WorldWideScience
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Report of a Scientific Working Group on Serious Adverse Events following Mectizan® treatment of onchocerciasis in Loa loa endemic areas  

OpenAIRE

The occurrence of Serious Adverse Experiences (SAEs) following Mectizan® treatment of onchocerciasis in Loa loa endemic areas has been increasingly reported over the past decade. These SAEs include a severely disabling, and potentially fatal, encephalopathy, which appears to correlate with a high load of L. loa microfilariae (> 30,000 mf/ml).

2003-01-01

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Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great pot...

Wanji Samuel; Tendongfor Nicholas; Nji Theolbald; Esum Mathias; Che Julious N; Nkwescheu Armand; Alassa Fifen; Kamnang Geremy; Enyong Peter A; Taylor Mark J; Hoerauf Achim; Taylor David W

2009-01-01

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Onchocerca-Simulium complexes in Venezuela: can human onchocerciasis spread outside its present endemic areas?  

Science.gov (United States)

The compatibility between sympatric and allopatric combinations of Onchocerca volvulus-anthropophilic species of Simulium was studied in the north-eastern focus of human onchocerciasis as well as in a densely populated locality of the Amazonas State in Venezuela. The objectives were to test the conjecture that local adaptation exists between the parasite and its vectors (the Onchocerca-Simulium complex hypothesis), and assess the possibility of the infection spreading from its present distributional range. For the homologous combination, O. volvulus-S. metallicum cytospecies E in Anzoátegui State (north-eastern focus), parasite yield was 45% in contrast to 1% for the heterologous, southern parasite-S. metallicum infection. This was significantly lower than the parasite yield (4-10%) expected after allowing for the effect of density-dependent limitation of infective larval output described in this paper for S. metallicum. The population of S. exiguum s.l. from southern Venezuela allowed no larval development beyond the L1 stage of either northern or southern parasites. Mechanisms for such refractoriness probably operate at the level of the thoracic muscles, not affecting microfilarial uptake or migration out of the bloodmeal. The parasite yield of southern O. volvulus in S. oyapockense s.l. flies biting man at Puerto Ayacucho (Amazonas) was about 1%, in agreement with the figures recorded for highly compatible sympatric combinations such as O. volvulus-S. ochraceum s.l. in Guatemala. No infective larval development of the northern parasite was observed in southern S. oyapockense. These results, together with considerations of typical worm burdens in the human host, presence/absence of armed cibaria in the simuliids, parasite-induced vector mortality, and fly biting rates, suggest a lower potential for onchocerciasis to spread between the northern and southern endemic areas of Venezuela than that between Amazonian hyperendemic locations and settlements outside this focus with high densities of S. oyapockense s.l. PMID:10726276

Basáñez, M G; Yarzábal, L; Frontado, H L; Villamizar, N J

2000-02-01

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Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed sin...

Ibeh, Emmanuel Uttah Dominic C.

2011-01-01

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Eye disease in an onchocerciasis-endemic area of the forest-savanna mosaic region of Nigeria.  

OpenAIRE

In a forest-saving mosaic zone of south-eastern Nigeria endemic for onchocerciasis, we identified eye disorders in 65.5% of a randomly selected population sample. Onchocerciasis-related eye disease was present in 13.7% of the study sample and constituted 21% of the total number of eye disorders. A total of 78 (33.2%) of 235 subjects with visual impairment had onchocerciasis-related eye lesions, and of 35 who were blind in both eyes, onchocerciasis-induced eye disease was the cause in 28 (80%)...

Umeh, R. E.; Chijioke, C. P.; Okonkwo, P. O.

1996-01-01

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Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

2011-12-01

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Onchocerciasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... vector-borne diseases Onchocerciasis African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control Recommendations for the treatment of onchocerciasis You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics ...

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Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species  

OpenAIRE

"nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual...

Ec, Uttah

2009-01-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

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Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

2011-05-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onc...

Tekle Afework; Elhassan Elizabeth; Isiyaku Sunday; Amazigo Uche V; Bush Simon; Noma Mounkaila; Cousens Simon; Abiose Adenike; Remme Jan H.

2012-01-01

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Impact of Three Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Lymphatic Filariasis in Areas Previously Treated for Onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone  

OpenAIRE

Onchocerciasis studies across Sierra Leone between 1974 and 2005 showed that 12 of the 14 health districts (HDs) are endemic for onchocerciasis. Baseline lymphatic filariasis (LF) studies 2005–2008 showed that all 14 HDs of Sierra Leone are LF endemic. Three annual rounds of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole 2008–2010 were conducted in the 12 HDs that are co-endemic for onchocerciasis and LF with good geographic, epidemiological drug (or programme) ...

Koroma, Joseph B.; Sesay, Santigie; Sonnie, Mustapha; Hodges, Mary H.; Sahr, Foday; Zhang, Yaobi; Bockarie, Moses J.

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of depigmentation of the shins: a simple and cheap way to screen for severe endemic onchocerciasis in Africa.  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of skin depigmentation in the pretibial region is closely correlated in the adult Congolese population with conventional indices (microfilarial index, mean microfilarial density, cyst index) for the evaluation of endemic onchocerciasis. Individuals over 15 years of age in endemic villages who had a microfilarial index of 80-90%, had a cystic index of 60-70% and a pretibial depigmentation index about 20% (30-40% for individuals aged > 50 years). Thus, in Africa, this new evaluat...

Carme, B.; Ntsoumou-madzou, V.; Samba, Y.; Yebakima, A.

1993-01-01

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Clinical Manifestations of Mesoendemic Onchocerciasis in an Area with Multiple Filarial Species  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The Imo River Basin, Nigeria is endemic for onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loaiasis and mansonellosis. This study was aimed at determining the clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in this region. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in Umuowaibu I and Ndiorji commu­nities in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Consenting individuals were ex­amined for various gradations of skin manifestations, subcutaneous nodules, and visual im­pair­ments by qualified medical doctors. Five categories of skin manifestations were observed, namely permanent itching, onchodermatitis, atrophy of skin, leopard skin, and sowda. A total of 1024 individuals were examined. "nResults: The prevalence of the skin manifestations were permanent itching (2.5%, onchoder­ma­titis (3.9%, atrophy of the skin (5.8%, leopard skin (22.1%, and sowda (0.1%. The preva­lence of subcutaneous nodules was 25.3%, but 88.9% among the oldest age group, and mostly found in lower half of body. The majority of cases of visual acuity problems (6.8% overall prev­alence were in the oldest age groups. Among those who were ? 20 years old, the prevalence of visual acuity problems was significantly higher in females than in males (?2-test; P< 0.05. Only two of the examined persons were observed to be blind. "nConclusion: Clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis are perhaps more intense in the area prob­ably because of presence of endemic infections of other filarial species.

EC Uttah

2009-12-01

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A three-year follow-up of ocular onchocerciasis in an area of vector control*  

OpenAIRE

An evaluation of the effects on onchocerciasis of a 3-year period of vector control was undertaken during 1978 in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area in West Africa. The results revealed that the overall prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis showed only a slight decrease at the follow-up in 1978, but that there was significantly less infection among children in the age group 5-14 years as compared with 1975. There was a total incidence of ocular signs of onchocerciasis of 8.6% over the 3 ...

Thylefors, B.; Tønjum, A. M.

1980-01-01

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Ocular manifestations of onchocerciasis in a rain forest area of west Africa.  

OpenAIRE

The epidemiology and natural history of onchocerciasis and its ocular complications in rain forest areas are poorly understood. The present study was conducted on a rubber plantation in a hyperendemic area in the rain forest of Liberia, West Africa, where 800 persons were examined. The prevalence of infection was 84% overall 29% had intraocular microfilariae, and 2.4% were blind in one or both eyes. Onchocerciasis was the cause of all binocular blindness and one-third of all visual impairment...

Newland, H. S.; White, A. T.; Greene, B. M.; Murphy, R. P.; Taylor, H. R.

1991-01-01

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Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa  

OpenAIRE

Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their c...

Amuyunzu-nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V.

2011-01-01

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Feasibility of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: First Evidence from Studies in Mali and Senegal  

OpenAIRE

The control of onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is based on annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment of populations at risk. This has been effective in controlling the disease as a public health problem, but it is not known whether it can also eliminate infection and transmission to the extent that treatment can be safely stopped. Many doubt that this is feasible in Africa. A study was undertaken in three hyperendemic onchocerciasis foci in Mali and Senegal where treatment has been given...

Diawara, Lamine; Traore?, Mamadou O.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate?, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Sarr, Moussa D.; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe?, Laurent; Toure?e, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

2009-01-01

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Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on oncho...

Laura Moya Alonso

2009-01-01

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Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

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Full Text Available The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy

Cristian Lizarazo O

2010-04-01

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Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis ...

Proaño Roberto; Rivera Jorge; Mancero Tamara; Lovato Raquel; Cooper Philip J; Vieira Juan; López Andrea A; Guderian Ronald H; Guzmán José

2007-01-01

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Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implications of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

Winnen M.

2002-01-01

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Histochemical enzyme variation in Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae from rain-forest and Sudan-savanna areas of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa  

OpenAIRE

Histochemical staining methods for acid phosphatase were used to study the differences among microfilariae of various West African strains of Onchocerca volvulus in both forest and Sudan-savanna onchocerciasis zones. The results have shown statistically significant differences in the staining patterns of microfilarial populations in the two zones. In the rain-forest areas, where onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense and S. squamosum, there were no sig...

Omar, M. S.; Prost, A; Marshall, T. F. C.

1982-01-01

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Importance of ivermectin to human onchocerciasis: past, present, and the future  

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Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas

Cupp EW

2011-05-01

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Perception and attitude of people toward onchocerciasis (river blindness in south western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attitudes of rural/semi-urban communities in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State toward onchocerciasis. Materials and Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 500 adults for the study. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to subjects. Data on knowledge of the local name, cause, mode of transmission, manifestation, severity, treatment, and prevention of onchocerciasis were collected and analysed. Statistical analysis included frequency distribution of the responses and a Chi-square test for comparison of variables with the P value for statistical significance set at 0.05. Results: Onchocerciasis was well known by its local name among 458 (91.6% of the respondents. Only seven (1.4% knew that it affects both the eyes and skin. The cause was commonly attributed to impure blood by 114 (22.8%, whereas transmission was thought to be through fomites by 161 (32.2%. Only 12 (2.4% respondents attributed the disease to blackfly bites. The level of education and the association of onchocerciasis with a river were significantly associated (P = 0.001. Subcutaneous nodules were felt to contain water (85.4%, baby worms (3.2%, and fat (0.6%. There was a negative attitude toward sufferers of the disease. Conclusion: Adequate information transfer in simple local dialect by trained personnel to the communities at risk of onchocerciasis is essential for better uptake of all aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme.

Adeoye A

2010-01-01

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS  

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Full Text Available

Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

Beatrice Autino

2012-01-01

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Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Pla...

Carmen Elena Contreras; Marcos De Donato; María Ana Rivas; Hectorina Rodulfo; Robert Mora; María Eulalia Batista; Norka Marcano

2011-01-01

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Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: ocular findings in Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals.  

OpenAIRE

Little is known of the epidemiology and clinical picture of ocular onchocerciasis in South America. A survey of onchocercal eye disease was performed in the hyperendemic area of a rain forest focus of onchocerciasis in Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. A total of 785 skin snip positive individuals from black and Chachi Amerindian communities were examined. The blindness rate attributable to onchocerciasis was 0.4%, and 8.2% were visually impaired. Onchocercal ocular lesions were seen in a high ...

Cooper, P. J.; Proan?o, R.; Beltran, C.; Anselmi, M.; Guderian, R. H.

1995-01-01

28

Perception and Attitude of People Toward Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) in South Western Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major cause of bilateral blindness with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Since Nigeria is the most heavily onchocerciasis endemic country in the world, the information on people?s knowledge about this disease is significant. This could influence their response to current preventive measures of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the level of knowledge and attitudes of rural/...

Adeoye A; Ashaye A; Onakpoya O

2010-01-01

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Sensitivity and specificity of three Onchocerca volvulus cloned antigens in diagnosis of onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Onchcerciasis is endemic in three geographical regions in Sudan, and presented with variable clinical reactions. The current diagnosis of onchocerciasis is based on detection of live microflaraie in skin snips in addition to clinical signs and history of living in endemic regions. Different serological diagnostic trials using crude soluble antigens of O. volvulus have shown variable degrees of cross reaction with other nematodes co-endemic in the same area. We have studied the sensitivity and specificity of RAL-2, calreticulin and PDI O. volvulus cloned antigens using the ELISA techniques. Eighty serum samples of Onchocerciasis patients, 20 non endemic normal controls and 42 samples of patients of other endemic deseas including Leishmanoasis, malaria, tuberculosis and shestosomiasis were tested RAL-2 gave the best Ig G response, with 83.75% sensitivity and 91. 66% specificity. PDI sensitivity was 20% and specificity 91.66%, while calreticulum showed sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 73.30%. IgG3 subclasses was not significantly different from controls while IgG4 was significantly higher in patients. The sensitivity of RAL-2 for IgG4 was 90% with a specificity of 100%. For PDI sensitivity was 25% and 100% specificity while calreticulin resulted in sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100%. Low levels of circulating IgE to RAL-2 antigen were detected. For all antigens there was significant correlation with gender, age, microflarial load or presence of nodules. (Acroflarial load or presence of nodules. (Author)

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DNA probe-based classification of Simulium damnosum s. l.-borne and human-derived filarial parasites in the onchocerciasis control program area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of polymerase chain reaction-based methods using strain- and species-specific DNA probes for Onchocerca volvulus has permitted classification of individual parasites from every stage of the parasite's life cycle. This technology has been applied on a large scale basis by Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa. The primary objective of the OCP in using the DNA probes was to obtain accurate estimates of the annual transmission potential of the blinding strain of O. volvulus. The DNA probe classification of larvae collected throughout the OCP area demonstrated that larvae of less pathogenic strains of O. volvulus and other filarial parasites carried by Simulium damnosum s.l. have resulted in a significant overestimation of the annual transmission potential for blinding onchocerciasis. This effect is particularly pronounced along the southern border of the OCP, where the blinding and less pathogenic strains of O. volvulus coexist, and in the north of the control area, where animal parasites, particularly O. ochengi, may even predominate. A second objective of the OCP in applying the DNA probe technology was to determine the distribution of blinding and less pathogenic O. volvulus in infected individuals along the southern border of the control area. Results obtained from these studies have generally confirmed the distribution pattern established by previous epidemiologic studies. In addition, DNA probe classifications have demonstrated that in areas where the blinding and less pathogenic strains of O. volvulus coexist, a single individual may simultaneously be infected with both strains of the parasite. PMID:7985761

Toe, L; Merriweather, A; Unnasch, T R

1994-11-01

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Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is also being considered for repurposing as a macrofilaricide to aid in the achievement of eradication. The managerial challenges existing at the population level also need to be addressed; these include drug-distribution fatigue, the need to include noncompliant people, civil unrest in endemic areas, political cross-border issues, restrictions of age and pregnancy, and complications due to integration with other treatment programs. It is likely that a panel of chemotherapeutic options, new and old, supported by strong and effective distribution systems will be the best way to address challenges of treatment and elimination of this infection. Future research should also address management of treatment and control, and consider how new treatment paradigms can be incorporated to meet time lines set for global elimination by 2025.Keywords: mass drug administration, ivermectin, macrofilaricides, challenges

Higazi TB

2014-10-01

32

Laboratory toxicity of potential blackfly larvicides on some African fish species in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Onchocerciasis Control Programme of the World Health Organization uses larvicides to fight against the aquatic stages of the vector Simulium damnosum s.l., and thereby interrupt transmission of the disease. Since the appearance of resistance to Abate and chlorphoxim in certain cytotypes of the vector, the efficacy of many possible replacement insecticides has been tested and the impact of the best of them (permethrin, cyphenothrin, pyraclofos, and carbosulfan) on the aquatic fauna evaluated. PMID:1868781

Yameogo, L; Tapsoba, J M; Calamari, D

1991-06-01

33

Relationship between maximum leaf photosynthesis, nitrogen content and specific leaf area in balearic endemic and non-endemic mediterranean species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non-endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter-relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non-endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non-endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non-endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species-including the crops-showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

Gulias, Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Mus, Maurici; Cifre, Josep; Lefi, Elkadri; Medrano, Hipolito

2003-08-01

34

Information for onchocerciasis control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I

Adrian Hopkins

2010-12-01

35

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs  

Science.gov (United States)

... an infection caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus , spread by the bite of an infected Simulium ... indicate that you are still infected with O. volvulus . What is the treatment for onchocerciasis? There are ...

36

Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non?endemic Mediterranean Species  

OpenAIRE

Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non?endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter?relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area ba...

Guli?as, Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Mus, Maurici; Cifre, Josep; Lefi, Elkadri; Medrano, Hipo?lito

2003-01-01

37

Onchocerciasis in an expatriate living in Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Travelers to West, central and eastern Africa as well as to selected areas of Latin America are at risk for infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Infection with this tissue nematode may cause chorioretinitis and keratitis, and it is responsible in endemic areas for blindness in millions.1 In addition to ocular manifestations, it can produce a distressing pruriginous dermatitis or subcutaneous nodules. Clinical manifestations vary according to the parasitic load, previous immunity, and duration of infection.1 Infection is initiated by inoculation with larvae during the bite of the Simulium black fly. Once in the connective tissue, larvae mature to filiform adults and may remain in tissues for years, with the clinical manifestations being produced by the inflammatory reaction to dying parasites. Female adults produce large amounts of microfilaria that migrate through skin and connective tissue; once an infected host is bitten, the infectious larvae develop again in the female Simulium black fly and the life cycle is completed. Transmission is from person to person, and may occur even after a relatively short exposure.2 Although infection of travelers with O. volvulus is rare, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 46 new cases of onchocerciasis were diagnosed in the United States in 1994 (Dr. David Addis, personal communication, June 1996). We describe the case of an expatriate who became infected with O. volvulus and we review the treatment and recommendations for prevention of this parasitic infection. PMID:9815471

Okhuysen

1997-03-01

38

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km²). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

2012-12-01

39

Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population. PMID:2775644

Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

1989-08-01

40

High Prevalence of Co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) and Onchocerciasis in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Both Onchocerciasis (river blindness) and HIV/AIDS are now significant public health problems in many countries of Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection of Onchocerciasis and HIV as well as to assess and compare the levels of humoral antibodies among subjects in Cameroon. This was a community-based study in Balamba, an Onchocerciasis endemic region in Cameroon. Both skin snip and blood samples were collected from all consented inhabitants for diagnosis ...

Alemnji, G. A.; Mbuagbaw, J.; Toukam, K. E.; Ayong, L.; Wembe, E.; Asonganyi, T.

2007-01-01

41

Brain tuberculoma in a non-endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Brain tuberculoma has previously accounted for up to a third of new intracranial lesions in areas endemic with tuberculosis, but is unexpected in the United States and other Western countries with improved disease control. Here we show the importance of considering this diagnosis in at-risk patients, even with no definitive pulmonary involvement. We describe a young man who presented with partial seizures and underwent craniotomy for resection of a frontoparietal tuberculoma. He subsequently ...

Harminder Singh; Anand Veeravagu; Lober, Robert M.

2013-01-01

42

Revisión epidemiológica de la Oncocercosis en América Latina / Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La oncocercosis es una enfermedad exclusiva del ser humano, caracterizada por prurito intenso, lesiones dérmicas y daño ocular que puede llegar a la ceguera. Las regiones endémicas están limitadas a zonas con latitud, relieve, temperatura y humedad relativa óptimas para el desarrollo del parásito y [...] el insecto vector. Estas zonas se encuentran en el oeste de África, Yemen y algunos países de América latina. El parásito es transmitido a través de la mordedura de una mosca del género Simulium, que al alimentarse de sangre deposita larvas del parásito. En América se creó el Programa de Oncocercosis en las Américas (OEPA), cuya estrategia es la administración de ivermectina y la nodulectomía para eliminar la oncocercosis como amenaza de salud pública en la región. Abstract in english The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Th [...] ose zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (OEPA) was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy.

Guadalupe C, Rodríguez C; Cristian, Lizarazo O.

2010-01-01

43

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur. PMID:21537669

Contreras, Carmen Elena; Donato, Marcos de; Rivas, María Ana; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Mora, Robert; Batista, María Eulalia; Marcano, Norka

2011-03-01

44

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena Contreras

2011-03-01

45

Onchocerciasis: a potential risk factor for glaucoma  

OpenAIRE

Background: Onchocerciasis is a microfilarial disease that causes ocular disease and blindness. Previous evidence of an association between onchocerciasis and glaucoma has been mixed. This study aims to further investigate the association between onchocerciasis and glaucoma.

Egbert, P. R.; Jacobson, D. W.; Fiadoyor, S.; Dadzie, P.; Ellingson, K. D.

2005-01-01

46

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

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Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-06-01

47

Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease d [...] istribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.

JR, Coura; RS, Amaral.

2004-08-01

48

Concurrence of dermatological and ophthalmological morbidity in onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of skin and eye disorders in African onchocerciasis (river blindness) is well documented. However, less is known about their joint occurrence. Information on concurrence may improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and is required to estimate the disease burden of onchocerciasis. We analysed data from 765 individuals from forest villages in the Kumba and Ngambe Health districts, Cameroon. These data were collected in 1998, as baseline data for the evaluation of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Concurrence of symptoms was assessed using logistic regression. Onchocerciasis was highly endemic in the study population (63% nodule prevalence among males aged ?20). Considerable overall prevalences of onchocercal visual impairment (low vision or blindness: 4%), troublesome itch (15%), reactive skin disease (19%), and skin depigmentation (25%) were observed. The association between onchocercal visual impairment and skin depigmentation (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.9-20.8) was partly explained by age and exposure to infection (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.7). The association between troublesome itch and reactive skin disease was hardly affected by adjustment (adjusted OR 6.9, 95% CI 4.2-11.1). Concluding, there is significant concurrence of morbidities within onchocerciasis. Our results suggest a possible role of host characteristics in the pathogenesis of depigmentation and visual impairment. Further, we propose a method to deal with concurrence when estimating the burden of disease. PMID:22342170

Coffeng, L E; Fobi, G; Ozoh, G; Bissek, A C; Nlatté, B O; Enyong, P; Olinga, J M Olinga; Zouré, H G M; Habbema, J D F; Stolk, W A; de Vlas, S J; Boussinesq, M; Noma, M

2012-04-01

49

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

Sauerbrey Mauricio

2011-10-01

50

Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated  

OpenAIRE

Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control ...

Katabarwa, Moses N.; Frank Walsh; Peace Habomugisha; Lakwo, Thomson L.; Stella Agunyo; Oguttu, David W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Dickson Unoba; Edson Byamukama; Ephraim Tukesiga; Richard Ndyomugyenyi; Richards, Frank O.

2012-01-01

51

Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness) control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilar...

Lazdins Janis; Hf, Remme Jan; Plaisier Anton P; Jd, Nagelkerke Nico; Boatin Boakye A; van Oortmarssen Gerrit J; Alley William; Jjm, Borsboom Gerard; Habbema J. Dik F.

2001-01-01

52

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989) conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with [...] those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

Ronald H., Guderian; Anthony J., Shelley.

1992-09-01

53

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelli [...] ng of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A., Al-Tawfiq.

2006-06-01

54

Brain tuberculoma in a non-endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain tuberculoma has previously accounted for up to a third of new intracranial lesions in areas endemic with tuberculosis, but is unexpected in the United States and other Western countries with improved disease control. Here we show the importance of considering this diagnosis in at-risk patients, even with no definitive pulmonary involvement. We describe a young man who presented with partial seizures and underwent craniotomy for resection of a frontoparietal tuberculoma. He subsequently completed six months of antituberculosis therapy and was doing well without neurological sequelae or evidence of recurrence five months after completion of therapy. With resurgence of tuberculosis cases in the United States and other Western countries, intracerebral tuberculoma should remain a diagnostic consideration in at-risk patients with new space occupying lesions. Mass lesions causing neurological sequelae can be safely addressed surgically and followed with antituberculosis therapy.

Harminder Singh

2013-01-01

55

Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North E...

Teeyapant Punthip; Srijantr Pongsant; Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Wongvilairattana Jintana

2010-01-01

56

Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

2015-06-01

57

New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ?850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s.l. within individual ribosomal DNA variation and thus the first evidence that the species is not subject to the normal effects of concerted evolution. Collectively, these data illustrate the need for diverse sampling in the development of robust molecular tools for vector identification and suggest that ribosomal DNA might be able to assist with resolving S. guianense s.l. species substructuring that C01 barcoding has hitherto failed to. PMID:24200838

Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

2014-03-01

58

Instability of ovine babesiosis in an endemic area in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the endemic status of Babesia ovis in sheep in Turkey. A total of 2000 sheep, from different age groups (i.e. 0-3, 4-6, 6-9, 10-12, and >12 months), were selected randomly from 132 sheep flocks. The presence of specific antibodies against B. ovis was diagnosed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 843 (42.15%) serum samples were determined to be positive. The seropositivity rates in the age groups stated above were 31.90, 31.64, 47.69, 40.22, and 52.99%, respectively. The endemic status of the disease was determined by calculating the inoculation rate (h) of each group. The h value for each group was determined to be lower than 0.005, which revealed that the endemic status of B. ovis was instable. This report may indicate the necessity of vaccination. PMID:22538091

Ekici, Ozlem Derinbay; Sevinc, Ferda; Isik, Nermin

2012-09-10

59

Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Central Nigeria: Challenges in Coordinating the Stop MDA Decision  

OpenAIRE

Both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are treated with ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA) regimens in Africa. Where the infections are co-endemic, ivermectin treatments cannot be stopped until both infection transmission cycles are broken. This report follows a previous determination that the LF transmission cycle had been interrupted in five districts (LGAs in Nigeria) but evidence was needed on the status of the onchocerciasis transmission cycle prior to halting MDA. In ...

Evans, Darin S.; Alphonsus, Kal; Umaru, Jon; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Mafuyai, Hayward; Gonzales-peralta, Carlos; Adamani, William; Pede, Elias; Umbugadu, Christopher; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Richards, Frank O.

2014-01-01

60

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

2011-03-01

61

Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is ...

Vg, Lacerda Marcus; Ra, Pinheiro Tamam; Reyes-Lecca Roberto C; Vitor-Silva Sheila

2009-01-01

62

Clinical Manifestation of Onchocerciasis in Ise - Orun Local Government, Ekiti State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Survey of Onchocerciasis syndrome in Ise - Orun local Government Area of Ekiti State was carried out. Village in Ise - Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria are at risk of Onchocerciasis parademic of the 4,100 subjects examined, 2008 representing 51.3% of 95% CI 0.49 - 0.53 were found to be suffering from Onchocerciasis infections. The highest infection rate of 50.4% at 95% CI 0.43 - 0.63 was recorded in Temidire and least percentage of 46.7% at 95% CI 0.3 - 0.64 was found in Aba...

Adewole, S. O.; Ayeni, S. K.

2009-01-01

63

[What is your diagnosis? A "fat arm". Onchocerciasis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of edema of the right forearm with pruriginous papules and eosinophilia in the blood. The patient had lived in a forested area of Cameroon. The clinical, laboratory, and geographical findings led to a diagnosis of onchocerciasis, despite the absence of microfilaments on skin biopsy samples. The patient was successfully treated with ivermectin and doxycycline. PMID:24922445

Bousquet, A; Larréché, S; Elhadji Toumane, C; Dupin, M; Avignant, J; Mérens, A; Maccari, F

2014-01-01

64

Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools. METHODS: Epidemiological, parasitological and serological data were collected from 2,667 individuals in three settlements of Bellavista district,...

Rosas-aguirre, Angel; Llanos-cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko; Cook, Jackie; Contreras-mancilla, Juan; Soto, Veronica; Gamboa, Dionicia; Pozo, Edwar; Ponce, Oscar J.; Pereira, Mayne O.; Soares, Irene S.; Theisen, Michael; D Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

2013-01-01

65

Strategy for vaccination against hepatitis B in areas with high endemicity: focus on Korea.  

OpenAIRE

Hepatitis B vaccination strategies may vary from country to country depending on hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity, predominant modes of infection, age of infection, and health care resources. In areas with high endemicity like Korea, transmission of virus from carrier mothers to infants during the perinatal period, and from other horizontal sources to infants and children, account for most cases of HBV infection. The consequences of HBV infection at an early age are serious, as more than 70...

Ahn, Y. O.

1996-01-01

66

Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis: a case report from a new endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seventh documented case of babesiosis transmitted by transfusion is reported. Both the donor and the recipient are residents of Connecticut, where the presence of endemic babesiosis has only recently been established. As the range of Babesia microti, and its vector the Ixodes dammini tick, continues to expand, clinicians and blood bank directors should be aware that cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis may occur in newly endemic areas. PMID:2021001

Mintz, E D; Anderson, J F; Cable, R G; Hadler, J L

1991-05-01

67

Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

68

Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects  

OpenAIRE

Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola Department of Ophthalmological Surgery, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, New Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria Abstract: This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control ...

Oe, Babalola

2011-01-01

69

The future of onchocerciasis control in Africa  

OpenAIRE

The complex issues related to onchocerciasis control that must be addressed over the next decade were identified. Onchocerciasis control in Africa since 1974 has been one of the most successful health and development activities in terms of public health achievement, partnership development, sustained donor support, and social and economic development. The group reviewed The landscape of international health has changed much since the inception of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Contr...

Hodgkin, C.; Molyneux, D. H.; Abiose, A.; Philippon, B.; Reich, M. R.; Remme, J. H.; Thylefors, B.; Traore, M.; Grepin, K.

