WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Cesium determination for the DWPF off-gas system performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to determine the cesium decontamination factors (DF`s) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter off-gas system at the Savannah River Site, the system was verified during an off-gas performance test. The off-gas performance test occurred during the DWPF waste Qualification Campaigns, WP-16 and WP-17. The verification of the off-gas system, which eliminated the need for a startup test involving a radioactive cesium addition, was based on the analysis of nonradioactive cesium across the first and second stage High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The amount of cesium on the first and second stage HEPA filters was determined by leaching samples from each HEPA filter with nitric acid and analyzing the leachate using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method has been demonstrated to be sufficiently sensitive to measure small quantities of cesium on filters. Based on the cesium results of the HEPA filter, cesium DF`s were calculated. The DF`s indicated that the DWPF HEPA filters performed better than the design basis. In addition to the HEPA filters, a determination of the cesium concentration in the melter feed, the canister glass and the off-gas condensate was made. These analyses provided information on cesium flow through the DWPF. This paper will focus on the methods used in the determination of nonradioactive cesium and the calculation of the DF`s for the DWPF melter off-gas system.

Andrews, M.K.; Elder, H.H.; Boyce, W.T.

1996-04-11

2

HC-21C off-gas test procedure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future. This test procedure will include a series of tests to determine where and why liquid is condensing in the HC-21C furnace off-gas system. The tests will take a sequential, graded approach and may be concluded one the results have satisfactorily resolved the problem.

Cunningham, L.T.

1994-12-14

3

HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future

1995-01-01

4

Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results.

Wright, G.T.

2001-08-16

5

Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625 (9%), and Hastelloy C-276 (16%), as well as titanium and zirconium, remained free of attack under all conditions tested. When the other materials, notably the austenitic stainless steels, were exposed to gas streams containing even only low concentrations of iodine and water vapors at 25 and 40/sup 0/C, a highly corrosive, brownish-green liquid formed on their surfaces. In the complete absence of water vapor, the iodine-containing liquid did not form and all materials remained unaffected. The liquid that formed had a low pH (usually < 1), and the attack was about the same in either air or nitrogen. The rate of attack increased with increasing temperature at constant relative humidity but decreased with increasing temperature at constant water content. The severity of attack increased with the increasing water content of the gas except under conditions where relatively large amounts of water were present, such as on a condensing surface. Nitric acid and NO/sub 2/ inhibited attack.

Beavers, J.A.; Berry, W.E.; Griess, J.C.

1981-11-01

6

OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

Nick Soelberg

2007-05-01

7

OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON TEST RESULTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL ''sodium bearing waste'' (SBW), liquid ''low activity waste'' (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (''Tank 48H waste'') have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

2007-01-01

8

Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination reaction and deactivation by siloxanes. A simple Arrhenius equation was applied for the model and the poisoning behavior was represented using several parameters determined by experiments. We reproduced the experimental poisoning behavior as the outlet hydrogen concentration with the developed model. (author)

2011-01-01

9

ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. A simulant of the DWPF SB4 feed was successfully fed and melted in a small pilot-scale CCIM system during two test series. The OGSE tests provide initial results that (a) provide melter operating conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated periodically on-demand. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was operated with a target melt temperature of either 1,250oC or 1,300oC, and with either a partial or complete cold cap of unmelted feed on top of the molten glass. Samples of all input and output streams including the starting glass, the simulant feed, the off-gas particulate matter, product glass, and deposits removed from the crucible and off-gas pipe after the test were collected for analysis.

Nick Soelberg

2009-04-01

10

Test results in the treatment of HTR reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT II-facility (throughput 10 m3/h, STP) for the clean up of the burner off-gas has been tested with synthetic off-gas and with off-gas from cold burner tests. The results are reported. During dissolution of the burner ash in nitric acid an off-gas is formed whose main component is air and which, besides the gaseous fission products, contains NO/sub x/. Before the separation of the gaseous fission products NO/sub x/ and/or O2 are removed by reaction with H2 or NH3. For these reactions catalysts were used. Because of the known disadvantages of catalytic systems, like reduction in efficiency by poisoning or thermal influence, the alternative method of thermal, flameless reduction was tested. The reactions were carried out in a stainless steel and a quartz reactor. Throughput, reaction temperature, O2-, NO/sub x/-, H2-, and NH3-concentrations respectively were varied. The goal of these tests was to remove O2 and NO/sub x/ to below 1 ppM behind the reactor and NH3 to below the detection limit of 50 ppM. It was found that at a reaction temperature of 7500C in the stainless steel reactor these goals can be reached for both H2 and NH3 as reducing agents. In the quartz reactor only the O2-H2-reaction takes place. Obviously stainless steel acts as a catalyst for all other reactions.

