-posterior, póstero-anterior e perfil lateral esquerdo, que foram analisadas por inspeção visual e medida do maior diâmetro em centímetros do reto e sigmoide. RESULTADOS: À inspeção visual, foi possível diagnosticar megacólon em 14 (6,3%) pacientes chagásicos. A média do diâmetro da ampola retal dos chagásicos 6,3 (±1,0)cm foi semelhante a dos não-chagásicos 6,2 (±1,0)cm (p=0,391) e o diâmetro médio da alça sigmoide dos chagásicos 5 (±1,6)cm foi maior que o dos não chagásicos 4,4 (±0,8 )cm, (p=0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Excluindo-se os casos de megacólon evidente e de provável megacólon, a população chagásica continuou com o diâmetro médio do sigmoide significantemente maior (p=0,003) que a não chagásica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: A radiological study on the colon of patients from an endemic Chagas disease zone was conducted using the simplified opaque enema technique of Ximenes et al. METHODS: The study involved 291 individuals with a mean age of 48.8(±12.5) years-old, of whom 222 were seropositive for Chagas d [...] isease. Anteroposterior, posteroanterior and left lateral view radiographs were analyzed by visual inspection and measurement of the largest rectal and sigmoid diameters. RESULTS: From the visual inspection, megacolon was diagnosed in 14 (6.3%) Chagas disease patients. The mean diameter of the rectal ampulla among the Chagas patients was 6.3 (±1.0)cm, similar to the measurement in non-Chagas individuals: 6.2 (±1.0) cm (p= 0.391). The mean sigmoid loop diameter in the Chagas patients was 5 (±1.6)cm, which was larger than among the non-Chagas individuals: 4.4 (±0.8)cm (p= 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: excluding the evident and probable megacolon cases, the Chagas disease population continued to present a significantly larger mean sigmoid diameter than that observed among non-Chagas individuals (p= 0.003).

  18. Predictive and epidemiologic modeling of the spatial risk of human onchocerciasis using biophysical factors: a case study of Ghana and Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Alassane S; Oyana, Tonny J

    2012-12-01

    Although recent efforts taken have substantially contained human onchocerciasis in many African countries, published reports indicate a recrudescence of the disease. To understand this problem, biophysical factors that favor the establishment of human onchocerciasis in Ghana and Burundi-countries identified as threat locations of recrudescence for neighboring countries-were analyzed. Data pertaining to the prevalence of human onchocerciasis in both countries was obtained from published sources. Findings in this study suggest that there was a gradient in prevalence of onchocerciasis in geographic locations near the water streams. The predictive models suggest that rainfall, humidity, and elevation were statistically significant for Burundi data while in Ghana, only the effect of elevation was highly significant (pGhana and Burundi, respectively. Findings can help in the effective design of preventive control measures. PMID:23149324

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth Gloria O., Barbosa Santos; Mauro Célio A., Marzochi; Nilton Francisco, Conceição; Célia Maria M., Brito; Raquel S., Pacheco.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito epidemiológico em população canina foi realizado em 7 localidades endêmicas de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA) entre os anos de 1986 a 1993, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duzentos e setenta cães foram examinados, segundo os parâmetros: clínicos, desenvolvimento de hipersensibilid [...] ade tardia e dosagem de anticorpos por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI). 28,2% dos animais possuíam lesões e 3,3% eram portadores de cicatrizes compatíveis com infecção prévia de Leishmania sp. De um total de 98 lesões ulceradas detectadas, 39,5% eram cutâneas únicas, 25,0% lesões cutâneas múltiplas, 31,6% lesões de mucosa e 4,0% lesões de mucosa associadas a lesões cutâneas. Doze amostras (15,8%) colhidas de fragmentos de lesões cutâneas foram analisadas por zimodema e esquizodema e identificadas como Leishmania (V.) braziliensis . A prevalência da infecção canina avaliada pelo teste cutâneo e pela IFI foram respectivamente de 40,5% e 25,5%. A comparação entre as reações mostrou que o teste cutâneo foi superior na detecção da infecção e da doença canina, embora, sem diferença estatística significante (p> 0,05). A sensibilidade e a especificidade proporcional foram respectivamente de 84,0% e 74,0%. A utilização de ambas as reações, cutânea e sorológica mostraram-se úteis como instrumento de diagnóstico epidemiológico em áreas de LTC. Abstract in english A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL) has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS) wi [...] th Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF). 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5%) and mucocutaneous lesions (31.6%), multiple cutaneous (25.0%) and mucocutaneous lesions associated with cutaneous ulcers (4.0%). Twelve (15.8%) isolates from biopsies were analyzed by zimodeme and schizodeme and identified as L. (V.) braziliensis. The overall prevalence of canine infection that was evaluated with the skin test was of 40.5% and with IF it was of 25.5%. Both tests showed a high positive rate with relation to the animals with mucosal lesions, as in the case of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The comparison of the two tests showed the skin test to have a better performance although there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between them. The proportional sensitivity and specificity was of 84.0% and 74.0%, respectively. The Immunoleish skin test and IF are useful tools to be employed in CTL field epidemiological surveys.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gloria O. Barbosa Santos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS with Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF. 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5% and mucocutaneous lesions (31.6%, multiple cutaneous (25.0% and mucocutaneous lesions associated with cutaneous ulcers (4.0%. Twelve (15.8% isolates from biopsies were analyzed by zimodeme and schizodeme and identified as L. (V. braziliensis. The overall prevalence of canine infection that was evaluated with the skin test was of 40.5% and with IF it was of 25.5%. Both tests showed a high positive rate with relation to the animals with mucosal lesions, as in the case of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The comparison of the two tests showed the skin test to have a better performance although there was no statistical difference (p>0.05 between them. The proportional sensitivity and specificity was of 84.0% and 74.0%, respectively. The Immunoleish skin test and IF are useful tools to be employed in CTL field epidemiological surveys.Um inquérito epidemiológico em população canina foi realizado em 7 localidades endêmicas de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA entre os anos de 1986 a 1993, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duzentos e setenta cães foram examinados, segundo os parâmetros: clínicos, desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia e dosagem de anticorpos por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. 28,2% dos animais possuíam lesões e 3,3% eram portadores de cicatrizes compatíveis com infecção prévia de Leishmania sp. De um total de 98 lesões ulceradas detectadas, 39,5% eram cutâneas únicas, 25,0% lesões cutâneas múltiplas, 31,6% lesões de mucosa e 4,0% lesões de mucosa associadas a lesões cutâneas. Doze amostras (15,8% colhidas de fragmentos de lesões cutâneas foram analisadas por zimodema e esquizodema e identificadas como Leishmania (V. braziliensis . A prevalência da infecção canina avaliada pelo teste cutâneo e pela IFI foram respectivamente de 40,5% e 25,5%. A comparação entre as reações mostrou que o teste cutâneo foi superior na detecção da infecção e da doença canina, embora, sem diferença estatística significante (p> 0,05. A sensibilidade e a especificidade proporcional foram respectivamente de 84,0% e 74,0%. A utilização de ambas as reações, cutânea e sorológica mostraram-se úteis como instrumento de diagnóstico epidemiológico em áreas de LTC.

  1. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

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    Swenson Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= Conclusions We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.

  2. Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in an non-endemic area in Brazil / Identificação sorológica de Rickettsia sp. em equinos e cães de área não endêmica no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Gonçalves, Batista; Daniella Matos da, Silva; Kerriel Thandile, Green; Louise Boulsfield de Lorenzi, Tezza; Sâmara Pereira de, Vasconcelos; Suelen Graziele Soares de, Carvalho; Iara, Silveira; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna; Fernanda Silva, Fortes; Marcelo Beltrão, Molento.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma riquetsiose letal para humanos, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, e é endêmica em algumas regiões brasileiras. Equinos e cães podem participar do ciclo da doença e podem também servir como sentinelas em estudos epidemiológicos. O primeiro caso human [...] o relatado no Estado do Paraná ocorreu em 2005. O presente estudo foi realizado no município de Almirante Tamandaré, região onde não há relatos de casos de FMB. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 71 cavalos e 20 cães em nove propriedades rurais na região. Carrapatos também foram colhidos dos animais. Todos os proprietários responderam a um questionário sobre o manejo sanitário dos animais e o conhecimento a respeito da FMB. As amostras de soro foram processadas pela técnica de Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI), utilizando-se os antígenos de R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Os carrapatos foram analisados por PCR para Rickettsia sp. e todos foram negativos. Seis cavalos (8,45%) e 4 cães (20%) foram identificados como soropositivos. Todos os proprietários desconheciam a relação de carrapatos com a FMB. Embora considerada uma área não endêmica, Almirante Tamandaré é um ambiente vulnerável à FMB e um controle eficiente de carrapatos deve ser implementado. Abstract in english Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF cas [...] e in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45%) and 4 dogs (20%) were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.

  3. Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in an non-endemic area in Brazil Identificação sorológica de Rickettsia sp. em equinos e cães de área não endêmica no Brasil

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    Fernanda Gonçalves Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF case in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45% and 4 dogs (20% were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma riquetsiose letal para humanos, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, e é endêmica em algumas regiões brasileiras. Equinos e cães podem participar do ciclo da doença e podem também servir como sentinelas em estudos epidemiológicos. O primeiro caso humano relatado no Estado do Paraná ocorreu em 2005. O presente estudo foi realizado no município de Almirante Tamandaré, região onde não há relatos de casos de FMB. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 71 cavalos e 20 cães em nove propriedades rurais na região. Carrapatos também foram colhidos dos animais. Todos os proprietários responderam a um questionário sobre o manejo sanitário dos animais e o conhecimento a respeito da FMB. As amostras de soro foram processadas pela técnica de Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se os antígenos de R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Os carrapatos foram analisados por PCR para Rickettsia sp. e todos foram negativos. Seis cavalos (8,45% e 4 cães (20% foram identificados como soropositivos. Todos os proprietários desconheciam a relação de carrapatos com a FMB. Embora considerada uma área não endêmica, Almirante Tamandaré é um ambiente vulnerável à FMB e um controle eficiente de carrapatos deve ser implementado.