2007-01-01

70

Risk characterization and exposure assessment in arseniasis-endemic areas of Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the age-specific human health risks exposed to inorganic arsenic through arsenic-contaminated farmed fish/shrimp and groundwater consumptions in arseniasis-endemic areas of blackfoot disease (BFD)-endemic area and Lanyang Plain in Taiwan, based on an probabilistic integrated risk assessment framework. We employ an age-dependent predictive physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to account for arsenic concentrations in target organs. We reconstruct age-specific dose-response profiles for arsenicosis and arsenic-induced cancers by best fitting a pharmacodynamics-based three-parameter Hill equation model to published epidemiological data from West Bengal and Taiwan. The predicted median arsenic concentrations in age group-specific skin, lung, and bladder ranged from 2.24-5.70, 3.76-9.46, and 5.11-20.71 micro g g(-1) in BFD-endemic area, whereas 4.98-12.04, 8.23-19.92, and 11.07-43.45 micro g g(-1) in Lanyang Plain, respectively. Risk analysis indicates that consumption of arsenic-contaminated farmed fish/shrimp and groundwater in arseniasis-endemic areas may increase threat to prevalence of arsenicosis for all age groups, whereas adults may undergo potential risks of arsenic-induced skin, lung and bladder cancers. We show that peoples in Lanyang Plain are more readily associated with higher morbidities for arsenicosis and skin cancer as well as fatalities for lung and bladder cancers than that of peoples in BFD-endemic area. Here we report the first case in which theoretical human health risks for consuming As-contaminated farmed fish/shrimp and groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic areas are alarming under a conservative condition based on a probabilistic risk assessment framework. PMID:17014909

Ling, Min-Pei; Liao, Chung-Min

2007-01-01

71

Towards cross-border natural resource management and economic development : linking communities and institutions in the onchocerciasis-freed zone of Burkina Faso and Ghana  

OpenAIRE

The eradication of river blindness, or Onchocerciasis, has opened up substantial areas of land along rivers for more intensive use, facilitating economic development. Many of these so-called Onchocerciasis Freed Zones (OFZ) lie across international borders and interventions in one country could thus affect neighbouring countries. For that reason a coordinated international development approach has been called for. The Socio Economic Development Programme for the Transborder Onchocerciasis Fre...

Waveren, E.; Mariez-currena, V.; Issaka, B. Y.

2008-01-01

72

Filarial antibody detection in suspected occult filariasis in children in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted in filarial endemic area for diagnosis of occult filariasis in various clinical conditions in children. Thirty-five age- and sex-matched controls (endemic-15, non-endemic-10, disease control-10), 16 classical lymphatic filariasis, and 92 occult filariasis (clinical conditions which fall in the spectrum of occult filariasis and suspected to be filarial), were subjected to peripheral night blood smear examination for microfilaria (mf) and stick ELISA test using mf ES antigen for filarial antibodies. In the control group none showed mf and only 3 per cent (1/35) among endemic control were positive for filarial antibodies. In classical filariasis 1 per cent (2/16) showed mf and 94 per cent (15/16) had filarial antibodies. In suspected occult filariasis 1 per cent (one case of arthritis) showed mf and 62 per cent (57/92) showed filarial antibodies. These consisted of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia 63 per cent (15/24), arthritis where no cause could be ascertained on investigation 64 per cent (27/42), nephrotic syndrome 69 per cent (11/16), acute glomerulonephritis with ASO 11/9) of nephrotic syndrome in the 10-14 years of age group were positive for filarial antibody. Arthritis due to other causes and minimal change nephrotic syndrome are uncommon in these respective age groups. It is concluded that the role of filariasis in endemic areas in these disease states cannot be denied and needs to be studied further. PMID:7563279

Chaturvedi, P; Harinath, B C; Reddy, M V; Advani, B; Gawdi, A; Alikhan, A; Rao, B V

1995-08-01

73

Population biology of human onchocerciasis.  

OpenAIRE

Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is the filarial infection caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted among people through the bites of the Simulium vector. Some 86 million people around the world are at risk of acquiring the nematode, with 18 million people infected and 600,000 visually impaired, half of them partially or totally blind. 99% of cases occur in tropical Africa; scattered foci exist in Latin America. Until recently control programmes, in operation since 1975, have consi...

Basa?n?ez, M. G.; Boussinesq, M.

1999-01-01

74

Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its implementation to compliment existing control strategies for onchocerciasis, where needed.

Tamarozzi Francesca

2012-03-01

75

Clinical Features of 705 Borrelia burgdorferi Seropositive Patients in an Endemic Area of Northern Italy  

OpenAIRE

Background. Lyme Borreliosis is a multisystemic infection caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The features of Lyme Borreliosis may differ in the various geographical areas, primarily between the manifestations found in America and those found in Europe and Asia. Objective. to describe the clinical features of Lyme Borreliosis in an endemic geographic area such as Friuli-Venezia Giulia in the Northeastern part of Italy. Methods. The medical records of patients res...

Giuseppe Stinco; Maurizio Ruscio; Serena Bergamo; Davide Trotter; Pasquale Patrone

2014-01-01

76

Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

2003-09-01

77

Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. ma [...] nsoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

Marta G, Cavalcanti; Margareth MI, Gonçalves; Magali M, Barreto; Aline Helen da, Silva; Kalil, Madi; José Mauro, Peralta; Ricardo P, Igreja.

2011-04-01

78

Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Anti-malarial drugs can make a significant contribution to the control of malaria in endemic areas when used for prevention as well as for treatment. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in preventing deaths and morbidity from malaria, but it is difficult to sustain for prolonged periods, may interfere with the development of naturally acquired immunity and will facilitate the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains if applied to a whole community. However, chemoprophylaxis targeted ...

Greenwood Brian

2010-01-01

79

Interdigital lesions and frequency of acute dermatolymphangioadenitis in lymphoedema in a filariasis-endemic area.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne nematode infection that causes permanent lymphatic dysfunction in virtually all infected individuals and clinical disease in a subset of these. One major sequel of infection is lymphoedema of the limbs. Lymphoedema of the leg affects an estimated 15 million persons in LF-endemic areas worldwide. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) in people with filarial lymphoedema causes acute morbidity and increasingly severe lymphoedema. Episode...

Mcpherson, T.; Persaud, S.; Singh, S.; Fay, Mp; Addiss, D.; Nutman, Tb; Hay, R.

2006-01-01

80

Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for human Brucellosis in an endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The clinical utility of complementary tests for brucellosis are not clear in many situation. This study aimed toevaluate value of these tests for brucellosis in an endemic area in Turkey.Materials and methods: This study was performed at Çanakkale General Hospital in 2009. In a retrospective approach, recordsof the patients who evaluated for brucellosis were collected. During the study period, 236 people (131 symptomaticand 105 non-symptomatic) were evaluated for diagnosis of bru...

Filiz Arabac?; Mehmet Oldacay

2012-01-01

81

Canine Filarial Infections in a Human Brugia malayi Endemic Area of India  

OpenAIRE

A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecul...

Reghu Ravindran; Sincy Varghese; Nair, Suresh N.; Balan, Vimalkumar M.; Bindu Lakshmanan; Ashruf, Riyas M.; Kumar, Swaroop S.; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K.; Nair, Archana S.; Aparna Malayil; Leena Chandrasekhar; Sanis Juliet; Devada Kopparambil; Rajendran Ramachandran; Regu Kunjupillai

2014-01-01

82

A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped bas...

Tveit Ingvar; Walde Anna; Søbstad Øystein; Schimmer Barbara; Nygård Karin; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

2006-01-01

83

Tuberculosis and renal transplantation--observations from an endemic area of tuberculosis.  

OpenAIRE

Ninety-five renal transplant recipients from an endemic area of tuberculosis were investigated to find out the prevalence and course of tuberculosis in pre- and post-transplant periods. Eleven patients had tuberculosis in the pre-transplant period - pulmonary (2), pleural (2), miliary (1), abdominal (2), lymph node (5) and pericardial (1). They were transplanted after antituberculous therapy of 3 to 6 months with satisfactory results. The anti-tuberculous treatment was usually continued for 2...

Malhotra, K. K.; Dash, S. C.; Dhawan, I. K.; Bhuyan, U. N.; Gupta, A.

1986-01-01

84

Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly endemic areas.  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses meta-analysis of published data and a deterministic mathematical model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission to describe the patterns of HBV infection in high endemicity areas. We describe the association between the prevalence of carriers and a simple measure of the rate of infection, the age at which half the population have been infected (A50), and assess the contribution of horizontal and perinatal transmission to this association. We found that the two main hyper-endemi...

Edmunds, W. J.; Medley, G. F.; Nokes, D. J.; O Callaghan, C. J.; Whittle, H. C.; Hall, A. J.

1996-01-01

85

Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area.  

OpenAIRE

The effects of three separate antimalarial prophylactic regimens (proguanil, sulfisoxazole, and proguanil plus sulfisoxazole) and of vitamins in a control group were compared in a study population of 380 children living in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Burmese border. The subjects, aged 5-16 years, were matched for age, weight, and presence of splenomegaly, then randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All medications were administered daily by the investigators and malaria smears...

Pang, L. W.; Limsomwong, N.; Singharaj, P.; Canfield, C. J.

1989-01-01

86

Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activ...

Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; Arau?jo-ju?nior, Joa?o Xavier; Arau?jo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Fla?via Barros Prado; Alexandre-moreira, Magna Suzana

2014-01-01

87

Clinical versus ultrasound examination in the evaluation of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas  

OpenAIRE

The best way to appraise the size of abdominal organs remains undefined. Herein we compare the size of liver and spleen in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis using clinical and ultrasound (US) examination, and the size of the organs measured by US with their visualization below the costal margin ("palpable by US"). For this study, 411 individuals from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil have been selected. We found that palpable spleens and left liver lobes are larger than non pa...

Carolina Coimbra Marinho; Izabela Voieta; Letícia Martins Azeredo; Marina Pires Nishi; Thaís Sanai Batista; Ana Carolina Figueiredo Pereira; José Carlos Serufo; Leonardo Campos Queiroz; Raiza Ruiz-Guevara; Carlos Maurício Antunes; Aluízio Prata; José Roberto Lambertucci

2006-01-01

88

Endemic goiter in Morocco (Skoura-Toundoute areas in the high atlas).  

Science.gov (United States)

Endemic goiter in Morocco is localized in the Rif and Atlas mountains. In this study, performed in the Skoura-Toundoute areas (high Atlas), we demonstrate that iodine deficiency is the main factor involved in the development of endemic goiter. However it may not constitute the only etiological factor. The median urinary iodine excretion, measured on untimed samples, was low both in goitrous patients, m = 18 micrograms/l (n = 109) and in non goitrous subjects, m = 24 micrograms/l (n = 47). The value found in a nonendemic region (Casablanca) was much higher m = 117 micrograms/l (n = 67). Another approach to evaluate iodine intake per day was the analysis of iodine content of some samples of cereals (barley, wheat and corn), drinking water, sea and rock salt, cow and breast milk. Iodine content is low, specially in the endemic area: barley = 90 micrograms/kg (n = 1); wheat = 227 micrograms/kg (n = 1); corn = 91 micrograms/kg (n = 1); water = 0.92 to 1.30 micrograms/l (n = 3); cow milk = 6 to 33 micrograms/l (n = 10) breast milk = 10 to 55 micrograms/l (n = 14); rock salt = 420 to 660 micrograms/kg (n = 8); sea salt = 90 to 160 micrograms/kg (n = 4). Sodium chloride intake per day, estimated by the measurement of sodium and chloride urinary excretion, is normal both in the Skoura-Toundoute areas (10.7 g and 9.8 g for goitrous and nongoitrous subjects, respectively) and in Casablanca (10.9 g for control persons). Altogether the results demonstrate the importance of introducing the practice of iodinated salt in the prophylaxis of endemic goiter in this area. PMID:8445160

Aquaron, R; Zarrouck, K; el Jarari, M; Ababou, R; Talibi, A; Ardissone, J P

1993-01-01

89

Population Preference of Net Texture prior to Bed Net Trial in Kala-Azar–Endemic Areas  

OpenAIRE

Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar), a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points be...

Das, M. L.; Singh, S. P.; Vanlerberghe, V.; Rijal, S.; Rai, M.; Karki, P.; Sundar, S.; Boelaert, M.

2007-01-01

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Tracking Fasciola hepatica transmission using ND1 and CO1 gene polimorphisms in endemic areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An initiative to reduce the high burden of human infection by Fasciola hepatica of population of endemic areas has been recently launched in Andean countries such as Peru and Bolivia as part of a collaborative effort of WHO and Health authorities in these countries. In order to reduce the risk of re-infection in areas under control programs for human infection and to diminish the negative impact on productivity on animals, it is necessary to analyze the transmission pattern in endemic areas where the parasite is infecting a variety of species such as cattle, sheep, equine, swine, lagomorphs and rodents. Genetic diversity from a F. hepatica population from an endemic region in Peru (La Encanada - Cajamarca) was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing of the variable fragment of ND1 gene (175 bp) and CO1 gene (216 bp). F. hepatica adult parasites were collected from naturally infected sheep, pig and cattle. Three variable sites for ND1 gene (1.71%) and 4 variable sites for CO1 gene (1.85%) were observed in the parasite population sample. Parasite infecting different species (sheep, pig and cattle) showed four different haplotypes for each gene. Non private specie-specific haplotypes associated to species host were observed. Preliminary results show that Fasciola hepatica populations in Cajamarca - Peru are distributed in three major groups that might be useful to track transmission patterns of this parasite

91

Immunological profiles of patients from endemic areas infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Crude extracts of eggs (SEA) adult worms (SWAP) or cercariae (Cerc) have been used to stimulate Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells (PBMC) and have provided rather distinct profiles of responses in different types of patients. In genenral it is clear that patients with early infections respond strong [...] ly to SEA while response to SWAP are developed more slowly. As infection progresses into the more chronic phases, a general pattern is seen whic leads to lower anti-SEA proliferative responses in the face of higher responses to SWAP and variable anti-cerc responsiveness. Cured not re-exposed patients express very high levels of anti-SEA proliferation. It has recently been seen that those individuals who live in endemic areas and have continued water contact, but are reapeatedly stool-negative (who are presumed to have self-cured or be putatively resistant; endemic normals) are strongly responsive to antigenic extracts, particularly to SEA. Furthermore, our results show that endemic normal individuals have significantly higher IFN gamma production upon PBMC stimulation with schistosome antigens than infected individuals. With the emergence of more studies it is becoming apparent that both the intensity and the prevalence of a given area may influence or shape the general responsiveness of the population under study.

Giovanni, Gazzinelli; Iramaya R. C., Viana; Lilian M. G., Bahia-Oliveira; Alda Maria S., Silveira; Claudia Carvalho, Queiroz; Omar dos Santos, Carvalho; Cristiano L., Massara; Lucia A. O., Fraga; Daniel G., Colley; Rodrigo Correa, Oliveira.

92

Ecology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever endemic area in Albania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Albania. Ticks collected from cattle grazing in the endemic areas of Albania were tested for presence of CCHFV RNA, while serum samples collected from goats, cattle, hares, and birds were tested for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to CCHFV. One of the 31 pools prepared, consisting of four female Hyalomma spp. ticks, was found to carry CCHFV RNA with 99.2-100% homology to sequences detected in patients from the same region. Antibodies were not detected in cattle, hares, and birds, but 2/10 goats presented high titers of IgG antibodies. The shepherd of that flock was a member of a family affected by CCHF 10 days before the collection of goats' sera, and he presented a mild form of the disease. PMID:19402760

Papa, Anna; Velo, Enkelejda; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Cahani, Gjyle; Kota, Majlinda; Bino, Silvia

2009-12-01

93

Clinical trials of amodiaquine in onchocerciasis  

OpenAIRE

Twenty onchocerciasis patients from the rain-forest zone of Western Nigeria were treated with amodiaquine in total dosages ranging from 22 to 68 mg/kg of body weight given over 2-9 days. There was no activity against either the microfilariae or adult forms of Onchocerca volvulus. It is concluded that the drug, which was poorly tolerated by 12 patients, is ineffective against human onchocerciasis.

Kale, Oladele O.

1982-01-01

94

Historical relationships among Neotropical endemic areas based on Sepedonea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) phylogenetic and distribution data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of [...] two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.

Amanda Ciprandi, Pires; Luciane, Marinoni.

2010-10-01

95

Spatial prediction of malaria prevalence in an endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in Southeastern Bangladesh, particularly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region. Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh and the highest prevalence occurs in Khagrachari (15.47%. Methods A risk map was developed and geographic risk factors identified using a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian geostatistical model was developed from previously identified individual and environmental covariates (p Results Predicted high prevalence areas were located along the north-eastern areas, and central part of the study area. Low to moderate prevalence areas were predicted in the southwestern, southeastern and central regions. Individual age and nearness to fragmented forest were associated with malaria prevalence after adjusting the spatial auto-correlation. Conclusion A Bayesian analytical approach using multiple enabling technologies (geographic information systems, global positioning systems, and remote sensing provide a strategy to characterize spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk at a fine scale. Even in the most hyper endemic region of Bangladesh there is substantial spatial heterogeneity in risk. Areas that are predicted to be at high risk, based on the environment but that have not been reached by surveys are identified.

Islam Akramul

2010-05-01

96

Histological and molecular biology diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a patient without history of travel to endemic areas – Case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: in endemic areas, neurocysticercosis appears mainly as a single, large, spherical and non-enhancing intracranial cyst. Case presentation: an atypical case of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in a French Caucasian, without history of travel to endemic areas, was confirmed by histology and molecular speciation. Imaging was atypical, showing several hook-bearing scolices visible in the cyst, while the serology employed was non-contributary. Conclusions: NCC should be considered when multiple taeniid scolices are observed within the same cystic lesion. PMID:23193531

L’Ollivier, C.; González, L.M.; Gárate, T.; Martin, L.; Martha, B.; Duong, M.; Huerre, M.; Cuisenier, B.; Harrison, L.J.S.; Dalle, F.; Bonnin, A.

2012-01-01

97

Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases)cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

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O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima / The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um novo inquérito para oncocercose, realizado em 1984, entre índios Yanomami da parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni (Território de Roraima), mostrou que, decorridos vários anos das primeiras investigações - uma década no caso do rio Mucajaí - os índices de prevalência, nesses dois locais da per [...] iferia do foco brasileiro, não haviam sofrido alteração significativa. Levando-se em conta apenas os residentes nas aldeias ou malocas abrangidas pelo inquérito, a prevalência atingiu 3,1% nos índios do rio Mucajaí, enquanto ficou em zero nos do rio Catrimâni. Dada a presença contínua, nas referidas aldeias, de índios visitantes, altamente infectados, oriundos da parte central e mais elevada do território indígena - onde cerca de 90% doa adultos têm oncocercose - seria de esperar o achado de valores bem maiores (acima pelo menos daqueles encontrados anteriormente), caso um vetor apropiado estivesse presente na região. Simulium oyapockense s.1. é a única espécie antropofílica de simulídeo, em toda zona inferior da área ocupada pelos Yanomami (altitude ao redor de 200 metros), abundante o suficiente para constituir-se em transmissor da oncocercose. Sem dúvida, no entanto, trata-se de um mau vetor (como aliás já foi demonstrado experimentalmente para Mansonella ozzardi) ou, até mesmo, de espécie não vetora de Onchocerca volvulus, pois, de outra forma, os índices de prevalência na parte média dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni já teriam crescido durante o período assinalado. Para explicar as altas taxas alcançadas pela endemia na porção central e cheia de acidentes (altitude superior a 900 metros) do território Yanomami, há que se admitir a presença aí de um outro vetor, muito eficiente, cujos hábitos estariam ligados à região montanhosa da fronteira entre o Brasil e a Venezuela. Abstract in english A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located [...] at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi), since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

Mário Augusto Pinto de, Moraes; Anthony J., Shelley; Antonio Paulino A. Luna, Dias.

1986-03-01

99

Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

De la Fe Christian

2012-08-01

100

Assessment of fluoride intake through food chain and mapping of endemic areas of Gaya district, Bihar, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of Fluoride (F) was found in the soil and vegetation of the F-endemic villages of Gaya district, Bihar, India. The mean F level in the groundwater of F non-endemic (control) area was 0.59 ± 0.03 (n = 11), while that of F-endemic area was 2.36 ± 0.23 (n = 27). Water soluble F (WSF) and total F (TF) in the soil of F-endemic villages were significantly higher as compared to the F non-endemic area. Similarly, WSF and TF in the vegetables and the grain crops (cereals, legumes and oilseeds) of the F-endemic area were significantly higher as compared that of the control area. Leafy vegetables showed higher accumulation of F with WSF and TF in spinach ranging from 3.62 to 4.82 and 9.88-12.88 mg/kg respectively. The WSF and TF in coriander ranged from 9.66 to 10.88 and 23.11-25.73 mg/kg respectively. PMID:25293392

Ranjan, Sumeet; Yasmin, Shahla

2015-02-01

101

Granulocytic Ehrlichiae in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks from an Area in China Where Lyme Disease Is Endemic  

OpenAIRE

A total of 372 adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected from vegetation in a forest area of Heilongjiang Province in northeastern China, where Lyme disease is known to be endemic. The ticks were examined for the presence of granulocytic ehrlichiae by heminested PCR with primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. Of 310 ticks obtained from the Dahe forestry farm, two pools (each containing 5 ticks) were found positive, with a minimum infection rate of 0.6%. Ehrlichial DNA was also detected i...

Cao, Wu-chun; Zhao, Qiu-min; Zhang, Pan-he; Dumler, J. Stephen; Zhang, Xi-tan; Fang, Li-qun; Yang, Hong

2000-01-01

102

A case report of Brugian filariasis outside an endemic area in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year-old boy living outside the endemic area of lymphatic filariasis in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, developed a high fever. To investigate the cause of his presenting symptoms, blood was collected and microfilariae were detected and identified as Brugia malayi using thick blood smear staining. The sources of the infection were investigated. Microfilariae from two domestic cats residing in the boy's village were detected and identified as B. pahangi using a high-resolution melting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The possible sources of this cryptic infection are discussed. PMID:23067513

Yokmek, S; Warunyuwong, W; Rojanapanus, S; Jiraamornimit, C; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

2013-12-01

103

Clinical features and management of biliary ascariasis in a non-endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Biliary ascariasis is common in certain geographical areas of the world. In India, it is common in the Kashmir valley and only stray cases have been reported from other parts of the country. Between January 1995 and May 1997, 14 patients with biliary ascariasis were seen at our centre, which is more than 1000 km from the Kashmir valley. The mean (± SD) age of the patients was 31.7 (± 6.1) years and all were females. None of them had been to a place known to be endemic for biliary asc...

Misra, S.; Dwivedi, M.

2000-01-01

104

How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?  

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Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

2003-09-01

105

Potential for exposure to tick bites in recreational parks in a Lyme disease endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight recreational parks located in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York State were surveyed for the presence of ticks during the summer of 1985 by drag sampling. Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of Lyme disease in the northeast, was found in all but one park and accounted for 580 (91.8 per cent) of the 632 ticks collected. Of these, 18 per cent were larvae, 80 per cent were nymphs, and 2 per cent were adults. An I. dammini encounter distance, defined as the mean number of meters traveled before encountering a nymphal or adult I. dammini on a drag cloth, ranged from 36 m in high-risk parks, to infinity (no tick encounters). Generally, areas of high use presented higher encounter distances (lower risk) than those of the entire park. Two of the three parks with the highest annual attendance also had the highest I. dammini population indices as projected from our sampling regimen. These results indicate that recreational parks in Lyme disease endemic areas represent a substantial human risk for tick bites and Lyme disease. PMID:2909174

Falco, R C; Fish, D

1989-01-01

106

Satellite data transmission and hydrological forecasting in the fight against Onchocerciasis in west Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is an endemic disease which causes great hardship in west Africa. Within the World Health Organization's Onchocerciasis Control Program (WHO/OCP), reliable data on the discharge of the watercourses have been obtained by using remote satellite transmission. These data are necessary to calculate how much insecticide should be introduced into the rivers. A description of the equipment and its use is followed by an initial report covering the functioning of the equipment, its efficiency and the economies attained. The improvement in the resulting treatment and the reduction in the running costs of the programme are discussed. Software for forecasting the discharge over different time intervals was developed by ORSTOM at the request of the OCP. The different functions of this software (PERLES) are described. In conclusion, the advantages of remote transmission techniques for operational hydrology in general are discussed (flood warning systems, hydrological networks, etc.).

Servat, Eric; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Bader, Jean-Claude; Boyer, Jean-Francois

1990-09-01

107

Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

108

Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. [...] infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

Ilana Mirian Almeida, Felipe; Dorlene Maria Cardoso de, Aquino; Oliver, Kuppinger; Max Diego Cruz, Santos; Maurício Eduardo Salgado, Rangel; David Soeiro, Barbosa; Aldina, Barral; Guilherme Loureiro, Werneck; Arlene de Jesus Mendes, Caldas.

2011-03-01

109

Iodine and selenium deficiency in school-children in an endemic goiter area in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endemic goiter is one of the most important health problems in Turkey. However, there are not enough studies associated with iodine and selenium status. This study was carried out to establish the effects of iodine and selenium levels on thyroid gland size and thyroid functions in 73 healthy school-children, 7-12 years old (mean 9.56 +/- 1.77 years), 38 girls (52%) and 35 boys (48%), living in an endemic goiter area. Goiter was found in 32 of the children (43.8%) by palpation, and 56 of the children (76.7%) by ultrasonography. Mean serum T3 and TSH levels were in the upper limit of normal, and mean serum T4 levels were within the normal limits, but mean serum thyroglobulin levels were higher than the normal limits. Mean serum selenium level was 30.84 +/- 23.04 microg/l, and mean urinary iodine level was 3.91 +/- 3.77 microg/dl, appropriate for moderate iodine and selenium deficiency. Thyroid volumes of the children were negatively correlated with serum selenium levels, but there was no correlation with urinary iodine levels and thyroid hormones. In conclusion, school-children in this area had significant goiter problems, probably due to the iodine and selenium deficiencies. PMID:12199330

Aydin, Kür?ad; Kendirci, Mustafa; Kurto?lu, Selim; Karaküçük, E Inci; Kiri?, Adem

2002-01-01

110

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

111

[Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:10904316

Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

1996-04-01

112

Canine filarial infections in a human Brugia malayi endemic area of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of "local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body" was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out. PMID:24971339

Ravindran, Reghu; Varghese, Sincy; Nair, Suresh N; Balan, Vimalkumar M; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Ashruf, Riyas M; Kumar, Swaroop S; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K; Nair, Archana S; Malayil, Aparna; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Juliet, Sanis; Kopparambil, Devada; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Kunjupillai, Regu; Kakada, Showkath Ali M

2014-01-01

113

Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predic...

Magalhães Ricardo J; Langa Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo José; Ca, Clements Archie; Nery Susana

2012-01-01

114

Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for the majority of the cases.

Lacerda Marcus VG

2009-10-01

115

Dog culling and replacement in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

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Measures employed to control visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil have focused on vector control by residual insecticide spraying and diagnosis of infection with elimination of positive dogs. We describe dog culling and replacement in a Brazilian endemic area (the Alvorada District, Araçatuba, SP) in order to better understand dog population dynamics when elimination of the dog reservoir is adopted as the main control measure. From August 2002 to July 2004, 60.9% of the estimated dog population for the area was culled with a mean age of 34 months old. The presence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies was recorded for only 26.7% of the euthanized canines. Replacement was observed in 38.8% of the cases, some of them by 2 or more dogs and in a mean time of 4 months. Dogs were replaced mostly by puppies of both sexes with a mean age of 6.8 months. From August 2002 to April 2005 we were able to follow-up 116 of these dogs, during a mean time of 8.7 months. Canine visceral leishmaniasis seropositivity by ELISA was observed in 42.2% of the followed dogs, 30.6% of which were already positive at the first evaluation. By the end of the follow-up period 37% of the dogs were submitted to euthanasia, with a mean age of 18.3 months. In the studied CVL endemic area of Brazil, euthanasia and the subsequent replacement ratio were high, increasing the dog population turnover and leading to a younger population that might be more susceptible to a variety of other infectious diseases in addition to CVL. Dog culling as a control strategy for VL should be reassessed. PMID:18314275

Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix de; Paula, Henrique Borges de; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Andrade, Andréa Maria de; Dias, Francisca Elda Ferreira; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento

2008-05-01

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Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged > or =15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the...

Carabin Hélène; Escalona Marisela; Marshall Clare; Vivas-Martínez Sarai; Botto Carlos; Joseph Lawrence; Basáñez María-Gloria

2003-01-01

117

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

Cruz Manuel Aguilar

1986-12-01

118

Tropomyosin implicated in host protective responses to microfilariae in onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA from adult female Onchocerca volvulus encoding the C-terminal portion of a tropomyosin isoform (termed MOv-14) has been shown previously to confer protective immunity in rodent models of onchocerciasis. The full-length sequence (designated Ov-tmy-1) obtained by PCR amplification, codes for a protein of 33 kDa and shares 91% identity with tropomyosins from other nematodes, falling to 57% identity with human alpha-tropomyosin. Ov-TMY-1 migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa on SDS/PAGE and is present in all life-cycle stages, as determined by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy identified antigenic sites within muscle blocks and the cuticle of microfilariae and infective larvae. Anti-MOv14 antibodies were abundant in mice exhibiting serum-transferable protection against microfilariae conferred by vaccination with a PBS-soluble parasite extract. In contrast, little or no MOv14-specific antibody was present in mice inoculated with live microfilariae, in which resistance is mediated by antibody-independent mechanisms. In human infections, there was an inverse correlation between anti-tropomyosin IgG levels and densities of microfilariae in the skin. Seropositivity varied with the relative endemicity of infection. An immunodominant B cell epitope within Ov-TMY-1 (AQLLAEEADRKYD) was mapped to the N terminus of the MOv14 protein by using sera from protectively vaccinated mice. Intriguingly, the sequence coincides with an IgE-binding epitope within shrimp tropomyosin, believed to be responsible for hypersensitivity in individuals exhibiting allergy to shellfish. IgG and IgE antibodies reacting with the O. volvulus epitope were detected in human infections. It is concluded that antibody responses to tropomyosin may be important in limiting microfilarial densities in a proportion of individuals with onchocerciasis and have the potential to mediate hypersensitivity reactions to dead microfilariae, raising the possibility of a link with the immunopathology of infection. PMID:9636187

Jenkins, R E; Taylor, M J; Gilvary, N J; Bianco, A E

1998-06-23

119

Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies nen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

120

A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area  

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Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped based on address of residence, and attack rates and relative risks were calculated for each water supply zone. A case control study was conducted among people living in the central area of Bergen using age- and sex matched controls randomly selected from the population register. Results The outbreak investigation showed that the outbreak started in late August and peaked in early October. A total of 1300 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database gave an estimate of 2500 cases treated for giardiasis probably linked to the outbreak. There was a predominance of women aged 20–29 years, with few children or elderly. The risk of infection for persons receiving water from the water supply serving Bergen city centre was significantly higher than for those receiving water from other supplies. Leaking sewage pipes combined with insufficient water treatment was the likely cause of the outbreak. Conclusion Late detection contributed to the large public health impact of this outbreak. Passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases is not sufficient for timely detection of outbreaks with non-endemic infections. PMID:16725025

Nygård, Karin; Schimmer, Barbara; Søbstad, Øystein; Walde, Anna; Tveit, Ingvar; Langeland, Nina; Hausken, Trygve; Aavitsland, Preben

2006-01-01

121

A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped based on address of residence, and attack rates and relative risks were calculated for each water supply zone. A case control study was conducted among people living in the central area of Bergen using age- and sex matched controls randomly selected from the population register. Results The outbreak investigation showed that the outbreak started in late August and peaked in early October. A total of 1300 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database gave an estimate of 2500 cases treated for giardiasis probably linked to the outbreak. There was a predominance of women aged 20–29 years, with few children or elderly. The risk of infection for persons receiving water from the water supply serving Bergen city centre was significantly higher than for those receiving water from other supplies. Leaking sewage pipes combined with insufficient water treatment was the likely cause of the outbreak. Conclusion Late detection contributed to the large public health impact of this outbreak. Passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases is not sufficient for timely detection of outbreaks with non-endemic infections.