1983-01-01

11

Testing and evaluation of off-gas filters for bioreactors by a new bacterial aerosol challenge test method (TBAC).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A TNO bacterial aerosol challenge (TBAC) filter test rig was developed for direct assessment of the effectiveness of bioreactor off-gas filters as an alternative to routinely applied indirect wet integrity testing (IT). This TBAC test rig is based on bacterial aerosol challenging with Pseudomonas diminuta and dual monitoring by laser particle counting (LPC) and Andersen microbial sampling (AMS) of viable cells. The TBAC filter test rig is able to reproduce the various conditions encountered in fermentation processes. In experiments with several filters from one class, it was demonstrated that some filters were actually penetrated by up to 3,000 viable cells per test, despite their approval by commercially available IT test equipment. Repetitive filter use, prolonged use, and autoclaving of filters resulted in an increase in pressure drop over the filter but improved the performance of leaking/deviant filters due to building up of a filter cake (this phenomenon was identified by electron microscopy). The integrity tests used were found inadequate for accurate assessment of filter quality. Certification of filter lots by random tests of commercially available off-gas filters using sensitive direct methods such as those presented here might be advisable, as not all filters purchased were of appropriate quality.

Kastelein J; Logtenberg MT; Hesselink PG

1992-07-01

12

Testing and evaluation of off-gas filters for bioreactors by a new bacterial aerosol challenge test method (TBAC).  

Science.gov (United States)

A TNO bacterial aerosol challenge (TBAC) filter test rig was developed for direct assessment of the effectiveness of bioreactor off-gas filters as an alternative to routinely applied indirect wet integrity testing (IT). This TBAC test rig is based on bacterial aerosol challenging with Pseudomonas diminuta and dual monitoring by laser particle counting (LPC) and Andersen microbial sampling (AMS) of viable cells. The TBAC filter test rig is able to reproduce the various conditions encountered in fermentation processes. In experiments with several filters from one class, it was demonstrated that some filters were actually penetrated by up to 3,000 viable cells per test, despite their approval by commercially available IT test equipment. Repetitive filter use, prolonged use, and autoclaving of filters resulted in an increase in pressure drop over the filter but improved the performance of leaking/deviant filters due to building up of a filter cake (this phenomenon was identified by electron microscopy). The integrity tests used were found inadequate for accurate assessment of filter quality. Certification of filter lots by random tests of commercially available off-gas filters using sensitive direct methods such as those presented here might be advisable, as not all filters purchased were of appropriate quality. PMID:1368427

Kastelein, J; Logtenberg, M T; Hesselink, P G

1992-07-01

13

Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

1992-03-01

14

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies.

1993-01-01

15

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development`s Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies.

Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

1993-12-01

16

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

1995-01-23

17

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

1995-01-01

18

Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

1997-01-01

19

Experimental engineering section off-gas decontamination facility's fractionator column: installation and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed description of the third column recently installed in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility (EES-ODF) is presented. The EES-ODF is being used to provide engineering-scale experiments (nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively) in the development of the Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2 (KALC) process. A detailed discussion of the column's construction is provided. This discussion includes the peripherals associated with the column, such as refrigeration, heat exchangers, instrumentation, etc. The compressibility of Goodloe packing (the packing in the other columns) and the possible reduced throughput due to this compression have revealed the desirablility of a random (i.e., noncompressible) packing. Toward this end, the third column is packed with a new random packing (PRO-PAK). A preliminary comparison between this packing and the woven wire mesh packing (Goodloe) used in the other two columns has been made. Experiments comparing the throughput capacity indicate that the PRO-PAK packing has approximately 60% the capacity of Goodloe for a CO2 system. When used as a fractionator or stripper with the basic O2-Kr-CO2 KALC system, the PRO-PAK column produced HTU values less than or equal to the GOODLOE columns under similar operating conditions

1978-01-01

20

Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

Wilson, C.N.