  4. Endemias e epidemias na Amazônia: malária e doenças emergentes em áreas ribeirinhas do Rio Madeira. Um caso de escola / Endemic and epidemic diseases in Amazonia: malaria and other emerging diseases in riverine areas of the Madeira river. A school case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tony Hiroshi, Katsuragawa; Luiz Herman Soares, Gil; Mauro Shugiro, Tada; Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da, Silva.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após fazer uma análise da evolução da malária na Amazônia brasileira, detalhando em particular a situação em Rondônia e no município de Porto Velho, onde ocorreram episódios dramáticos de epidemias de malária no passado, os autores apresentam o quadro atual da prevalência de malária nas áreas do Val [...] e do Rio Madeira, que sofrerão impactos com a construção das hidrelétricas de Santo Antônio e Jirau, e alertam sobre a situação particular da malária em áreas ribeirinhas. Nessas áreas, observam-se alta incidência de malária vivax e falciparum, a presença de grande número de portadores assintomáticos de parasitas e altas densidades do vetor Anopheles darlingi o ano todo. Esses elementos, associados à provável chegada de migrantes oriundos de áreas não-endêmicas de Rondônia e de outros Estados do país, atraídos pela possibilidade de trabalho nessas hidrelétricas e oportunidades de comércio, lazer, educação e atividades domésticas, criam condições favoráveis à ocorrência de epidemias de malária e de outras doenças tropicais se não forem realizadas intervenções adequadas de controle, em particular no domínio do saneamento. Abstract in english The authors present a short review on the evolution of malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon, with particular reference to the Rondônia State and the Municipality of Porto Velho, where dramatic epidemics of malaria and other tropical diseases have been registered in the past. Next, they analyze [...] the present endemic malaria situation in the Madeira River Valley where two important Hydroelectric Power Plants will be constructed in the localities of Santo Antônio and Jirau. Longitudinal surveys performed in the last four years in this area allow to demonstrate a high prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria carriers in the area, associated to the presence of high densities of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi all over the year. These elements are correlated to the expected arrival of a large number of human migrants originated from non endemic areas of Rondônia and other Brazilian States, attracted by the possibility of jobs in the Hydroelectric Power Plants and by secondary opportunities in commerce, leisure, education and domestic activities. These associations create favorable conditions for malaria outbreaks and other tropical diseases that must be avoided by the establishment of additional control measures, in particular in the sanitation domain

  5. Endemias e epidemias na Amazônia: malária e doenças emergentes em áreas ribeirinhas do Rio Madeira. Um caso de escola Endemic and epidemic diseases in Amazonia: malaria and other emerging diseases in riverine areas of the Madeira river. A school case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após fazer uma análise da evolução da malária na Amazônia brasileira, detalhando em particular a situação em Rondônia e no município de Porto Velho, onde ocorreram episódios dramáticos de epidemias de malária no passado, os autores apresentam o quadro atual da prevalência de malária nas áreas do Vale do Rio Madeira, que sofrerão impactos com a construção das hidrelétricas de Santo Antônio e Jirau, e alertam sobre a situação particular da malária em áreas ribeirinhas. Nessas áreas, observam-se alta incidência de malária vivax e falciparum, a presença de grande número de portadores assintomáticos de parasitas e altas densidades do vetor Anopheles darlingi o ano todo. Esses elementos, associados à provável chegada de migrantes oriundos de áreas não-endêmicas de Rondônia e de outros Estados do país, atraídos pela possibilidade de trabalho nessas hidrelétricas e oportunidades de comércio, lazer, educação e atividades domésticas, criam condições favoráveis à ocorrência de epidemias de malária e de outras doenças tropicais se não forem realizadas intervenções adequadas de controle, em particular no domínio do saneamento.The authors present a short review on the evolution of malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon, with particular reference to the Rondônia State and the Municipality of Porto Velho, where dramatic epidemics of malaria and other tropical diseases have been registered in the past. Next, they analyze the present endemic malaria situation in the Madeira River Valley where two important Hydroelectric Power Plants will be constructed in the localities of Santo Antônio and Jirau. Longitudinal surveys performed in the last four years in this area allow to demonstrate a high prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria carriers in the area, associated to the presence of high densities of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi all over the year. These elements are correlated to the expected arrival of a large number of human migrants originated from non endemic areas of Rondônia and other Brazilian States, attracted by the possibility of jobs in the Hydroelectric Power Plants and by secondary opportunities in commerce, leisure, education and domestic activities. These associations create favorable conditions for malaria outbreaks and other tropical diseases that must be avoided by the establishment of additional control measures, in particular in the sanitation domain

  6. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

    OpenAIRE

    J Blanks; Richards, F; F Beltrán; Collins, R.; Álvarez, E.; G. Zea Flores; B Bauler; Cedillos, R; Heisler, M.; Brandling-Bennett, D.; Baldwin, W.; M Bayona; Klein, R; M Jacox

    1998-01-01

    The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Sin...

  7. Mutant pfcrt "SVMNT" haplotype and wild type pfmdr1 "N86" are endemic in Plasmodium vivax dominated areas of India under high chloroquine exposure

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    Mallick Prashant K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine resistance (CQR phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes. Mutations at amino acid position 72-76 of pfcrt gene, here defined as pfcrt haplotype are associated with the geographic origin of chloroquine resistant parasite. Here, mutations at 72-76 and codon 220 of pfcrt gene and N86Y pfmdr-1 mutation were studied in blood samples collected across 11 field sites, inclusive of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas in India. Any probable correlation between these mutations and clinical outcome of CQ treatment was also investigated. Methods Finger pricked blood spotted on Whatman No.3 papers were collected from falciparum malaria patients of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas. For pfcrt haplotype investigation, the parasite DNA was extracted from blood samples and used for PCR amplification, followed by partial sequencing of the pfcrt gene. For pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation, the PCR product was subjected to restriction digestion with AflIII endonuclease enzyme. Results In 240 P. falciparum isolates with reported in vivo CQ therapeutic efficacy, the analysis of mutations in pfcrt gene shows that mutant SVMNT-S (67.50% and CVIET-S (23.75% occurred irrespective of clinical outcome and wild type CVMNK-A (7.91% occurred only in adequate clinical and parasitological response samples. Of 287 P. falciparum isolates, SVMNTS 192 (66.89% prevailed in all study sites and showed almost monomorphic existence (98.42% isolates in low P. falciparum prevalent areas. However, CVIETS-S (19.51% and CVMNK-A (11.84% occurrence was limited to high P. falciparum prevalent areas. Investigation of pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation shows no correlation with clinical outcomes. The wild type N86 was prevalent in all the low P. falciparum prevalent areas (94.48%. However, mutant N86Y was comparably higher in numbers at the high P. falciparum prevalent areas (42.76%. Conclusions The wild type pfcrt gene is linked to chloroquine sensitivity; however, presence of mutation cannot explain the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in the current scenario of chloroquine resistance. The monomorphic existence of mutant SVMNT haplotype, infer inbreeding and faster spread of CQR parasite in areas with higher P. vivax prevalance and chloroquine exposure, whereas, diversity is maintained in pfcrt gene at high P. falciparum prevalent areas.

  8. Plasmodium vivax congenital malaria in an area of very low endemicity in Guatemala: implications for clinical and epidemiological surveillance in a malaria elimination context

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    Castellanos María Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report of the first Plasmodium vivax congenital malaria case in Guatemala and the first case in Latin America with genotypical, histological and clinical characterization. The findings show that maternal P. vivax infection still occurs in areas that are in the pathway towards malaria elimination, and can be associated with detrimental health effects for the neonate. It also highlights the need in very low transmission areas of not only maintaining, but increasing awareness of the problem and developing surveillance strategies, based on population risk, to detect the infection especially in this vulnerable group of the population.

  9. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

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    Mutabingwa TK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable component. Methods A retrospective analysis was completed of stillbirth differences between primigravidae and multigravidae in relation to malaria cases and transmission patterns for two different areas of Tanzania with a focus on the effects of the El Niño southern climatic oscillation (ENSO. One area, Kagera, experiences outbreaks of malaria, and the other area, Morogoro, is holoendemic. Delivery and malaria data were collected over a six year period from records of the two district hospitals in these locations. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of low birthweight in primigravidae compared to multigravidae for both data sets. Low birthweight and stillbirth prevalence (17.5% and 4.8% were significantly higher in Kilosa compared to Ndolage (11.9% and 2.4%. There was a significant difference in stillbirth prevalence between Ndolage and Kilosa between malaria seasons (2.4% and 5.6% respectively, p Conclusion Malaria exposure during pregnancy has a delayed effect on birthweight outcomes, but a more acute effect on stillbirth risk.

  10. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (prain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease. PMID:18022137

  11. Estudio preliminar de Citocinas en suero de perros con Leishmaniasis visceral en una zona endémica Venezolana Preliminary Study of Cytokines in Sera from Dogs with Visceral Leishmaniasis from a Venezuelan Endemic Area

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    Orquídea L Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios en modelos de ratones han demostrado que la inmunidad protectora frente a Leishmania es mediada por linfocitos T, células presentadoras de antígeno y citocinas. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han realizado para evaluar citocinas en perros infectados en forma natural con Leishmania infantum/chagasi. El perro doméstico es el principal reservorio del parásito, en tal sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las citocinas en suero de 33 perros con Leishmaniasis Visceral Canina (LVC, provenientes del estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela (foco endémico. Los perros fueron clasificados en sintomáticos o asintomáticos, de acuerdo al análisis de los signos clínicos de la enfermedad, coincidentes con los títulos de anticuerpos contra las kinesinas recombinantes de Leishmania rK39 y rK26. Otros dos grupos incluyeron: 10 perros de la misma zona endémica como grupo control endémico (CE y 10 perros de la zona no endémica como control sano (CS. Las concentraciones (pg/mL de las citocinas solubles IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 e IL-2 se determinaron por citometría de flujo (Kit CBA Hu Th1/Th2, BD TM. Los resultados mostraron concentraciones estadísticamente mayores (pDifferent experimental murine models have shown that protective immunity against Lesihmania depends upon T cells, cytokines, and antigen presenting cells. However, the role of cytokines in naturally-infected hosts like domestic dogs is controversial. Few studies have evaluated cytokines in dogs naturally-infected with Leishmania infantum/chagasi. Since the domestic dog is the main reservoir of the parasite, a study was conducted to determine cytokines in serum of 33 dogs with Canine Visceral Lesihmaniasis from endemic areas of the State of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Dogs were classified as symptomatic (SD and asymptomatic (AD, according to the expression of three or more clinical signs and levels of  antibodies for rK39 and rK26. Ten non-infected, rK39 negative controls were included from an endemic area (EA and ten dogs from a non-endemic area were used as healthy controls (HC. The following cytokines (pg/mL were measured in serum by flow cytometry (CBA Hu Th1/Th 2, BD TM kit: IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2. Results show a higher  concentration (P<0.05 of  IFN-? (69.93±7.46, IL-4 (7.51±2.68, TNF-? (3.86±1.46, and IL-2 (39.85±3.84 in AD when compared with SD (60.8±10.6; 5.28±0.80; 2.76± 0.72; and 36.04±3.61, respectively; and HC (51±14; 4.65±0.2; 3.21±0.89, and 32.65±5.86, respectively. The AD also showed higher levels (P<0.01 of IL-6 (4.9±0.55 compared with HC (4.02±0.64. Results show that AD exhibit a higher proportion of cellular activation and proinflammatory cytokines. Results indicate that measuring of serum cytokines could reflect the immunological status in dogs in future clinical trials oriented to either vaccination or therapy.

  12. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Tk, Mutabingwa; Hastings Ian; Wort Ulrika; Brabin Bernard J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable component. Methods A retrospective analysis was completed of stillbirth differences between primigravidae and multigravidae in relation to malaria cases and transmission patterns for two diff...