Tveit Ingvar

2006-05-01

122

Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography  

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Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

Xiao-Lei Huang

2010-05-01

123

Clinical presentation of 26 anaplasma phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs residing in an endemic area.  

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Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, the etiological agent of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, is capable of inciting moderate to severe clinical disease in a variety of mammals and is endemic in the upper midwest. The purpose of this study was fourfold: to describe the range of clinical signs in dogs seropositive to A. phagocytophilum; to examine the prevalence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in this population; to evaluate whether specific clinical signs were associated with coexposure to Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi in actively infected dogs; and to determine whether clinical response to doxycycline was complete in treated dogs. Medical records of dogs seropositive for A. phagocytophilum were reviewed retrospectively. Peripheral blood smears were also reviewed retrospectively for granulocytic Anaplasma morulae. Lethargy (81%), inappetence (58%), and lameness (50%) were the most common clinical signs, followed by fever (46%). Thrombocytopenia was the most common laboratory abnormality, and IMHA was diagnosed in three dogs. Dogs that were thrombocytopenic and had antibodies to both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi had a median platelet count of 51,000/?L (range 20,000 to 171,000/?L), which was significantly lower than the count in dogs with antibodies only to A. phagocytophilum (P=0.04). Some dogs had an apparent relapse of clinical signs after an appropriate course of doxycycline. Testing for A. phagocytophilum by polymerase chain reaction, serum antibody assays, and/or blood smear evaluation should be considered in dogs with IMHA, cough, or epistaxis and that reside in A. phagocytophilum-endemic areas. If moderate to severe thrombocytopenia is present, testing for concurrent B. burgdorferi infection may be warranted. PMID:21041333

Mazepa, Allison Wistrand; Kidd, Linda Benjamin; Young, Karen M; Trepanier, Lauren A

2010-01-01

124

Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

125

Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs, pyrethrum spray (PS, and human bait (HB from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. Results In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71% was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67% and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%. All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094, 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784, whereas, six by PS (n = 549 and four species by HB (n = 29. Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (?2 test, P Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%, followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64% and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%. Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63 and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24 showed strong relative preferences (Bi for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others. Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was accessible. The remaining 12 species preferred bovines as hosts. Conclusions The observed high anthropophilic nature of An. baimai, An. minimus s.l., and An. annularis revealed these species to be important malaria vectors in hilly areas of Bangladesh. Higher values of HBI in outdoor-resting mosquitoes indicated that indoor collection alone is not adequate for evaluating malaria transmission in the area.

Bashar Kabirul

2012-02-01

126

The Sensitivity of Schistosoma japonicum to Praziquantel: A Field Evaluation in Areas with Low Endemicity of China  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility of Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in low endemic foci of China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a total of 43 of 1,242 subjects were identified as being infected with the parasite using parasitological stool examinations in two low-endemicity areas of China, with a prevalence rate of 3.46%. All stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg or 30 m...

Wang, Wei; Dai, Jian-rong; Li, Hong-jun; Shen, Xue-hui; Liang, You-sheng

2012-01-01

127

Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.  

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In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

2014-07-01

128

Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City  

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Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

Heni Prasetyowati

2014-06-01

129

Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen...

Sauerbrey Mauricio; Hopkins Adrian; Gustavsen Ken

2011-01-01

130

Biogeography of the lizard genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): distribution, endemism, and area relationships in South America.  

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Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

2013-01-01

131

Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.  

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The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 ?g g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 ?g g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 ?g g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 ?g g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 ?g g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 ?g g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 ?g g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 ?g g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 ?g g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 ?g g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils. PMID:22638723

Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

2013-02-01

132

Climatic characteristics of areas with presence of lymnaeid snails in fasciolosis endemic areas of Mendoza province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital climatic analysis on fasciolosis endemic areas with presence of lymnaeid snails was performed by using DIVA-GIS 5.2 software. The aim of the study is to characterize the climate of sites where the intermediate vectors of Fasciola hepatica, snails of the Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae family, are present; as well as some probable limiting climatic factors. The information generated could be of great importance while assessing for risk areas and control measures. The study performed took into account 25 sampling sites, detected during the last 5 years by continuous field campaigns, covering the most important river bassins of the province, and specially aimed to the areas described in former researches as being endemic for livestock fasciolosis (Mera y Sierra et al., 2005, 2006; Gonzalez et al., 2006). Coordinates were registered with standard GPS (Garmin Vista Cx). The altitudes of the sampling sites were graficated in an histogram, in order to obtain a sampling distribution by altitudinal groups. By using the DIVA-GIS 5.2 software and WorldClim climate data (WorldClim 1.4, 2.5 min resolution climatic layers) (Hijmans et al., 2005), digital climatic information was obtained for every site. WorldClim provides monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature and monthly precipitation, as well as 19 derived bioclimatic variables. This information was analyzed by altitudinal groups with descriptive statistics. A combined dispersion graphic was developed for the 1dispersion graphic was developed for the 19 bioclimatic variables for every site. The histogram allowed to obtain 3 altitudinal groups, in order to analyze the information. Group 1: 600-1000 masl; Group 2 1200-2000 masl; Group 3 2400-3000 masl. All the same, it is considered that lymnaeids snails have a really great adaptability, enabling them to colonize and survive in extreme and diverse environments, such as the high altitudes of the Andes (with mean minimum temperature of coldest month of -7.45 deg C, in Group 3) or the arid plain lands of central Mendoza province (with precipitation in driest month of just 5.67 mm3, in Group 1)

133

Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors ...

Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Me?lika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

2011-01-01

134

Microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. in a contagious agalactia endemic area.  

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In this work, we report a microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. undertaken between 2001 and 2002 in 28 goat herds in Gran Canaria, Spain, an area where contagious agalactia is endemic. All herds were randomly selected and represented approximately 15.5% of the total goat population of the island. A variable number of milk, articular and auricular swab samples were collected from each flock and cultured in specific mycoplasma culture media. There was a total of 38.5% positive flocks from which 37 mycoplasma isolates were obtained. In contrast with previous data obtained in Spain, our results showed that the large colony variant of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm LC) was the most commonly isolated agent associated with contagious agalactia. This species was isolated from 90% of the positive herds and accounted for 54.1% of all isolations. M. agalactiae was isolated from 40% of the positive herds (27% of all isolations) and in six herds M. arginini was isolated (18.7% of all isolations). No M. capricolum or M. putrefaciens strains were isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 milk samples, 15 ear canals swabs and one articular sample. The association of several species was reported in several herds. These results are at variance with previous serological studies, which indicated a higher disease prevalence, and suggest that it could be necessary to use detection techniques such PCR to confirm the existence of contagious agalactia in goats. PMID:15964226

De la Fe, C; Assunção, P; Antunes, T; Rosales, R S; Poveda, J B

2005-09-01

135

Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138

Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A

2007-07-01

136

Hypothyroidism in women above 35 years in an endemic area recently under iodine supplementation: preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of greater Mymensingh is known of iodine endemicity. Association of IDD with hypothyroidism is well established phenomenon. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to thyroid dysfunction. 150 consecutive female patients of 35 plus years, who attended the Resident Physician of Mymensingh Medical College were invited to assay free T3, free T4 and TSH in CNMU, Mymensingh. Residencies of these patients were in the various districts of greater Mymensingh. 150 volunteers were offered to give their blood for the study. 134 attended CNMU, Mymensingh. Mean age was 45.03 + 6.65 y (mean + STD). Age ranged from 35 to 60 years. 24 (17.91%) had overt or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Full blown hypothyroidism with low FT3, FT4 and high TSH were seen in 6 (4.48%) cases. 18 (13.43%) showed elevated TSH level with normal FT4 and T3, suggesting sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is high in this area. (author) 1 fig., 23 refs

137

Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of three separate antimalarial prophylactic regimens (proguanil, sulfisoxazole, and proguanil plus sulfisoxazole) and of vitamins in a control group were compared in a study population of 380 children living in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Burmese border. The subjects, aged 5-16 years, were matched for age, weight, and presence of splenomegaly, then randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All medications were administered daily by the investigators and malaria smears were performed on a weekly basis. Among 99 subjects taking proguanil plus sulfisoxazole for a total of 1464 man-weeks, there was only one case of falciparum and no vivax malaria. Statistically, this regimen proved superior to each of the other groups against both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The data show that proguanil alone, as a causal or suppressive prophylatic, has poor efficacy against P. falciparum. Side-effects were infrequent and generally mild, except for two subjects whose sulfisoxazole prophylaxis was discontinued because of urticarial rash. PMID:2706727

Pang, L W; Limsomwong, N; Singharaj, P; Canfield, C J

1989-01-01

138

Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10??g/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1??g/mL after 48?h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100??g/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10??g/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

2014-01-01

139

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

140

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

141

Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-01-01

142

Morphology and Histology Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Oil Palm Roots in Ganoderma boninense Endemic Area  

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Full Text Available Endophytic fungi defined as fungi that colonize internal plant tissues without causing visible damage to their host plant. As they are internal colonisers, therefore more able to compete within the vascular systems with capacity to arrest the spread of pathogens such as Ganoderma boninense causal agent of Basal Stem Rot (BSR disease in oil palm. Endophytic microbes acted against plant pathogen by antibiosis mechanism, nutrient and space competition, and induce plant pathogen resistance by producing metabolites. The objective of the present study was to identify endophytic fungi from oil palm roots in G. boninense endemic area Padang Halaban Estate, North Sumatera, based on morphological and histological character. At each site, five random palms were sampled. Seventy five endophytic fungi had been isolated and selected from BSR symptomless palm root. Identification of fungal endophytes were carried out by observing the reproductive structures (sexual and asexual under a light-field microscope with camera attachment. Seventy five isolates were classified to eight genera, consisting of Trichoderma (20, Fusarium (10, Aspergillus (5, Penicillium (5, Gliocladium (4, Phoma (4, Alternaria (4, and Curvularia (3. Twenty others were unidentified due to sterile mycelia.

ELIZABETH CAROLINE SITUMORANG

2014-05-01

143

Clinical versus ultrasound examination in the evaluation of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available The best way to appraise the size of abdominal organs remains undefined. Herein we compare the size of liver and spleen in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis using clinical and ultrasound (US) examination, and the size of the organs measured by US with their visualization below the costal margin ("palpab [...] le by US"). For this study, 411 individuals from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil have been selected. We found that palpable spleens and left liver lobes are larger than non palpable ones. Also, 23% of normal spleens measured by US were palpable on clinical examination, and 22% of spleens increased in size on US were non palpable. A total of 21% of normal spleens were "palpable by US". We also found 54% of normal sized right liver lobes palpable on clinical examination, whilst 54% of the increased livers, measured by US, were non palpable. About 76% of normal right liver lobes were "palpable by US". We conclude that the association of clinical, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, in the near future, should give the investigators the necessary tools to perform a more accurate clinical diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni.

Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Izabela, Voieta; Letícia Martins, Azeredo; Marina Pires, Nishi; Thaís Sanai, Batista; Ana Carolina Figueiredo, Pereira; José Carlos, Serufo; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; Aluízio, Prata; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

2006-10-01

144

Clinical versus ultrasound examination in the evaluation of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available The best way to appraise the size of abdominal organs remains undefined. Herein we compare the size of liver and spleen in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis using clinical and ultrasound (US examination, and the size of the organs measured by US with their visualization below the costal margin ("palpable by US". For this study, 411 individuals from an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil have been selected. We found that palpable spleens and left liver lobes are larger than non palpable ones. Also, 23% of normal spleens measured by US were palpable on clinical examination, and 22% of spleens increased in size on US were non palpable. A total of 21% of normal spleens were "palpable by US". We also found 54% of normal sized right liver lobes palpable on clinical examination, whilst 54% of the increased livers, measured by US, were non palpable. About 76% of normal right liver lobes were "palpable by US". We conclude that the association of clinical, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations, in the near future, should give the investigators the necessary tools to perform a more accurate clinical diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni.

Carolina Coimbra Marinho

2006-10-01

145

Sociocultural aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A study to determine the sociocultural factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from a small community toward Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out in an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used qualitative approaches to collect data from school-aged children and teachers. Specific findings were that the individuals interviewed were aware of the disease, but also held inaccurate popular beliefs about transmission. Misconceptions coexisted with accurate knowledge both in children and teachers. The disease was not seen as a major health problem and did not affect their activities since it did not cause severe symptoms in most of the individuals. Although the majority of the participants related transmission to water and lack of sanitation, they did not take any preventive measures since their subsistence is highly dependent on irrigation, farming, fishing, and other essential work that is directly related to water activities. The authors discuss the development of a health education program based on the knowledge and perception of individuals about the disease and its determinants as being important for the context and behavioral change.

Gazzinelli Andréa

1998-01-01

146

Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 ?g/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

147

Recent developments in the treatment of onchocerciasis*  

OpenAIRE

The treatment of onchocerciasis using diethylcarbamazine and suramin sodium, which can kill different stages of the parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, remains unsatisfactory. Recent studies have more clearly defined the serious limitations of the existing forms of treatment. However, two new classes of compounds, the benzimidazoles and avermectins, offer exciting new leads in the search for a safe and effective treatment that could be used on a large scale.

Taylor, Hugh R.

1984-01-01

148

Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani

2011-12-01

149

Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.  

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Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

2015-02-01

150

Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Jr, Alberto A.; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K. C.; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H.; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A.

2015-01-01

151

Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of the concerned population. PMID:23567553

Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

2013-08-01

152

Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamics in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year survey was carried out from May to November 2008 and 2009 to study the sand fly species composition, its seasonal phenology and density in Apulia region (southern, Italy). The study was conducted in a dog shelter located in a new residential urban district where Leishmania infantum is endemic. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps from May to November, at about 7-day intervals. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily. In December 2008, general environmental improvements (e.g., the ground was covered with gravel and the vegetation present inside the cages was removed to facilitate cleaning) were made in the study area. The most diffused species during the whole study period were Phlebotomus perniciosus (2008, n=248, 49.4%; 2009, n=254, 50.6%) followed by Phlebotomus neglectus (2008, n=76, 39.8%; 2009, n=115, 60.2%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (2008, n=5, 50.0%; 2009, n=5, 50.0%). Four specimens of Phlebotomus perfiliewi were collected only in the first year. The number of Sergentomyia minuta specimens collected increased considerably in the second (n=548, 86.2%) in comparison to the first year (n=88, 13.8%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in July and August when a mean temperature from 27.09 to 28.02°C and mean relative humidity from 47.28 to 56.36% were recorded. The variations in phlebotomine sand fly species diversity and abundance recorded in this study were related to climatic and environmental factors. Data here presented confirm that sand flies easily adapt to the urban environments and that the may represent a public health concern for L. infantum and other pathogen transmission also in similar urban environment of southern Europe. PMID:20816927

Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

2010-12-01

153

Effects of the application of trichinellosis control program in an endemic area in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals, caused by a parasite from the Trichinellidae family and Trichinella genus. Humans get infected by consuming infected and inadequately thermally treated meat from domestic or wild animals containing cocooned infective larvae of T. spiralis. Aside from health problems caused by trichinellosis as a zoonosis, there is no doubt that it represents a serious economic problem for swine meat producers. The research in this paper has been performed in Serbia, in a region which is located at the confluence of two large rivers, and it is the geographical location which makes it an endemic area for the presence of T. spiralis. Epidemiological data pertains to the period of 1995-2003, but also to the period 2003-2009, when the implementation of the program for control and eradication of trichinellosis was complete. The diagnostic testing of cadavers of slaughtered swine for the presence of T. spiralis in the period of 1995-2003 included 41.04% of the slaughtered swine, out of which 0.4281% were positive, and the amount of economic loss was 95301000 dinars or about one million EUR. The infection was confirmed in 432 patients during the research period. The preparation of the program for the control and eradication of trichinellosis has been made in accordance with applicable laws and technological standards, with a clear determination of input and output using a cost-benefit analysis. The effects of its application show a reduction in the number of swine which are positive for the presence of T. spiralis by a factor of three times (p<0.01, and the present net value (PNV and the benefit/cost ratio (B/C show economic and epidemiological justification.

Teši? M.

2011-01-01

154

Parasitic infections and immune function: effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area.  

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According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential allergens. To elucidate the effect of current helminth infections on immune responsiveness in humans, we measured cytokine production in a rural Ghanaian population in an area with multiple endemic parasites including malaria, intestinal helminths and protozoa. Multiplex real-time PCR in stool samples was used for the detection of four gastrointestinal helminths, of which only Necator americanus was commonly present. A similar assay was used to test for Giardia lamblia in stool samples and malaria infection in venous blood samples. Levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-17, IL-6, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-? were determined in whole-blood samples ex vivo-stimulated either with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan (for innate cytokine production) or the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). There were no significant differences in either innate or PHA-stimulated cytokine production dependent on current N. americanus infection. Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection was associated with a pro-inflammatory response indicated by increased innate production of TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-6. There was no clear pattern in cytokine responses dependent on G. lamblia-infection. In conclusion, in this rural Ghanaian population current N. americanus infections are not associated with altered immune function, while infection with P. falciparum is associated with pro-inflammatory innate immune responses. PMID:22999162

Boef, Anna G C; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J; Maier, Andrea B; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Eriksson, Ulrika K

2013-05-01

155

An Immunomics Approach to Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures of Naturally Resistant and Chronically Infected Individuals from Endemic Areas  

OpenAIRE

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an im...

Gaze, Soraya; Driguez, Patrick; Pearson, Mark S.; Mendes, Tiago; Doolan, Denise L.; Trieu, Angela; Mcmanus, Donald P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Nakajima, Rie; Jasinskas, Al; Hung, Chris

2014-01-01

156

Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs), pyrethrum spray (PS), and human bait (HB) from a malari...

Bashar Kabirul; Tuno Nobuko; Ahmed Touhid; Howlader Abdul

2012-01-01

157

Gentamicin-attenuated Leishmania infantum vaccine: protection of dogs against canine visceral leishmaniosis in endemic area of southeast of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum H-line) has been established by culturing promastigotes in vitro under gentamicin pressure. A vaccine trial was conducted using 103 naive dogs from a leishmaniosis non-endemic area (55 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated) brought into an endemic area of southeast Iran. No local and/or general indications of disease were observed in the vaccinated dogs immediately after vaccination. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated after 24 months (4 sandfly transmission seasons) by serological, parasitological analyses and clinical examination. In western blot analysis of antibodies to L. infantum antigens, sera from 10 out of 31 (32.2%) unvaccinated dogs, but none of the sera from vaccinated dogs which were seropositive at >100, recognized the 21 kDa antigen of L. infantum wild-type (WT). Nine out of 31 (29%) unvaccinated dogs, but none of vaccinated dogs, were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA. One out of 46 (2.2%) vaccinated dogs and 9 out of 31 (29%) unvaccinated dogs developed clinical signs of disease. These results suggest that gentamicin-attenuated L. infantum induced a significant and strong protective effect against canine visceral leishmaniosis in the endemic area. PMID:24743691

Daneshvar, Hamid; Namazi, Mohammad Javad; Kamiabi, Hossein; Burchmore, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Phillips, Stephen

2014-04-01

158

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con [...] reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC). Abstract in english Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa [...] loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

O.A, Otubanjo; G.O, Adeoye; C.A, Ibidapo; B, Akinsanya; P, Okeke; T, Atalabi; E.T, Adejai; E, Braide.

1635-16-01

159

Autoimmune reactivity against precursor form of desmoglein 1 in healthy Tunisians in the area of endemic pemphigus foliaceus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), the pemphigus foliaceus (PF) antigen, is produced as a precursor (preDsg1) and is transported to the cell surface as the mature form (matDsg1). Recent studies show that B cells from North American individuals without pemphigus can potentially produce anti-preDsg1 IgG antibodies, but ELISA screening of large numbers of normal people in North America and Japan hardly ever shows circulating antibodies against preDsg1 or matDsg1. In contrast, in Tunisia, where PF is endemic, anti-Dsg1 IgGs are frequently detected in healthy individuals. Objective To characterize these anti-Dsg1 antibodies from normal individuals in Tunisia. Methods Sera from 16 healthy individuals and 9 PF patients in the endemic PF area in Tunisia, and sera from Japanese non-endemic PF patients were analyzed by immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting using recombinant proteins of preDsg1, matDsg1, and domain-swapped Dsg1/Dsg2 molecules. Results Sera from normal Tunisian individuals reacted to preDsg1 alone (8/16) or more strongly to preDsg1 than to matDsg1 (7/16), while those from all Tunisian PF patients and Japanese non-endemic PF patients reacted similarly to preDsg1 and matDsg1, or preferentially to matDsg1. The epitopes recognized by anti-Dsg1 IgGs from normal Tunisian individuals were more frequently found in the C-terminal extracellular domains (EC3 to EC5), while those in Tunisian endemic PF patients were more widely distributed throughout the extracellular domains, suggesting IgGs against EC1 and EC2 developed during disease progression. Conclusions These findings indicate that IgG autoantibodies against Dsg1 are mostly raised against preDsg1 and/or C-terminal domains of Dsg1 in healthy Tunisians in the endemic area of PF. PMID:23489520

Toumi, Amina; Saleh, Marwah Adly; Yamagami, Jun; Abida, Olfa; Kallel, Maryem; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Makni, Sondes; Turki, Hamida; Hachiya, Takahisa; Kuroda, Keiko; Stanley, John R.; Masmoudi, Hatem; Amagai, Masayuki

2013-01-01

160

Filaria associated clinical manifestations in children in an endemic area and morbidity control by immunomonitoring and optimal DEC therapy: Sevagram experience  

OpenAIRE

Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem in India with 412 million people living in bancroftian endemic areas and is a major cause of clinical morbidity. Twenty million people are reported to suffer from chronic disease manifestations such as lymphoedema, hydrocele or elephantiasis. At least twice the number have been shown to suffer from acute and occult filarial infections in an endemic area without diagnosis. Due to non-availability of suitable diagnostic test for confirming f...

Harinath, B. C.; Reddy, M. V. R.; Bhunia, B.; Bhandari, Y. P.; Mehta, V. K.; Chaturvedi, P.; Prajapati, N. C.; Gupta, R. K. C.

2000-01-01

161

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infect...

Rosana Gentile; Costa-neto, So?crates F.; Ml, Margareth Gonc?alves; Bonecker, Simone T.; Fernandes, Fabiano A.; Garcia, Juberlan S.; Barreto, Magali G. M.; Soares, Marisa S.; Andrea, Paulo S. D.; Peralta, Jose? M.; Luis Rey

2006-01-01

162

Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series  

OpenAIRE

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were ide...

Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

2013-01-01

163

Hyperreactive onchocerciasis is characterized by a combination of Th17-Th2 immune responses and reduced regulatory T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO)/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection and endemic normals (EN). In addition to elevated frequencies of memory CD4+ T cells, individuals with HO showed accentuated Th17 and Th2 profiles but decreased CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. These profiles included increased IL-17A+, IL-4+, RORC2+ and GATA3+CD4+ T cell populations. Flow cytometry data was further confirmed using a PCR array since Th17-related genes (IL-17 family members, IL-6, IL-1? and IL-22) and Th2-related (IL-4, IL-13, STAT6) genes were all significantly up-regulated in HO individuals. In addition, stronger Onchocerca volvulus-specific Th2 responses, especially IL-13, were observed in vitro in hyperreactive individuals when compared to GEO or EN groups. This study provides initial evidence that elevated frequencies of Th17 and Th2 cells form part of the immune network instigating the development of severe onchocerciasis. PMID:25569210

Katawa, Gnatoulma; Layland, Laura E; Debrah, Alex Y; von Horn, Charlotte; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Arriens, Sandra; W Taylor, David; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

2015-01-01

164

Prevention of Canine Leishmaniosis in a Hyper-Endemic Area Using a Combination of 10% Imidacloprid/4.5% Flumethrin  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum, the agent of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. This study investigated the efficacy of a polymer matrix collar containing a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin as a novel prophylactic measure to prevent L. infantum infections in young dogs from a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy, with a view towards enhancing current control strategies against both human and canine leishmaniosis. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out on 124 young dogs, of which 63 were collared (Group A) while 61 were left untreated (Group B), from March-April 2011 until March 2012. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (April 2011) and at the first, second, third and fourth follow-up time points (July, September 2011 and November 2011, and March 2012, respectively). Bone marrow and conjunctiva were sampled at baseline and at the fourth follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect the presence of L. infantum in the different tissues collected. At the end of the trial, no dog from Group A proved positive for L. infantum at any follow-up, whereas 22 dogs from Group B were infected (incidence density rate?=?45.1%); therefore, the combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was 100% efficacious for the prevention of L. infantum infection in young dogs prior to their first exposure to the parasite in a hyper-endemic area for CanL. Conclusions The use of collars containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin conferred long-term protection against infection by L. infantum to dogs located in a hyper-endemic area, thus representing a reliable and sustainable strategy to decrease the frequency and spread of this disease among the canine population which will ultimately result in the reduction of associated risks to human health. PMID:23451043

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Caprariis, Donato; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Tarallo, Viviana D.; Latrofa, Maria S.; Lia, Riccardo P.; Annoscia, Giada; Breitshwerdt, Edward B.; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Capelli, Gioia; Stanneck, Dorothee

2013-01-01

165

Imported African histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient 40 years after staying in a disease-endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is a rare disease outside central and western Africa. In Europe, all cases are imported. We report a case of an African histoplasmosis with isolated pulmonary involvement in a non-immunocompromised patient that occurred 40 years after his stay in a disease-endemic area. The patient was given itraconazole. (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography was used to assess evolution during treatment. The outcome for the patient was favorable. PMID:25246691

Richaud, Clémence; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Lanternier, Fanny; Benzaquen-Forner, Hélène; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Picard, Capucine; Catherinot, Emilie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Lortholary, Olivier

2014-11-01

166

Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.

Lemos Elba R.S. de

1997-01-01

167

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo

2013-03-01

168

Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species  

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Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals? 1.5 m height and ? 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of the studied population preferred fruit trees while 5% wereinterested in some medicinal plants. Preference of this nature indicates that in the future, the plantdiversity in these home gardens is likely to decline considerably. This might even lead to theextinction of rare, endemic plant species. Therefore, people in northern flank encouraged toincorporate multipurpose endemic plants and plants with less IVI values in their home gardens inorder to maintain high diversity and to conserve endemic and relatively rare plants while gainingsubstantial income through their home gardens.Keywords: Northern Flank, Home gardens, Conservation, Woody-perennials, Endemic species

D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

2013-04-01

169

The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

Marc Daniel Grynpas

2011-12-01

170

The vector control operations in the onchocerciasis control programme in West Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Onchocerciasis is a dermal filariasis transmitted to man by a blood sucking blackfly belonging to the Simulium genus. The most serious manifestations of the disease are blindness and debilitating skin lesions. Africa is by far the most affected continent both in terms of distribution and severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. That is the reason why an ambitious regional onchocerciasis control project, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), was launched in 1974 (Molyneux 1995). The objective is to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem and as an obstacle to socio-economic development and to ensure that the countries are in a position to maintain these achievements. Seven countries were concerned at the beginning of the programme), delimiting the 'initial area' (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo). In 1988, the OCP began operations in the 'western extension', an additional four countries in the West (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone) and extended operations into the 'southeastern extension' (south Benin, Ghana and Togo). The rationale for these extensions related to findings that the vectors were able to migrate and hence re-invade controlled areas over several hundred kilometres (Garms et al. 1979). Until 1989, in the absence of a non-toxic drug which could be used on a wide scale to kill the adult worm, the vector control strategy was the only method to interrupt the transmis the only method to interrupt the transmission of the blinding form of the parasite until the adult worm in the human body was eliminated (the maximum duration of the adult worm is estimated to be about fourteen years). In the late 1980s, ivermectin, a microfilaricide which is the only drug available to date, became an integral part of the OCP control strategy (Webbe 1992). In the extension areas, larviciding is still going on with satisfaction, combined with the distribution of ivermectin. In pursuing this combined therapeutic and vector control strategy, the whole of the basins treated should be freed from blinding onchocerciasis by the year 2002 at the latest, which is the end point of the programme activities

171

Socioeconomic consequences of blinding onchocerciasis in west Africa.  

OpenAIRE

Onchocerciasis or river blindness, a major cause of irreversible blindness among adults, has been the focus of international disease control efforts for over 20 years in West Africa. This paper employs the international classification of impairment, disability and handicap (ICIDH) to interpret results from a field study to assess the socioeconomic consequences of onchocerciasis in Guinea in 1987. In a sample of 136 blind, 94 visually impaired and 89 well-sighted persons, decreasing visual acu...

Evans, T. G.

1995-01-01

172

Final report of the Conference on the eradicability of Onchocerciasis  

OpenAIRE

Sixty-four experts from a variety of disciplines attended a Conference on the Eradicability of Onchocerciasis at The Carter Center, in Atlanta GA, held January 22-24, 2002. The Conference, which was organized by The Carter Center and the World Health Organization, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, addressed the question: "Is onchocerciasis (River Blindness) eradicable with current knowledge and tools?" Former US President Jimmy Carter attended part of the final plenary pr...

Dadzie, Yankum; Neira, Maria; Hopkins, Donald

2003-01-01

173

Onchocerciasis Control: Vision for the Future from a Ghanian perspective  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Since 1987 onchocerciasis control has relied on the donation of ivermectin (Mectizan®, Merck & Co., Inc.) through the Mectizan Donation Programme. Recently, concern has been raised over the appearance of suboptimal responses to ivermectin in Ghana – highlighting the potential threat of the development of resistance to ivermectin. This report summarises a meeting held in Ghana to set the research agenda for future onchocerciasis control. The aim of this workshop was to define the r...

Mand Sabine; Hoerauf Achim; Edwards Geoffrey; Debrah Alex; Churcher Thomas S; Boatin Boakye; Bockarie Moses; Boakye Daniel; Biritwum Nana; Basáñez María-Gloria; Awadzi Kwablah; Taylor Mark J; Matthews Graham; Osei-Atweneboana Mike; Prichard Roger K.