1996-06-28

 
 
 
 
21

Dissolution tests of spent fuel in the NUCEF ??-cell including dissolver off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolution tests of 8,000 MWd/t PWR spent fuel were carried out in the ?? cell of NUCEF as the first stage of a series of experimental works using spent fuels. The present dissolution tests included dissolution of 1.5 kg of the spent fuel, iodine treatment using AgS(silver impregnated silica gel), clarification, and preparation of dissolver solution for the extraction tests following the dissolution tests. Capture of carbon-14 was also studied in the dissolution tests. Dissolution behavior was studied by the concentration measurement of U, Pu, gamma species (Cs-134 and Cs-137, Eu-154 and Eu-155, Am-241), and other fission products (Sr, Ba, Zr, Mo, Ru, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pr). Insoluble residue was also analyzed by sampling and filtering the dissolver solution. In addition, amounts of I-129 and C-14 trapped were measured. Change in U concentration of dissolver solution showed that most of the dissolution of U finished at about 100 minutes after the dissolution was started. Dissolution behavior of the gamma species and FPs were shown to be almost the same as the U dissolution behavior. Iodine was removed from the dissolver solution at the iodine stripping tank in two steps. Total amount of iodine-129 trapped in AgS columns during the tests was found to be 2.10 x 105 Bq which corresponded to about 63% of the iodine-129 amount estimated by ORIGEN calculation. Amount of carbon-14 was measured to be about 2 x 106 Bq, which suggested that at least several ppms of nitrogen-14 was initially contained in the fuel as impurity. Analysis of insoluble residue showed that Ru, Mo, Pd, and Zr were major elements contained. The molar ratio between Mo and Zr contained in the residue and the X-ray diffractometry of residue suggested that zirconium molybdate precipitated during the dissolution. The dissolution tests successfully recovered about 94% of U amount contained initially in spent fuel. The U and nitric acid concentrations of the U product, which was used in the extraction tests, were 291.6 gU/L and 3.23 N, respectively. (author)

1999-01-01

22

Long-Term Performance of Sulfer-Impregnated Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) for Mercury Removal from NWCF Off-Gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive, Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) from past nuclear fuel reprocessing is currently being stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Calcination of the SBW in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF), upgraded with off-gas treatment technology to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules is being considered as a waste treatment option. Mercury is a volatile component of the SBW. Current flow sheets and off-gas monitoring results from past NWCF operations have indicated that future mercury emissions may exceed the proposed (MACT) limit of 45 ug/dscm (micrograms/dry standard cubic meter) normalized to 7% O2 for existing Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWC) if modifications are not made.

2003-01-01

23

AFCI Fuel Reprocessing R and D: Performance of the Coupled End-to-End: Integrated Voloxidation and Dissolver Off-gas Treatment Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ORNL is conducting a complete, coupled end-to-end (CETE) demonstration of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing to support the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). These multi-kilogram scale reprocessing operations provide a unique opportunity to test integrated off-gas treatment systems designed to recover the primary volatile fission and activation products ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I) released from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during the head-end operations. The CETE project is demonstrating an advanced dry head-end process referred to as Voloxidation designed to condition the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), separate the SNF from the cladding, and release of tritium contained in the fuel matrix. The off-gas from this process as well as from the more traditional fuel dissolution process will be treated separately and the volatile components recovered. The CETE has recently completed the voloxidation of three batches of SNF. This paper will provide descriptions of the head end operations and the off-gas treatment systems for both the Voloxidation process and for the fuel dissolution process, and provide preliminary results from the CETE processing runs using two different spent fuels. Impacts of processing parameters on the relative quantities of volatile components released and recovery efficiencies will be discussed. (authors)

Jubin, Robert T.; DelCul, Guillermo D.; Giaquinto, Joseph M.; Meyers, E. Steve; Ramey, Daniel W.; Owens, R. Steven; Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6243, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2009-06-15

24

AFCI Fuel Reprocessing R and D: Performance of the Coupled End-to-End: Integrated Voloxidation and Dissolver Off-gas Treatment Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ORNL is conducting a complete, coupled end-to-end (CETE) demonstration of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing to support the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). These multi-kilogram scale reprocessing operations provide a unique opportunity to test integrated off-gas treatment systems designed to recover the primary volatile fission and activation products (3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I) released from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during the head-end operations. The CETE project is demonstrating an advanced dry head-end process referred to as Voloxidation designed to condition the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), separate the SNF from the cladding, and release of tritium contained in the fuel matrix. The off-gas from this process as well as from the more traditional fuel dissolution process will be treated separately and the volatile components recovered. The CETE has recently completed the voloxidation of three batches of SNF. This paper will provide descriptions of the head end operations and the off-gas treatment systems for both the Voloxidation process and for the fuel dissolution process, and provide preliminary results from the CETE processing runs using two different spent fuels. Impacts of processing parameters on the relative quantities of volatile components released and recovery efficiencies will be discussed. (authors)