  13. Overuse of artemisinin-combination therapy in Mto wa Mbu (river of mosquitoes, an area misinterpreted as high endemic for malaria

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    Sauerwein Robert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate malaria diagnosis and treatment remain major difficulties in rural sub-Saharan Africa. These issues deserve renewed attention in the light of first-line treatment with expensive artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT and changing patterns of transmission intensity. This study describes diagnostic and treatment practices in Mto wa Mbu, an area that used to be hyperendemic for malaria, but where no recent assessments of transmission intensity have been conducted. Methods Retrospective and prospective data were collected from the two major village health clinics. The diagnosis in prospectively collected data was confirmed by microscopy. The level of transmission intensity was determined by entomological assessment and by estimating sero-conversion rates using anti-malarial antibody responses. Results Malaria transmission intensity by serological assessment was equivalent to 40% of outpatients attending the clinics in 2006–2007 were diagnosed with malaria. Prospective data demonstrated a very high overdiagnosis of malaria. Microscopy was unreliable with Conclusion Transmission intensity has dropped considerably in the area of Mto wa Mbu. Despite this, most fevers are still regarded and treated as malaria, thereby ignoring true causes of febrile illness and over-prescribing ACT. The discrepancy between the perceived and actual level of transmission intensity may be present in many areas in sub-Saharan Africa and calls for greater efforts in defining levels of transmission on a local scale to help rational drug-prescribing behaviour.

  14. Risk factors for Leishmania chagasi infection in an endemic area in Raposa, State of Maranhão, Brazil Fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania chagasi em uma área endêmica em Raposa, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Barreto Ponte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infection with Leishmania chagasi is the most common clinical presentation for visceral leishmaniaisis in endemic areas. The municipality of Raposa is an endemic area in State of Maranhão, Brazil, and have had registration cases of visceral leishmaniasis disease. For this reason, a cross- sectional study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for infection with L. chagasi detected by Montenegro skin test. METHODS: The sample comprised 96% of the inhabitants of the villages of Maresia, Pantoja, and Marisol located in the municipality of Raposa, corresponding to 1,359 subjects. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association between the variables studied and infection of L. chagasi. RESULTS: The variables associated with infection upon nonadjusted analysis were a straw roof, mud walls, floors of beaten earth, presence of sand flies inside or outside of the dwelling, and bathing outdoors. Adjusted analysis showed that the presence of sand flies inside/outside the dwelling was a risk factor, and age younger than 10 years was a protective factor against asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the extent to which precarious living conditions of the population strengthen the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis.INTRODUÇÃO: A infecção por Leishmania chagasi é a apresentação clínica mais comum de laishmaniose visceral em áreas endêmicas. O município de Raposa é área endêmica no Estado do Maranhão, tendo registrado casos da doença. Por isso, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com o objetivo de estudar os fatores de risco para infecção por L. chagasi detectada pelo teste intradérmico de Montenegro. MÉTODOS: O estudo envolveu 96% dos moradores das localidades de Maresia, Pantoja e Marisol do município da Raposa, totalizando 1.359 indivíduos. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado utilizando um questionário. Para verificar a associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a infecção por L. chagasi, foram utilizados os modelos de regressão logística uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Na análise não ajustada, as variáveis associadas à infecção foram: cobertura da casa de palha, paredes de taipa, piso de chão batido, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio e o local do banho fora de casa. Na análise ajustada, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio foi considerada fator de risco e a idade menor que 10 anos revelou-se como fator de proteção para a infecção assintomática. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se também, o quanto a precariedade das condições de vida da população contribui para o fortalecimento da cadeia epidemiológica da doença.

  15. Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma ticks from an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever in Brazil / Rickettsia infectando carrapatos Amblyomma de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa Brasileira no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizângela, Guedes; Romário Cerqueira, Leite; Richard Campos, Pacheco; Iara, Silveira; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum, colhidos numa área do Estado de Minas Gerais, onde a febre maculosa brasileira (FMB) é considerada endêmica. Para esse estudo, 400 adultos de A. cajennense, 200 adultos de A. dubitatum, 2.000 larva [...] s e 2.000 ninfas de Amblyomma spp. foram colhidas de equinos e da vegetação. Os carrapatos foram testados para infecção por rickettsia através de reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) direcionada a fragmentos de três genes de rickettsia (gltA, ompA, e ompB). Apenas 2 A. cajennense adultos de vida livre, e 4 grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. continham DNA de rickettsia. Os produtos de PCR dos dois adultos de A. cajennense foram idênticos às sequências correspondentes de Rickettsia rickettsii cepa Sheila Smith. Sequências de DNA dos produtos provenientes dos quatro grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. revelaram um novo genótipo, próximo (99,4%) à sequência correspondente de Rickettsia tamurae. Neste trabalho foram achados 2 carrapatos A. cajennense infectados por R. rickettsii que corroboram o caráter endêmico da área de estudo, em que casos de FMB ocorreram recentemente. Em adição, foi reportado, pela primeira vez, um novo genótipo de Rickettsia no Brasil. Abstract in english This study reports rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in an area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is considered endemic. For this purpose, 400 adults of A. cajenennse and 200 adults of A. dubitatum, plus 2,000 larv [...] ae and 2,000 nymphs of Amblyomma spp. were collected from horses and from the vegetation. The ticks were tested for rickettsial infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols targeting portions of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Only two free-living A. cajennense adult ticks, and four pools of free-living Amblyomma spp. nymphs were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products from the two A. cajennense adult ticks were shown to be identical to corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. DNA sequences of gltA-PCR products of the four nymph pools of Amblyomma spp. revealed a new genotype, which was shown to be closest (99.4%) to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia tamurae. Our findings of two R. rickettsii-infected A. cajennense ticks corroborate the endemic status of the study area, where human cases of BSF were reported recently. In addition, we report for the first time a new Rickettsia genotype in Brazil.

  16. Risk factors for Leishmania chagasi infection in an endemic area in Raposa, State of Maranhão, Brazil / Fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania chagasi em uma área endêmica em Raposa, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charlene Barreto, Ponte; Natália Coelho, Souza; Maria Neuza, Cavalcante; Aldina Maria Prado, Barral; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A infecção por Leishmania chagasi é a apresentação clínica mais comum de laishmaniose visceral em áreas endêmicas. O município de Raposa é área endêmica no Estado do Maranhão, tendo registrado casos da doença. Por isso, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com o objetivo de estudar os fato [...] res de risco para infecção por L. chagasi detectada pelo teste intradérmico de Montenegro. MÉTODOS: O estudo envolveu 96% dos moradores das localidades de Maresia, Pantoja e Marisol do município da Raposa, totalizando 1.359 indivíduos. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado utilizando um questionário. Para verificar a associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a infecção por L. chagasi, foram utilizados os modelos de regressão logística uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Na análise não ajustada, as variáveis associadas à infecção foram: cobertura da casa de palha, paredes de taipa, piso de chão batido, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio e o local do banho fora de casa. Na análise ajustada, a presença de flebotomíneos dentro ou fora do domicílio foi considerada fator de risco e a idade menor que 10 anos revelou-se como fator de proteção para a infecção assintomática. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se também, o quanto a precariedade das condições de vida da população contribui para o fortalecimento da cadeia epidemiológica da doença. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Infection with Leishmania chagasi is the most common clinical presentation for visceral leishmaniaisis in endemic areas. The municipality of Raposa is an endemic area in State of Maranhão, Brazil, and have had registration cases of visceral leishmaniasis disease. For this reason, a cro [...] ss- sectional study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for infection with L. chagasi detected by Montenegro skin test. METHODS: The sample comprised 96% of the inhabitants of the villages of Maresia, Pantoja, and Marisol located in the municipality of Raposa, corresponding to 1,359 subjects. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association between the variables studied and infection of L. chagasi. RESULTS: The variables associated with infection upon nonadjusted analysis were a straw roof, mud walls, floors of beaten earth, presence of sand flies inside or outside of the dwelling, and bathing outdoors. Adjusted analysis showed that the presence of sand flies inside/outside the dwelling was a risk factor, and age younger than 10 years was a protective factor against asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the extent to which precarious living conditions of the population strengthen the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis.

  17. Sensitivity of a Vacuum Aspiratory Culture Technique for Diagnosis of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty eight patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from an area with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis transmission had cultures performed with a modified Marzochi´s vacuum aspiratory puncture technique to establish sensitivity and contamination rate with this new method. Overall sensitivity of three aspirates was 47.1%; (CI95% 39.4; 59.4 significantly greater than the sensitivity of a single one aspirate. Fungal contamination was observed in 6/204 (2.9% inoculated culture tubes. We recommend that this useful technique should be adopted as routine for primary isolation of L. (V. braziliensis from localized cutaneous ulcers.

  18. Use of immunoradiometric assays employing monoclonal antibodies or synthetic peptides for the study of malaria transmission and immunity in migrant population of endemic areas in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) and immunofluorence tests were used in combination with entomological techniques to study malaria epidemiology in areas in the Amazon Basin where non-immune migrant individuals have settled in recent years. Anopheles darlingi was found to be the most important vector accounting for 77% of the anophelines positive for sporozoites by the IRMA. The prevalence of anti-sporozoite and anti-blood stage antibodies was low and decreased with time after the last episode of malaria. Anti-sporozoite antibodies did not indicate immune status of the individual but may reflect malaria transmission. (author). 9 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Genotipificación del virus de la hepatitis B de pacientes de áreas endémicas del Perú / Genotyping of hepatitis B virus from patients of endemic areas from Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gisely, Hijar; Magna, Suárez; Carlos, Padilla; César, Cabezas.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo existen más de 350 millones de portadores crónicos con hepatitis viral B, en el Perú la prevalencia de este virus es variada. Existen áreas hiperendémicas en la región Amazónica y en algunos valles de la vertiente oriental de los Andes tales como Abancay y Ayacucho. El objetivo de este e [...] studio fue determinar preliminarmente los genotipos del virus de la hepatitis B (HBV) presentes en muestras serológicas de Ancash, Ayacucho, Lima, Loreto y Ucayali. El análisis de la secuencia de ADN parcial de la región S del genoma viral del HBV fue realizado a partir de doce sueros con antígeno e (HBeAg) positivos. El resultado de este análisis indica la presencia del genotipo F (subtipo adw4) en todas las muestras analizadas. Abstract in english In the world there are more than 350 million of chronic carriers with hepatitis B virus (HBV), in Peru the prevalence of this virus is varied. There are hyperendemic areas in the Amazon Region and some valleys of the Eastern slope of the Andean such as Abancay and Huanta. The objective of this study [...] was to determine preliminary the genotypes of the HBV present in serologic samples from Ancash, Ayacucho, Lima, Loreto and Ucayali areas. The analysis of partial S region HBV sequence was realized from twelve antigen e (HBeAg) positive serums. The result of this analysis indicates the presence of genotype F (subtype adw4) in all the analyzed samples.