2009-01-01

174

Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample [...] from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

Gabriel Costa de, Carvalho; Letícia Helena dos Santos, Marques; Luciana Inácia, Gomes; Ana, Rabello; Luiz Cláudio, Ribeiro; Kezia Katiane Gorza, Scopel; Sandra Helena Cerrato, Tibiriçá; Elaine Soares, Coimbra; Clarice, Abramo.

2012-11-01

175

Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

Gabriel Costa de Carvalho

2012-11-01

176

Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?  

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Full Text Available The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar. These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha and Mandrozo (15,145 ha in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles, 54 amphibians, 104 birds, 23 smallmammals, 17 lemurs and one fish. Of these 243 species, 30 are threatened taxa comprising two Critically Endangered (CR, 11 Endangered (EN and 17 Vulnerable (VU species. The long term ecological viability of these sites has been shown by population stability of the two Critically Endangered flagship species, the Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides in Manambolomaty and Mandrozo and the recently rediscovered Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata in Bemanevika. Other threatened species and high biological diversity also justifies their inclusion into Madagascar’s SAPM.

Achille P. Raselimanana

2010-06-01

177

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF). This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espír [...] ito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi), Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA, Oliveira; LS, Oliveira; CCA, Dias; A, Silva Jr; MR, Almeida; G, Almada; DH, Bouyer; MAM, Galvão; CL, Mafra.

2008-03-01

178

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

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Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF. This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espírito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi, Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA Oliveira

2008-03-01

179

Further evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for melioidosis in an area of endemicity.  

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Immunochromatographic test (ICT) kits for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were compared to the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) assay. In 138 culture-confirmed melioidosis cases, sensitivities were 80, 77, and 88% for IHA, ICT IgG, and ICT IgM, respectively. In a prospective study of 160 consecutive sera samples sent for melioidosis serology, respective specificities were 91, 90, and 69, positive predictive values were 41, 32, and 18, and negative predictive values were 99, 98, and 100%. ICT IgM kits are unreliable for diagnosis of melioidosis, but ICT IgG kits may be useful for diagnosing travelers presenting with possible melioidosis who return from regions where melioidosis is endemic. PMID:15131200

O'Brien, Mathew; Freeman, Kevin; Lum, Gary; Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Currie, Bart J

2004-05-01

180

Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the distinctness of the respective parasites. The endemicity of snail lineages at the regional level supports the concept of endemic schistosomiasis areas and calls for future geospatial analyses for a better understanding of respective boundaries. Finally, local snail dispersal mainly occurs along waterways and can be best described by using cost distance, thus potentially enabling a more precise modelling of snail, and therefore, parasite dispersal.

Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

2011-10-01

181

Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs from two French endemic areas: no evidence of infection but hazardous deworming practices.  

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The life cycle of the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus multilocularis is predominantly sylvatic, involving foxes as definitive hosts infected by predation of rodents, the intermediate hosts. The North-Eastern French departments of Meuse and Haute-Saône are highly endemic, with an estimated fox prevalence of 41% and 36% respectively. Although most of the parasites' biomass occurs in foxes, domestic dogs can also be infected, leading to a major risk of human infection due to the close proximity of dogs and owners. In the present study, dog faeces were collected after praziquantel treatment provided by veterinarians. In all, 860 faecal samples were collected throughout Meuse (n=493) and Haute-Saône (n=367). Intestinal helminth eggs were isolated from the faeces using a flotation technique and observed by microscopy. Parasite species were identified in samples positive for taeniid eggs by sequence analysis after PCR amplification. To study the factors associated with infestation, each sample was linked to a questionnaire filled in by the dog owners. Taeniid eggs were observed in seven faecal samples (0.8%) but none of them were positive for E. multilocularis. Thus, the apparent prevalence of E. multilocularis in dog populations is lower than 1.00% for Haute-Saône and lower than 0.75% for Meuse. In Haute-Saône, a high proportion of dogs observed suspected preying on rodents were not dewormed monthly. In endemic areas, these dogs must be considered at risk of transmitting E. multilocularis to humans. PMID:22494943

Umhang, Gérald; Raton, Vincent; Comte, Sébastien; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2012-09-10

182

Use of affordable technology for the sensitive and specific diagnosis of onchocerciasis (river blindness)  

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Onchocerciasis or river blindness is the most common infectious cause of blindness. Even in the absence of blindness, the skin effects caused are of social stigma. It is the goal of the World Health Organization to eradicate filariasis (including onchocerciasis). Eradication of onchocerciasis is to be undertaken by mass treatment with tile microfilaricide ivermectin, combined with vector control. To date, the gold standard for diagnosis of onchocerciasis is through the pa...

Guzma?n Laparra, Gabriel Eduardo

2002-01-01

183

Enhanced West Nile virus surveillance in a dengue-endemic area--Puerto Rico, 2007.  

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In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions. PMID:23478583

Torres-Aponte, Jomil M; Luce, Richard R; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Beltrán, Manuela; Vergne, Edgardo; Argüello, D Fermín; García, Enid J; Sun, Wellington; Tomashek, Kay M

2013-05-01

184

Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa? / Le traitement de masse par l'ivermectine peut-il éliminer l'onchocercose en Afrique ? / ¿Es posible eliminar la oncocercosis en África mediante la administración masiva de ivermectina?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar las condiciones en que el tratamiento masivo con ivermectina reduciría la transmisión de Onchocerca volvulus en la medida suficiente para poder eliminar la infección en una comunidad de África. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un modelo de microsimulación de la transmisión de la oncocercosis [...] (ONCHOSIM) para analizar el efecto de diferentes intervalos de tratamiento, niveles de cobertura y niveles de endemicidad preintervención en la probabilidad de eliminación. RESULTADOS: Las simulaciones indican que las estrategias basadas exclusivamente en la administración masiva de ivermectina permitirían eliminar la oncocercosis. La duración del tratamiento requerido para eliminar la infección depende en gran medida del programa de tratamiento y de la endemicidad preintervención. En las zonas con niveles medios/altos de infección se necesitarían al menos 25 años de tratamiento anual masivo con una cobertura del 65%. Las predicciones del modelo muestran asimismo que en una situación de gran heterogeneidad en la exposición a las picaduras del vector, y grandes diferencias individuales por tanto en lo concerniente al recuento de microfilarias, el tratamiento debería prolongarse más de 35 años. Si el intervalo de tratamiento se redujera de 12 a 6 meses, la duración del programa podría reducirse a menos de la mitad y se podría lograr la eliminación en zonas de hiperendemicidad, siempre que cada tratamiento tuviera el mismo efecto que el tratamiento anual. Sin embargo, es dudoso que puedan mantenerse niveles altos de cobertura durante el tiempo suficiente para erradicar la enfermedad a escala mundial. CONCLUSIÓN: La eliminación de la oncocercosis de los focos más endémicos de África parece un objetivo alcanzable. Ahora bien, las condiciones para ello en lo tocante a la duración, cobertura y frecuencia del tratamiento pueden ser prohibitivas en las zonas de alta endemicidad. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implicatio [...] ns of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas.

M., Winnen; A.P., Plaisier; E.S., Alley; N.J.D., Nagelkerke; G., van Oortmarssen; B.A., Boatin; J.D.F., Habbema.

185

A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

1998-01-01

186

Reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR) para detectar formas infectivas de Onchocerca volvulus en Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), en áreas endémicas de Venezuela / Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting infective forms of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Venezuelan endemic areas  

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Full Text Available Presentamos los resultados obtenidos después de un estudio parasitológico realizado en tres áreas endémicas de oncocercosis localizadas en los focos nor-central y nor-oriental de Venezuela. Durante aproximadamente 1 año, se capturaron hembras de simúlidos posándose sobre atractante humano en las már [...] genes de los ríos y las proximidades de las viviendas donde habían sido detectados casos de oncocercosis. Se capturaron un total de 95.251 moscas paras; de los cuales solo 0,05% correspondió a Simulium exiguum s.l. y el resto a Simulium metallicum s.l. Todos fueron sometidos a ruptura mecánica para separar cabezas y cuerpo. Las cabezas fueron separadas en grupos de 50 para la extracción de ADN genómico. El ADN fue utilizado para evaluar la infectividad natural por Onchocerca volvulus, mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa con oligonucleotidos especie-específicos. La prevalencia de moscas infectadas fue calculada mediante el programa Poolsreen ó prueba de grupo. Los resultados revelan larvas infectivas de O. volvulus en La Cuesta (Foco nor-oriental, estado Anzoátegui) con una prevalencia de 9/10.000; seguido por Santa Rosa (Foco nor -central, Estado Carabobo) con 5/10.000, el menor índice de prevalencia fue encontrado en La Carapa (Foco nor-oriental, Estado Monagas) con 3/10.000 de positividad, calculado con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para estudios entomológicos a gran escala y la detección especifica de larvas infectivas de O. volvulus causante de la oncocercosis en la población humana. Abstract in english We present the results obtained after a parasitological study carried out in three onchocerciasis endemic areas located in the North-Central and North- Oriental foci in Venezuela. During one year, adult females of Simulium spp. were captured when landing on human attractants along rivers and in the [...] proximity of houses where onchocerciasis cases had been detected. A total of 95,251 black flies were captured, from this total, only 0.05% were identified as S. exiguum s.l. and the rest were Simulium metallicum s.l. All the specimens were submitted to mechanical disruption for head and body separation. The heads were grouped in pools of 50 for genomic DNA extraction. The DNA was used to evaluate the natural infectivity by O. volvulus using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique with species specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of infective flies, was calculated using the Poolscreen program; the results indicated a positivity of 9/10,000 flies for the locality of La Cuesta (North-eastern focus, Anzoátegui State), followed for Santa Rosa (North- Central focus, Carabobo State) with a prevalence of 5/10,000, and finally La Carapa (North-eastern focus, Monagas State) with the lowest index (3/10,000) of infectivity. These results are demonstrating the utility of the technique for large scale entomological studies and the specific detection of O. volvulus, infective larvae, the causal agent of human onchocerciasis.

Alexis, Fernández; Jaime, Ramírez-Pérez; Harland, Shuler; Noris, Rodríguez.

2008-06-01

187

Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis  

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Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilariasis is endemic. The nematode was morphologically and molecularly identified and surgical removal of the parasite was documented. The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. PMID:21633041

Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

2011-01-01

188

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

189

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

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Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-01

190

Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City  

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Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

Tri Ramadhani

2010-12-01

191

Universal fungal prophylaxis and risk of coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant recipients living in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recipients of liver transplantation (LT) are at increased risk for symptomatic coccidioidomycosis, primarily because of chronic immunosuppression and impaired cellular immunity. Unfortunately, no consensus exists regarding optimal posttransplant prophylaxis. In a prior study at our institution, we observed both de novo and recurrent coccidioidomycosis despite targeted antifungal prophylaxis. In response, in February 2011, we instituted a universal prophylaxis program consisting of fluconazole (200 mg daily) for the first posttransplant year. In the current study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LT between the initiation of universal prophylaxis and July 11, 2013. Patients receiving a second transplant or dual-organ transplant and those who died or did not have follow-up in the 12-month post-LT period were excluded. Data from the universal prophylaxis cohort were compared with previously published data from the targeted prophylaxis era. Of the 160 patients undergoing LT during the study period, 143 met criteria for data analysis. When compared with the 349 patients in the targeted prophylaxis cohort, patients in the universal prophylaxis group were older and had higher rates of pre-LT coccidioidomycosis, asymptomatic coccidioidal seropositivity, posttransplant diabetes mellitus, and renal insufficiency. Fluconazole-related toxicity occurred in 13 of the universal prophylaxis patients, 7 of whom were required to discontinue use of the medication. Coccidioidomycosis developed in 10 of the 391 patients (2.6%) in the targeted prophylaxis cohort and in none of the patients in the universal prophylaxis group (P?=?0.04). These data strongly support the use of a 1-year antifungal prophylaxis regimen for LT recipients in endemic regions. Liver Transpl 21:353-361, 2015. © 2015 AASLD. PMID:25482428

Kahn, Allon; Carey, Elizabeth J; Blair, Janis E

2015-03-01

192

Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identif...

Makoto Itoh; Yukiko Wagatsuma; Mizuho Fukushige; Mohammad Shafiul Alam; Hirotomo Kato

2012-01-01

193

Individual Correlates of Podoconiosis in Areas of Varying Endemicity: A Case-Control Study  

OpenAIRE

Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease that results in swelling of the lower legs and feet. It is common among barefoot individuals within defined areas due to the geochemical characteristics of the soil in these areas. Presence of podoconiosis and its huge burden among the affected people in north Ethiopia has previously been documented. Moreover, difference in the occurrence of the disease by area and among individuals had been observed. In the present study, we investigated individua...

Molla, Yordanos B.; Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Wardrop, Nicola; Baxter, Peter; Atkinson, Peter M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

2013-01-01

194

Serology of Typhoid Fever in an Area of Endemicity and Its Relevance to Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. The antibody responses to both antigens were highly variable among individuals infected with serotype Typhi, and elevated antibody titers were also detected in a high proportion of serum samples from healthy subjects from the community. In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific classes of anti-LPS and antiflagellum antibodies were compared with other serologically based tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever (Widal TO and TH, anti-serotype Typhi immunoglobulin M [IgM] dipstick, and IDeaL TUBEX). At a specificity of ?0.93, the sensitivities of the different tests were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.52 for the anti-LPS IgM, IgG, and IgA ELISAs, respectively; 0.28 for the antiflagellum IgG ELISA; 0.47 and 0.32 for the Widal TO and TH tests, respectively; and 0.77 for the anti-serotype Typhi IgM dipstick assay. The specificity of the IDeaL TUBEX was below 0.90 (sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.76). The serological assays based on the detection of IgM antibodies against either serotype Typhi LPS (ELISA) or whole bacteria (dipstick) had a significantly higher sensitivity than the Widal TO test when used with a single acute-phase serum sample (P ? 0.007). These tests could be of use for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical typhoid fever but are culture negative or in regions where bacterial culturing facilities are not available. PMID:11230418

House, Deborah; Wain, John; Ho, Vo A.; Diep, To S.; Chinh, Nguyen T.; Bay, Phan V.; Vinh, Ha; Duc, Minh; Parry, Christopher M.; Dougan, Gordon; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.

2001-01-01

195

Determinants of hepato- and spleno-megaly in Hunan, China: cross-sectional survey data from areas endemic for schistosomiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the determinants of schistosome-related hepato- and spleno-megaly better, 14,002 subjects aged 3-60 years (59% male; mean age = 32 years) were randomly selected from 43 villages, all in Hunan province, China, where schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is endemic. The abdomen of each subject was examined along the mid-sternal (MSL) and mid-clavicular lines, for evidence of current hepato- and/or spleno-megaly, and a questionnaire was used to collect information on the medical history of each individual. Current infections with S. japonicum were detected by stool examination. Almost all (99.8%) of the subjects were ethnically Han by descent and most (77%) were engaged in farming. Although schistosomiasis appeared common (42% of the subjects claiming to have had the disease), only 45% of the subjects said they had received anti-schistosomiasis drugs. Overall, 1982 (14%) of the subjects had S. japonicum infections (as revealed by miracidium-hatching tests and/or Kato-Katz smears) when examined and 22% had palpable hepatomegaly (i.e. enlargement of at least 3 cm along the MSL), although only 2.5% had any form of detectable splenomegaly (i.e. a Hackett's grade of at least 1). Multiple logistic regression revealed that male subjects, fishermen, farmers, subjects aged > or = 25 years, subjects with a history of schistosomiasis, and subjects who had had bloody stools in the previous 2 weeks were all at relatively high risk of hepato- and/or spleno-megaly. In areas moderately endemic for Schistosoma japonicum, occupational exposure and disease history appear to be good predictors of current disease status among older residents. These results reconfirm those reported earlier in the same region. PMID:11784424

Yu, D B; Ross, A G; Williams, G M; Li, Y S; McManus, D P

2001-10-01

196

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

197

A Bayesian approach to study the space time variation of leprosy in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In leprosy endemic areas, patients are usually spatially clustered and not randomly distributed. Classical statistical techniques fail to address the problem of spatial clustering in the regression model. Bayesian method is one which allows itself to incorporate spatial dependence in the model. However little is explored in the field of leprosy. The Bayesian approach may improve our understanding about the variation of the disease prevalence of leprosy over space and time. Methods Data from an endemic area of leprosy, covering 148 panchayats from two taluks in South India for four time points between January 1991 and March 2003 was used. Four Bayesian models, namely, space-cohort and space-period models with and without interactions were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. Cohort effect, period effect over four time points and spatial effect (smoothed were obtained using WinBUGS. The spatial or panchayat effect thus estimated was compared with the raw standardized morbidity (leprosy prevalence rate (SMR using a choropleth map. The possible factors that might have influenced the variations of prevalence of leprosy were explored. Results Bayesian models with the interaction term were found to be the best fitted model. Leprosy prevalence was higher than average in the older cohorts. The last two cohorts 1987–1996 and 1992–2001 showed a notable decline in leprosy prevalence. Period effect over 4 time points varied from a high of 3.2% to a low of 1.8%. Spatial effect varied between 0.59 and 2. Twenty-six panchayats showed significantly higher prevalence of leprosy than the average when Bayesian method was used and it was 40 panchayats with the raw SMR. Conclusion Reduction of prevalence of leprosy was 92% for persons born after 1996, which could be attributed to various intervention and treatment programmes like vaccine trial and MDT. The estimated period effects showed a gradual decline in the risk of leprosy which could be due to better nutrition, hygiene and increased awareness about the disease. Comparison of the maps of the relative risk using the Bayesian smoothing and the raw SMR showed the variation of the geographical distribution of the leprosy prevalence in the study area. Panchayat or spatial effects using Bayesian showed clustersing of leprosy cases towards the northeastern end of the study area which was overcrowded and population belonging to poor economic status.

Gupte Mohan D

2008-07-01

198

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey. Methods: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years, primary school period (7-12 years and secondary school period (13-14 years. Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14. The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P 0.5 but differed by gender (P < 0.001. The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1 The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2 HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection. 3 Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4 We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.

Bahri Cakabay

2010-01-01

199

Hepatitis B virus genotypes from European origin explains the high endemicity found in some areas from southern Brazil.  

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Southern Brazil is considered an area of low Hepatitis B endemicity, but some areas of higher endemicity have been described in the Southwest of Paraná and Santa Catarina states. The aim of this study was to evaluate viral genotypes circulating throughout Paraná state. PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the S gene was carried out in 228 samples from HBsAg positive candidate blood donors. Samples have been collected in seven different counties (Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguaçu, Francisco Beltrão, Maringá, Londrina and Paranaguá). The most common HBV genotype in Paraná state was D (82.9%; 189/228), followed by A (14.1%; 32/228). Genotypes F (1.3%; 3/228), C (1.3%; 3/228) and H (0.4%; 1/228) were also found. Distribution of genotypes was different in the studied counties, but genotype D was the most frequent in all of them. In Francisco Beltrão, all studied samples belonged to genotype D. The high prevalence of HBV genotype D in South of Brazil is explained by the intense migration of settlers from Europeans countries. Subgenotypes A1 and A2 were identified circulating in all cities where HBV/A was found. As observed in other areas of Brazil, HBV/A1 is more frequent than the HBV/A2 in Paraná state and its presence was significantly larger in black and mulatto individuals. Genotype C was found only in individuals with Asian ancestry from Londrina and Maringá. Most HBV/F sequences identified in this study were classified as subgenotype F2a that was previously described in Brazil. The sole case of subgenotype F4 was from Foz do Iguaçu city, near to Northern Argentina, where F4 is highly prevalent. The single genotype H sample was from Curitiba. This is the first case of this genotype described in Brazil. Further studies should be carried out to determine if more genotype H samples can be found in other populations from Brazil. PMID:22538208

Bertolini, Dennis Armando; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Guedes de Carvalho-Mello, Isabel Maria Vicente; Carvalho-Mello, Isabel Maria Vicente Guedes de; Saraceni, Cláudia Patara; Sitnik, Roberta; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Laurino, Jomar Pereira; Laurindo, Jomar Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

2012-08-01

200

Saneamento rural em áreas endêmicas de esquistossomose: experiência e aprendizagem Rural sanitation in schistosomiasis endemic areas: experience and learning process  

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Full Text Available A partir de 25 entrevistas para avaliação do vídeo "Doença do Caramujo" em áreas endêmicas de esquistossomose, MG, procuramos analisar, interpretar e contextualizar as vivências relatadas e as opiniões expressas pelos entrevistados sobre saneamento e destino dos dejetos, de modo a colaborar na compreensão desta temática. A experiência popular com a fossa sanitária é negativa, apresentando-se como um problema com o qual deveremos aprender a lidar em oposição à forte valoração positiva das chamadas "redes de esgoto" que nada mais fazem do que lançar os despejos in natura nos rios. O pensamento concreto, que caracteriza grupos sem escolaridade, tende a evitar julgamentos com base em premissas alheias à experiência prática imediata e, portanto, tais "redes" vêm se confirmando como melhor opção sanitária por serem menos trabalhosas e onerosas. Ao fortalecer o nexo causal entre os despejos in natura e a esquistossomose, o vídeo "Doença do Caramujo" levou metade dos entrevistados a abordar a questão do saneamento, enquanto a outra metade referiu-se estritamente à prevenção do contato com águas poluídas. Como o material destina-se ao trabalho educativo em grupo, são grandes as chances de que os debates previstos, utilizando o vídeo, abordem a temática do saneamento.Drawing on data from 25 interviews for the evaluation of the video: "Snail disease" in schistosomiasis endemic areas, this article is concerned with reports of rural experiences with sanitation and sewerage disposals. Negative popular experiences with pit latrines were reported, highlighting a problem with which health professionals in endemic areas will have to learn to deal. What is known in most rural areas as "sewerage system", provides no treatment of sewerage at all, but instead, a connection to empty directly into the rivers. For most interviewees this system is considered the best one, for it is the only alternative known for pit latrines. The learning process of illiterates tends towards the concrete way of thinking. Thus, there are practical concrete evidences of the advantages of the "sewerage system", which demands no costs and efforts for its construction and mantainance. By relating sewage disposal in natura and schistosomiasis, the video "Snail Disease" evoked sanitation issues' discussion in half of the interviews, while the other half focused strictly on the prevention of water contact. Eventhough, the chances for the discussion of sanitation to arise at the video's follow-up debates, to be conducted in the field, are considerably high.

Brani Rozemberg

1998-01-01

201

Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002-2011: a case series.  

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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002-2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

2013-06-01

202

Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series  

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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

2013-01-01

203

Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region  

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Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectivelyfrom the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species.

Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle

2012-01-01

204

Efficiency of Nested-PCR in Detecting Asymptomatic Cases toward Malaria Elimination Program in an Endemic Area of Iran  

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Background: The aim of this study was to detect low parasite and asymptomatic malaria infections by means of three malaria diagnostic tests, in a low transmission region of Minab district, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. Methods: Blood samples of 200 healthy volunteers from Bagh-e-Malek area were evaluated using microscopic, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and nested-PCR to inspect malaria parasite. Results: The results showed no Plasmodium parasite in subjects by means of microscopy and RDT. However, 3 P. vivax positive samples (1.5%) were discovered by Nested-PCR while microscopy and RDT missed the cases. Conclusion: Microscopy as the gold standard method and RDT correctly identified 98.5% of cases, and molecular analysis is sensitive and reliable, especially in the detection of “asymptomatic” infections for active case surveillance. Regarding the existence of asymptomatic malaria in endemic area of Hormozgan, Iran, nested-PCR could be considered as a sensitive tool to interrupt malaria transmission in the country, beside the microscopic and RDT methods. PMID:25904944

TURKI, Habibollah; RAEISI, Ahmad; MALEKZADEH, Kianoosh; GHANBARNEJAD, Amin; ZOGHI, Samaneh; YERYAN, Masoud; ABEDI NEJAD, Masoumeh; MOHSENI, Fatemeh; SHEKARI, Mohammad

2015-01-01

205

Diversity of Anopheles species and trophic behavior of putative malaria vectors in two malaria endemic areas of northwestern Thailand.  

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We determined the species diversity, blood-feeding behavior, and host preference of Anopheles mosquitoes in two malaria endemic areas of Tak (Mae Sot District) and Mae Hong Son (Sop Moei District) Provinces, located along the Thai border with Myanmar, during a consecutive two-year period. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected using indoor and outdoor human-landing captures and outdoor cow-baited collections. Mosquitoes were initially identified using morphological characters, followed by the appropriate multiplex AS-PCR assay for the identification of sibling species within Anopheles (Cellia) complexes and groups present. Real-time PCR was performed for parasite-specific detection in mosquitoes (Plasmodium spp. and Wuchereria bancrofti). A total of 7,129 Anopheles females were captured, 3,939 from Mae Sot and 3,190 from Sop Moei, with 58.6% and 37% of all anophelines identified as An. minimus, respectively. All three malaria vector complexes were detected in both areas. One species within the Minimus Complex (An. minimus) was present along with two related species in the Funestus Group, (An. aconitus, An. varuna), two species within the Dirus Complex (An. dirus, An. baimaii), and four species within the Maculatus Group (An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, An. pseudowillmori, and An. dravidicus). The trophic behavior of An. minimus, An. dirus, An. baimaii, An. maculatus, and An. sawadwongporni are described herein. The highest An. minimus densities were detected from February through April of both years. One specimen of An. minimus from Mae Sot was found positive for Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25424272

Tainchum, Krajana; Ritthison, Wanapa; Chuaycharoensuk, Thipwara; Bangs, Michael J; Manguin, Sylvie; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-12-01

206

Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distributio [...] n of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

Everton Falcão de, Oliveira; Elaine Araújo e, Silva; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Antonio Conceição, Paranhos Filho; Roberto Macedo, Gamarra; Alisson André, Ribeiro; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira.

2012-05-01

207

Characterization of the antibody response to the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in people living in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

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Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates. PMID:21540371

Marzouki, Soumaya; Ben Ahmed, Mélika; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ben Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Ben Salah, Afif; Louzir, Hechmi

2011-05-01

208

Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite im...

Ahmad Rohani; Nwm, Ali Wan; Nor Zurainee M; Ismail Zamree; Hadi Azahari A; Ibrahim Mohd N; Lim Lee H

2011-01-01

209

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  

OpenAIRE

Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cel...

Olger Calderón-Arguedas; Adriana Troyo; Solano, Mayra E.; Adrián Avendaño; Beier, John C.

2009-01-01

210

Morphometric analysis of nodules in human onchocerciasis collected in communities of the southern Chiapas focus, México.  

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Human onchocerciasis is a disease that remains as an important public health problem. The morphometric and physical characteristics of 363 Onchocerca volvulus nodules collected in the major endemic focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas (Soconusco), was assessed. In the present work we found that treatment the morphometry of 363 onchocercal nodules preserved in a 67% glycerol solution was determined by measuring the length, width and thick of each nodule with a Vernier caliper. The mass was determined with an analytical balance and the volume by measuring the water displacement, while the specific gravity was calculated by dividing mass over the volume. Statistical analysis was calculated for each parameter. The results showed that the nodules were rather longer than wider or thicker. Morphometric characteristics were 9.87 +/-3.70 (mean +/- standard deviation), 7.52 +/- 2.81, and 4.62 +/-+/- 2.06 mm for length, width and thick respectively. In regard to the shape, 62.81% of the nodules showed a lenticular shape, while 18.18% were spherical and 19.01% were ovoid. Based on the distribution of frequencies of the length, the nodules were classified in three groups: the "small" (5.77 +/- 0.73 mm; n = 104, 28.65%), the "medium" group (9.86 +/- 2.05 mm; n = 203 nodules, 55.92%), and the group of the "big" ones (16.03 +/- 1.91 mm; n = 56, 15.43%). Moreover, the physical characteristics were: for the mass 0.33 +/- 0.24 g, the volume of displaced water was 0.28 +/- 0.26 ml, and the specific gravity was 1.10 +/- 0.55 g/ml. The results indicated that most of the Mexican Onchocerca nodules have a lenticular shape with average size of 10x7x5 mm, which is useful in the knowledge of the genus biodiversity and can be taken as a parameter in clinical or epidemiological trials, where onchocerciasis remains as a public health problem. PMID:22662599

González-Goméz, B E; Gómez-Priego, A; Méndez-Samperio, P; De-La-Rosa-Arana, J L

2012-04-01

211

Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?  

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Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, precedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old. Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraíba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.Neurocisticercose é a infestação do sistema nervoso central pelo Cysticercus cellulosae, a forma larval da Taenia solium. É relacionada a hábitos higiênicos e sanitários precários; embora o Nordeste seja a Região mais pobre do Brasil, foi sempre considerada área não-endêmica para neurocisticercose. Depois da instalação de um serviço de tomografia computadorizada (TC, a incidência da neurocisticercose começou a crescer nos serviços de neurologia em Campina Grande PB, cidade para onde confluem pessoas de todo o interior paraibano à procura de serviços médicos especializados. Analisamos 5.883 TC realizadas no Serviço TomoHPI de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I de agosto de 1993 até dezembro de 1995 e 1,02% foram diagnosticadas como sugestivas de neurocisticercose e classificadas de acordo com idade e sexo, procedência e condições sócio-econômicas. A distribuição dos casos de acordo com a idade é homogênea até os 50 anos de idade (média: 28,36 anos. Homens e mulheres são afetados igualmente. Procedentes de áreas urbanas representam 83.33%. Residentes em Campina Grande representam 48.33% do total; 48,34% residem em cidades ao redor de Campina Grande (até 50 Km de distância ou em outras cidades da Paraíba. Cincoenta e oito pacientes são dependentes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Concluimos que a neurocisticercose parece ser endêmica em nosso Estado, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados para que tal assertiva possa ser confirmada.

Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho

1996-12-01

212

Prevalence and distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD variants in Thai and Burmese populations in malaria endemic areas of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be optimized, based on endemic areas with supporting data on G6PD variants. Larger sample size from different malaria endemic is required to obtain accurate genetic mapping of G6PD variants in Burmese and Thai population residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand.