2009-01-01

25

Method for freezing out xenon from the dissolver off-gas from fuel reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A laboratory arrangement on the basis of an evaporator-type cryostatic temperature regulator with LN2 cooling has been developed to separate radioactive xenon impurities by freezing out from the dissolver off-gas from fuel reprocessing plants. This simple cryotrapping principle enables freezing out of xenon controlled only by temperature. This is confirmed by the results of extensive test performed with simulated dissolver off-gas mixes (having a xenon content

1984-01-01

26

Off-gas desulfurization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is intended to overcome the defects in the wet off-gas desulfurization process. Such a process comprises contacting an off-gas containing sulfur dioxide with an absorbing solution containing an organic carboxylate, and oxidizing the resulting absorbed solution with an oxygen-containing gas while neutralizing the absorbed solution with limestone to convert the sulfur dioxide in the off-gas into gypsum for removal. The invention is characterized in that in an off-gas desulfurization process as described, a thiocyanate is added to said absorbing solution containing the organic carboxylate. The addition of a thiocyanate to the absorbing solution makes it possible to inhibit the decomposition of the organic carboxylic acid in the absorbing solution. Experiments are presented which illustrate this process. 1 tab.

Kudo, Y.

1987-05-19

27

Off-gas control project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program to develop and study off-gas abatement techniques has recently been initiated at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). This report provides information on the properties and expected behaviour of reprocessing plant off-gases, and outlines the experimental program to be undertaken. (author)

1978-01-01

28

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Emissions of chlorinated aromatic compounds e.g. polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) have been reported recently from a large number of industrial processes such as waste incineration and metal smelters. Due to the toxicity of PCDD/F, stringent emission limits have been imposed. State of the art for emission control are adsorption processes, which have removal efficiencies, but produced PCDD contaminated wastes. The incineration or disposal of these material is rather costly. Therefore, new technologies are being developed, which do not yield secondary wastes, such as catalysts, hydrogen peroxide injection or electron beam irradiation. Here the results on the electron beam induced decomposition of PCDD/F in incinerator off gas are reported. We used a mobile off gas cleaning plant (AGATE-M), which is equipped with 200 keV electron accelerator (EB). The off gas was sampled in the upstream and downstream of the irradiation zone by a condensation method. Subsequent clean-up and GC-MS analyses were performed using standard analytical methods. The analyses show that very high decompositions for PCDD and PCDF are achieved depending on the experimental parameters and the German emission standards are surpassed. In addition, chlorinated phenols and benzenes are destroyed. A computer model (AGATE-code) was developed to analyse the gas phase chemistry of the process. The experimental and the theoretical results are reported and compared. The energy consumption of the process is of the order of 3-5 kWh per 100 m3 of treated off gas. The process has a very low pressure difference. The industrial application of the technology will be evaluated in comparison to competing methods with respect to costs and technical aspects

1998-01-01

29

Off gas film cooler cleaner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus is described for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remotely controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter. The main application for this invention is to clean the off gas cooler of a radioactive waste vitrification unit.

Dhingra, H.S.; Koch, W.C.; Burns, D.C.

1995-12-31

30

Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 103 with product concentration factors greater than 104 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

1974-08-12

31

Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The conversion of highly radioactive waste liquor into glass by the pot vitrification process has been studied at Harwell using a full-scale inactive pilot plant. A summary of the off-gas behavior and its interpretation is presented. Experimental runs were carried out on 3 representative wastes (MAGNOX - thermal reactor, metal fuel, THORP - thermal oxide fuel and PFR - fast reactor oxide fuel) using 2 methods of feeding the glass-formers (slurry and crizzle). Materials were carried over from the vitrification vessel into the off-gas system by entrainment supplemented by volatilization. The overall behavior of the off-gas was consistent with the presence in it of 5 separate aerosols of particulate matter. Sources of entrainment gave rise to 3 aerosols, and a further 2 aerosols were formed as a result of chemical reaction (Ru) and condensation (Cs) processes involving the volatile species. Entrainment was enhanced when the feed contained free alkali nitrate. The Ru volatility correlated directly with the amount of salt nitrates in the feed. The off-gas equipment consisted of a condenser followed by two packed tower scrubbers. The variation in equipment performance between different sets of experiments could be attributed entirely to changes in the proportion of air present in the off-gas. The entrainment aerosols were the easiest to remove from the off-gas, whilst the Cs aerosol proved to the most difficult. The overall process decontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x104 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x103 for particulate-Ru, and 5x103-1x104 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 103 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

1983-01-01

32

Materials Evaluation in the WERF (Waste Experimental Reduction Facility) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Incinerator off-Gas System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performances of alloys in a low-level radioactive, combustible waste incinerator were evaluated. Test coupons and an extracted heat exchanger tube were examined to provide information on alloy behavior in the off-gas system of this facility. Type 316 stai...