  20. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  1. A clinical epidemiologic study in a schistosomiasis mansoni endemic area (Tuparecê, Minas Gerais Estudo clínico-epidemiológico em uma área endêmica de esquistossomose mansoni (Tuparecê, Minas Gerais

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    Mark D. C. Guimarães

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available A population-based clinical epidemiologic study on schistosomiasis mansoni was carried out in Tuparecê, Minas Gerais. The patients were interviewed for symptoms, water contact, past history and examined for spleen and liver enlargement. From the 830 people registered in the census, 777 (93.6% had their stools examined (Kato-Katz method and 696 (83.9% were clinically evaluated. The overall index of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 43.2%. Significant and increased infection risks could be detected in the young age group (2-14 years old regarding occupation, time of residence in the area and frequency of water contact. Bloody stools were significantly more prevalent among positives, while diarrhea was significantly more prevalent among those negative. The area was shown to have a low morbidity as well as a low intensity of infection measured by the number of S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces. A close correlation was found between water contact pattern and the age prevalence curve. It has emphasized the importance of habits in determining prevalence rates, besides suggesting that schistosomiasis mansoni in the area is manifested as a light and somewhat harmless infection with little consequence for the population as a whole.Foi feito um estudo clínico-epidemiológico da esquistossomose mansoni na população de Tuparecê, Minas Gerais. Foi realizado a entrevista com relação a sintomas, contato com águas naturais, história pregressa, tendo sido ainda examinados o baço e o fígado. Das 830 pessoas registradas no censo, 777 (93,6% tiveram as fezes examinadas (método Kato-Katz e 696 (83,9% foram clinicamente avaliadas. O índice de infecção foi de 43,2% não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo, cor e a maior parte das variáveis socioeconómicas. Foram encontrados maiores riscos de se adquirir a infecção no grupo etário mais jovem (2-14 anos com relação a ocupação, tempo de residência na área e freqüência de contatos com águas naturais. Fezes com estrias sangüíneas foram mais freqüentes entre os positivos, enquanto que diarréia o foi entre os negativos. A morbidade e a intensidade da infecção, medida pelo número de ovos de Schistosoma mansoni por grama de fezes, foram baixas. Foi encontrada uma estreita correlação entre os padrões de contato com águas naturais e a curva de prevalência por idade. O presente trabalho enfatiza a importância dos hábitos na determinação dos índices de infecção além de apontar que a esquistossomose mansoni, nesta área, se manifestou sem graves conseqüêncais para a população como um todo.

  2. [Elimination or control of the onchocerciasis in Africa? Case of Gami village in Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, G; Kobangué, L; Kémata, B; Gallé, D; Grésenguet, G

    2014-08-01

    The authors return the results of a transverse prospective survey whose goal was to value the impact of struggle against the onchocerciasis after 20 years of distribution of ivermectin in a village of the Central African Republic. A transverse prospective survey with a descriptive and analytic aim of a sample of 393 topics aged of more than 5 years residing in Gami Village since more of 2 years and having benefitted the ivermectine in the last distribution that took place 10 months before. The epidemiological, clinical and parasitologic data introverted have been compared to the results of the previous investigations in the village. The parameters improved distinctly during the 20 years (1990-2010) notably the microfilarian indication (88% in 1990 against 19% in 2010), the middle microfilarian density (54 against 0,7), the CMFL Indication (39 against 0,67), the Knuttgen indication moved of the trance of age of 5-9 years to the one of more than 45 years since 1998), the cystic indication (36% against 8%), the ocular lesions (31% against 4%) of which onchocercian (28% against 2%), serious ocular lesions (16% against 1,3%), rate of blindness (9% against 0,8%), rate of meadow-blindness (9% against 0,8), important loss of vision (3% against 0,0%), ocular lesions in children of 6-10 years old (6% against 0,3%). These data permit to speak of control but not of elimination of the onchocerciasis in the grouping villager of Gami because of the persistence of the microfilarian indications susceptible to maintain the transmission of where necessity to pursue the struggle. PMID:24816795

  3. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

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    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%. A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p < 0,05. However, some MosquiTRAPs (28.12% contained immature Ae. aegypti after 18 days of exposure in the field and could be pointed as an oviposition site for female mosquitoes. Both trapping methods, designed to collect gravid Ae. aegypti females, seem to be efficient, reliable and may aid routine Ae. aegypti surveillance.

  4. Aporte de la técnica de PCR en el diagnóstico de Mansonella ozzardi en zonas endémicas de la Argentina / Contribution of the PCR assay to the diagnosis of Mansonella ozzardi in endemic areas of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María F, Degese; Marta G, Cabrera; Silvio J, Krivokapich; Lucia E, Irazu; Marcelo A, Rodríguez; Eduardo A, Guarnera.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi es un nematode parásito tisular, agente etiológico de mansonellosis en casi la totalidad de los países latinoamericanos. En Argentina la mansonellosis ha sido descrita a lo largo de la región de las yungas. Su diagnóstico microscópico puede dar resultados falsos negativos en micro [...] filaremias bajas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue optimizar su diagnóstico molecular y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos mediante las pruebas microscópicas de Knott, de gota gruesa y de extendido hemático fino, en 92 muestras de sangre de pacientes de zona endémica. La técnica de PCR seguida de la secuenciación del producto amplificado presentó una sensibilidad del 100 % frente al método de Knott, considerado como referencia, e incluso permitió identificar 7 casos más de la parasitosis. Abstract in english Mansonella ozzardi is a tissue-dwelling parasitic nematode, the causative agent of mansonelliasis in almost all Latin American countries. It has been described along the Argentine Yungas region. The microscopic diagnosis can yield false-negative test results at low microfilaremia levels. The aim of [...] this study was to optimize the molecular diagnostic technique and compare it with the Knott's method and standard blood smear procedures (thin blood films and thick smears) in 92 blood samples of individuals from an endemic area. The PCR technique followed by the sequencing of the amplified product yielded 100 % sensitivity compared to the Knott's test, which is considered a reference method. Seven more cases of this parasitosis could only be identified with the molecular technique.

  5. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

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    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  6. A potential synergy between incomplete arsenic methylation capacity and demographic characteristics on the risk of hypertension: findings from a cross-sectional study in an arsenic-endemic area of inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Wang, Da; Li, Xin; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2015-04-01

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects) residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI) and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors. PMID:25837203

  7. Utilidad de la velocidad de sedimentación globular en el diagnóstico temprano del dengue en un área endémica Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is useful to early diagnosis of dengue infection in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Angel Villar-Centeno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La elevación de la Velocidad de Sedimentación Globular (VSG frecuentemente se asocia a enfermedades infecciosas. Sin embargo, en el dengue se han descrito niveles de VSG comparativamente normales. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la VSG en el diagnóstico temprano del dengue en una cohorte de pacientes que consultan por síndrome febril agudo (SFA en una región endémica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte, incluyendo pacientes con SFA de menos de 4 días, sin etiología aparente. El estudio se desarrolló en el área metropolitana de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Al ingreso se recolectó la información demográfica y clínica de cada caso y se midió la VSG por método Westergren con lectura en una hora. La infección por dengue fue estudiada mediante pruebas serológicas pareadas y aislamiento viral. Se estimó la asociación entre VSG y dengue, mediante análisis bivariados y multivariados de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 95 casos de dengue y 198 pacientes con SFA de otra etiología. La VSG (expresada en milímetros/hora fue significativamente inferior en los pacientes con dengue (19,4 ± 16,3 vs 27,9 ± 20,7; p=0,0005. En el análisis multivariado, una VSG Introduction: High erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR is frequently associated to infectious diseases. However, among dengue patients comparably normal ESR has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the utility of ESR to the early diagnosis of dengue in patients with acute febrile syndrome (AFS from an endemic region. Materials and methods: A cohort study was conducted, including patients with acute febrile syndrome of less than 4 days, without apparent aetiology. The study was developed in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Demographic and clinical information was collected in each case and ESR by Westergren method with one hour measurements. Dengue virus infection was studied with paired serologic tests and viral isolation. The association between ESR and dengue was considered, in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: 95 cases of dengue and 198 patients with AFS of another aetiology were included. ESR (expressed in millimetres/hour was significantly lower in the patients with dengue than those with other causes of AFS (average=19,4 ± 16,3 vs 27,9 ± 20,7; p=0,0005. In the multivariate analysis, ESR <23 mm/h was associated to dengue (OR= 2,33; 95% CI: 1,25 - 4,33; p=0,008, independently of the age, clinical manifestations, and variables of the hemogram such as hematocrit, platelet count and leukocyte count. Conclusion: A relatively low ESR could be useful to differentiate dengue from other causes of AFS in an endemic region

  8. Serología para triquinosis en dadores de sangre en área no endémica de la Argentina Trichinellosis serology in blood-donors from a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Barlasina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la presencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada históricamente libre de esta parasitosis en la Argentina. Se evaluó la parasitosis mediante técnicas inmunoserológicas y su relación con los hábitos alimenticios de riesgo mediante un cuestionario realizado a 150 donantes de sangre. Las encuestas revelaron que el 98.0% (n=147 de los individuos consumía carne de cerdo y/o derivados con elevada frecuencia. Los principales productos porcinos incorporados a la alimentación habitual fueron los chacinados. El 80.3% (n=118 de los individuos adquirían los productos en carnicerías, el 38.1% (n=56 en faenas domiciliarias y el 34.0% (n=50 en supermercados. Las técnicas inmunoserológicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico de triquinosis fueron: enzimoinmunoanálisis, inmunofluorescencia indirecta y/o inmunoelectrotransferencia. En el 8.0% (n=12 de los sueros de los individuos se detectaron anticuerpos anti-Trichinella por más de una de las técnicas realizadas, considerándose este resultado diagnóstico confirmatorio de triquinosis. Los estudios realizados demuestran la existencia de triquinosis humana en un área considerada libre de esta parasitosis y sugieren su relación con la ingesta de carne porcina y/o sus subproductos, hábito alimenticio de riesgo. Estos resultados indican que la falta de denuncia de casos de la enfermedad no debe ser el único criterio a tener en cuenta para considerar a una región área libre de triquinosis. El conocimiento de la presencia del parásito en un área determinada favorece la instauración de medidas de control y prevención evitando la diseminación de la parasitosis.The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease. This parasitosis was assessed on 150 blood donors by means of immunoserological tests, and their relation with risk alimentary habits by a questionnaire. The questionnaires showed that 98.0% (n=147 of the individuals consumed pork and pork products at a high frequency. The main pork products incorporated to the habitual diet were the stuffed ones. A 80.3% (n=118 of the individuals had acquired such products at butchers, a 38.1% (n=56 at home slaughters and a 34.0% (n=50 at supermarkets. The immunoserological techniques employed were: enzyme immunoanalysis, indirect immunofluorescence and/or immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. Anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 8.0% (n=12 of the serum samples by more than one of the methodologies employed, considering these results as confirmatory of trichinellosis. The studies carried out herein demonstrate the existence of human trichinellosis in an area historically regarded as free of this parasitic disease and suggest its relationship with the ingestion of pork or pork products as a risk factor. These results indicate that the lack of reports should not be the only criterion for an area to be considered as Trichinella-free. The awareness of the existence of the parasite in a region will favor the establishment of control and prevention strategies which is of fundamental importance to avoid the spread of the disease.