Phompradit Papichaya

2011-12-01

213

Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com níveis distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109; média endemicidade (n = 255 e alta endemicidade (n = 190. Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000. Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas.OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endemicity levels: low (n = 109, medium (n = 255 and high endemicity (n = 190. The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000 protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index, most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

Leticia Martins Azeredo

2010-04-01

214

Aspectos ultrassonográficos e hemodinâmicos da esquistossomose mansônica: avaliação pela ultrassonografia Doppler em áreas endêmicas / Sonographic and hemodynamic findings of schistosomiasis mansoni: doppler sonography assessment in endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Este estudo de campo objetivou identificar as alterações ultrassonográficas e hemodinâmicas indicativas da morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas endêmicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram examinados pela ultrassonografia Doppler 554 pacientes esquistossomóticos em três áreas com nívei [...] s distintos de endemicidade: baixa endemicidade (n = 109); média endemicidade (n = 255) e alta endemicidade (n = 190). Para o estudo ultrassonográfico foi utilizado o protocolo da Organização Mundial da Saúde (Niamey Working Group, 2000). Pelo Doppler foram avaliados: vasos portais, artérias hepática e esplênica, veias hepáticas e vasos colaterais. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre a frequência das alterações ultrassonográficas e o nível de endemicidade das áreas, exceto a hipertrofia do lobo esquerdo. As veias hepáticas apresentaram padrão de fluxo alterado em 23,7% dos casos, alteração esta relacionada à presença e à intensidade de espessamento periportal. A artéria hepática não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros avaliados. Os vasos colaterais foram identificados apenas na área de alta endemicidade. A artéria esplênica apresentou alterações (aumento do calibre, da velocidade e do índice de resistência) mais frequentes na área de alta endemicidade, com diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia Doppler mostrou-se ferramenta auxiliar importante no estudo da morbidade relacionada à esquistossomose mansônica, contribuindo para definição mais precisa do perfil da doença nas áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present field research was aimed at identifying sonographic and hemodynamic findings indicative of the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doppler sonography was performed in 554 patients with schistosomiasis in three areas with different endem [...] icity levels: low (n = 109), medium (n = 255) and high endemicity (n = 190). The World Health Organization (Niamey Working Group, 2000) protocol was adopted for sonographic evaluation. Doppler study included portal vessels, hepatic and splenic arteries, hepatic veins and collateral vessels. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the frequency of sonographic findings, except for left lobe hypertrophy, and the areas endemicity levels. Altered hepatic veins flow pattern was observed in 23.7% of cases, such abnormality being related to the presence and intensity of periportal thickening. Hepatic arteries did not present any alteration as related to the evaluated parameters. Collateral vessels were identified only in the patients from the high-endemicity area. The splenic artery presented alterations (increase in caliber, flow velocity and resistive index), most frequently in the high-endemicity area, with significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography has shown to be a relevant auxiliary tool in the study of the morbidity related to schistosomiasis mansoni, contributing for a more accurate description of the disease profile in endemic areas.

Leticia Martins, Azeredo; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Carolina Coimbra, Marinho; Maria Cristina Carvalho do, Espírito Santo; Maria Cristina, Chammas; Raiza, Ruiz-Guevara; Aluizio, Prata; Carlos Mauricio Figueiredo, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci; Giovanni Guido, Cerri.

2010-04-01

215

Assessment of family and neighbors of an individual infected with Wuchereria bancrofti from a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; howeve [...] r, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.

Anderson B, Leite; Ana RV de, Lima; Renata B, Leite; Rafael V, Santos; Johnathan EL, Gonçalves; Eliana MM, Rocha; Gilberto, Fontes.

2010-04-01

216

Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: An entomological survey was conducted to determine the relationshipbetween malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus intwo inland villages along the Kenyan coast.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses by pyrethrum spray sheet collection (PSC. In thelaboratory, the mosquitoes were sorted to species, dissected for examination of filarial infection andthe anophelines later tested for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by an enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: From a total of 2,032 female mosquitoes collected indoors, An. gambiae s.l constituted 94.4%while the remaining 5.6% comprised of An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus. None of the Cx.quinquefasciatus was positive for filarial worms. P. falciparum sporozoite rate for An. gambiae s.l.from both villages was significantly higher than Wuchereria bancrofti infectivity rate. Similarly, theentomological inoculation rate for An. gambiae s.l. was significantly higher than the corresponding W.bancrofti infective biting rate and transmission potential for both the villages. Mass treatment of peoplewith filaricidal drugs in Shakahola in the ongoing global elimination of lymphatic filariasis campaignseemed to have reduced the indices of filariasis transmission but had no effect on malaria transmission.Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate the intensity of malaria transmission by anophelinesto be much higher than that of lymphatic filariasis in areas where both diseases co-exist and re-emphasisethe need to integrate the control of the two diseases in such areas.

Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles M. Mbogo, Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Charles Mwandawiro, Robert J. Novak & John C. Beier

2006-06-01

217

Absence of Leishmania infantum in cave bats in an endemic area in Spain.  

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Though dogs have been historically considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the role of wildlife in its epidemiology is attracting increasing attention. Rodents, wild carnivores and, recently, hares (Lepus spp.) have been proposed as sylvatic reservoirs for this parasite. Bats have never been tested for L. infantum infection in Europe. Nevertheless, bats have a widespread distribution, they live in abundant colonies, and some species inhabit caves, where constant temperatures and humidity provide ideal habitat for the sand fly vector. We tested blood samples from 35 Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii), abundant cave bats in NE Spain, which is an enzootic area of leishmaniasis. A PCR-amplifying fragment of the high copy of Leishmania donovani group kDNA minicircles was used. None of the analyzed samples were positive (maximum possible prevalence?=?8.20%). Though the susceptibility of this bat to parasitization by L. infantum cannot be ruled out, our survey indicates that this species may not be a relevant sylvatic reservoir of L. infantum in the Mediterranean area. Nevertheless, even if the prevalence of infection in bats is low, such an abundant taxonomic group would still provide a significant maintenance population for the parasite. PMID:24623348

Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Cabezón, Oscar; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

2014-05-01

218

Iron deficiency and anemia control for infants and young children in malaria-endemic areas: a call to action and consensus among the research community123  

OpenAIRE

WHO recommendations on iron supplementation for infants and young children in malaria-endemic areas changed dramatically from universal to targeted supplementation for iron-deficient children only, after a trial in a high malaria transmission area showed an increased risk of hospital admission and mortality among iron-replete children following iron and folic acid supplementation. Since this time, there has been much debate and little agreement among the nutrition research community on how to...

Harding, Kimberly B.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

2012-01-01

219

Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.?s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

Rawlani Sudhir

2010-01-01

220

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la [...] otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis celdas (100x100m) fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales). La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii). La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y localidades fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Chi-cuadrado (?=0.05). Ocho de los tipos de larvas encontrados fueron identificados a nivel de especie (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. interrogator, C. nigripalpus, C. corniger, C. tarsalis, Limatus durhamii, Toxorhynchites theobaldi) y dos se identificaron a nivel de género (Culex sp., y Uranotaenia sp). A aegypti fue la especie más frecuente en la Gran Puntarenas. C. quinquefasciatus fue la segunda en frecuencia. Algunas localidades como Carrizal mostraron una importante diversidad de ambientes acuáticos que promovieron la ocurrencia de diferentes especies de culícidos. La distribución de los contenedores positivos por localidad en función de las especies encontradas no mostró homogeneidad (p>0.05). Aunque A. aegypti es el único vector documentado en la zona, otros mosquitos como C. quinquefasciatus y otras especies de Culex podrían ser potenciales vectores de otros agentes etiológicos (virus del Nilo occidental, virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, virus de la encefalitis equina del este). Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad considerar la presencia y la ecología de todas las especies de mosquitos en las campañas preventivas por dengue en el área, y en la vigilancia epidemiológica por otras enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Abstract in english Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry seaso [...] n. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.

Olger, Calderón-Arguedas; Adriana, Troyo; Mayra E, Solano; Adrián, Avendaño; John C, Beier.

1223-12-01

221

The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We fo [...] und remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

Carlos F. D., Rocha; Carla da C., Siqueira; Cristina V., Ariani.

2009-09-01

222

The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities  

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Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

Carlos F. D. Rocha

2009-09-01

223

Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

224

Dynamic transmission of numerous Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes among lambs in an infected sheep flock in an area of anaplasmosis endemicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains circulating within juvenile members of a sheep flock grazing on an Ixodes ricinus-infested pasture in southern Norway were monitored. PCR-based detection of the bacterial p44 fragments in the blood of 16 lambs sampled weekly for 16 weeks following their release into pasture revealed rickettsemia in all animals, with an increasing proportion of infected animals as the survey progressed. Comparison of partial msp4 sequences obtained from infected blood samples revealed 24 distinct genotypes, some of which were repeatedly encountered, occurring in up to six sheep over a 14-week period, whereas others were observed only once. Individual sheep were infected by up to five distinct genotypes, with a specific genotype being encountered for between one and three consecutive weeks, and in some sheep, genotypes detected early in the study were also present in later samples. In general, detection of A. phagocytophilum by PCR correlated well with the observation of infected neutrophils in blood smears. Together these results reveal a previously unrecognized diversity of A. phagocytophilum strains simultaneously circulating within an infected population in an area of endemicity and are consistent with a remarkably dynamic transmission of strains among infected animals. PMID:18367562

Ladbury, Georgia A F; Stuen, Snorre; Thomas, Rachael; Bown, Kevin J; Woldehiwet, Zerai; Granquist, Erik G; Bergström, Karin; Birtles, Richard J

2008-05-01

225

Biting Activities of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito at Filariatic Endemic Area Pabean Village Pekalongan Regency East Java Province  

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Full Text Available Pabean villages is a filariasis endemic areas caused by Whuchereria bancrofti parasite with incidence rate is 3.4% on year 2007. To determine biting activity of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes that been confirmed as filariasis’s vector, it been conducted a entomological survey as long as 5 months (from August up to December every 2 weeks that aimed to know mosquito???s peak biting and resting density in each hour catching. A survey was conducted using all night landing collection method from 18.00 am up to 06.00 pm. In each hour survey; indoor and outdoor landing mosquitoes and also resting mosquitoes on inside wall and cattle stable, will be caught using aspirator and put onto paper cup. A study result was showed that indoor peak of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes biting densi-ty is 20.00, 22.00 and 23.00 o’clock, whereas the outside peak one is 21.00, 24.00 and 02.00 o’clock; peak of resting on inside wall is 18.00 o’clock and cattle stable resting is 24.00 o’clock.

Tri Ramadhani

2009-06-01

226

Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies o [...] f single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn b allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn b and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

Aparecida Maria, Fontes; Simone, Kashima; Ricardo, Bonfim-Silva; Rochele, Azevedo; Kuruvilla Joseph, Abraham; Sérgio Roberto Lopes, Albuquerque; José Orlando, Bordin; Dante Mário, Langhi Júnior; Dimas Tadeu, Covas.

227

Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994) em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, A [...] nocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato. Abstract in english Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994) in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nit [...] ens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.

Elba R.S. de, Lemos; Raimundo D., Machado; José R., Coura; Maria A.A., Guimarães; Nicolau M. Serra, Freire; Marinete, Amorim; Gilberto Salles, Gazeta.

1997-06-01

228

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

Cláudio Casanova

2005-11-01

229

Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected f [...] or this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US), and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%), twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%), eight were in Group 3 (2.1%), and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%). A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p

Sandra Costa, Drummond; Pedro Nunes, Pereira; Alba, Otoni; Bruna Assis, Chaves; Carlos Maurício, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

2014-04-01

230

Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China  

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Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2?, 5-dichloro-4?-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

Jing Xia

2014-10-01

231

Endemic mansonellosis in Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria: human parasitaemia and Culicoides biting patterns  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonellaperstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance,circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector.Methods: Thick smear of 50 ?l finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in across-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of thevector biting patterns, carried out between July 2005 and August 2006.Results: Of 1486 individuals examined, 11.2% of both males and females were positive for M. perstansmicrofilaraemia. Microfilaraemia appeared early in life. The overall geometric mean intensity among those withpositive microfilaraemia was 117 mf/ml (121 mf/ml for males and 113 mf/ml for females. The differences ingeometric mean intensity between different age groups were statistically significant (one-way analysis of variance;p <0.05, being highest in the oldest age group (266 mf/ml. A total of 1183 female Culicoides sp were caughtfrom September 2005 to August 2006. The abundance of Culicoides sp was seasonal. The circadian bitingactivity had a broad peak between 0700 and 1200 hrs. The monthly biting rates ranged from zero bite per personper month in January 2006 to 1151 bites per person per month in June 2006. The annual biting rate was 7382bites per person per year.Conclusion: Majority of those with positive microfilaraemia were poor socioeconomically, underscoring theneed for health education and application of effective control measures against Culicoides biting midges inEmohua.

E.C. Uttah, S. Etim, C. Okonofua & O.E. Effiom

2011-03-01

232

Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases we [...] re present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

Vanessa Wolff, Machado; Pedro Fernando da Costa, Vasconcelos; Eliana Vieira Pinto, Silva; João Barberino, Santos.

2013-04-01

233

Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.  

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The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. PMID:25108786

Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

2014-10-01

234

Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.  

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Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ?64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum. PMID:25735816

Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

2015-06-01

235

Two new cytoforms of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Malawi and Tanzania and potential onchocerciasis vectors.  

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During a distribution survey of Simulium damnosum s.l. around the Tukuyu onchocerciasis focus at the northern tip of Lake Malawi/Nyasa (Tanzania), we discovered two new cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex in onchocerciasis-free areas. The Nyika form is related to Simulium thyolense, a vector of onchocerciasis, and can be identified by the new inversion 3L-L on the long arm of chromosome 3. It was found breeding in five rivers in northern Malawi and neighbouring Tanzania and is assumed to be zoophilic. The Njombe form represents a member of the Sanje group of the complex and is characterized by the new diagnostic inversion 2L-35 on chromosome 2. So far, it is only known from around Njombe town in southern Tanzania, where it breeds at remarkably high altitudes. Anthropophily for the Njombe form is well known. The medical importance and systematic position of the new forms within the S. damnosum complex are discussed. PMID:15228490

Krüger, A; Kalinga, A K; Post, R J; Maegga, B T A

2004-07-01

236

Density-dependent processes in the transmission of human onchocerciasis: intensity of microfilariae in the skin and their uptake by the simuliid host.  

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The transmission success of Onchocerca volvulus is thought to be influenced by a variety of regulatory or density-dependent processes that act at various points in the two-host life-cycle. This paper examines one component of the life-cycle, namely, the ingestion of microfilariae by the simuliid vector, to assess the relationship between intake of larvae and the density of parasites in the skin of the human host. Analysis is based on data from three areas in which onchocerciasis is endemic and includes published information as well as new data collected in field studies. The three areas are: Guatemala (Simulium ochraceum s.l.), West and Central Africa (savanna members of the S. damnosum complex), and South Venezuela (S. guianense). The data record experimental studies of parasite uptake by flies captured in the field and fed to repletion on locally infected subjects who harboured varying intensities of dermal microfilarial infection. Regression analyses of log transformed counts of parasite burdens ingested by the flies plotted against log transformed counts of microfilariae per mg of skin revealed little evidence for saturation in parasite uptake by the flies as the intensity in the human host increased. There was a positive and highly significant rank correlation between both variables for the three blackfly species. In an alternative analysis a model was fitted to data on prevalence of flies with ingested microfilariae (mff) versus dermal mean intensities. The model assumed an overdispersed distribution of the number of mff/fly and a given functional relationship between intake and skin load. The results of both approaches were consistent. It is concluded that parasite ingestion by the vector host is not strongly density dependent in the three geographical areas and ranges of dermal loads examined. It therefore appears that this transmission process is of reduced importance as a regulatory mechanism in the dynamics of parasite population growth. PMID:8152850

Basáñez, M G; Boussinesq, M; Prod'hon, J; Frontado, H; Villamizar, N J; Medley, G F; Anderson, R M

1994-01-01

237

Humic substances and the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in groundwater of the Blackfoot Disease endemic area, southwestern Taiwan  

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Blackfoot Disease (BFD) is a peripheral vascular disease that is endemic to the Chianan Plain area on the southwestern coast of Taiwan. The disease has been linked to long term ingestion of arsenic-contaminated groundwater derived from deep (>100 m) wells that were drilled in the region during the early 1900’s. Victims of BFD typically exhibit symptoms that include ulceration and gangrene in the extremities, which are unique compared to cases of arsenic toxicosis arising in other As-impacted areas. While the exact etiology of BFD is still a subject of some debate, many workers suggest that elevated arsenic in combination with high concentrations of dissolved fluorescent humic compounds in the region’s groundwater are primary causative factors. Despite considerable research over the past 30 years into the occurrence and distribution of As in the region’s groundwater, few studies have been conducted to investigate the geochemical and microbiological processes that influence the element’s speciation and mobility in this aquifer. We measured the concentration and speciation of As associated with sediments and groundwater from wells drilled in the BFD endemic area and conducted sediment microcosm bioassays to investigate the potential for reductive desorption and mobilization of As from the aquifer sediments by endogenous populations of As(V)-reducing bacteria. Samples from 100 -120 m depth were characterized by the highest As concentrations in sediment (1.4 mg/kg) and water (175.4 ?g/L). Sediment-adsorbed As was present primarily as As(V) (>87%), whereas ground water samples contained no measurable aqueous As(V). Instead, arsenic in the groundwater samples was present in organo-arsenic complexes and was detectable by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrophotometry only after oxidative treatments to convert all As to As(V). Biological As(V) reduction was observed in live slurries of aquifer sediment from 120 and 140 m sediment depth. Microbial As(V) reduction in these sediments was not stimulated by amendment with lactate, or when hydrogen was supplied as a possible electron donor. However, As(V)-reduction was stimulated by the addition of the reduced humics analogue AHQDS, demonstrating that reduced humic substances in the aquifer can serve as electron donors for biological As(V) reduction. These findings suggest that the population of As(V) reducing bacteria in the aquifer are well suited to use endogenous organic compounds as heterotrophic electron donors and that this process is not electron-donor limited at in-situ conditions. The potential for reduced humic compounds to serve as electron donors for microbiological As(V) reduction may have considerable environmental significance with respect to the mobilization of adsorbed As from sediments in aquifers that are rich in dissolved organic matter. Further work should focus on identifying the precise nature of arsenic-organic matter interaction in the aquifer and the predominant As species that is associated with these compounds.

Kulp, T. R.; Jean, J.

2009-12-01

238

Immune recognition of Onchocerca volvulus proteins in the human host and animal models of onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-dwelling, vector-borne nematode parasite of humans and is the causative agent of onchocerciasis or river blindness. Natural infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis and of cattle with Onchocerca ochengi were used as models to study the immune responses to O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins (OvALT-2, OvNLT-1, Ov103 and Ov7). The humoral immune response of O. volvulus-infected humans against OvALT-2, OvNLT-1 and Ov7 revealed pronounced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres which were, however, significantly lower than against the lysate of O. volvulus adult female worms. Sera derived from patients displaying the hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis showed a uniform trend of higher IgG reactivity both to the single proteins and the O. volvulus lysate. Sera derived from L. sigmodontis-infected mice and from calves exposed to O. ochengi transmission in a hyperendemic area also contained IgM and IgG1 specific for O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins. These results strongly suggest that L. sigmodontis-specific and O. ochengi-specific immunoglobulins elicited during natural infection of mice and cattle cross-reacted with O. volvulus-derived recombinant antigens. Monitoring O. ochengi-infected calves over a 26-month period, provided a comprehensive kinetic of the humoral response to infection that was strictly correlated with parasite load and occurrence of microfilariae. PMID:24721822

Manchang, T K; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Ndjonka, D; Eisenbarth, A; Achukwi, M D; Renz, A; Brattig, N W; Liebau, E; Breloer, M

2015-05-01

239

Iron deficiency and anemia control for infants and young children in malaria-endemic areas: a call to action and consensus among the research community.  

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WHO recommendations on iron supplementation for infants and young children in malaria-endemic areas changed dramatically from universal to targeted supplementation for iron-deficient children only, after a trial in a high malaria transmission area showed an increased risk of hospital admission and mortality among iron-replete children following iron and folic acid supplementation. Since this time, there has been much debate and little agreement among the nutrition research community on how to move forward, and country policy and program decision makers have been left with incomplete guidance on how to address young child iron deficiency and anemia in their countries. The focus of a recent symposium during the American Society for Nutrition annual meeting, held in Washington, DC, in April 2011, was on exploring options for addressing iron deficiency and anemia among infants and young children in malaria-endemic areas, now, with safe, effective, and feasible interventions that provide iron. Papers based on the invited presentations are included in this supplement. The first paper is a review of the relationship between iron and malaria. The second is an analysis of theoretical and practical considerations regarding the targeted approach of providing iron and includes results from field testing noninvasive screening devices. This is followed by a review of the safety of universal provision of iron through home-fortification products in malaria-endemic areas. The final papers provide a call to action by highlighting pending research issues (fourth paper) and feasible strategies to move programs forward (fifth paper). PMID:22797991

Harding, Kimberly B; Neufeld, Lynnette M

2012-07-01

240

An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

Kumar Pradeep

2008-01-01

241

A high resolution melting real time PCR for mapping of filaria infection in domestic cats living in brugian filariosis-endemic areas.  

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We present here a real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for determining the prevalence and distribution of filarial species in domestic cats residing in brugian filariosis endemic areas of Narathiwat province, Thailand. Filarial species can be clearly distinguished in a single well using a single pair of primers. Blood samples were taken from a total of 2039 domestic cats living in endemic areas. Microfilariae were detected in 5.7% of the sample, while the overall prevalence of filaria infection by HRM analysis was 6.6%. The filariae species found in the infected cats were Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens as well as Acanthocheilonema (Dipetalonema) reconditum. This is the first report of A. reconditum infection from Thailand. The study also observed an overlapping of the distribution areas of animal and human filariae. From a public health perspective, the distribution and prevalence of these nematodes warrant an appropriate drug-based prophylaxis to be administered to cats in the endemic areas to reduce the number of diseased carriers. Furthermore, this molecular approach is more sensitive than microfilariae detection, enables species identification and greatly facilitates the collection of epidemiological data. Thus, the present study may help to bridge human-animal interface by coordinating research outcomes with the control of zoonoses that is vitally important for human and veterinary public health. PMID:24462253

Wongkamchai, Sirichit; Nochote, Hathai; Foongladda, Suporn; Dekumyoy, Paron; Thammapalo, Suvit; Boitano, John J; Choochote, Wej

2014-03-17

242

Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina  

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Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

Diego E. Cargnelutti

2012-02-01

243

Eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem: the beginning of the end  

OpenAIRE

Onchocerciasis is one of the diseases targeted by Vision 2020. It is the world’s second leading infectious cause of blindness, responsible for at least one million blind or severely visually disabled people. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in sub-Saharan Africa will be closed down in 2002, after 27 years of operation. This is the clearest indication that the prospects of eliminating onchocerciasis as a public health problem may be achieved by the end of this decade. The programme...

Etya’ale?, D.

2002-01-01

244

African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost  

OpenAIRE

In 1995, the World Health Organization launched the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) with the aim to control morbidity due to the parasitic infectious disease onchocerciasis (river blindness). APOC aims to set up sustainable national control programs against onchocerciasis in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, covering over 100 million people who are at risk for infection. The main control strategy is mass treatment with the drug ivermectin, which is donated by the pharmac...

Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Zoure?, Honorat G. M.; Veerman, J. Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Habbema, Dik; Vlas, Sake J.; Amazigo, Uche V.

2013-01-01

245

T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor [...] resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10) production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma) and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10). The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10) and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma), leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

Rita C, Bittar; Ricardo S, Nogueira; Ricardo, Vieira-Gonçalves; Vanessa, Pinho-Ribeiro; Marise S, Mattos; Manoel Paes, Oliveira-Neto; Sergio G, Coutinho; Alda M, Da-Cruz.

2007-08-01

246

Protean clinical manifestations and diagnostic challenges of human brucellosis in adults: 16 years' experience in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study was carried out to elucidate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory features of human brucellosis. A total of 26 948 blood samples (from adults aged 15 years and above) were screened for serological evidence of brucellosis over a period of 16 years. The slide agglutination/Rose Bengal plate agglutination test gave positive results in 517 patients, of which 509 had detectable titres by the standard tube agglutination test (SAT). The diagnosis of brucellosis was documented in 495 (1.8 %) patients based on diagnostic titres (> or = 1 : 160, 490 cases) and rising titres from insignificant titres (four cases) by serology and for one case by blood-culture isolation alone. Blood cultures were carried out in 345 cases, of which 191 cases (55.3 %) yielded Brucella melitensis. In 77/79 cases undertaken for follow up, there was a steady fall in 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination titres along with clinical improvement (P cases for a longer period in spite of an effective antimicrobial therapy and clinical recovery. A substantial number of patients (84.2 %) presented with fever, this being the only complaint in 51.1 % of the cases. Complications were present in 8.8 % of the patients (arthritis excluded): this included the unusual complications of hydrocele (two cases), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (one case) and urinary tract infection (one case). Brucella agglutinins were demonstrated in synovial, testicular, hydrocele and cerebrospinal fluids. There was no clinical suspicion of brucellosis in 439 cases (88.7 %) and the diagnosis was made only by routine serology. A two-drug regimen for 42-84 days with a follow-up 2ME test resulted in lower levels of relapse. These results suggest that, in endemic areas of the world, it should be mandatory to screen routinely for brucellosis due to protean clinical manifestations. PMID:16772417

Mantur, Basappa G; Biradar, Mallanagouda S; Bidri, Rajendra C; Mulimani, Mallanna S; Veerappa; Kariholu, Piaraylal; Patil, Siddanagouda B; Mangalgi, Smita S

2006-07-01

247

Lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer in the arseniasis-endemic area of Northeastern Taiwan  

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Arsenic in drinking water has been shown to increase the risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer. However, the lifetime risk of developing urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by exposure to arsenic in drinking water has not been reported. This study aimed to assess the lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by arsenic exposure from drinking water and cigarette smoking habit for residents living in the arseniasis-endemic area in Northeastern Taiwan. We recruited 8086 residents in 1991-1994 and monitored them for their newly developed types of cancers, identified by computerized linkage with the national cancer registry profile. There were 37 newly diagnosed urothelial carcinoma cases and 223 new lung cancer cases during the follow-up period (until 2007). The lifetime (35-85 years old) cumulative risk of developing urothelial carcinoma from an arsenic concentration in the drinking water of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer, showing the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.48 (1.27-4.82) and 3.44 (2.00-5.90) after adjusting for the arsenic concentration in drinking water. After adjusting for cigarette smoking, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing urothelial carcinoma caused by the arsenic concentration in drinking water of lung cancer. Synergistic effects on the development of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer existed between the arsenic exposure level and cigarette smoking. It is suggested that people who have had a high exposure to arsenic in drinking water should stop smoking cigarettes to lower their lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer.

Yang, Tse-Yen; Hsu, Ling-I.; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen

2013-11-01

248

Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.  

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Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors. PMID:22246369

Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

2012-07-01

249

Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses at a travel medicine centre in Rio de Janeiro, a non-endemic area in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a potentially severe disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Clinically, the progression of the disease can be life-threatening if it is not promptly diagnosed and properly treated. Through treatment, the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection can be achieved, thus preventing potential relapses and the emergence of new cases outside the Amazon region in Brazil. Surveillance for therapeutic failure in non-endemic areas is advantageous, as it is unlikely that recurrence of the disease can be attributed to a new malaria infection in these regions. Methods An observational study of 53 cases of P. vivax and mixed (P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was conducted at a travel medicine centre between 2005 and 2011 in Rio de Janeiro and a descriptive analysis of the potential factors related to recurrence of P. vivax malaria was performed. Groups with different therapeutic responses were compared using survival analysis based on the length of time to recurrence and a set of independent variables thought to be associated with recurrence. Results Twenty-one relapses (39.6% of P. vivax malaria were observed. The overall median time to relapse, obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 108?days, and the survival analysis demonstrated an association between non-weight-adjusted primaquine dosing and the occurrence of relapse (p? Conclusions A known challenge to individual cure and environmental control of malaria is the possibility of an inappropriate, non-weight-based primaquine dosing, which should be considered a potential cause of P. vivax malaria relapse. Indeed, the total dose of primaquine associated with non-occurrence of relapses was higher than recommended by Brazilian guidelines.

Pedro Renata S

2012-07-01

250

T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10 production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10. The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10 and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma, leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.

Rita C Bittar

2007-08-01

251

Socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Montenegro skin test positivity in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

OpenAIRE

In Marocco, many aspects of human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) still have to be clarified and little information is available about the factors that predispose individuals to asymptomatic infection. A prospective study was carried out in 889 healthy children under the age of 15 years living in two provinces in the endemic area in northern Morocco (the provinces of Taounate and My Yacoub) from April to May 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the socio-econ...

Hamid Amarouch; Abderahmane Laamrani; Meryem Lemrani; Mohammed Hassar; Rajaa Ejghal; Salsabil Hamdi; Abdellah Faouzi

2012-01-01

252

Prevalence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Dogs Living in an Area of Canine Leishmaniasis Endemicity Using PCR on Several Tissues and Serology  

OpenAIRE

We studied and compared the prevalence of Leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. One hundred dogs living on the island of Mallorca (Spain) were studied. In this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies, and investigated the presence of Leishmania DNA by PCR in skin, conjunctiva, and bone m...

Solano-gallego, Laia; Morell, Pere; Arboix, Margarita; Alberola, Jordi; Ferrer, Lluis

2001-01-01

253

The Effect of Removing Potentially Infectious Dogs on the Numbers of Canine Leishmania infantum Infections in an Endemic Area with High Transmission Rates  

OpenAIRE

To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated ...

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloi?sio

2012-01-01

254

Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods: Indiv...

Solano Gallego, Laia

2012-01-01

255

Lack of association between blood-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA and cardiac involvement in a non-endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Cases of chronic Chagas disease have been increasing in non-endemic areas due to the growth in immigration. This study examined the association between positive Trypanosoma cruzi-DNA detection in blood by PCR and presence of chagasic cardiac involvement in a cohort of immigrants in a European city. No association was found in this study between the positive T. cruzi blood PCR and cardiac involvement.

Norman, F. F.; Pe?rez-ayala, A.; Pe?rez-molina, J. A.; Flores-chavez, M.; Can?avate, C.; Lo?pez-ve?lez, R.