G. R. Smolik J. D. Dalton

1988-01-01

33

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

Newell, J.

2011-11-14

34

Off gas measurements from a plasma arc treatment facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas sampling and analysis was performed during plasma arc vitrification materials testing. All sampling was done approximately 30 feet downstream of the plasma torch. Gases were extracted, dried, and analyzed for combustibles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. Particulate sampling was conducted using a US Environmental Protection Agency Method 5 sampling system. Gas analysis data indicated thatlevels of nitrous oxides were high due to air being used as the plasma gas. As briquettes were added to the crucible and pyrolysis began, the levels of nitrous oxides and oxygen in the off-gas decreased. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. It was observed that the carbon monoxide levels were directly related to the feed rate of the briquettes. Low levels of sulfur dioxide were detected, probably due to the interference of high levels of nitrous oxides with the analyzer. Particulate sampling rates were higher than isokinetic, which resulted in lower particulate levels measured than actually occurred. It was noted that the majority of the particles were generated when the surrogate feed was rapidly added to the torch vessel. The results of these analyses impact vessel design. Vessels must either be designed to allow sufficient residence time for complete destruction of hazardous materials, feed rates must be maintained below a threshold level, or a secondary combustion device must be used downstream. The vessel and feed system need to be designed to allow introduction of waste material in such a way that significant particulate material is not generated.

1995-01-01

35

Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

Daniel, W.E.

2000-05-04

36

FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

2012-08-01

37

Waste Feed Evaporator Off-Gas Emissions Modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this task given in the test specification were to expand the waste feed evaporator OLI model by including all the major components of the evaporator off-gas treatment system. Also as part of this task, two test cases were developed that defined the baseline untreated waste feed composition, target organic components to be tracked, and the waste-to-recycle blend ratio. The goal of this task was to develop air emissions projections for two test cases using the expanded waste feed evaporator OLI model. The organic partitioning predictions and air emission projections are ultimately to be validated against experimental data obtained during pilot evaporator tests. The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) software, licensed by OLI Systems, Inc., was used to build the current as well as earlier models for the FEP 7. The steady state simulation package performs vapor/liquid/solid equilibrium for electrochemical streams and processes. All vapor/liquid/solid equilibrium is determined by the OLI simulation engine. This task partially satisfied the test conditions and requirements described in the Research and Technology Plan (PL-W375-TE00007, Rev. 0) prepared by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI). Specifically, BNI will use the information obtained during this task to support environmental regulatory permitting efforts for the waste feed evaporator and further to provide the operating data and correlations for the RPP-WTP flowsheet model.

2003-01-01

38

Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs

1985-01-01

39

Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

2008-07-01

40

Off-gas system recombining system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a BWR type reactor, exhaust gases are accumulated in the upper portion of a condensator which contain hydrogen, oxygen, nirogen, etc. and, accordingly, can not be released as they are into the atmosphere. An off-gas system is disposed for processing the exhaust gases safely and releasing them into the atmosphere. The exhaust gases are sucked by a steam type extract or, sent to a preheater, warmed to about 160degC and then sent to a recombiner. The recombiner is adapted to recombine hydrogen and oxygen into steams while keeping them out of a detonating range to prevent an accidental explosion. Then, a hydrogen densitometer is disposed in the exhaust gases guided to the recombiner and oxygen is injected such that the oxygen density in the exhaust gases flowing into the recombiner is made higher thanb 1/2 of the hydrogen concentration depending on the signals from the densitometer. Since the inside of the recombiner is in an oxygen excess region, the catalyst performance is improved outstandingly to increase the hydrogen conversion ratio. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume and the size of the catalyst and the recombiner. (N.H.).