  9. A cluster-randomized trial of mass drug administration with a gametocytocidal drug combination to interrupt malaria transmission in a low endemic area in Tanzania

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    Shekalaghe Seif A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective mass drug administration (MDA with anti-malarial drugs can clear the human infectious reservoir for malaria and thereby interrupt malaria transmission. The likelihood of success of MDA depends on the intensity and seasonality of malaria transmission, the efficacy of the intervention in rapidly clearing all malaria parasite stages and the degree to which symptomatic and asymptomatic parasite carriers participate in the intervention. The impact of MDA with the gametocytocidal drug combination sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP plus artesunate (AS plus primaquine (PQ, single dose 0.75 mg/kg on malaria transmission was determined in an area of very low and seasonal malaria transmission in northern Tanzania. Methods In a cluster-randomized trial in four villages in Lower Moshi, Tanzania, eight clusters (1,110 individuals; cluster size 47- 209 were randomized to observed treatment with SP+AS+PQ and eight clusters (2,347 individuals, cluster size 55- 737 to treatment with placebo over three days. Intervention and control clusters were 1km apart; households that were located between clusters were treated as buffer zones where all individuals received SP+AS+PQ but were not selected for the evaluation. Passive case detection was done for the entire cohort and active case detection in 149 children aged 1-10 year from the intervention arm and 143 from the control arm. Four cross-sectional surveys assessed parasite carriage by microscopy and molecular methods during a five-month follow-up period. Results The coverage rate in the intervention arm was 93.0% (1,117/1,201. Parasite prevalence by molecular detection methods was 2.2-2.7% prior to the intervention and undetectable during follow-up in both the control and intervention clusters. None of the slides collected during cross-sectional surveys had microscopically detectable parasite densities. Three clinical malaria episodes occurred in the intervention (n = 1 and control clusters (n = 2. Conclusions This study illustrates the possibility to achieve high coverage with a three-day intervention but also the difficulty in defining suitable outcome measures to evaluate interventions in areas of very low malaria transmission intensity. The decline in transmission intensity prior to the intervention made it impossible to assess the impact of MDA in the chosen study setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00509015

  10. Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Selma Patricia Diniz, Cantanhede; Monica Ammon, Fernandez; Aline Carvalho de, Mattos; Lângia Colli, Montresor; Nêuton, Silva-Souza; Silvana Carvalho, Thiengo.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Th [...] is paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species), which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1%) from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study.

  11. The Hitchhiker's guide to island endemism : biodiversity and endemic perennial plant species in roadside and surrounding vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Roadsides are habitats with very specific environmental conditions, often substantially differing from their natural surroundings. However, roads can have a positive effect on local vascular plant species richness. Endemic species on oceanic islands are considered to be less disturbance-adapted than native non-endemics and thus should be negatively affected by roads. Islands provide optimal conditions for testing this, as they possess a large share of clearly defined endemic species. This study focuses on a comparison of endemic plant species in roadside and surrounding communities and the interacting effects of elevation, vegetation type and trade wind-induced precipitation differences. We applied 96 circular plots with 50 m radius along two elevational gradients on the eastern (humid) and western (dry) slope of La Palma, Canary Islands, ranging from 100 to 2,400 m. Interestingly, we found roads to have a significant positive effect on endemic richness and the percentage of endemics as well as the same tendency for plant species richness after correcting for elevation and precipitation. Endemic species turnover was relatively high. The opening of cliffs during construction and, not to be overlooked, the protection from disturbances such as fire and omnipresent introduced herbivores (mainly rabbits or goats) probably leads to a positive effect of roads on endemics. In addition, many endemics might profit from species-specific dispersal capabilities well suited for roadside conditions. However, we do not argue for the use or even construction of roads for nature conservation but suggest protecting existing endemic populations because natural areas have a higher conservation value.

  12. Evaluation of microfilaricidal effects in the cornea from topically applied drugs in ocular onchocerciasis: Trials with levamisole and mebendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1978-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of levamisole and of mebendazole were applied to 1 eye in groups of 4 patients with ocular onchocerciasis in northern Cameroon. No effect resulted from up to 3.0% mebendazole suspensions, but 3.0% levamisole solutions rapidly caused entry of microfilariae, straightening out and subsequent opacification of previously curled-up living microfilariae, the rapid formation of typical limbal globular infiltrates, and the subsequent formation of fluffy opacities around the microfilariae. These changes are typical of all other drugs so far studied that have a microfilaricidal action on O. volvulus--diethlycarbamizine citrate (DEC), suramin, and metrifonate. The efficacy of 3.0% levamisole approximated to that of 0.03% DEC. This is in keeping with published observations on the filaricidal activity of these 2 compounds. It is suggested that this system of drug testing should be considered for systematic use in the search for more effective and safer drugs for onchocerciasis. Images PMID:678495

  13. Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego, Mendicino; Mariana, Stafuza; Carlina, Colussi; Mónica del, Barco; Mirtha, Streiger; Edgardo, Moretti.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Chagas disease live in remote communities that lack both equipment and trained personnel to perform a diagnosis by conventional serology (CS). Thus, reliable tests suitable for use under difficult conditions are required. In this study, we evaluated the ability of p [...] ersonnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC) tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC). We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA) between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests. The readings of the IC test results showed 100% agreement (POA = 1). The IC test on whole blood showed the following values: S = 87.3%; Sp = 98.8%; PPV = 96.9% and NPV = 95.9%. Additionally, the IC test on serum displayed the following results: S = 95.7%; Sp = 100%; PPV = 100% and NPV = 98.2%. Using whole blood, the agreement with ELISA was 96.3% and the agreement with IHA was 94.1%. Using serum, the agreement with ELISA was 97.8% and the agreement with IHA was 96.6%. The IC test performance with serum samples was excellent and demonstrated its usefulness in a PHCC with minimal equipment. If the IC test S value and NPV with whole blood are improved, then this test could also be used in areas lacking laboratories or specialised personnel.

  14. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Uribe, Catalina; Cortés, Sebastian; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot) and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information. Results Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3). The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins) is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking. Conclusions It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation. PMID:26061628

  15. Vigilancia de la infección por Rickettsia sp. en capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) un modelo potencial de alerta epidemiológica en zonas endémicas / Surveillance of Rickettsia sp. infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) a potential model of epidemiological alert in endemic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Miranda; Verónica, Contreras; Yésica, Negrete; Marcelo B, Labruna; Salim, Máttar.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los capibaras o chigüiros (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) son huéspedes amplificadores de Rickettsia sp. Usualmente se encuentran parasitados por la garrapata Amblyomma cajennense, principal vector de rickettsiosis en Suramérica. Los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas [...] de la circulación de rickettsias. Objetivo. Detectar anticuerpos contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de una zona rural del municipio de Montería, departamento de Córdoba. Material y métodos. Se analizaron 36 sueros de capibaras de una zona rural de Montería (vereda San Jerónimo) en Córdoba. Para la detección de anticuerpos IgG se practicó inmunofluorescencia indirecta, que utilizó antígenos de la cepa Taiaçu de Rickettsia rickettsii de Brasil. Los sueros de los capibaras fueron diluidos 1:64. Se capturaron las garrapatas que se encontraban parasitando los capibaras y se clasificaron hasta su especie. Resultados. La seroprevalencia contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebres manchadas encontrada fue de 22 % (8 capibaras); se encontraron cuatro sueros con título de 1:64, tres sueros con título 1:128 y un suero presentó titulación de 1:512. Todas las garrapatas (n=933) fueron identificadas taxonómicamente como A. cajennense. Conclusión. En Colombia existen zonas endémicas de rickettsiosis y la aparición de brotes anuales lo confirma (Necoclí, 2006; Los Córdobas, 2007, y Altos de Mulatos, 2008). El presente estudio reporta por primera vez la presencia de infección natural por rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de Colombia. Los hallazgos sugieren que los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas de la circulación de rickettsias y marcadores de las áreas de riesgo para la transmisión de rickettsiosis. Abstract in english Introduction. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are considered amplifying hosts of Rickettsia sp. These rodents are usually parasitized by the tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, the main vector of rickettsioses in humans and animals in South America. Capybaras can be used as sentinels in detecti [...] on of circulation of rickettsiae. Objective. Antibodies to rickettsiae of spotted fever group were detected in capybaras in a rural area of Cordoba Province, northern Colombia. Materials and methods. Sera were analyzed from 36 capybaras in a rural area of Monteria (village of San Jeronimo) in Córdoba. For the detection of IgG antibodies, indirect immunofluorescence was performed. The antigens were derived from R. rickettsia strain Taiaçu isolated in Brazil. Capybara sera were diluted 1:64 for IFA analysis. Ticks were collected from each capybara (also known as chigüiro) and identified to species. Results. The seroprevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was 22% (8 capybaras). Four sera had a titer of 1:64, 3 had a titer of 1:128 and one serum had a titer of 1:512. All ticks removed from the capybaras (n=933) were taxonomically identified as Amblyomma cajennense. Conclusion. Colombia has areas endemic for rickettsioses, as indicated by confirmed annual outbreaks. The current study reports the first evidence of natural rickettsial infection of the spotted fever group in capybaras from Colombia. The findings suggest that capybaras can be used as sentinels for the circulation of rickettsiae and can identify endemic areas for the transmission of rickettsial diseases.

  16. Surveillance of Rickettsia sp. infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris a potential model of epidemiological alert in endemic areas Vigilancia de la infección por Rickettsia sp. en capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris un modelo potencial de alerta epidemiológica en zonas endémicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris are considered amplifying hosts of Rickettsia sp. These rodents are usually parasitized by the tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, the main vector of rickettsioses in humans and animals in South America. Capybaras can be used as sentinels in detection of circulation of rickettsiae.
    Objective. Antibodies to rickettsiae of spotted fever group were detected in capybaras in a rural area of Cordoba Province, northern Colombia.
    Materials and methods. Sera were analyzed from 36 capybaras in a rural area of Monteria (village of San Jeronimo in Córdoba. For the detection of IgG antibodies, indirect immunofluorescence was performed. The antigens were derived from R. rickettsia strain Taiaçu isolated in Brazil. Capybara sera were diluted 1:64 for IFA analysis. Ticks were collected from each capybara (also known as chigüiro and identified to species.
    Results. The seroprevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was 22% (8 capybaras. Four sera had a titer of 1:64, 3 had a titer of 1:128 and one serum had a titer of 1:512. All ticks removed from the capybaras (n=933 were taxonomically identified as Amblyomma cajennense.
    Conclusion. Colombia has areas endemic for rickettsioses, as indicated by confirmed annual outbreaks. The current study reports the first evidence of natural rickettsial infection of the spotted fever group in capybaras from Colombia. The findings suggest that capybaras can be used as sentinels for the circulation of rickettsiae and can identify endemic areas for the transmission of rickettsial diseases.