2011-01-01

256

Toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics of arsenic for farmed juvenile milkfish Chanos chanos and human consumption risk in BFD-endemic area of Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic analysis to appraise arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in farmed juvenile milkfish Chanos chanos at blackfoot disease (BFD)-endemic area in Taiwan, whereas probabilistic incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) models are also employed to assess the range of exposures for the fishers and non-fishers who eat the contaminated fish. We conducted a 7-day exposure experiment to obtain toxicokinetic parameters, whereas a simple critical body burden toxicity model was verified with LC50(t) data obtained from a 7-day acute toxicity bioassay. Acute toxicity bioassay indicates that 96-h LC50 for juvenile milkfish exposed to As is 7.29 (95% CI: 3.10-10.47) mg l(-1). Our risk analysis for milkfish reared in BFD-endemic area indicates a low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne As. Human risk analysis demonstrates that 90%-tile probability exposure ILCRs for fishers in BFD-endemic area have orders of magnitude of 10(-3), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk, whereas there is no significant cancer risk for non-fishers (ILCRs around 10(-5)). All predicted 90%-tiles of HQ are less than 1 for non-fishers, yet larger than 10 for fishers which indicate larger contributions from farmed milkfish consumptions. Sensitivity analysis indicates that to increase the accuracy of the results, efforts should focus on a better definition of probability distributions for milkfish daily consumption rate and As level in milkfish. Here we show that theoretical human health risks for consuming As-contaminated milkfish in the BFD-endemic area are alarming under a conservative condition based on a probabilistic risk assessment model. PMID:16513169

Chou, Berry Yun-Hua; Liao, Chung-Min; Lin, Ming-Chao; Cheng, Hsu-Hui

2006-05-01

257

Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at siblin...

Nanda Nutan; Bhatt Rajendra M; Sharma Shri N; Rana Pallab K; Kar Narayani P; Sharma Akash; Adak Tridibes

2012-01-01

258

The Effect of Antihelminthic Treatment on Subjects with Asthma from an Endemic Area of Schistosomiasis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial  

OpenAIRE

This is a prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of antihelminthic treatments on asthma severity in individuals living in an endemic area of schistosomiasis. Patients from group 1 received placebo of Albendazole or of Praziquantel and from group 2 received Albendazole and Praziquantel. Asthma severity was assessed by clinical scores and by pulmonary function test. There was no significant difference in the asthma scores from D0 to D1–D7 after Albe...

Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Lima, Givaneide S.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; Souza, Robson P.; Campos, R. Amp Xe Gis A.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Maria Ilma Araujo

2012-01-01

259

Validation of an Excretory/Secretory Antigen Based-Elisa for the Diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus Infection in Humans from Low Trematode Endemic Areas  

OpenAIRE

Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis...

Go?mez-morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

2013-01-01

260

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each...

Paulo Silva de Almeida; Jhoy Alves Leite; Aldecir Dutra de Araújo; Paulo Mira Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva Touro; Vânia Santos Araújo; Edson José de Souza; João Batista Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos Santos; Odival Faccenda; José Dilermando Andrade Filho

2013-01-01

261

Reduction of spleen size in a child with Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS) treated outside the Brazilian endemic area of malaria with only one course of quinine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Relatamos o caso clínico, tratamento e evolução de uma criança com a síndrome da esplenomegalia hiperreativa da malária tratada fora da área endêmica para a malária. A criança apresentava importante esplenomegalia, era procedente de área endêmica para malária, os níveis de imunoglobulinas e de antic [...] orpos antimaláricos estavam elevados e observou-se linfocitose sinusoidal hepática. A criança não voltaria mais para a área endêmica de malária, pelo que foi tratada com apenas um curso de quinino apresentando resposta clínica favorável. Esta resposta a um único curso de terapia curativa antimalárica sugere a importância da reinfecção com o parasitada malária no desenvolvimento e na manutenção desta síndrome. Abstract in english We report the clinical picture, treatment and evolution of a child with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly treated outside the endemic area of malaria. The patient presented gross splenomegaly, proceeded from an area where malaria is endemic, showed increased immunoglobulins levels, high antimalar [...] ial antibody titres and hepatic sinusoidal lymphocytosis. The child did not return to an area where malaria is endemic and showed a favorable response to only one course of quinine. The response of this patient to limited antimalarial therapy suggests the importance of reinfection with malaria in the development and maintenance of this syndrome.

Maria Imaculada, Muniz-Junqueira; Mário A. P., Moraes; Philip Davis, Marsden.

1992-12-01

262

Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh. PMID:22701164

Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Kato, Hirotomo; Fukushige, Mizuho; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Itoh, Makoto

2012-01-01

263

Primary intracerebral hemorrhage mortality reduction after installation of a tap-water supply system in an arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality and morbidity of vascular diseases, including stroke, are known to be associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic through drinking water. A tap-water supply system was implemented in the early 1960s in the blackfoot disease (BFD) endemic areas of Taiwan. The objective of this study was to examine whether mortality attributed to stroke decreased among residents living in the BFD-endemic areas after the curtailment of arsenic exposure. Further it was of interest to determine whether arsenic exposure was related to a specific type of stroke. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for stroke were calculated for the BFD endemic area for the years 1971-2000. The study results show that mortality due to primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PIH) declined gradually after the improvement of drinking-water supply system by elimination of arsenic exposure through removal of artesian well water. Based on the reversibility and specificity criteria, the association between arsenic exposure and mortality due to PIH is likely to be causal. PMID:17365607

Chiu, Hui-Fen; Lin, Meng-Chiao; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2007-03-15

264

Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250?kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200?mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18?months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36?months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36?months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6.5% in untreated and 11% in no net villages. PI in LN villages was 16.4 in comparison to 24.8 and 44.2 in untreated polyester net and no net villages respectively. In surveys carried out after three years of initial distribution, 78.7% (737/936 nets were still in possession with the households, of which 68% were used every night. An. culicifacies mortality was >80% in cone bioassays done on LNs washed up to 20 times in laboratory. Mean alpha-cypermethrin content was 43.5?±?31.7?mg/m2 on Interceptor LNs withdrawn after three years of household use against the baseline specification of 200?mg/m2. A gradual increase in the proportion of holed nets was observed with the increased period of usage. Conclusion Interceptor nets were highly effective in reducing vector densities as well as malaria incidence in the study villages. Availability of 78% nets with the households in usable condition clearly indicated durability of Interceptor LNs up to three years in the rural setting of India. The nets were found to contain an effective concentration of alpha-cypermethrin against malaria vector after three years of household use.

Bhatt Rajendra M

2012-06-01

265

Models for the population biology and control of human onchocerciasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The absence of animal models in which to reproduce successfully the complete life cycle of Onchocerca volvulus has hindered progress towards unravelling the processes involved in the regulation of parasite abundance in the vertebrate host. Mathematical frameworks have been developed to explore the consequences of such processes in determining parasite population dynamics and the effect on these of control interventions. Post-control predictions are strongly influenced by the assumptions concerning the reproductive life span of the adult female worm (the longest-lived parasite stage) and the distribution of its survival times, and this notion is important to all frameworks. Here, we review the development of models concerning onchocerciasis and discuss the various approaches that have been used, presenting a deterministic framework with parameter values estimated from the Mexican onchocerciasis control programme. This model is used to evaluate interventions combining the removal of adult worms (nodulectomy) and the microfilaricidal and possibly sterilizing effect of ivermectin. PMID:11530355

Basáñez, M G; Ricárdez-Esquinca, J

2001-09-01

266

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p

S O Sam-wobo, M. A. Adeleke

2012-01-01

267

Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In order to bridge the gap between possession and use of bednets, concerted efforts are required to change behaviour by providing accurate information, most particularly by convincing people that mosquitoes are the only source of malaria, whilst recognising that there are other diseases with similar symptoms, caused in other ways. The medical message must underline the seriousness of malaria and the presence of the malaria vector in the dry season as well as the wet, in order to encourage the use of bednets whenever transmission can occur. Communities would benefit from impregnated bednets and other vector control measures being better adapted to their homes, thus reducing the inconvenience of their use.

Doannio Julien

2009-07-01

268

Low prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala-azar endemic areas of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health problem in Bangladesh with the highest disease burden in the Mymensingh District. The disease is transmitted by sand fly bites, but it may also be transmitted through blood transfusions. No information is available about the prevalence of Leishmania infection among blood donors in Bangladesh; therefore we aimed to investigate this question. Methods The study was carried out in the Blood Transfusion Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. One thousand one hundred and ninety five adult healthy blood donors attending in this department were enrolled in the study from August 2010 to April 2011. After obtaining written consent, socio-demographic data and a detailed health history were collected. The medical officer in the unit performed a complete physical examination to exclude any acute or chronic diseases, which was followed by sero-diagnosis for exposure to Leishmania by rK39 strip test using finger prick blood. Blood donors with a positive rK39 strip test underwent a PCR test for detection of leishmania DNA in their peripheral blood buffy coat. Results Eighty two percent of enrolled blood donors were male (n=985 and 18% (n=210 were female. The mean age of blood donors was 27 years (SD, 7.95 years. The majority of donors were literate and had mid-to-higher socioeconomic condition reflected by household conditions reported by the subject. Only 2.6% had a family member with VL in the past. Three blood donors were positive for leishmania infection by rK39 strip test (0.3%, 95%CI, 0.05%-0.73%. None of these 3 had active leishmania infection as demonstrated by PCR analysis. During six months of follow up, neither rK39 positive (n=3 nor rK39 negative (n=1192 donors developed VL. Conclusion The prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among blood donors attending the Blood Transfusion Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital was very low. Therefore the chance for transmission of VL through blood transfusion is negligible. We believe that the National VL Elimination Program does not need set up routine screening for Leishmania donovani infection in blood transfusion departments located in VL endemic areas of Bangladesh.

Huda M Mamun

2013-02-01

269

Prevalence of Deletional Alpha Thalassemia and Sickle Gene in a Tribal Dominated Malaria Endemic Area of Eastern India  

OpenAIRE

Inherited hemoglobin disorders like alpha thalassemia and sickle gene are common in the Indian subcontinent. These disorders in the heterozygous state act as malaria resistance genes and influence the susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. There is inadequate knowledge about the epidemiology of these malaria resistance genes in the tribal dominated malaria endemic region of the state of Odisha in eastern India. A cross sectional prevalence study was undertaken in 594 subjects in fiv...

Purohit, Prasanta; Dehury, Snehadhini; Patel, Siris; Patel, Dilip Kumar

2014-01-01

270

Haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype, ?-thalassaemia and acute seizures in children living in a malaria-endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Polymorphisms of the haptoglobin (HP) gene and deletions in ?-globin gene (?-thalassaemia) are common in malaria-endemic Africa. The same region also has high incidence rates for childhood acute seizures. The haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype has been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies and altered iron metabolism in children with ?-thalassaemia can potentially interfere with neurotransmission and increase the risk of seizures. We investigated the hypothesis that the HP2-2 genotype ...

Idro, Richard; Williams, Thomas N.; Gwer, Samson; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Opi, Herbert; Atkinson, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn; Kager, Piet A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Neville, Brian G. R.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

2008-01-01

271

Trypanosoma cruzi: chemotherapy with benznidazole in mice inoculated with strains from Paraná State and from different endemic areas of Brazil  

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Full Text Available Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi from different geographical areas have shown different levels of susceptibility to trypanocidal drugs. The susceptibility in vivo to benznidazole was investigated in eighteen strains of T. cruzi. Twelve were isolated from chronic chagasic patients from different Chagas’ disease endemic areas. The other six strains were isolated from the northwestern region of Paraná state; two of them from patients three from triatomines (Triatoma sordida and one from wild reservoir (Didelphis sp.. To test drug the infected mice were divided into two groups of twenty. One group was treated with benznidazole for twenty consecutive days and the other group was used as untreated control. The treatment began after detection of the infection by direct blood examination or haemoculture. The control of cure was done through haemoculture and indirect immunofluorescence test. The drug eliminated the inflammatory lesions of the skeletal muscle of mice considered cured and from the heart of most of them. Moreover, the inflammatory lesions were reduced in treated but not cured animals. The T. cruzi strains studied showed a gradient of drug susceptibility that varied from 0% to 100%. Ten strains were considered sensitive to the treatment (61 to 100% of cure, one strain was partially sensitive (50% of cure and seven strains were considered resistant to the treatment (0 to 40% of cure. This variation was observed both in strains of T. cruzi isolated from domestic and sylvatic cyclesCepas de Trypanosoma cruzi de diferentes áreas geográficas têm mostrado diferentes graus de suscetibilidade a drogas tripanocidas. A suscetibilidade in vivo ao benzonidazol foi investigada em 18 cepas de T. cruzi. Doze foram isoladas de pacientes chagásicos crônicos de diferentes áreas endêmcias da doença de Chagas. Seis cepas foram procedentes da região Noroeste do Paraná: 2 isoladas de humanos, 3 de triatomíneos da espécie Triatoma sordida e 1 do reservatório silvestre do parasito Didelphis sp. No teste da droga, camundongos inoculados foram divididos em 2 grupos de 20. Um grupo foi tratado com benzonidazol por 20 dias consecutivos e o outro grupo foi utilizado como controle não tratado. O tratamento dos animais foi iniciado após constatação da infecção, feita através de exame direto do sangue ou hemocultura. O controle de cura foi feito utilizando a hemocultura e a imunofluorescência indireta, realizadas respectivamente, 30 e 180 dias após o término do tratamento. A droga eliminou as lesões inflamatórias do músculo esquelético dos camundongos considerados curados e do coração da maioria destes animais e as diminuiu naqueles animais tratados não curados. As cepas de T. cruzi estudadas apresentaram um gradiente de suscetibilidade a droga que variou de 0% a 100%. Dez cepas foram consideradas sensíveis ao tratamento (61 a 100% de cura, uma cepa foi parcialmente sensível (50% de cura e 7 cepas foram consideradas resistentes (0 a 40% de cura. Esta variação foi observada tanto com as cepas isoladas do ciclo doméstico quanto com aquelas isoladas do ciclo silvestre

Max Jean de Ornelas TOLEDO

1997-09-01

272

Characterization of overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among HTLV-1 positive healthy carriers in the Northeast of Iran; AN HTLV-I endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, no studies have provided data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence among asymptomatic, healthy human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) positive carriers. This sero- and molecular epidemiology study was performed on patients in the Northeast of Iran, which is an endemic area for HTLV-I infection. A total of 109 sera were collected from HTLV-I positive healthy carriers who were admitted to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad City. All were tested for HBV serology and subsequently, real time PCR was carried out on the samples, regardless of the results of the serology. Standard PCR and direct sequencing were applied on positive samples. All cases were negative for HBsAg, Anti-HBc, and anti-HBs were positive in 34 (31.1%), and 35 (32%) individuals, respectively. There were 19 (17.4%) cases that were positive only for anti-HBs, and they had already received HBV vaccine. 16 (15%) were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, indicating a past-resolved HBV infection. 18 (16.5%) were isolated as anti-HBc, and 56 (51.3%) were negative for all HBV serological markers. Only one subject (0.9%) had detectable HBV DNA (2153?copy/ml), and assigned as being an occult HBV infection. The low prevalence of HBsAg, despite the high percentage of anti-HBc positive cases, might be related to the suppression effect of HTLV-I on surface protein expression. The low prevalence of HBV infection among HTLV-I positive healthy carriers from an endemic region, indicates that the epidemiology of HTLV-I and HBV coinfection is related to the endemicity of HBV in that region, rather than HTLV-I endemicity. PMID:25132488

Chenari, Maryam; Norouzi, Mehdy; Ghalichi, Leila; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Yari, Atefe; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

2014-11-01

273

Cross-sectional and evolutive studies of schistosomiasis mansoni in untreated and mass treated endemic areas in the southeast and northeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cross-sectional and evolutive studies on schistosomiasis mansoni were carried out before and after mass treatment in the endemic areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso, state of Minas Gerais, Riachuelo, state of Sergipe, Alhandra, state of Paraíba, and Aliança, Alegre and Coroatá, lowland of the [...] state of Maranhao, Brazil, in the last eighteen years. The studies included clinical and fecal examination by the Kato-Katz quantitative technique, skin testfor Schistosoma mansoni infection, evaluation of man-water contact and other epidemiological investigations such as infection rate and dynamic of the snail population. Results showed: (1) Higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection, greater egg load elimination and higher and earlier morbidity of the chronic froms of the disease in the southeast areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso; (2) The incidence of hepatosplenic form is higher in some family clusters, in whites and mullattos in all the endemic areas but develop earlier in the southeast; (3) The prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis are decreasing both in the mass treated northeast and in the untreated southeast areas; (4) The mass treatment reduces rapidily the prevalence of the infection and the morbidity of the disease but can not control it because of the frequent reinfections due to the intensity of man-water contact.

José Rodrigues, Coura; Maria José, Conceição; Mozart Lima dos, Santos; Zélia Goes de, Mendonça; Raimundo Nonato Martins, Cutrim.

274

Prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection and influence of HIV infection on malaria disease severity in population residing in malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection and assess the effect of HIV coinfection on malaria disease severity in malaria patients from the endemic area of Thailand along the Thai-Myanmar border. Blood samples were collected from a total of 867 patients with malaria (all species and severity) who attended Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during 2005-2007 (439 samples), 2008-2010 (273 samples), and 2011-2013 (155 samples). The average prevalence rate of malaria and HIV coinfected cases in this malaria endemic area of the country during the three periods was 1.85%. HIV coinfection was observed only in samples with mono-infection of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax, with similar proportions (0.81 vs. 1.04%). Patients' admission parasite density, an indicator of disease severity, was significantly higher in cases with HIV coinfection observed during 2008-2010. Anemia was found at a significantly higher frequency in patients coinfected with malaria and HIV observed during 2005-2007 compared with those infected with malaria alone. No association was observed between malaria and HIV coinfection and gender, and infected malaria species during the three observation periods. Patients with malaria and HIV coinfection had a significantly lower hemoglobin level than those with malaria infection alone. In conclusion, the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection in population of the malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border is low. HIV coinfection tended to increase parasite density, an indicator of malaria disease severity. PMID:25728746

Rattanapunya, Siwalee; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2015-05-01

275

Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer

276

Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-04-15

277

Preliminary pharmaceutical development of antimalarial-antibiotic cotherapy as a pre-referral paediatric treatment of fever in malaria endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemether (AM) plus azithromycin (AZ) rectal co-formulations were studied to provide pre-referral treatment for children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic areas. The target profile required that such product should be cheap, easy to administer by non-medically qualified persons, rapidly effective against both malaria and bacterial infections. Analytical and pharmacotechnical development, followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation, were conducted for various AMAZ coformulations. Of the formulations tested, stability was highest for dry solid forms and bioavailability for hard gelatin capsules; AM release from AMAZ rectodispersible tablet was suboptimal due to a modification of its micro-crystalline structure. PMID:24726300

Gaubert, Alexandra; Kauss, Tina; Marchivie, Mathieu; Ba, Boubakar B; Lembege, Martine; Fawaz, Fawaz; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; Lindegardh, Niklas; Fabre, Jean-Louis; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero L; Millet, Pascal; Grislain, Luc; Gaudin, Karen

2014-07-01

278

Two endemic foci of heterophyids and other intestinal fluke infections in southern and western coastal areas in Korea  

OpenAIRE

Two endemic foci of heterophyid infections were discovered in coastal villages of Puan-gun, Chollabuk-do, and Sachon-gun. Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. Fecal examinations were performed on 153 inhabitants of Puan-gun and 138 of Sachon-gun, using cellophane thick smear and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The helminth egg and/or protozoan cyst positive rate was 21.5% (33/153) in Puan-gun and 39.1% (54/138) in Sachon-gun. In Puan-gun, the egg positive rate of heterophyids was the highest, 17.6...

Chai, Jong-yil; Song, Tae-eui; Han, Eun-taek; Guk, Sang-mee; Park, Yun-kyu; Choi, Min-ho; Lee, Soon-hyung

1998-01-01

279

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease. PMID:17308757

Gentile, Rosana; Costa-Neto, Sócrates F; Gonçalves, Margareth M L; Bonecker, Simone T; Fernandes, Fabiano A; Garcia, Juberlan S; Barreto, Magali G M; Soares, Marisa S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Peralta, José M; Rey, Luis

2006-09-01

280

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

Rosana Gentile

2006-10-01

281

HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was [...] to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

Priscilla, Alexandrino-de-Oliveira; Joanna Reis, Santos-Oliveira; Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Dorval; Francisco das Chagas Brandão, Da-Costa; Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite, Pereira; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha; Anamaria Mello Miranda, Paniago; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz.

2010-08-01

282

HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87% and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU. Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients.

Priscilla Alexandrino-de-Oliveira

2010-08-01

283

Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae): are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis), all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential. PMID:25166318

Winck, G R; Almeida-Santos, P; Rocha, C F D

2014-05-01

284

Tropomyosin implicated in host protective responses to microfilariae in onchocerciasis  

OpenAIRE

A cDNA from adult female Onchocerca volvulus encoding the C-terminal portion of a tropomyosin isoform (termed MOv-14) has been shown previously to confer protective immunity in rodent models of onchocerciasis. The full-length sequence (designated Ov-tmy-1) obtained by PCR amplification, codes for a protein of 33 kDa and shares 91% identity with tropomyosins from other nematodes, falling to 57% identity with human ?-tropomyosin. Ov-TMY-1 migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa on S...

Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Taylor, Mark J.; Gilvary, Nichola J.; Bianco, Albert E.

1998-01-01

285

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 [...] of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

Teiliane Rodrigues, Carneiro; Regina Helena Saramago, Peralta; Marta Cristhiany Cunha, Pinheiro; Sara Menezes de, Oliveira; Jose Mauro, Peralta; Fernando Schemelzer Moraes, Bezerra.

2013-12-06

286

Alternative PCR protocol using a single primer set for assessing DNA quality in several tissues from a large variety of mammalian species living in areas endemic for leishmaniasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to establish a modified pre-diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol using a single primer set that enables successful amplification of a highly conserved mammalian sequence in order to determine overall sample DNA quality for multiple mammalian species that inhab [...] it areas endemic for leishmaniasis. The gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), but not other conserved genes, was efficiently amplified in DNA samples from tail skin, ear skin, bone marrow, liver and spleen from all of the species tested. In tissue samples that were PCR-positive for Leishmania, we found that DNA from 100%, 55% and 22% of the samples tested resulted in a positive PCR reaction for the IRBP, beta-actin and beta-globin genes, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of an IRBP amplicon resolved any questions regarding the taxonomical classification of a rodent, which was previously based simply on the morphological features of the animal. Therefore, PCR amplification and analysis of the IRBP amplicon are suitable for pre-diagnostically assessing DNA quality and identifying mammalian species living in areas endemic to leishmaniasis and other diseases.

Eduardo C, Ferreira; Célia M, Gontijo; Israel, Cruz; Maria Norma, Melo; Aristóbolo M, Silva.

2010-11-01

287

Serological responses among individuals in areas where both schistosomiasis and malaria are endemic: cross-reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 responses to Plasmodium falciparum schizont and Schistosoma mansoni egg and worm antigens in individuals from Kenya, Uganda, and the Sudan who had been exposed to malaria and schistosomiasis. A strong correlation between malaria- and schistosome-specific IgG3 responses was observed. This association appears to result from the presence of cross-reactive components of the 2 parasites that bind IgG3 antibodies, rather than to be mediated by immunological cross-regulation or specific regulatory mechanisms induced by either parasite. Cross-reactivity of IgG3 antibodies was confirmed in a Brazilian cohort of individuals living in an area where schistosomiasis is endemic but no malaria occurs and in a Pakistani cohort from an area where malaria is endemic but no schistosomiasis occurs. An IgG3 interaction with antigens from both parasites was observed in individuals from both cohorts, but not in uninfected European control subjects. The immunological and biological implications of this observation require further exploration. PMID:12696007

Naus, Cynthia W A; Jones, Frances M; Satti, Mohamed Z; Joseph, Sarah; Riley, Eleanor M; Kimani, Gachuhi; Mwatha, Joseph K; Kariuki, Curtis H; Ouma, John H; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Dunne, David W

2003-04-15

288

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic ar [...] eas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease.

Rosana, Gentile; Sócrates F, Costa-Neto; Margareth ML, Gonçalves; Simone T, Bonecker; Fabiano A, Fernandes; Juberlan S, Garcia; Magali G M, Barreto; Marisa S, Soares; Paulo S, D' Andrea; José M, Peralta; Luis, Rey.

2006-10-01

289

Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeti [...] ng a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp), ompA (457-bp), and ompB (720-bp). The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks).The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

Elizângela, Guedes; Romário C, Leite; Márcia CA, Prata; Richard C, Pacheco; David H, Walker; Marcelo B, Labruna.

2005-12-01

290

Detection of active schistosome infection by cell-free circulating DNA of Schistosoma japonicum in highly endemic areas in Sorsogon Province, the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of schistosomiasis in highly endemic areas is difficult to determine by ovum detection because of the superficially low parasite load after mass drug administration, whereas the parasite transmission rates are still high. Cell-free parasite DNA is fragments of parasite-derived DNA existing in the host's body fluids. We conducted population-based studies to test the presence of cell-free schistosome DNA in endemic areas of Sorsogon Province, the Philippines. Schistosome DNA in the serum and urine of Kato-Katz (KK)-positive subjects was detected by PCR (100% sensitivity). Schistosome DNA was also detected from KK-negative subjects (9/22 serum and 10/41 urine samples). Schistosome DNA was found to be network echogenic pattern (NW)-positive (serum 53.3%, urine 42.9%) or NW-negative (serum 25.5%, urine 20.8%) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive (serum 47.1%, urine 40%) or ELISA-negative (serum 33.3%, urine 13.3%). These results indicate that cell-free schistosome DNA is a promising diagnostic marker for active schistosome infection in the case of light infection. PMID:24836919

Kato-Hayashi, Naoko; Leonardo, Lydia R; Arevalo, Napoleon L; Tagum, Ma Nerissa B; Apin, James; Agsolid, Lea M; Chua, James C; Villacorte, Elena A; Kirinoki, Masashi; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Haruki, Kosuke; Chigusa, Yuichi

2015-01-01

291

[Genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by mitochondrial gene ND4 analysis in eleven endemic areas for dengue in Peru].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish the genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by the analysis of the MT-ND4 gene, in eleven endemic regions for dengue in Peru, 51 samples of Ae. Aegypti were tested. The genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 336 base-pairs of MT ND4, the analysis of intra-specific phylogeny was conducted with the Network Ver. 4.6.10 program; and the phylogenetic analysis, with the Neighbor Joining distance method. The presence of five haplotypes of Ae. Aegypti grouped in two lineages was identified: the first one includes haplotypes 1, 3 and 5, and the second one comprises haplotypes 2 and 4. The geographic distribution of each of the haplotypes found is also shown. It is concluded that this variability is caused by the active migration of this vector and the human activity-mediated passive migration. PMID:23949510

Yáñez, Pamela; Mamani, Enrique; Valle, Jorge; García, María Paquita; León, Walter; Villaseca, Pablo; Torres, Dina; Cabezas, César

2013-04-01

292

[Genetic variants of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus circulating in endemic areas of the southern Tajikistan in 2009].  

Science.gov (United States)

506 Hyalomma anatolicum ticks were collected and assayed in two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic regions of Tajikistan. Antigen and RNA of CCHF virus were detected in 3.4% of tick pools from Rudaki district using ELISA and RT-PCR tests. As of Tursunzade district, viral antigen was identified in 9.0% of samples and viral RNA was identified in 8.1% of samples. The multiple alignment of the obtained nucleotide sequences of CCHF virus genome S-segment 287-nt region (996-1282) and multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of the samples, carried out to compare with CCHF virus strains from the GenBank database, as well as phylogenetic analysis, enabled us to conclude that Asia 1 and Asia 2 genotypes of CCHF virus are circulating in Tajikistan. It is important to note that the genotype Asia 1 virus was detected for the first time in Tajikistan. PMID:24364143

Petrova, I D; Kononova, Iu V; Chausov, E V; Shestopalov, A M; Tishkova, F Kh

2013-01-01

293

Detection of areas of endemism on two spatial scales using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE): the Neotropical region and the Atlantic Forest / Detecção de áreas de endemismo em duas escalas espaciais utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos: região Neotropical e Mata Atlântica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um dos principais desafios para este século reside em impedir a perda de biodiversidade. A biogeografia é o campo das ciências biológicas que busca desvendar os padrões de distribuição dos organismos. Um conceito básico em biogeografia diz respeito à existência de áreas de endemismo, caracterizadas [...] pela presença de espécies de distribuição restrita. Áreas de endemismo são definidas como unidades históricas de congruência distribucional entre dois ou mais táxons monofiléticos, provavelmente formadas por fatores históricos não aleatórios que definem condições específicas para elevadas taxas de especiação. Conseqüentemente, a delimitação de áreas de endemismo possui importantes implicações para a eficácia dos esforços conservacionistas. Até o momento, a maioria dos estudos tem delimitado estas áreas por meio da sobreposição de mapas de distribuição das espécies. Entretanto, esta abordagem pode acarretar delimitações arbitrárias quando analisado um amplo conjunto de dados distribucionais. No presente estudo foi utilizado método da Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismos (PAE) baseada em quadrículas georeferenciadas a fim delimitar áreas de endemismo. Este método é importante devido a sua natureza empiricamente testável, além da possibilidade de inferência dos relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas. O método foi aplicado aos dados distribucionais de 19 táxons não relacionados, de modo a definir os padrões gerais de endemismo na região de Neotropical e na Mata Atlântica utilizando diferentes tamanhos de quadrícula. Foram encontradas 13 áreas endêmicas Neotropicais, situadas sobre as regiões do Panamá, norte dos Andes e Mata Atlântica, sendo esta última composta por dois componentes distintos (Norte e Sul). As áreas de endemismo delimitadas na Mata Atlântica por meio de quadrículas menores devem ser consideradas prioritárias para conservação, uma vez que demonstraram endemismo tanto em escala regional quanto local. Os resultados foram comparados a outros estudos utilizando deferentes táxons e metodologias. Considerações gerais sobre escala de análise e perspectivas futuras são apresentadas. Abstract in english An important biological challenge today is the conservation of biodiversity. Biogeography, the study of the distribution patterns of organisms, is an important tool for this challenge. Endemism, the co-occurrence of several species unique to the same area, has important implications for the preserva [...] tion of biodiversity, since many areas of endemism are also areas with large human impact. More rigorously defined, areas of endemism are historical units of distributional congruence of monophyletic taxa. These areas often assumed to be due to nonrandom historical events that favored conditions associated with high rates of speciation. Thus, understanding endemism and the delimitation of endemic areas has important implications for conservation. Today, most studies delimit areas of endemism by superimposing maps of distribution for various species. This approach suffers from arbitrary delimitations, however, when a great distributional data is used. In this paper we used the method of Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on georeferenced quadrats in order to delimit areas of endemism. This modality of the method is important due to its testable nature and can also be used to infer area relationships. We applied the method to raw distributional data from 19 unrelated taxa to delimit general patterns of endemism in the Neotropical Region and in the Atlantic forest domain using different grid scales. Neotropical areas found are comprised over the Panama region, northern Andean region and the Atlantic forest. Atlantic forest showed a major division into two distinct components (northern x southern). Endemic areas delimited using smaller scale grids on the Atlantic forest should be considered for conservation priorities once they showed endemism a

Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

2008-12-01

294

Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics. PMID:22285769

Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-03-01

295

Comparison of microscopy, nested-PCR, and Real-Time-PCR assays using high-throughput screening of pooled samples for diagnosis of malaria in asymptomatic carriers from areas of endemicity in Myanmar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymptomatic infection is an important obstacle for controlling disease in countries where malaria is endemic. Because asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infections, they can have high levels of gametocytes and constitute a reservoir available for new infection. We employed a sample pooling/PCR-based molecular detection strategy for screening malaria infection in residents from areas of Myanmar where malaria is endemic. Blood samples (n = 1,552) were collected from residents in three areas of malaria endemicity (Kayin State, Bago, and Tanintharyi regions) of Myanmar. Two nested PCR and real-time PCR assays showed that asymptomatic infection was detected in about 1.0% to 9.4% of residents from the surveyed areas. The sensitivities of the two nested PCR and real-time PCR techniques were higher than that of microscopy examination (sensitivity, 100% versus 26.4%; kappa values, 0.2 to 0.5). Among the three regions, parasite-positive samples were highly detected in subjects from the Bago and Tanintharyi regions. Active surveillance of residents from regions of intense malaria transmission would reduce the risk of morbidity and mitigate transmission to the population in these areas of endemicity. Our data demonstrate that PCR-based molecular techniques are more efficient than microscopy for nationwide surveillance of malaria in countries where malaria is endemic. PMID:24648557

Wang, Bo; Han, Soe-Soe; Cho, Cho; Han, Jin-Hee; Cheng, Yang; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Soe, Myat Thu; Oo, Htet Wai; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-Taek

2014-06-01

296

Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo Distric...

Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K. N.; Hailu, Asrat

2011-01-01

297

Guide to detecting a potential recrudescence of onchocerciasis during the posttreatment surveillance period: the American paradigm  

OpenAIRE

Program Coordinating Committee and OEPA staffOnchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, Guatemala City, GuatemalaAbstract: Control and elimination of human onchocerciasis using mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan®) has proceeded with marked gains over the past 10 years, more so in the Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the pro...

Program Coordinating Committee; Oepa, Staff

2012-01-01

298

Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in...

Wondafrash Mekite; Woldemichael Kifle; Deribe Kebede; Yirga Daniel; Kassahun Wondosen

2010-01-01

299

Onchocerciasis: The Pre-control Association between Prevalence of Palpable Nodules and Skin Microfilariae  

OpenAIRE

Until recently, elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin alone was deemed impossible. However, recent reports of elimination of onchocerciasis from various African foci have stimulated renewed interest. An important determinant of achieving elimination is the pre-control microfilarial (mf) prevalence, i.e. the percentage of people with larval stages of the Onchocerca volvulus worm in the skin, which can be detected in a skin snip (a small s...

Coffeng, Luc E.; Pion, Se?bastien D. S.; O Hanlon, Simon; Cousens, Simon; Abiose, Adenike O.; Fischer, Peter U.; Remme, Jan H. F.; Dadzie, K. Yankum; Murdoch, Michele E.; Vlas, Sake J.; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria; Stolk, Wilma A.; Boussinesq, Michel

2013-01-01

300

The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership  

OpenAIRE

The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Si...

Blanks J; Richards F; Beltrán F; Collins R; Álvarez E; Zea, Flores G.; Bauler B; Cedillos R; Heisler M; Brandling-Bennett D; Baldwin W; Bayona M; Klein R; Jacox M

1998-01-01

301

Wolbachia-Induced Neutrophil Activation in a Mouse Model of Ocular Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)  

OpenAIRE

Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria are abundant in the filarial nematodes that cause onchocerciasis (river blindness), including the larvae (microfilariae) that migrate into the cornea. Using a mouse model of ocular onchocerciasis, we recently demonstrated that it is these endosymbiotic bacteria rather than the nematodes per se that induce neutrophil infiltration to the corneal stroma and loss of corneal clarity (Saint Andre et al., Science 295:1892-1895, 2002). To better understand the role of...

Gillette-ferguson, Illona; Hise, Amy G.; Mcgarry, Helen F.; Turner, Joseph; Esposito, Andrew; Sun, Yan; Diaconu, Eugenia; Taylor, Mark J.; Pearlman, Eric

2004-01-01

302

Compliance with eight years of annual ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon and Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background As the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) matured into its 10th year of ensuring community involvement in mass annual treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin, there was recognition of a need to study not only annual coverage of ivermectin in villages but also the compliance of individual villagers with these annual treatments. This was based on the concern that while population coverage goals may be achieved each year, there might be segments of the po...

Elhassan Elizabeth; Wanji Samuel; Abiose Adenike O; Okeibunor Joseph C; Brieger William R; Ndyomugyenyi Richard; Amazigo Uche V

2011-01-01

303

Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected [...] in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology), Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology), La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology), and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology). A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

Joy R, Guderian; Mariela, Anselmi; Mauricio, Espinel; Carlos, Sandoval; Philip J, Cooper; Gonzalo, Rivadeneira; Ronald H, Guderian.

1997-03-01

304

A field survey of iodine supplementation of primary school children and their parents in a rural village in the endemic area of iodine deficiency disorder, northeastern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is an important health problem in Thailand. Due to the geographical limitation of marine salt distribution, the Northern and Northeastern regions of Thailand are endemic areas of this disorder. In this study, a cross-sectional survey on the domestic use of iodine-enriched salt by the people in a rural village, Non Sam Ran, Borabue district, Mahasarakarm province in the northeastern region of Thailand was conducted. A salt survey was undertaken in the village, involving the specific health knowledge of both primary school students and their parents, and including a home visit with kitchen salt sampling. As a result of this survey, despite the smallness of the sample, concern is raised regarding the application of public health information about IDD due to a taste preference for non-iodised salt, and the quality control of the manufacture of iodine-fortified salt. PMID:17518520

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2007-01-01

305

Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004-2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage. PMID:24274334

El Khoury, Marc Y; Camargo, Jose F; White, Jennifer L; Backenson, Bryon P; Dupuis, Alan P; Escuyer, Kay L; Kramer, Laura; St George, Kirsten; Chatterjee, Debarati; Prusinski, Melissa; Wormser, Gary P; Wong, Susan J

2013-12-01

306

High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including [...] 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture). Results T. cruzi I (TcI) was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1%) subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands); however, high similarities (80-100%) among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

Sandra Maria, Alkmim-Oliveira; Henrique Borges, Kappel; Cristiane Pontes, Andrade; Aluízio, Prata; Luis Eduardo, Ramirez; Dalmo, Correia; Eliane, Lages-Silva.

2014-10-01

307

Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1% including one female, (2.0% and 12 males (15.2%, and in only five dogs (12.2%. Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.

Solano-Gallego Laia

2012-05-01

308

Low density parasitaemia, red blood cell polymorphisms and Plasmodium falciparum specific immune responses in a low endemic area in northern Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Low density Plasmodium falciparum infections, below the microscopic detection limit, may play an important role in maintaining malaria transmission in low endemic areas as well as contribute to the maintenance of acquired immunity. Little is known about factors influencing the occurrence of sub-microscopic parasitaemia or the relation with immune responses. We investigated possible associations between the occurrence of sub-microscopic P. falciparum parasite carriage and antibody responses to the asexual stage antigens, G6PD deficiency and ?+-thalassaemia in 464 subjects from a low endemic area in northern Tanzania. Methods We used samples collected from two cross sectional surveys conducted during dry and wet season in 2005. Submicroscopic parasitaemia was detected by using quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA. Genotyping for G6PD and ?+-thalassaemia were performed by high throughput PCR; the prevalence and level of total IgG antibodies against MSP-1, MSP-2 and AMA-1 were determined by ELISA. Results Compared to parasite free individuals, individuals carrying sub-microscopic densities of P. falciparum parasites had significantly higher median antibody levels to MSP-1 (p = 0.042 and MSP-2 (p = 0.034 but not to AMA-1 (p = 0.14 while no clear relation between sub-microscopic parasite carriage and G6PD deficiency or ?+-thalassaemia was observed. Conclusion Our data suggest a role for sub-microscopic parasite densities in eliciting or maintaining humoral immune responses without evidence for a modulating effect of G6PD deficiency or ?+-thalassaemia.

Sauerwein Robert

2009-05-01

309

The Cost of Annual versus Biannual Community-Directed Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin: Ghana as a Case Study  

OpenAIRE

The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has recently been extended until 2025, with renewed commitment towards onchocerciasis elimination. This aim is aligned with the goals stated by the World Health Organization and the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases in January 2012. Switching from annual to biannual (twice yearly) ivermectin distribution might increase the feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination in some African foci. However, relatively few communities ...

Turner, Hugo C.; Osei-atweneboana, Mike Y.; Walker, Martin; Tettevi, Edward J.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Asiedu, Odame; Biritwum, Nana-kwadwo; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria

2013-01-01

310

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree) environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, wi...

Carlos Frederico Loiola; Delano Anibal da Silva; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

2007-01-01

311

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

312

Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança / Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancr [...] oftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas) e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo. Abstract in english In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for ban [...] croftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

Gerusa, Dreyer; Joaquim, Norões; Denise, Mattos.

2006-08-01

313

Terapia complementar em área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, pelos Clubes da Esperança Hope Clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em 1997, a Organização Mundial de Saúde anunciou um ambicioso projeto de eliminação global da filariose linfática como problema de saúde pública. Esse projeto baseia-se em dois pilares: interrupção da transmissão e controle da morbidade. Experiência em Recife-Brasil, área endêmica de filariose bancroftiana, mostrou que a criação pioneira de Clubes da Esperança pode contribuir, a baixo custo, como terapia coadjuvante importante na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos portadores de linfedema e de quilúria. Os pacientes compreendem os fundamentos básicos e os utilizam na prevenção dos episódios agudos bacterianos de pele (erisipelas e na manutenção da urina sem o componente quiloso. Eles sentem que não estão sós e, através de ações especializadas e do trabalho em grupo, readquirem o potencial para o trabalho produtivo, realizando também mudanças substancialmente positivas dentro de suas comunidades, agindo, assim, como amplificadores do processo.In 1997 the World Health Organization announced an ambitious project called the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as a Public Health Problem. The program is based on two pillars: interruption of transmission and morbidity control. Experience in Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis, showed that an innovative approach called Hope Clubs, can equip lymphedema patients with the skills, motivation, and enthusiasm to sustain effective, low-cost and convenient self-care to prevent acute skin bacterial episodes and milky urine in the case of chyluria carriers. They feel they are not alone, they regain their potential for productive work and are able to amplify these activities throughout filariasis-endemic communities.

Gerusa Dreyer

2006-08-01

314

Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

2014-12-01

315

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species h...

Dorval, Maria Elizabeth C.; Geucira Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da Rocha; Tulia Peixoto Alves; Murilo Andrade Alves; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha

2009-01-01

316

Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

2011-12-01

317

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

2013-05-01

318

A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental intermediate hosts such as humans. The disease, human alveolar echinococcosis, is fatal in untreated patients and results in reduced survival rates in continuously treated patients. Finland, Ireland, Malta, UK and mainland Norway consider themselves free from Em. The first case of Em was reported in Sweden in 2011.These countries therefore require dogs, cats and ferrets to be treated with an appropriate drug to prevent accidental introductions. Ireland, UK and Malta requires dogs to be treated 24-48 hours before entry, while Sweden and Finland allow treatment up to 10 and 30 days respectively prior to entry. Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel to be administrated 10 and 30 days prior to entering Sweden and Finland respectively. Because the drug is only effective 24 hours after oral intake, these strategies leaves 9 and 29 days for the dogs to be reinfected in endemic areas. The lifespan of the worms is only 90 days and the maximum prevalence is therefore reached after 90 days exposure. A reinfection period of e.g. 9 days will thus allow for 10% of the maximum prevalence to be reached in the period between treatment and crossing the border. In the worst case the Swedish and the Finnish strategies only reduce the probability of importing an infected dog with 90% and 68 % respectively. EFSA therefore recommended that pet animals are treated with a single dose of Praziquantel 24 to 48 hours prior to departure. The EFSA risk assessment model defines risk as the probability of introducing a dog with an Em infection. However, I suggest Em may not be so contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern is establishing the parasite ina free area rather than the risk of importing an infected dog, I propose risk should be defined as the number of eggs excreted in a non-endemic area. Furthermore I suggest that the probability of establishing the parasite in a free area is linearly proportional to the number of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing or still in the immature stage or whether the worm are young or old and thus likely to have a long or short remaining lifespan. I here present an alternative deterministic mathematical model which calculates the average number of eggs excreted in a free country by a dog exposed in an endemic area. The model quantifies the risk as the cumulative number of eggs excreted by a dog in the free country. In order to calculate the number of eggs excrete

BØdker, Rene

319

Arsenic in drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcome in a arseniasis-endemic area in northeastern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The well water in Lanyang Basin, which is located in the northeaster portion of Taiwan island, was found to have high levels of arsenic rangin from undetectable levels (<0.15 ppb) to 3.59 ppm. We performed a study to compare the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery an birthweight) between an area with historic high well water arsenic level (arsenic-exposed area (AE)) and a comparison area with no historic evidence of arsenic water contamination (non-arsenic-exposed area (NAE)). The mea birth weight in the AEs and NAEs were 3132.6 and 3162.6 g, respectively Babies born in AEs were on average 30 g lighter than those born in NAEs. AE had a higher rate of preterm delivery than NAEs (3.74% vs 3.43%). The result of this study suggest that, after adjustment for potential confounders arsenic exposure from drinking well water was associated, although not significantly, with the risk of preterm delivery, with an odds ratio of 1.1 (0.91-1.33). The estimated reduction in birth weight was 29.05 g (95 CI=13.55-44.55). The findings from this investigation provide evidence for potential role for arsenic exposure through drinking water in increasing th risk of low birthweight

320

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

Carlos Frederico Loiola

2007-08-01

321

Modifying Effect of COMT Gene Polymorphism and a Predictive Role for Proteomics Analysis in Children's Intelligence in Endemic Fluorosis Area in Tianjin, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumulative fluoride exposure has adverse influences on children's intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with cognitive performance. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of COMT polymorphism and alterations of protein profiles with children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area. We recruited 180 schoolchildren (10-12 years old) from high fluoride exposure (1.40?mg/l) and control areas (0.63?mg/l) in Tianjin City, China. The children's IQ, fluoride contents in drinking water (W-F), serum (S-F), and urine (U-F); serum thyroid hormone levels, COMT Val158Met polymorphism, and plasma proteomic profiling were determined. Significant high levels of W-F, S-F, U-F, along with poor IQ scores were observed in the high fluoride exposure group compared with those in control (all P?fluoride exposure was associated with steeper cognitive decline among children with the reference allele Val compared with those homozygous or heterozygous for the variant allele Met (95% CI, -16.80 to 2.55; P interaction?fluoride exposure compared with the control. In conclusion, fluoride exposure was adversely associated with children's intelligence, whereas the COMT polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to the deficits in IQ due to fluoride exposure. Moreover, the proteomic analysis can provide certain basis for identifying the early biological markers of fluorosis among children. PMID:25556215

Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongliang; Qu, Weidong; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Jiang, Chunyang; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

2015-04-01

322

Plasmodium vivax Drug Resistance Genes; Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o Polymorphisms in Relation to Chloroquine Sensitivity from a Malaria Endemic Area of Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to explore the possible molecular markers of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates in Thailand. A total of 30 P. vivax isolates were collected from a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border in Mae Sot district of Thailand. Dried blood spot samples were collected for analysis of Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o polymorphisms. Blood samples (100 ?l) were collected by finger-prick for in vitro chloroquine susceptibility testing by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Based on the cut-off IC50 of 100 nM, 19 (63.3%) isolates were classified as chloroquine resistant P. vivax isolates. Seven non-synonymous mutations and 2 synonymous were identified in Pvmdr1 gene. Y976F and F1076L mutations were detected in 7 (23.3%) and 16 isolates (53.3%), respectively. Analysis of Pvcrt-o gene revealed that all isolates were wild-type. Our results suggest that chloroquine resistance gene is now spreading in this area. Monitoring of chloroquine resistant molecular markers provide a useful tool for future control of P. vivax malaria. PMID:25748708

Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Muhamad, Poonuch; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2015-02-01

323

Plasmodium vivax Drug Resistance Genes; Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o Polymorphisms in Relation to Chloroquine Sensitivity from a Malaria Endemic Area of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to explore the possible molecular markers of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates in Thailand. A total of 30 P. vivax isolates were collected from a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border in Mae Sot district of Thailand. Dried blood spot samples were collected for analysis of Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o polymorphisms. Blood samples (100 ?l) were collected by finger-prick for in vitro chloroquine susceptibility testing by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Based on the cut-off IC50 of 100 nM, 19 (63.3%) isolates were classified as chloroquine resistant P. vivax isolates. Seven non-synonymous mutations and 2 synonymous were identified in Pvmdr1 gene. Y976F and F1076L mutations were detected in 7 (23.3%) and 16 isolates (53.3%), respectively. Analysis of Pvcrt-o gene revealed that all isolates were wild-type. Our results suggest that chloroquine resistance gene is now spreading in this area. Monitoring of chloroquine resistant molecular markers provide a useful tool for future control of P. vivax malaria. PMID:25748708

Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Muhamad, Poonuch; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2015-01-01

324

Successful use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver grafts - an effective source for donor organs in endemic areas: a single-center experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Due to high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Taiwan, liver grafts from donors positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) without progressive disease can be effective alternative source of donor organs. This study aims to prove the safety of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using HBsAg-positive liver grafts and its long-term outcome. Material and Methods We studied 14 consecutive LDLT recipients that received HBsAg-positive grafts from November 2009 to December 2013 for various indications. All donors were chronic HBsAg carriers with normal liver function tests. Median follow-up was 46 months (range, 35-59). Results All the donors and recipients recovered well post-transplant with no reactivation of HBV to date. Two of the recipients died due to extra-hepatic recurrence of HCC. At median follow-up of 46 months, 4-year cumulative survival of recipients was 77.38%. Conclusions In endemic areas, HBsAg-positive donor organs can clearly be used effectively under viral immunoprophylaxis. HBV disease reactivation does not appear to be a threat even with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG)-free antiviral monoprophylaxis regimen. This study thus proves the safety and feasibility of the option of using HBsAg-positive grafts in high-prevalence areas. PMID:25703063

Jeng, Long-Bin; Thorat, Ashok; Yang, Horng-Ren; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Te-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Hsu, Shih-Chao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Li, Ping-Chung; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Wen-Pang; Peng, Cheng-Yuan

2015-01-01

325

Malondialdehyde and 8-oxo-7.8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine in the urine of residents from Balkan endemic nephropathy area in Croatia--a pilot study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a human chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease that occurs in rural areas of some Balkan countries. The disease is insidious and fatal, and mostly affects persons in their sixties or seventies. BEN areas have unusually high rates of otherwise rare upper urinary tract tumors (UTT). Since extensive production of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress has been implicated in tumor development, the aim of this study was to see whether oxidative stress is involved in the development of BEN and UTT. Urine samples were collected from a BEN village (N = 22) and a control village (N = 16) residents and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). The levels of both oxidative stress parameters were significantly higher in the BEN village residents than controls. However, there was no correlation between MDA and 8-oxodG results. Our results confirm that oxidative stress could be implicated in development of both, BEN and UTT.

Domijan, Ana-Marija; Mileti?-Medved, Marica

2013-01-01

326

Genetic homogeneity within Leishmania (L.) infantum isolated from human and dogs: the relationship with the sandfly fauna distribution in endemic areas of Nueva Esparta State, Venezuela.  

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Leishmania infantum has been described as a highly polymorphic group of parasites, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this paper we report the life-cycle of L. (L.) infantum in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, by using molecular diagnosis and characterization of parasites isolated from dogs, humans with visceral leishmaniasis and sand flies. The molecular characterization was carried out by use of kDNA restriction analysis, dot-blot hybridization with species-specific probes and RFLP of the PCR products. The results demonstrated that L. (L.) infantum is the parasite responsible for VL in the island. The parasites were revealed to be genetically homogeneous with no intra-specific differences between isolates from different individuals. The highest homology of the isolates was with L. (L.) infantum from the Old World rather than with L. (L.) chagasi from the New World. Additionally, we report the geographical distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis, and the relationship with the transmission of L. (L.) infantum in the studied area. PMID:15977897

Rodriguez, N M; De Guglielmo, Z; Barrios, M A; Barrios, R M; Zerpa, O; Feliciangeli, M D

2005-06-01

327

A comparative study on IgG-ELISA, IgM-IFT and Kato-Katz methods for epidemiological purposes in a low endemic area for schistosomiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The high sensitivity and the possibility of automation of the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA) has indicated this technique as one of the most useful serological test for epidemiological studies. In the present study, an ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies against adult worm antigens (IgG [...] -ELISA) was investigated for epidemiological purposes, in a rural area of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil). Blood on filter paper (1,180 samples) from about 650 schoolchildren were submitted to ELISA and the data compared to the results of the parasitological method of Kato-Katz and also to the IgM-IFT (immunofluorescence test for IgM antibodies to gut associated antigens). The prevalence rates respectively of 8.5%, 43.0%, and 56.2% by the Kato-Katz, IgG-ELISA, and IgM-IFT methods suggest the poor sensitivity of the parasitological method for detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in individuals with low worm burden, situation commonly observed in low endemic areas. These results can partially explain the poor degree of agreement between the IgG-ELISA and the Kato-Katz, as suggested by the Kappa index of 0.170. Otherwise, the Kappa index of 0.675 showed substantial agreement between the two serological tests. Some discrepancy of results between the two serological techniques must be better investigated.

Rita Maria da, Silva; Herminia Y, Kanamura; Eide D, Camargo; Silvia G, Chiodelli; Paulo M, Nakamura; Cybele, Gargioni; Sylvia AG, Vellosa; José LF, Antunes.

328

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand f [...] lies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C, Dorval; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha.

2009-08-01

329

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata,Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

Maria Elizabeth C Dorval

2009-08-01

330

Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree) environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state o [...] f Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5%) with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5%) with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%), Migonemyia migonei (21.4%), Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%), and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%). Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0) and Mg. migonei (0.82). In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83%) of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

Carlos Frederico, Loiola; Delano Anibal da, Silva; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati.

2007-08-01

331

Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis  

OpenAIRE

Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilaria...

Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

2011-01-01

332

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Sand flies are the vectors of a number of pathogens that infect man, especially cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. The control of sand flies through residual house-spraying insecticide has proven inefficient in preventing the spread of these diseases in several areas of the globe. Sand flies have a life cycle including eggs, larvae and pupae that are found in the ground, and winged adults. We developed a soil emergence trap that allowed us to identify chicken sheds as the preferred breedin...

Casanova, Cla?udio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, A?ngelo P.

2013-01-01

333

Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

Nanda Nutan

2012-09-01

334

Hospital use of chlorine disinfectants in a hepatitis B endemic area--a prevalence survey in twenty hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to assess the uses of chlorine disinfectants in twenty hospitals in Hong Kong. In the 149 areas visited, the charge nurses were interviewed on the use of chlorine disinfectants. A high proportion of uses (44%) were not at the recommended dilution and only 88 (57%) of the 154 samples were within +/- 10% of the manufacturers quoted chlorine content. Samples with inadequate chlorine were found among all six types of chlorine disinfectants, although sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets conformed to the quoted strength on 88% occasions. Higher usage frequency and better dilution practices were noted for hospitals with a disinfectant policy. PMID:2570101

Ching, T Y; Seto, W H

1989-07-01

335

Molecular characterization of Fasciola samples, collected from different host species coming from the endemic area of Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical animal breeding programs are important for achieving maximum gain, and any factors resulting in economical loss should be minimized or eliminated. An organism of concern is the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, which causes decreased yield and even death in sheep and dairy cattle. In an effort to eliminate or minimize the detrimental effect of this parasite in animals, it is important to understand the genetic diversity within the liver flukes and the relationship between this parasite and the host in the particular geographic area. The aim of this study was to explore genetic diversity by analyzing the mitochondrial ND1 and cyt b genes and Ribosomal ITS1-2 regions. With these analyses, the individual differences, the host animal differences and combined effects of these factors on genetic relationships have been determined. PMID:24881270

Dosay-Akbulut, Mine; Köse, Mustafa; Erdo?an, Metin; U?uz, Cevdet; Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Lenger, Omer F

2014-01-01

336

Historical relationships among areas of endemism in the tropical South America using Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA) / Relacionamentos históricos entre áreas endêmicas na região tropical da América do Sul utilizando a Análise de Parcimônia de Brooks (BPA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Áreas de endemismo são consideradas as menores unidades de análise biogeográfica, podendo ser definidas como regiões de concentração de organismos de distribuição restrita, gerada por fatores históricos. O presente estudo buscou examinar os relacionamentos históricos entre áreas de endemismo na regi [...] ão tropical da América do Sul por meio do método da Análise de Parcimônia de Brooks (BPA). Para tal, foram selecionados 12 taxa filogeneticamente distintos, distribuídos dentro de duas classificações de áreas endêmicas previamente propostas, visando: (1) comparar as classificações de áreas endêmicas; (2) examinar se a Amazônia e a Mata Atlântica são unidades biogeográficas verdadeiras; (3) avaliar se a inclusão de áreas de vegetação aberta influencia os relacionamentos entre áreas florestais vizinhas. Os cladogramas gerais de áreas revelaram uma separação basal entre as áreas Amazônicas e Atlânticas, sugerindo um longo período de isolamento. As áreas endêmicas da Mata Atlântica foram agrupadas em um único grupo, com uma seqüência de eventos vicariantes do norte em direção ao sul. A hipótese de que a Amazônia é uma área composta por unidades históricas distintas foi corroborada. A inclusão do Cerrado e Caatinga, alterou os relacionamentos internos entre áreas Amazônicas, indicando que os esquemas de classificação de áreas endêmicas que incluem tanto áreas florestais quanto abertas devem ser preferidos devido a complementaridade entre as histórias evolucionárias destas áreas. Abstract in english Areas of endemism are the smallest units of biogeographical analysis. One of its definitions is that these areas harbor organisms with restricted distributions caused by non random historical factors. The aim of this study was to examine historical relationships among areas of endemism in the Neotro [...] pics using Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). We applied BPA to 12 unrelated taxa distributed within two sets of endemic areas in order to: (1) compare the proposed endemic area classifications; (2) examine whether Amazonia and Atlantic Forest are true biogeographic units and, (3) examine whether the inclusion of open area formations influence area relationships of the surrounding forests. General area cladograms revealed a basal split between Amazonian and Atlantic forests, suggesting that these areas have been isolated for a long period of time. All Atlantic forest endemic areas formed a monophyletic cluster, showing a sequence of vicariant events from north to south. The hypothesis that Amazonia is a composite area, made up of different historical units, is herein corroborated. When Cerrado and Caatinga (grasslands and savannas) are included, internal area relationships within Amazonia change, indicating that area classification schemes comprising forests and open formations should be preferred given the complementary history of these areas.

Mário Sérgio, Sigrist; Claudio José Barros de, Carvalho.

2009-12-01

337

Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regar [...] ding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and significance was determined using chi-square (?2) and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032). Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

Kalidia Felipe de Lima, Costa; Sthenia Santos Albano, Amóra; Camila Fernandes de Amorim, Couto; Celeste da Silva Freitas de, Souza; Luanna Fernandes, Silva; Luiz Ney, d' Escoffier; Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de, Sousa; Thais Aparecida, Kazimoto.

2014-10-01

338

Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina / ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar si las areas de endemismo pueden ser caracterizadas cuantitativamente utilizando insectos, los cuales generalmente se encuentran mucho más pobremente muestreados que vertebrados y plantas. La búsqueda de areas de endemismo fue realizada utilizando un [...] criterio de optimalidad sobre aproximadamente 1,100 georreferencias de 288 especies de insectos holometábolos presentes en la región de estudio. Esta corresponde al noroeste de la Argentina, específicamente en las Yungas (un bosque lluvioso montano muy húmedo). El software NDM/VNDM, que aplica dicho criterio de optimalidad, fue usado para buscar areas de endemismo (i.e. conjuntos de celdas definidos por dos o más especies). Se utilizaron cinco tamaños de grilla: tres cuadrados (Iº, 0.5° y 0.25°) y dos rectangulares (0.25° x 0.5° y 0.5° x 0.25°). Los resultados de este estudio indican que las Yungas pueden ser caracterizadas como una unidad biogeográfica con identidad propia y estos resultados concuerdan con propuestas biogeográficas previas. Se obtuvieron 26 areas de endemismo con 23 especies endémicas de insectos (en 14 familias) restringidas a Yungas y 46 especies (en 10 familias) endémicas, presentes en Yungas y hábitats adyacentes. Nuestro análisis sugiere que el uso de insectos puede ser una herramienta poderosa para identificar areas de endemismo, aun considerando lo fragmentario del conocimiento actual de estos grupos en América del Sur. El uso de diferentes tamaños de grilla fue crucial. Tamaños pequeños y medianos son altamente recomendados para identificar patrones diferentes. El método cuantitativo utilizado permitió identificar areas de endemismo difíciles de reconocer con métodos biogeográficos tradicionales, tales como areas disyuntas o parcialmente superpuestas. Abstract in english The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1, [...] 100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest), located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion is implemented with the programs NDM/VNDM, used to evaluate areas of endemism (i.e. a set of cells defined by two or more endemic species). Five grid sizes were used, three square (Iº, 0.5°, and 0.25°) and two rectangular (0.25° x 0.5° and 0.5° x 0.25°). In agreement with the traditional biogeographic proposal, the results of the present study indicate that the Yungas can be characterized as a biogeographic unit with its own identity. Twenty six areas related to Yungas have shown 23 species of insects (in 14 families) as endemic, restricted to Yungas environment, and 46 species (in 10 families) as endemic, present in Yungas and surrounding habitats. Our analysis suggests that the use of insects to identify areas of endemism is a powerful tool, even considering the current fragmentary knowledge of these groups in South América. Given that there is no criterion to choose an optimal grid size, the use of different grid sizes is crucial; medium and small sizes are highly recommended because both identify seemingly different patterns. The quantitative method used here is useful to identify areas of endemism, such as disjoint areas or partially overlapping areas, which are difficult to see with other traditional biogeographic methods.