    Introducción. Los capibaras o chigüiros (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris son huéspedes amplificadores de Rickettsia sp. Usualmente se encuentran parasitados por la garrapata Amblyomma cajennense, principal vector de rickettsiosis en Suramérica. Los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas de la circulación de rickettsias.
    Objetivo. Detectar anticuerpos contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de una zona rural del municipio de Montería, departamento de Córdoba.
    Material y métodos. Se analizaron 36 sueros de capibaras de una zona rural de Montería (vereda San Jerónimo en Córdoba. Para la detección de anticuerpos IgG se practicó inmunofluorescencia indirecta, que utilizó antígenos de la cepa Taiaçu de Rickettsia rickettsii de Brasil. Los sueros de los capibaras fueron diluidos 1:64. Se capturaron las garrapatas que se encontraban parasitando los capibaras y se clasificaron hasta su especie.
    Resultados. La seroprevalencia contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebres manchadas encontrada fue de 22 % (8 capibaras; se encontraron cuatro sueros con título de 1:64, tres sueros con título 1:128 y un suero presentó titulación de 1:512. Todas las garrapatas (n=933 fueron identificadas taxonómicamente como A. cajennense.
    Conclusión. En Colombia existen zonas endémicas de rickettsiosis y la aparición de brotes anuales lo confirma (Necoclí, 2006; Los Córdobas, 2007, y Altos de Mulatos, 2008. El presente estudio reporta por primera vez la presencia de infección natural por rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de Colombia. Los hallazgos sugieren que los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas de la circulación de rickettsias y marcadores de las áreas de riesgo para la transmisión de rickettsiosis.

  17. Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description

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    Tisgratog Rungarun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2?months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600?hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC, outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC. Results A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%, followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68% and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%. An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60% versus inside structures. Significantly (P?An. minimus were collected from human-baited methods compared with a tethered cow, indicating a more anthropophilic feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. Conclusions The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito behavior related to host preference, and the temporal and spatial blood feeding activity will help facilitate the design of vector control strategies and effectiveness of vector control management programs in Thailand.

  18. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice AB Galati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Iporanga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48% were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011 for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326 for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  19. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eunice AB, Galati; Mauro Breviglieri, Fonseca; Ana Maria, Marassá; Edna Fátima M, Bueno.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent) in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Ipor [...] anga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48%) were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011) for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326) for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  20. Coccidioidomicose pulmonar e extrapulmonar: três casos em zona endêmica no interior do Ceará / Pulmonary and extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis: three cases in an endemic area in the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Hideo, Togashi; Fernando Moreira Batista, Aguiar; Dalton Barros, Ferreira; Camille Matos de, Moura; Monique Teixeira Montezuma, Sales; Nikaelle Ximenes, Rios.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A coccidioidomicose, uma doença fúngica adquirida através da inalação do agente Coccidioides sp. sob a forma de artroconídio, foi pela primeira vez descrita em 1894. Restringe-se principalmente a áreas de clima árido, solo alcalino e regiões de baixo índice pluviométrico. Não por acaso, a maioria do [...] s casos descritos no Brasil ocorreu na região Nordeste. Relatam-se três casos de coccidioidomicose pulmonar ocorridos nos anos de 2005 e 2006, em zona endêmica no interior do Ceará. Todos eram homens imunocompetentes de idade adulta, adeptos à prática de caça a tatus (Dasypus novemcinctus) com queixas de tosse, febre, dispneia e dor pleurítica. Houve evoluções com comprometimento pulmonar e lesão cutânea foi observada em apenas um paciente. Todos apresentaram radiografia e TC de tórax com lesões características da coccidioidomicose. O diagnóstico foi confirmado através de teste sorológico. Todos evoluíram para cura após tratamento com antifúngico. Abstract in english Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal illness acquired by the inhalation of arthroconidia of Coccidioides sp., was first described in 1894. Coccidioidomycosis is mainly restricted to areas with arid climate, alkaline soil and low rainfall. Consequently, most of the reported cases in Brazil have occurred in t [...] he northeastern region. We report three cases of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis occurring between 2005 and 2006 in an endemic area in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The three patients were immunocompetent adult males, hunters of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), with complaints of cough, fever, dyspnea and pleuritic pain. All three patients presented pulmonary involvement, and only one also presented cutaneous lesions. Chest X-rays and CT scans of the patients revealed characteristic coccidioidomycosis lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological testing. All of the patients evolved to cure after antifungal treatment.

  1. População de Aedes aegypti (l. em área endêmica de dengue, Sudeste do Brasil Aedes aegypti (l. population in an endemic area of dengue in the Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudina AM de Freitas Barata

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a população de Aedes aegypti em área de transmissão de dengue sob o ponto de vista de freqüência, distribuição espacial, paridade, desenvolvimento ovariano e conteúdo do intestino médio. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado na cidade de São José do Rio Preto, SP. Foram selecionados dois setores, um com nível socioeconômico baixo e outro com nível médio. As observações foram realizadas entre 1996 e 1997. Foram feitas capturas no intra e peridomicílios com capturadores elétricos manuais. São dados detalhes das dissecções para estudo do estado fisiológico das fêmeas e da classificação utilizada. RESULTADOS: Capturaram-se 188 machos e 189 fêmeas. Obteve-se um índice de 0,46 fêmeas por casa. Dos machos e das fêmeas capturados, estavam no intradomicílio, respectivamente, 82,4% e 87,3%. Encontrou-se maior proporção de fêmeas no setor de nível socioeconômico mais baixo e com maior concentração populacional. Foram analisadas 148 fêmeas, sendo 27,0% nulíparas e 10,1% oníparas. As demais foram classificadas nas fases III a V de Christophers e Mer (C & M com 28,0% destas contendo sangue de coloração vermelha no intestino médio. Das fêmeas, 87,9% já haviam praticado a hematofagia. CONCLUSÕES: A espécie revelou grande tendência à endofilia. A proporção de nulíparas foi superior a de oníparas, apesar da maioria das fêmeas ser classificada nas fases III a V de C & M. Chama atenção o elevado percentual das fêmeas que praticaram a hematofagia e a ocorrência de não concordância gonotrófica.OBJECTIVE: A Aedes aegypti population from an area of dengue transmission was studied to determine mosquito's frequency, spatial distribution, parity, its ovarian development and midgut contents. METHODS: The study carried out in São José do Rio Preto country, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Low and intermediate socioeconomic level regions were chosen to the study, which was carried out 1996 and 1997. Using a manual electric aspirator, captures were performed inside and outside the houses. Dissections were conducted to allow classify female mosquitoes according to their physiologic state. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-eight males and 189 females were captured in both regions. A general index of 0.46 Ae. aegypti females per house was determined. Of the total sample, 82.4% of males and 87.3% of females were collected indoors. Greater proportions of females were found in the region of low socioeconomic level, and higher population density. One hundred and forty-eight female mosquitoes were analyzed: 27.0% were nulliparous and 10.1% parous. The rest were classified as Christophers and Mer's (C & M phases III to V, 28.0% of which had red blood in their midgut. Of the total female population, 87.9% had bloodmeals. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito species revealed a high degree of endophily. There was a higher proportion of nulliparous mosquitoes, although the majority of the females were classified as C & M's phases III to V. These results highlight both the great number of females who had had bloodmeals, and the lack of gonotrophic concordance.

  2. Comparison between clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of periportal fibrosis in an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil / Comparação entre achados clínicos e ultrassonográficos no diagnóstico da fibrose periportal em uma área endêmica de esquistossomose no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aluízio, Prata; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo, Antunes; Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Leonardo Campos, Queiroz; Izabela, Voieta; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Neste estudo, se comparou os achados da palpação abdominal e do ultrassom em pacientes de área endêmica de esquistossomose que foram acompanhados por 27 anos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Em 2004, 411 pacientes de Brejo do Espírito Santo, no estado da Bahia, após consentimento informado e por escr [...] ito foram selecionados para o presente estudo. Baseando-se no exame clínico eles foram divididos em 3 grupos: 41 (Grupo 1) com evidência de fibrose hepática no ano de 2004; 102 (Grupo 2) com evidência de fibrose hepática no passado (1976-1989) mas não em 2004; e 268 (Grupo 3) sem evidência de fibrose hepática em 27 anos de seguimento. Todos foram submetidos a exame ultrassonográfico do abdome em que o examinador não sabia o resultado do exame clínico. Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de fibrose periportal ao ultrassom foi de 82,9%, 56,9% e 13,4% nos Grupos 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Na presença de fígado duro, nodular ou lobo esquerdo proeminente e baço palpável duro, o ultra-som revelou fibrose periportal em 70,9%. Porém, fibrose periportal foi diagnosticada através do ultrassom em 25,4% dos pacientes, na ausência de evidência clínica de envolvimento hepático. Assim, o ultrassom diagnosticou fibrose periportal 3,1 vezes mais frequentemente que o exame clínico. CONCLUSÕES: O exame clínico tem importância na avaliação da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas, mas o ultrassom mostra-se mais preciso quando se pretende diagnosticar o envolvimento hepático e a fibrose periportal. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Abdominal palpation and ultrasound findings among patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil who had been followed up for 27 years were compared. METHODS: In 2004, 411 patients from Brejo do Espírito Santo, in the State of Bahia, were selected for the present investiga [...] tion after giving their written informed consent. Based on clinical data, they were divided into three groups: 41 patients with evidence of liver fibrosis in 2004 (Group 1); 102 patients with evidence of liver fibrosis in the past (1976-1989) but not in 2004 (Group 2); and 268 patients without evidence of liver fibrosis at any time during the 27-year follow-up (Group 3). All of the patients underwent abdominal ultrasound in which the examiner did not know the result from the clinical examination. The data were stored in a database. RESULTS: The prevalence of periportal fibrosis on ultrasound was 82.9%, 56.9% and 13.4% in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In the presence of hard, nodular liver or prominent left lobe and a hard palpable spleen, ultrasound revealed periportal fibrosis in 70.9%. However, periportal fibrosis was diagnosed using ultrasound in 25.4% of the patients in the absence of clinical evidence of liver involvement. Thus, ultrasound diagnosed periportal fibrosis 3.1 times more frequently than clinical examination did. CONCLUSIONS: Although clinical examination is important in evaluating morbidity due to Manson's schistosomiasis in endemic areas, ultrasound is more accurate in diagnosing liver involvement and periportal fibrosis.

  3. Memória espacial e/ou olfativa em flebotomíneos em área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, sul do Brasil / Spatial and/or olfactory memory in sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaína Sales de, Freitas; Kárin Rosi, Reinhold-Castro; Cláudio, Casanova; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Isolde, Previdelli; Ueslei, Teodoro.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a possibilidade da existência de memória em flebotomíneos em área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, no Estado do Paraná. Capturaram-se flebotomíneos no Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, com armadilhas de Falcão, [...] de 15/11/2007 a 26/11/2007, em dois galinheiros (G1 e G2). Foram capturados 2.080 flebotomíneos (1.000 em G1 e 1.080 em G2), que foram marcados e soltos. Nyssomyia neivai foi a espécie mais (90,5%) freqüente. Do total solto, recapturaram-se 168 (8%) flebotomíneos e a recaptura no G2 foi significativa. Os resultados evidenciam que é possível a existência de memória espacial, olfativa e/ou a fidelidade ao hospedeiro e que isto orientem os flebotomíneos no reconhecimento dos locais onde há disponibilidade de fontes de sangue. Abstract in english The results from an investigation on the possibility that sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Paraná, may have memory are reported. Sandflies were caught in Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo, State of Paraná, Brazil, using Falcão traps in two chicken shed [...] s (G1 and G2), between November 15 and 26, 2007. A total of 2,080 sandflies were caught (1,000 in G1 and 1,080 in G2) and these were marked and released. Nyssomyia neivai was the most (90.5%) frequent species. Out of the total released, 168 sandflies (8%) were recaptured and the recapture rate in G2 was significant. The results show that it is possible that spatial or olfactory memory and/or host loyalty exists, and that this will guide the sandflies in recognizing the places where sources of blood are available.

  4. Abdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of fibrosis and portal hypertension in an area of schistosomiasis low endemicity Ultra-sonografia abdominal na avaliação de fibrose e hipertensão portal em área de baixa endemicidade de esquistossomose

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    Maria Cristina Carvalho do Espírito Santo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in the municipality of Bananal, São Paulo, an endemic area for schistosomiasis with a prevalence under 10% and low parasite load among infected individuals. Our objective was to identify the clinical forms of schistosomiasis among 109 patients in whom the disease had been diagnosed through direct fecal analysis and who had been medicated with oxamniquine at the time of the Plan for the Intensification of Schistosomiasis Control Actions (1998-2000. These patients were submitted to an abdominal ultrasonography and fecal analysis by Kato-Katz method, four years, on average, after the end of the Plan. Five patients, whose abdominal ultrasound images were compatible with either peripheral or central periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension, were identified. None of the 109 patients presented Schistosoma mansoni eggs at fecal analysis. Ultrasonography is a sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic method that allows a better identification of the extent of liver involvement in schistosomiasis cases.Este estudo desenvolveu-se no município de Bananal, São Paulo, uma área endêmica para esquistossomose com prevalência menor que 10% e baixa carga parasitária nos infectados. Teve como objetivo a identificação de formas clínicas da esquistossomose mansoni através do exame ultra-sonográfico, em 109 pacientes diagnosticados parasitologicamente e medicados com oxamniquine, durante a realização do Plano de Intensificação das Ações de Controle da Esquistossomose mansônica (1998-2000. Foram utilizadas a ultra-sonografia abdominal e exames de fezes (Kato-Katz realizados após o término do plano, quatro anos em média. Nesta casuística, foram identificados cinco pacientes com imagens ultra-sonográficas abdominais compatíveis com fibrose periportal periférica ou central e hipertensão portal, além da negatividade de todos os exames parasitológicos nos 109 pacientes. A ultra-sonografia, um método de diagnóstico sensível e não invasivo, possibilitou a identificação de casos com comprometimento hepático em uma área de baixa endemicidade para esquistossomose mansoni.

  5. Abdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of fibrosis and portal hypertension in an area of schistosomiasis low endemicity / Ultra-sonografia abdominal na avaliação de fibrose e hipertensão portal em área de baixa endemicidade de esquistossomose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Carvalho do, Espírito Santo; Letícia Martins, Azeredo; Horácio Manuel Santana, Teles; Ronaldo Cesar Borges, Gryschek; Cláudio Santos, Ferreira; Vicente, Amato Neto.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo desenvolveu-se no município de Bananal, São Paulo, uma área endêmica para esquistossomose com prevalência menor que 10% e baixa carga parasitária nos infectados. Teve como objetivo a identificação de formas clínicas da esquistossomose mansoni através do exame ultra-sonográfico, em 109 pa [...] cientes diagnosticados parasitologicamente e medicados com oxamniquine, durante a realização do Plano de Intensificação das Ações de Controle da Esquistossomose mansônica (1998-2000). Foram utilizadas a ultra-sonografia abdominal e exames de fezes (Kato-Katz) realizados após o término do plano, quatro anos em média. Nesta casuística, foram identificados cinco pacientes com imagens ultra-sonográficas abdominais compatíveis com fibrose periportal periférica ou central e hipertensão portal, além da negatividade de todos os exames parasitológicos nos 109 pacientes. A ultra-sonografia, um método de diagnóstico sensível e não invasivo, possibilitou a identificação de casos com comprometimento hepático em uma área de baixa endemicidade para esquistossomose mansoni. Abstract in english This study was undertaken in the municipality of Bananal, São Paulo, an endemic area for schistosomiasis with a prevalence under 10% and low parasite load among infected individuals. Our objective was to identify the clinical forms of schistosomiasis among 109 patients in whom the disease had been d [...] iagnosed through direct fecal analysis and who had been medicated with oxamniquine at the time of the Plan for the Intensification of Schistosomiasis Control Actions (1998-2000). These patients were submitted to an abdominal ultrasonography and fecal analysis by Kato-Katz method, four years, on average, after the end of the Plan. Five patients, whose abdominal ultrasound images were compatible with either peripheral or central periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension, were identified. None of the 109 patients presented Schistosoma mansoni eggs at fecal analysis. Ultrasonography is a sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic method that allows a better identification of the extent of liver involvement in schistosomiasis cases.

  6. Avaliação do nível de conhecimento que populações residentes em áreas endêmicas têm sobre leishmaniose visceral, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil Evaluation of the level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis in endemics areas of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos relativos à leishmaniose visceral (LV têm as populações com características distintas, residentes em áreas periurbanas (Maracanã ­ instalação e ocorrência de casos de LV antigas; Vila Nova/Bom Viver ­ instalação e ocorrência recentes e rural, Município de Codó ­ instalação antiga e ocorrência recentes. No período compreendido entre agosto de 1996 a janeiro de 1997, aplicou-se questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas, sendo abordados aspectos referentes à epidemiologia, prevenção, clínica e terapêutica. A população de estudo foi formada pelos casos de LV registrados pela FNS/MA e seus vizinhos. Foram entrevistados os residentes de 283 casas: 53 do Maracanã; 103, em Vila Nova/Bom Viver; 127, em Codó. Foi referido ambiente favorável para o desenvolvimento e manutenção da doença. Do total dos entrevistados, 93,8%, percentual significativo, ouviram falar de LV, por meio de fontes não oficiais. No Maracanã, 50,9% referiram transmissão pelo mosquito; 87,2% reconheciam o envolvimento do cão na cadeia epidemiológica da doença. Os entrevistados estão cientes da gravidade do mal, sendo capazes de identificar casos suspeitos, humano ou canino. Medidas de controle são desconhecidas por 77,8%. Sete pessoas sabiam que o Glucantime® é usado no tratamento da LV. Concluiu-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LV foi baixo, principalmente em relação à prevenção e à terapêutica, situação semelhantes nas três áreas.A prospective study was performed to identify knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis (VL in endemic areas of Maranhão, amongst the rural population of the Codó township and in a peripheral urban area (an old settlement, Maracanã, on the outskirts of the city of São Luís, and Vila Nova/Bom Viver, Paço do Lumiar township. A total of 283 persons were interviewed, including 53 from Maracanã, 103 from Vila Nova/Bom Viver, and 127 from Codó. The sites presented favorable conditions for the development and maintenance of VL. Some 93.8% of those interviewed had heard of kala-azar. In Maracanã, 50.9% referred to sandflies as responsible for the transmission of VL, while 87.2% knew that dogs are the main link in the epidemiological cycle of the disease. Some 77.8% of those interviewed did not know how to control the disease. As regards manifestations of the disease, they largely associated it with fever, anemia, weight loss, and an enlarged abdomen. Only five individuals knew that Glucantime® is used to treat VL. We conclude that knowledge is poor with regard to all aspects of VL in both the rural and peripheral urban area.

  7. Therapy of endemic goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)

  8. La oncocercosis humana en el foco amazónico / Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sarai, Vivas-Martínez; María-Eugenia, Grillet; Carlos, Botto; María-Gloria, Basáñez.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la oncocercosis humana, la cual afecta al pueblo Yanomami en el foco amazónico del sur de Venezuela y se revisa el conocimiento actualizado de la enfermedad y su control. La epidemiología de esta infección parasitaria (causada por Onchocerca volvulus), y transmitida por [...] insectos simúlidos, es altamente dependiente de las características ambientales y entomológicas prevalecientes en la región, determinadas por gradientes altitudinales, vegetacionales, y geológicos que inciden en la distribución y severidad de la endemia. Asimismo, las características socioculturales y demográficas del pueblo Yanomami juegan un papel importante en la exposición al vector y en los niveles de transmisión del parásito. Las comunidades con mayor intensidad de infección y transmisión (hiperendémicas), son aquellas situadas a mayor altura, caracterizadas por elevadas cargas parasitarias, lesiones dermatológicas y oculares, además de una profunda supresión de la respuesta inmunológica frente a antígenos del parásito y otros. La proporción de comunidades hiperendémicas alcanza el 60% de las estratificadas hasta el momento, pero los mapas de riesgo generados usando sistemas de información geográfica sugieren que esta proporción puede ser aún más elevada. El programa de eliminación de la oncocercosis se basa en la distribución masiva bianual de ivermectina al 85% de la población elegible, y a pesar de las dificultades en el logro de esta meta, principalmente debido a la ubicación remota de lascomunidades, el impacto de varias rondas de tratamiento permite aseverar que ha habido una mejoría de los indicadores parasitológicos y clínicos en la población Yanomami incorporada al programa. Finalmente, se discuten algunos lineamientos actuales dentro de la vigilancia epidemiológica y se reseñan nuevas opciones terapéuticas para el control de la oncocercosis. Abstract in english In this article we describe human onchocerciasis affecting Yanomami people in the Amazonian focus of southern Venezuela and review recent knowledge about the disease and its control. The epidemiology of this parasitic infection (caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium vectors), is [...] highly dependent on the environmental and entomological characteristics prevalent in the region, which are in turn determined by altitudinal, vegetational and geological gradients. Similarly, sociocultural and demographic characteristics of the Yanomami people play an important roll in the exposure to the vector and the transmission levels of the parasite. Communities with higher infection intensity and transmission (hyperendemic) are located at higher altitudes, characterized by high parasite burden, ocular and dermatological lesions, and additionally a deep suppression of the immunological response to parasite antigens. The proportion of hyperendemic communities reaches 60% of communities stratified so far; however, risk maps using geographical information systems suggest that this proportion may be higher. The onchocerciasis elimination programme is based on mass ivermectin distribution twice a year to at least 85% of the eligible population. Despite difficulties in achieving this goal, mainly caused by the remoteness of the communities, the impact of several rounds of treatment is an improvement on the parasitological and clinical indicators in the Yanomami population included in the programme. Finally, we discuss recent guidelines of epidemiological surveillances of the disease and describe new therapeutical approaches for onchocerciasis control.