FERNANDO R, NAVARRO; FABIANA, CUEZZO; PABLO A, GOLOBOFF; CLAUDIA, SZUMIK; MERCEDES, LIZARRALDE DE GROSSO; M. GABRIELA, QUINTANA.

2009-12-01

339

Can insect data be used to infer areas of endemism?: An example from the Yungas of Argentina ¿Pueden utilizarse los datos de insectos para inferir áreas de endemismo?: Un ejemplo de las Yungas de Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether areas of endemism can be characterized quantitatively by using insects, which are typically much more poorly sampled than vertebrates or plants. For this, an optimality criterion in the search for endemic areas was used to analyze approximately 1,100 georeferences from 288 species of holometabolous insects found in the study region, the Yungas (a very moist, montane rainforest, located in north-western Argentina. The optimality criterion is implemented with the programs NDM/VNDM, used to evaluate areas of endemism (i.e. a set of cells defined by two or more endemic species. Five grid sizes were used, three square (Iº, 0.5°, and 0.25° and two rectangular (0.25° x 0.5° and 0.5° x 0.25°. In agreement with the traditional biogeographic proposal, the results of the present study indicate that the Yungas can be characterized as a biogeographic unit with its own identity. Twenty six areas related to Yungas have shown 23 species of insects (in 14 families as endemic, restricted to Yungas environment, and 46 species (in 10 families as endemic, present in Yungas and surrounding habitats. Our analysis suggests that the use of insects to identify areas of endemism is a powerful tool, even considering the current fragmentary knowledge of these groups in South América. Given that there is no criterion to choose an optimal grid size, the use of different grid sizes is crucial; medium and small sizes are highly recommended because both identify seemingly different patterns. The quantitative method used here is useful to identify areas of endemism, such as disjoint areas or partially overlapping areas, which are difficult to see with other traditional biogeographic methods.El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar si las areas de endemismo pueden ser caracterizadas cuantitativamente utilizando insectos, los cuales generalmente se encuentran mucho más pobremente muestreados que vertebrados y plantas. La búsqueda de areas de endemismo fue realizada utilizando un criterio de optimalidad sobre aproximadamente 1,100 georreferencias de 288 especies de insectos holometábolos presentes en la región de estudio. Esta corresponde al noroeste de la Argentina, específicamente en las Yungas (un bosque lluvioso montano muy húmedo. El software NDM/VNDM, que aplica dicho criterio de optimalidad, fue usado para buscar areas de endemismo (i.e. conjuntos de celdas definidos por dos o más especies. Se utilizaron cinco tamaños de grilla: tres cuadrados (Iº, 0.5° y 0.25° y dos rectangulares (0.25° x 0.5° y 0.5° x 0.25°. Los resultados de este estudio indican que las Yungas pueden ser caracterizadas como una unidad biogeográfica con identidad propia y estos resultados concuerdan con propuestas biogeográficas previas. Se obtuvieron 26 areas de endemismo con 23 especies endémicas de insectos (en 14 familias restringidas a Yungas y 46 especies (en 10 familias endémicas, presentes en Yungas y hábitats adyacentes. Nuestro análisis sugiere que el uso de insectos puede ser una herramienta poderosa para identificar areas de endemismo, aun considerando lo fragmentario del conocimiento actual de estos grupos en América del Sur. El uso de diferentes tamaños de grilla fue crucial. Tamaños pequeños y medianos son altamente recomendados para identificar patrones diferentes. El método cuantitativo utilizado permitió identificar areas de endemismo difíciles de reconocer con métodos biogeográficos tradicionales, tales como areas disyuntas o parcialmente superpuestas.

FERNANDO R NAVARRO

2009-12-01

340

Reduction in dengue cases observed during mass control of Aedes (Stegomyia) in street catch basins in an endemic urban area in Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue incidence continues to increase globally and, in the absence of an efficacious vaccine, prevention strategies are limited to vector control. It has been suggested that targeting the most productive breeding sites instead of all water-holding containers could be a cost-effective vector control strategy. We sought to identify and continuously control the most productive Aedes (Stegomyia) breeding site in an endemic urban area in Colombia and followed the subsequent incidence of dengue. In the urban area of Guadalajara de Buga, southwestern Colombia, potential breeding sites inside and outside houses were first characterized, and local personnel trained to assess their productivity based on the pupae/person index. Simultaneously, training and monitoring were implemented to improve the dengue case surveillance system. Entomological data and insecticide resistance studies were used to define the targeted intervention. Then, a quasi-experimental design was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of the positivity index of the targeted and non- targeted breeding sites, and the impact on dengue cases. Street catch basins (storm drains) were the potential breeding site most frequently found containing Aedes immature stages in the baseline (58.3% of 108). Due to the high resistance to temephos (0% mortality after 24h), the intervention consisted of monthly application of pyriproxyfen in all the street catch basins (n=4800). A significant decrease in catch basins positivity for Aedes larvae was observed after each monthly treatment (pAedes breeding sites and suggests that their targeted control could help to decrease dengue transmission in such areas. PMID:24388794

Ocampo, Clara B; Mina, Neila Julieth; Carabalí, Mabel; Alexander, Neal; Osorio, Lyda

2014-04-01

341

Randomised equivalency trial comparing 2.5% povidone?iodine eye drops and ophthalmic chloramphenicol for preventing neonatal conjunctivitis in a trachoma endemic area in southern Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of 2.5% povidone?iodine eye drops (PIED) compared with ophthalmic chloramphenicol (OC) for preventing neonatal conjunctivitis. Methods 2004 neonates were enrolled from three rural hospitals in a trachoma endemic area. They were randomly assigned to receive either PIED (n?=?1024) or OC (n?=?974). Infectious conjunctivitis was confirmed by laboratory methods, including specific search for Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results During the first 48?hours after birth, PIED and OC had similar efficacy against bacterial conjunctivitis (95% confidence interval (CI), ?0.031 to ?0.004; p?=?0.01); from day 3 to day 15, PIED was 6% less effective than OC (95% CI, ?0.058 to ?0.006; p?=?0.01); after day 16 there was no significant difference between the groups (95% CI, ?0.022 to 0.041; p?=?0.57). However, the risk of C?trachomatis conjunctivitis was increased in neonates receiving PIED prophylaxis (relative risk?=?1.99 (95% CI, 1.07 to 3.71), log?rank p?=?0.029). Ocular side effects were rare and self limiting in both groups (p?=?0.223). Conclusions PIED seems to increase the risk of acquiring chlamydial conjunctivitis in neonates. Additional measures are required to prevent mother to fetus transmission of chlamydial infection during pregnancy, delivery, and after birth. PMID:17947266

Ramirez?Ortiz, Marco A; Rodriguez?Almaraz, Manuel; Ochoa?DiazLopez, Héctor; Diaz?Prieto, Paulina; Rodriguez?Suárez, Romeo S

2007-01-01

342

Use of a simplified polymerase chain reaction procedure to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples from chronic chagasic patients in a rural endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for specific detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in human blood specimens was investigated. One hundred blood samples were collected in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil. They were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR amplification with kinetoplast DNA-specific primers using a simplified boiling procedure that linearized most minicircle molecules without the aid of chemical reagents. Samples that gave negative results were checked for possible inhibition of amplification using primers derived from a human-specific sequence, and those showing some level of inhibition were retested after a new DNA extraction. Of 86 patients previously diagnosed as chagasic by serologic techniques, 83 were positive in our PCR test (sensitivity = 96.5%), including all the xenodiagnosis-positive patients and 21 (87.5%) of 24 xenodiagnosis-negative individuals. In addition, four of six patients with doubtful serologic results were confirmed as positive by PCR. Our results suggest that the PCR may be a useful complement to serology in the diagnosis of Chagas' disease, and that it is the most powerful technique available for parasite detection in patients with chronic disease. PMID:7810810

Wincker, P; Britto, C; Pereira, J B; Cardoso, M A; Oelemann, W; Morel, C M

1994-12-01

343

The Effect of Antihelminthic Treatment on Subjects with Asthma from an Endemic Area of Schistosomiasis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of antihelminthic treatments on asthma severity in individuals living in an endemic area of schistosomiasis. Patients from group 1 received placebo of Albendazole or of Praziquantel and from group 2 received Albendazole and Praziquantel. Asthma severity was assessed by clinical scores and by pulmonary function test. There was no significant difference in the asthma scores from D0 to D1–D7 after Albendazole or Praziquantel and from D0 to D30–90 after Albendazole or Praziquantel in both, group 1 and 2. It was observed, however, a clinical worsening of the overall studied population after 6 months and 12 months of antihelminthic treatments. Additionally, we observed increased frequency of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <80% on 12 and 18 months after treatment. The worsening of asthma severity after repeated antihelminthic treatments is consistent with the hypothesis of the protective role conferred by helminths in atopic diseases. PMID:22934153

Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Lima, Givaneide S.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; de Souza, Robson P.; Campos, Régis A.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma

2012-01-01

344

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has [...] been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-? may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Lilian Rose, Pratt-Riccio; Cesare, Bianco-Junior; Paulo Renato Rivas, Totino; Daiana De Souza, Perce-Da-Silva; Luciene Aquino, Silva; Evelyn Kety Pratt, Riccio; Vítor, Ennes-Vidal; Ana Gisele Costa, Neves-Ferreira; Jonas, Perales; Surza Lucia Gonçalves Da, Rocha; Fabrício, Dias-Da-Silva; Maria de Fátima, Ferreira-da-Cruz; Cláudio Tadeu, Daniel-Ribeiro; Joseli De, Oliveira-Ferreira; Michael, Theisen; Leonardo José De Moura, Carvalho; Dalma Maria, Banic.

2011-08-01

345

Polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of the 121-bp repetitive sequence of Schistosoma mansoni: a highly sensitive potential diagnostic tool for areas of low endemicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, whose diagnosis has limitations, such as the low sensitivity and specificity of parasitological and immunological methods, respectively. In the present study an alternative molecular technique requiring previous standardization was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of a 121-bp highly repetitive sequence for Schistosoma mansoni. DNA was extracted from eggs of S. mansoni by salting out. Different conditions were standardized for the PCR technique, including the concentration of reagents and the DNA template, annealing temperature and number of cycles, followed by the determination of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Furthermore, the standardized PCR technique was employed in DNA extracted, using Chelex®100, from samples of sera of patients with an immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. The optimal conditions for the PCR were 2.5 mm MgCl2, 150 mm deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.4 ?m primers, 0.75 U DNA polymerase, using 35 cycles and an annealing temperature of 63°C. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was 10 attograms of DNA and the specificity was 100%. The DNA sequence was successfully detected in the sera of two patients, demonstrating schistosomiasis transmission, although low, in the community studied. The standardized PCR technique, using smaller amounts of reagents than in the original protocol, is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of DNA from S. mansoni and could be an important tool for diagnosis in areas of low endemicity. PMID:25141275

Ferrer, E; Pérez, F; Bello, I; Bolívar, A; Lares, M; Osorio, A; León, L; Amarista, M; Incani, R N

2014-08-20

346

Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibodyresponse induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-a may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.

Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco, Cesare

2011-01-01

347

The impact of repeated treatment with praziquantel of schistosomiasis in children under six years of age living in an endemic area for Schistosoma haematobium infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Praziquantel was given every eight weeks for two years to children aged under six years of age, living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Infection with S. haematobium and haematuria were examined in urine and antibody profiles (IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 against S. haematobium adult worm and egg antigens were determined from sera collected before each treatment. Chemotherapy reduced infection prevalence and mean intensity from 51.8% and 110 eggs per 10 ml urine, respectively, before starting re-treatment programme to very low levels thereafter. Praziquantel is not accumulated after periodic administration in children. Immunoglobulin levels change during the course of treatment with a shift towards 'protective' mechanisms. The significant changes noted in some individuals were the drop in 'blocking' IgG2 and IgG4 whereas the 'protecting' IgA and IgG1 levels increased. The antibody profiles in the rest of the children remained generally unchanged throughout the study and no haematuria was observed after the second treatment. The removal of worms before production of large number of eggs, prevented the children from developing morbidity.

Mduluza T

2001-01-01

348

Socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Montenegro skin test positivity in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

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Full Text Available In Marocco, many aspects of human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL still have to be clarified and little information is available about the factors that predispose individuals to asymptomatic infection. A prospective study was carried out in 889 healthy children under the age of 15 years living in two provinces in the endemic area in northern Morocco (the provinces of Taounate and My Yacoub from April to May 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the socio-economic and environmental characteristics associated with infection by Leishmania infantum. The Montenegro skin test (MST was used to detect asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of transmission of infection was 11.4% and approximately 2 times higher in Taounate than in My Yacoub, as measured by MST. Asymptomatic infection was associated with gender, age, presence of familial links, proximity to chickens, and the number of people in the house and locality, but it was not associated to education status, presence of dogs, livestock waste, sewage disposal, water supply system or use of insecticides

Hamid Amarouch

2012-01-01

349

Ectoparasites and anti-Leishmania antibodies: association in an observational case-control study of dogs from a Brazilian endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been proposed that the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis might involve the participation of mechanical vectors, including ticks of the family Ixodidae, in particular the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis. Here, the association between the infestation by R. sanguineus and C. felis felis and the occurrence of anti-Leishmania antibodies was evaluated in an observational case-control study of dogs living in a Brazilian endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Blood samples were taken once every three months for one year from 96 initially seronegative domestic dogs, and submitted to indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. All dogs were evaluated for the presence of ticks and fleas, and the results were expressed qualitatively as infested or non-infested, irrespective of the intensity of infestation. At the end of follow-up, twenty dogs had turned seropositive, while 68 remained seronegative and 8 were excluded because of incomplete data. All the dogs were asymptomatic. The odds of infection was significantly greater (OR=3.54, CI95%=1.10-12.53) for dogs infested by C. felis felis compared to their non-infested counterparts. In contrast, the odds of infection showed no significance difference between non-infested and R. sanguineus-infested groups of dogs (OR=0.31, CI95%=0.03-1.52). This study provides further evidence for the potential role of C. felis felis in mechanically transmitting Leishmania among the canine population. PMID:23932895

Paz, Gustavo F; Reis, Ilka A; Avelar, Daniel M; da Mata Ferreira, Elisa C; Werneck, Guilherme L

2013-10-01

350

Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous [...] leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043). Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

Ana Maria, Marassa; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Denise Pimentel, Bergamaschi; Cleide Aschenbrenner, Consales.

2013-09-01

351

Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area.  

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High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23±0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7±21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27±0.01 mM and 571.4±63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments. PMID:22018869

Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Lin, Po-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Chang, Fi-John; Yu, Chan-Wei

2011-12-15

352

The impact of repeated treatment with praziquantel of schistosomiasis in children under six years of age living in an endemic area for Schistosoma haematobium infection  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Praziquantel was given every eight weeks for two years to children aged under six years of age, living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Infection with S. haematobium and haematuria were examined in urine and antibody profiles (IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) against S. haematobi [...] um adult worm and egg antigens were determined from sera collected before each treatment. Chemotherapy reduced infection prevalence and mean intensity from 51.8% and 110 eggs per 10 ml urine, respectively, before starting re-treatment programme to very low levels thereafter. Praziquantel is not accumulated after periodic administration in children. Immunoglobulin levels change during the course of treatment with a shift towards 'protective' mechanisms. The significant changes noted in some individuals were the drop in 'blocking' IgG2 and IgG4 whereas the 'protecting' IgA and IgG1 levels increased. The antibody profiles in the rest of the children remained generally unchanged throughout the study and no haematuria was observed after the second treatment. The removal of worms before production of large number of eggs, prevented the children from developing morbidity.

T, Mduluza; PD, Ndhlovu; TM, Madziwa; N, Midzi; R, Zinyama; CMR, Turner; SK, Chandiwana; N, Nyazema; P, Hagan.

2001-09-01

353

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring [...] stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (

Paulo Silva de, Almeida; Jhoy Alves, Leite; Aldecir Dutra de, Araújo; Paulo Mira, Batista; Rosineide Barbosa da Silva, Touro; Vânia Santos, Araújo; Edson José de, Souza; João Batista, Rodrigues; Gerson Antunes de, Oliveira; Jeovaldo Vieira dos, Santos; Odival, Faccenda; José Dilermando, Andrade Filho.

2013-03-01

354

Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.  

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The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season. PMID:24581349

de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

2013-12-01

355

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b), na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usa [...] das para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae) usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae) 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae) 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae) 2%. Abstract in english This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to trea [...] t skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae.) 2%.

Flávio, França; Ednaldo L., Lago; Philip D., Marsden.

1996-06-01

356

Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

F Ahmadipour

2011-05-01

357

Elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from formerly endemic areas in mountainous regions of southern China using a praziquantel regimen.  

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Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Domestic animals play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. To better understand the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals in the mountainous areas of China, we performed a 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis in cattle and horses in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2013. We also performed a concurrent drug-based intervention study in three settlement groups in Yunnan Province aimed at developing an effective means of controlling transmission in this region. The prevalence of infection in cattle fluctuated between 1.67% and 3.05% from 2009 to 2011, and monthly treatments of schistosome-positive animals reduced the prevalence to 0% (P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013. Prior to the intervention, we found that schistosomiasis was prevalent from May to October, with the highest prevalence observed in June (10.00%). We surveyed for environmental schistosome contamination, and 94.29% of the miracidia found were from cattle. Our study showed that it is possible to eliminate schistosomiasis in domestic animals in the mountainous regions of China by monthly treating cattle and horses from schistosome-positive households from May to October. PMID:25591407

Li, Hao; Dong, Guo-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Gao, Jian-Xing; Shi, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Guo; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lu, Ke; Cheng, Guo-Feng; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

2015-03-15

358

Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older children.

Conway David J

2010-06-01

359

"SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IRRITABILITY LEVELS OF MAIN MALARIA VECTORS TO SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS IN THE ENDEMIC AREAS OF IRAN"  

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Full Text Available The rational use of insecticides largely depends on a broad knowledge of the susceptibility and irritability levels of malaria vectors to currently used insecticides especially pyrethroids. In this study the susceptibility and irritability levels of Anopheles stephensi and An.culicifacies to DDT 4%,malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.025%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%, cyfluthrin 0.1% and permethrin 0.25% were determined. Susceptibility and irritability tests on adult mosquitoes were carried out according to WHO methods. The results showed that An.stephensi was resistant to DDT 4% and mortality rates to this insecticide in Gavdary and Abtar areas were 64.2%±3.9 and 61.8%±4.36, respectively. An.stephensi was assumed susceptible to other insecticides. An.culicifacies was found susceptible to all the tested insecticides. The irritability tests carried out with pyrethroids exhibited that permethrin 0.25% had the highest irritancy effect against both species. Lambdacyhalothrin 0.1% and deltamethrin 0.025% had the least irritancy effect against An.stephensi and An.culicifacies, respectively. Average numbers of take offs/females/minute of An.stephensi to permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin were 6.64±1.04, 3.11±0.67, 2.73±0.61 and 2.57±0.67, respectively. These figures for An.culicifacies were 2.24±0.37, 1.44±0.38, 1.59±0.35 and 1.46±0.5, respectively. Irritancy effect of pyrethroids should come in consideration while they are used for control of malaria vectors.

H. Vatandosst N. Borhani

2004-09-01

360

Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) / Áreas de endemismo del Océano Austral: un re-análisis basado en datos adicionales de hidroides bentónicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia biogeográfica de la fauna del océano Antártico (OA) es compleja y está poco estudiada, principalmente en relación a las áreas de endemismo. Se ha reanalizado los datos de Marques & Peña Cantero (2010) junto con otros registros geográficos de hidrozoos bentónicos endémicos de la zona abaj [...] o de los 45°S. Una Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE) a partir de una matriz de 5° latitud por 5° longitud con 61 especies, obtuvo ocho áreas de endemismo. Se discute los resultados tomando en cuenta diferentes hipótesis sobre la evolución de la fauna del OA y los patrones biogeográficos de la literatura. Abstract in english The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO) fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010), along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) [...] based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

Thaís P, Miranda; Álvaro L, Peña Cantero; Antonio C, Marques.

1003-10-01

361

Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana  

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A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

Hall, L.

1982-01-01

362

Human ocular onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of canine onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi are increasingly reported from Europe and the western United States of America. The zoonotic role of this parasite had already been suspected in Europe as the clinical signs and histopathology seen in two ocular cases from Albania and the Crimean region were very similar to those of canine ocular onchocerciasis. In the most recent reports of human onchocerciasis, O. lupi has been morphologically and molecularly identified as the causative agent of ocular infestation in two patients from Turkey, and one patient from Tunisia. Here, we report an additional case of nodular lesions involving two, and possibly more, immature worms in a patient from Iran. The parasite was found to belong to the genus Onchocerca based on morphological features and the species was confirmed as O. lupi from a partial sequence analysis of 12S ribosomal DNA. PMID:23388686

Mowlavi, G; Farzbod, F; Kheirkhah, A; Mobedi, I; Bowman, D D; Naddaf, S R

2014-06-01

363

Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection  

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Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

Ayoola Ayobanji

2001-01-01

364

Behaviour and population dynamics of the major anopheline vectors in a malaria endemic area in southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheline mosquitoes consist of a large number of species each of whichdiffers from another in population, resting and feeding behaviour in relation to the prevailing conditionsin the locality. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the population dynamics, restingand feeding behaviour of the major anopheline species found in a rain forest zone of Nigeria.Methods: Mosquitoes resting and biting indoors were collected using WHO standard techniques andsupplemented with outdoor-biting collections in the study areas between January and December2004. Samples were sorted and identified microscopically for morphological features while molecularidentification was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques.Results: PCR-based tests showed that both indoor and outdoor collections constitute three groups ofAnopheles mosquitoes, An. gambiae s.l. Giles (68.6%, An. funestus Giles (30.7% and An. mouchetiEvans (0.7%. Of the 1,342 female Anopheles mosquitoes collected indoors, 799 were caught restingand 543 were caught biting. The outdoor-biting population accounted for 28.8% of the total collections(n =1885. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the biting activities (indoors and outdoorsof these species in four villages. However, An. arabiensis and An. moucheti were more exophagicwith >60% of their biting occurring outdoors while An. gambiae and An. funestus were moreendophagic with >55% of their biting occurring indoors. The human-vector contact with An. gambiaeand An. funestus (indoors was about 73.3 and 66.7%, respectively as against 27.7% in An. arabiensisand 25.3% in An. moucheti. This gave the corresponding man-biting rates (MBR of 17.5 bites/man/night for An. gambiae, 14.6 bites/man/night for An. funestus, 6.7 bites/man/night for An. arabiensisand 4.3 bites/man/night for An. moucheti. Moreover, the number of An. gambiae and An. funestuscaught resting indoors was significantly higher than the other two species (p <0.05. The wet seasoncollections showed that An. gambiae caught were more than 67% of the total catch while An. arabiensiswas predominant in the dry season (?2 = 75.44, df = 3, p <0.01.Interpretation & conclusion: The present study highlights some aspects of the behaviour ofanopheline mosquitoes in southern Nigeria which is an important component of epidemiologicalstudy of malaria. This information provides basis to the understanding of the role played by theidentified anopheline species in malaria transmission and a baseline to formulate malaria controlprogramme.

I.O. Oyewole

2007-03-01

365

Immunity to Onchocerciasis: Cells from Putatively Immune Individuals Produce Enhanced Levels of Interleukin-5, Gamma Interferon, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Response to Onchocerca volvulus Larval and Male Worm Antigens  

OpenAIRE

Antigen-specific interleukin-5 (IL-5), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) responses in individuals living in an area of hyperendemicity for onchocerciasis in Cameroon were examined. The responses against antigens prepared from Onchocerca volvulus third-stage larvae (L3), molting L3 (mL3), and crude extract from adult males (M-OvAg) were compared to the responses against antigens from adult female worms and skin microfilariae. Cytokine resp...

Turaga, Prasad S. D.; Tierney, Tracy J.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Mccarthy, Maggie C.; Simonek, Scott C.; Enyong, Peter A.; Moukatte, Daniel W.; Lustigman, Sara

2000-01-01

366

Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.  

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The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. PMID:23290449

Durán, David; Rey, L; Sánchez-Cañizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T

2013-03-01

367

Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities' Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia.  

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Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

2015-02-01

368

The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

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Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

B.O. Rikhotso

2012-06-01

369

Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State  

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Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

E. Pittner

2009-06-01

370

Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

Paulo Silva de Almeida

2013-03-01

371

High rates of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: epidemiological consequences.  

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Leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. However, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. Our focus was on another lagomorph, Oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. This species is native to the Iberian Peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of Spain. In an endemic area for canine leishmaniasis in the southeast of Spain, 150 rabbits were captured over a period of three years. Samples of blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen, heart and skin were taken and analysed through parasitological, serological and molecular techniques in order to detect Leishmania and Trypanosoma. 20.7% of the rabbits were infected with L. infantum and 82.4% with Trypanosoma nabiasi, and 14.8% of mixed infections were detected. Both parasites were found in all the animal organs analysed, a factor which, along with the presence of serological cross-reactions, must be taken into account in epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis. O. cuniculus is an abundant and gregarious species, with a long enough average lifespan to ensure L. infantum transmission. The presence of the parasite in the skin and blood of these rabbits with no acute manifestation of disease ensures its contact with the vector, which finds in their warrens a suitable biotope to inhabit. The rabbit therefore seems to meet the most of conditions for being considered a reservoir host of L. infantum. PMID:24774436

Díaz-Sáez, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morales-Yuste, M; Corpas-López, V; Pratlong, F; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

2014-05-28

372

Serum proteome changes in dengue virus-infected patients from a dengue-endemic area of India: towards new molecular targets?  

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The global burden of dengue continues to worsen, specifically in tropical and subtropical countries, and has evolved as a major public health problem. We investigated the changes in serum proteome in dengue fever (DF) patients from a dengue-endemic area of India to obtain mechanistic insights about the disease pathogenesis, the host immune response, and identification of potential serum protein biomarkers of this infectious disease. In this study, serum samples from DF patients, healthy subjects, and patients with falciparum malaria (an infectious disease control) were investigated by 2D-DIGE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The findings were validated with Western blotting. Functional clustering of the identified proteins was performed using PANTHER and DAVID tools. Compared to the healthy controls, we found significant changes in the expression levels of 48 protein spots corresponding to 18 unique proteins (7 downregulated and 11 upregulated) in DF patients (p<0.05). Among these differentially-expressed proteins, 11 candidates exhibited different trends in dengue fever compared to falciparum malaria. Importantly, our results suggest that dengue virus infection leads to alterations in expression levels of multiple serum proteins involved in diverse and vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, complement cascades, hemostasis, and blood coagulation. For the first time we report here that the serum levels of hemopexin, haptoglobin, serum amyloid P, and kininogen precursor, are altered in DF. This study informs the pathogenesis and host immune response to dengue virus infection, as well as the current search for new diagnostic and molecular drug targets. PMID:22917478

Ray, Sandipan; Srivastava, Rajneesh; Tripathi, Karnika; Vaibhav, Vineet; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

2012-10-01

373

Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedimentary microcosm showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but not arsenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An As(V)-reducing bacterium (ARS-3) native to aquifer sediments was isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ARS-3 showed microbial reduction of As(V) to As(III) in pore water in this aquifer. - Abstract: High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23 {+-} 0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7 {+-} 21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27 {+-} 0.01 mM and 571.4 {+-} 63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments.

Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: vivianliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Lin, Po-Cheng [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Xu-Zhou Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Chang, Fi-John; Yu, Chan-Wei [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-12-15

374

Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Sedimentary microcosm showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). ? Addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but not arsenic. ? An As(V)-reducing bacterium (ARS-3) native to aquifer sediments was isolated. ? ARS-3 showed microbial reduction of As(V) to As(III) in pore water in this aquifer. - Abstract: High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23 ± 0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7 ± 21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27 ± 0.01 mM and 571.4 ± 63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments.

375

Trypanosoma cruzi among wild and domestic mammals in different areas of the Abaetetuba municipality (Pará State, Brazil), an endemic Chagas disease transmission area.  

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The presence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) due to oral transmission is growing and expanding in several South American countries. Within the Amazon basin, the Abaetetuba municipality has been a site of recurrent cases spanning across distinct landscapes. Because Chagas disease is primarily a zoonotic infection, we compared the enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles in three different environmental areas of Abaetetuba to better understand this new epidemiological situation. Philander opossum was the most abundant mammalian species collected (38% of the collected mammals) with a T. cruzi prevalence of 57%, as determined by hemocultures. Didelphis marsupialis was abundant only in the area with the higher level of environmental disturbance (approximately 42%) and did not yield detectable parasitemia. Despite similarities observed in the composition of the small mammalian fauna and the prevalence of T. cruzi infection among the studied areas, the potential of these hosts to infect vectors differed significantly according to the degree of land use (with prevalences of 5%, 41%, and 64% in areas A3, A1 and A2, respectively). Domestic mammals were also found to be infected, and one canine T. cruzi isolate was obtained. Our data demonstrated that the transmission of T. cruzi in the Amazon basin is far more complex than had been previously taught and showed that the probability of humans and domestic mammals coming into contact with infected bugs can vary dramatically, even within the same municipality. The exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection (indicated by positive serology) was the common feature among the studied localities, stressing the importance of selecting domestic mammals as sentinels in the identification of T. cruzi transmission hotspots. PMID:23261089

Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta C C; Gerhardt, Marconny; Silva, Miguel F O; Lima, Valdirene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Jansen, Ana M

2013-03-31

376

Identification of areas of endemism from species distribution models: threshold selection and Nearctic mammals / Identificación de áreas de endemismo a partir de modelos de distribución de especies: selección de umbrales y mamíferos neárticos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Evaluamos la relevancia de la selección del umbral en los modelos de distribución de especies en la delimitación de las áreas de endemismo, usando como un caso de estudio a los mamíferos de América del Norte. Modelamos 40 especies de mamíferos endémicos de la región Neártica con Maxent, y transforma [...] mos esos modelos a mapas binarios usando cuatro umbrales diferentes: presencia mínima de entrenamiento, percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento, igual sensibilidad y especificidad de entrenamiento, y probabilidad logística de 0.5. Los mapas binarios los analizamos con el método de optimación con el objeto de identificar áreas de endemismo y comparar nuestros resultados con estudios previos. La mayoría de las especies mostró tendencias hacia valores muy bajos de la presencia mínima de entrenamiento, mientras que la mayoría tuvo un valor del percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento alrededor de 0.5, y de igual sensibilidad y especificidad de entrenamiento alrededor de 0.3. Únicamente con el percentil diez de la presencia de entrenamiento se recuperaron tres de los cuatro patrones de endemismo identificados para América del Norte y se detectaron más especies endémicas. La identifica