  9. Onchocerciasis Transmission in Ghana: Persistence under Different Control Strategies and the Role of the Simuliid Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Cheke, Robert A.; Winskill, Peter; Tirados, Iñaki; Walker, Martin; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Tetteh-Kumah, Anthony; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.; Post, Rory J.; Basañez, María-Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) aims at eliminating onchocerciasis by 2020 in selected African countries. Current control focuses on community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). In Ghana, persistent transmission has been reported despite long-term control. We present spatial and temporal patterns of onchocerciasis transmission in relation to ivermectin treatment history. Methodology/Principal Findings Host-seeking and ovipositing blackflies were collected from seven villages in four regions of Ghana with 3–24 years of CDTI at the time of sampling. A total of 16,443 flies was analysed for infection; 5,812 (35.3%) were dissected for parity (26.9% parous). Heads and thoraces of 12,196 flies were dissected for Onchocerca spp. and DNA from 11,122 abdomens was amplified using Onchocerca primers. A total of 463 larvae (0.03 larvae/fly) from 97 (0.6%) infected and 62 (0.4%) infective flies was recorded; 258 abdomens (2.3%) were positive for Onchocerca DNA. Infections (all were O. volvulus) were more likely to be detected in ovipositing flies. Transmission occurred, mostly in the wet season, at Gyankobaa and Bosomase, with transmission potentials of, respectively, 86 and 422 L3/person/month after 3 and 6 years of CDTI. The numbers of L3/1,000 parous flies at these villages were over 100 times the WHO threshold of one L3/1,000 for transmission control. Vector species influenced transmission parameters. At Asubende, the number of L3/1,000 ovipositing flies (1.4, 95% CI = 0–4) also just exceeded the threshold despite extensive vector control and 24 years of ivermectin distribution, but there were no infective larvae in host-seeking flies. Conclusions/Significance Despite repeated ivermectin treatment, evidence of O. volvulus transmission was documented in all seven villages and above the WHO threshold in two. Vector species influences transmission through biting and parous rates and vector competence, and should be included in transmission models. Oviposition traps could augment vector collector methods for monitoring and surveillance. PMID:25897492

  10. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  11. Flebotominos de las zonas endémicas de Leishmaniasis cutánea americana en Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Sand flies of the endemic areas of American cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Paraty, Rio de Janeiro , Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FLÁVIO FERNANDO, B. MOUTINHO; MARCOS BARBOSA, DE SOUZA; RAIMUNDO WILSON, DE CARVALHO.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de Paraty presenta altas tasas de incidencia de Leishmaniasis Cutánea (LC), con un promedio anual de 43.2 casos desde 1985. El municipio presenta gran importancia en la actividad turística por su patrimonio histórico y por sus características paisajísticas. Anualmente recibe miles de tu [...] ristas internacionales y nacionales. Estudios relacionados con los flebotominos se llevaron a cabo en siete localidades con informes de casos humanos o caninos de LC, con el fin de proporcionar nueva información para ayudar a la prevención de LC. Se recolectaron un total de 3,831 especímenes pertenecientes a siete especies: Nyssomyia intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Evandromyia tupynambai, Lutzomyia longipalpis y Exapillata firmatoi. La especie N. intermedia ha sido predominante, seguida por M. migonei y L. longipalpis. El pico más alto de actividad de los flebotominos en Ponta da Romana se produjo entre los rangos de 18 a 19 h y 01 a 02 h. n la localidad de Pouso de Cajaíba, los picos se registraron entre 19 a 20 h y 01 a 02 h. Se sugiere que las especies N. intermedia y M. migonei están transmitiendo la Leishmaniasis cutánea americana en áreas endémicas de Paraty, Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Abstract in english The municipality of Paraty has a high incidence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), with an annual mean of 43.2 cases since 1985. The municipality is of great importance for tourism activities given its historic importance and landscape characteristics. It receives thousands of international [...] and national tourists annually. Studies on the sand fly fauna were carried out in seven localities with reports of human or canine cases of ACL, in order to provide new informatión to help prevent ACL. A total of 3,831 specimens were collected belonging to seven species: Nyssomyia intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Evandromyia tupynambai, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Exapillata firmatoi. The species N. intermedia was predominant, followed by M. migonei and L. longipalpis. The major peak of sand fly densities in Ponta da Romanã occurred between the ranges of 18 to 19 h and 01 to 02 h. En the locality of Pouso da Cajaíba, the peaks occurred between 19 to 20 h and 01 to 02 h. We suggest that the species N. intermedia and M. migonei are transmitting American cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the endemic areas of Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Estudio transversal de la Enfermedad de Chagas en un área endémica de la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina / Transversal study on Chagas´ disease in an endemic area of Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Esther, Bar; Elena Beatriz, Oscherov; Miryam, Pieri Damborsky; Marcelo, Borda.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la presencia de triatominos en ecotopos domésticos y extradomésticos, conocer el índice de infección natural de Triatoma infestans y estimar la prevalencia humana de anticuerpos contra el Trypanosoma cruzi. Los muestreos se llevaron a cabo en primavera d [...] el 2008 y verano - otoño del 2009 en viviendas seleccionadas al azar de áreas rurales del Departamento San Luis del Palmar, Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. El diagnóstico de la infección chagásica se realizó a voluntarios mediante las pruebas de hemaglutinación indirecta, inmunofluorescencia indirecta y ensayo inmunoenzimático. Se investigaron 27 domicilios, de los cuales el 29,6% (8/27) estaban infestados por T. infestans. Se colectaron 50 ejemplares de todas las edades y el 7,0% resultaron infectados por T. cruzi. Se exploraron 24 peridomicilios y un 20,8% (5/24) resultaron positivos, capturándose 157 individuos de T. sordida, ninguno de los cuales resultó infectado. La prevalencia global de los 163 voluntarios fue 11,7% (19/163) y en el grupo 0 -10 años fue 4,8%. La realidad de San Luis del Palmar no responde a exitosas condiciones de control y si bien la infestación doméstica por T. infestans fue moderada, la transmisión del T. cruzi sigue activa, por lo que se concluye que este departamento no reúne las condiciones de baja endemicidad. Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to evaluate triatomine presence in domestic and extradomestic ecotopes, to determine the Triatoma infestans natural infection index and to estimate human seroprevalence to Trypanosoma cruzi. Samplings were performed in spring 2008 and summer- autumm 2009 in randomly [...] selected households in rural areas of Department San Luis del Palmar, Corrientes Province, Argentina. Diagnosis of Chagas infection was performed combining Indirect Hemagglutination Test; Indirect Immunofluorescence Test and Indirect Immunoenzimatic assay on voluntary residents.Twenty seven human dwellings were analyzed and 29.6% (8/27) were infested by T. infestans. A total of 50 T. infestans of all age classes were collected and T. cruzi infection was confirmed in 7.0%. Only 20.8% (5/24) of the twenty four extradomestic ecotopes were positive and 157 T. sordida were captured, none of them were infected. Serological study of 163 human volunteers showed that 11.7% (19/163) were seroreactive, the prevalence observed in the 0 - 10 age group was 4.8%. At San Luis del Palmar the control actions are not successful, and although the T. infestans domestic infestation is mild, there is an active T. cruzi transmission of Chagas. These results show that the endemicity at this department is not low.

  13. Achados neurológicos e laboratoriais em população de área endêmica para teníase-cisticercose, Lagamar, MG, Brasil (1992-1993 Neurologic and laboratory findings in population of endemic area for teniasis-cysticercosis, Lagamar, MG, Brazil (1992-1993

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    Mario León Silva-Vergara

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inquérito clínico-epidemiológico em área endêmica para teníase-cisticercose. Foram examinados 1080 (32,2% indivíduos da população total, encontrando-se 198 (18,3% indivíduos referindo antecedente de teníase, e 103 (9,5% apresentaram história anterior ou atual de convulsões. Destes últimos, 39 (37,8% referiram início das crises na vida adulta, e 62 (60% foram avaliados laboratorialmente. Em 21 (33,8% casos, o resultado da tomografia mostrou calcificações intracranianas compatíveis com neurocisticercose, em número e localização variáveis, mas sem evidência de atividade da doença. Traçados eletroencefalográficos anormais foram lidos em 21 (33,8% pacientes e alterações no exame do líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR detectadas em 27 (43,5%, em 3 (4,8% foi verificada presença de eosinófilos. Somente LCR de 26 (41,9% pacientes foram submetidos a pesquisa de anticorpos para cisticerco, obtendo-se positividade em 6 (23% deles, por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA ou reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Outras alterações do LCR foram devidas a aumento variável das proteínas. Considerando-se os fatores epidemiológicos de risco para teníase-cisticercose na região estudada e sua correlação com as alterações laboratoriais mencionadas acima com as crises convulsivas, encontra-se uma provável prevalência de 1,9% para a neurocisticercose.A clinic-epidemiological enquiry was conducted on in an endemic area for teniasis-cysticercosis. From the whole population 1080 (32.2% individuals were examined. We found 198 (18.3% individuals refering teniasis-bearing in the past, and 103 (9.5% affirming to have had convulsions, either in the past or present. From the last group, 39 (37.8% indicated that the crisis had begun in adulthood. From the group of patients presenting convulsions, 62 (62% had laboratory tests performed. Computed tomography showed intracranial calcifications in 21 (33.8% patients, variable in number and location, suggesting neurocysticercosis and no evidence of disease activity. Electroencephalograms showed abnormal waves in 21 (33.8% patients and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were altered in 27 (43.5% cases, having detected eosinophils only in 3 (4.8% patients. Spinal fluid tests for cysticercosis through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or indirect imunofluorescence were taken in only 26 (41.9% patients, obtaining positive results in 6 (23% samples. Varying upward shifts of protein levels were found in spinal fluid analysis. Assuming that all epidemiologic risk factors for teniasis-cysticercosis in the studied region and its correlation with the laboratory alterations described in convulsing crisis, a prevalence of 1.9% for neurocysticercosis was found.

  14. Flebotominos de las zonas endémicas de Leishmaniasis cutánea americana en Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Sand flies of the endemic areas of American cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Paraty, Rio de Janeiro , Brazil

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    FLÁVIO FERNANDO B. MOUTINHO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de Paraty presenta altas tasas de incidencia de Leishmaniasis Cutánea (LC, con un promedio anual de 43.2 casos desde 1985. El municipio presenta gran importancia en la actividad turística por su patrimonio histórico y por sus características paisajísticas. Anualmente recibe miles de turistas internacionales y nacionales. Estudios relacionados con los flebotominos se llevaron a cabo en siete localidades con informes de casos humanos o caninos de LC, con el fin de proporcionar nueva información para ayudar a la prevención de LC. Se recolectaron un total de 3,831 especímenes pertenecientes a siete especies: Nyssomyia intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Evandromyia tupynambai, Lutzomyia longipalpis y Exapillata firmatoi. La especie N. intermedia ha sido predominante, seguida por M. migonei y L. longipalpis. El pico más alto de actividad de los flebotominos en Ponta da Romana se produjo entre los rangos de 18 a 19 h y 01 a 02 h. n la localidad de Pouso de Cajaíba, los picos se registraron entre 19 a 20 h y 01 a 02 h. Se sugiere que las especies N. intermedia y M. migonei están transmitiendo la Leishmaniasis cutánea americana en áreas endémicas de Paraty, Río de Janeiro, Brasil.The municipality of Paraty has a high incidence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL, with an annual mean of 43.2 cases since 1985. The municipality is of great importance for tourism activities given its historic importance and landscape characteristics. It receives thousands of international and national tourists annually. Studies on the sand fly fauna were carried out in seven localities with reports of human or canine cases of ACL, in order to provide new informatión to help prevent ACL. A total of 3,831 specimens were collected belonging to seven species: Nyssomyia intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Evandromyia tupynambai, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Exapillata firmatoi. The species N. intermedia was predominant, followed by M. migonei and L. longipalpis. The major peak of sand fly densities in Ponta da Romanã occurred between the ranges of 18 to 19 h and 01 to 02 h. En the locality of Pouso da Cajaíba, the peaks occurred between 19 to 20 h and 01 to 02 h. We suggest that the species N. intermedia and M. migonei are transmitting American cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the endemic areas of Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.