1988-02-05

 
 
 
 
41

Behavior of selected contaminants in liquid-fed ceramic melter waste-vitrification off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Vitrifying (immobilizing) high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass is one method being developed for converting the wastes to a stable form for disposal. One promising process approach makes use of the liquid-fed, joule-heated ceramic melter. In this process, simulated high-level liquid wastes are fed directly to the melter, eliminating the calcining step used in previous concepts to dry the wastes before introducing them into the melter. A good understanding of the types, forms and quantities of wastes passing from the process to the off-gas cleanup requirements for this kind of waste vitrification. Tests have been performed during direct liquid-feeding of simulated high-level defense waste to a ceramic melter to characterize and quantify the gases, semivolatiles, and solids in the off-gas stream. The effluent sampling apparatus consisted of a wet scrubbing system, a plating sampler assembly, a gas chromatograph, and a classical scattering aerosol spectrometer. Tracer elements present in the nonradioactive, simulated waste feed were strontium, ruthenium, antimony, tellurium, and cesium. Temperatures in a liquid-fed ceramic melter range as high as 12000C in the molten glass. At these temperatures, the tracer isotopes of primary concern are ruthenium and cesium. Chloride and sodium were the two major volatile species present in the off gas. High chloride levels pose potential corrosion problems for the melter lid and the effluent system. Due to the high chloride and sodium volatility observed, entrainment losses from the melter to the effluent treatment system account for only 10% to 30% of the total losses. Particulate decontamination factors from feed to off gas in the melter system ranged from 5 x 102 to greater than 103 without any filtration or treatment

1980-10-23

42

Vermont Yankee advanced off-gas system (AOG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early in 1971 the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation decided to modify the existing off-gas delay system to reduce the release of noble gas isotopes from its boiling water reactor. This modification included a subsystem for recombining the radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen from the reactor and a series of adsorber tanks filled with activated carbon to delay the noble gas isotopes from the condenser air ejectors. The off-gas system and its operating history from initial operation in November 1973 to the present time are described. Data are also presented on the measured dynamic adsorption coefficient of the ambient carbon subsystem. Laboratory adsorption tests were conducted on the carbon prior to AOG startup and the results are compared with the effective coefficients obtained under operating conditions. (U.S.)

1974-08-12

43

Off-gas system data summary for the ninth run of the large slurry fed melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ninth melter campaign successfully demonstrated extended operation of both melter and off-gas systems. Two critical problem areas associated with the handling of melter off-gases were resolved leading to firm definition of the DWPF Off-Gas Treatment System. These two concerns, wet scrubber decontamination efficiency and the reduction of solids deposition at the off-gas line entrance, were the primary focus of off-gas system studies during the 63-day run (LSFM-9). The Hydro-Sonic Scrubber was confirmed to be the superior candidate for wet scrubbing by outperforming all other scrubbers tested at the Equipment Test Facility (ETF). The two stage, steam-driven scrubber achieved consistent decontamination factors for cesium exceeding the required DWPF flowsheet DF of 50. As a result, the device was selected as the reference wet scrubber for the DWPF. The Off-Gas Film Cooling device continued to show promising results for reducing three accumulation of solid deposits at the entrance to the off-gas line. In addition, a rotating wire brush cleaning device provided easy and efficient removal of deposits which had accumulated. The combination of the two has adequately resolved the deposit accumulation problem and both devices have been incorporated in the DWPF design.

1983-01-01

44

Evaluation of off-gas characteristics in vitrification process of ion-exchange resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of off-gas generated from vitrification process of ion-exchange resin were characterized. Theoretical composition and flow rate of the off-gas were calculated based on chemical composition of resin and it's burning condition inside CCM. The calculated off-gas flow rate was 67.9 Nm3/h at the burning rate of 40 kg/h. And the composition of off-gas was evaluated as CO2(41.4%), Steam (40.0%), O2 (13.3%), NO (3.6%), and SO2 (1.6%) in order. Then, actual flow rate and composition of off-gas were measured during pilot-scale demonstration tests and the results were compared with theoretical values. The actual flow rate of off-gas was about 1.6 times higher than theoretical one. The difference between theoretical and actual flow rates was caused by the in-leakage of air to the system, and the in-leakage rate was evaluated as 36.3 Nm3/h. Because of continuous change in the combustion parameters inside CCM, during demonstration tests, the concentration of toxic gases showed wide fluctuation. However, the concentration of CO, a barometer of incompleteness of combustion inside CCM, was stabilized soon. The result showed quasi-equilibrium state was achieved two hours after feeding of resin. (author)

2001-01-01

45

METHOD & APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING FISCHER-TROPSCH OFF-GAS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention concerns methods and apparatus for processing Fischer-Tropsch off-gas comprising the following steps: a) subjecting Fischer-Tropsch off-gas to at least a water gas shift reaction and partial CO2 removal resulting in a Fischer-Tropsch off-gas with significantly reduced levels of carbon dioxide and a CO2 rich stream and optionally b) subjecting part of the carbon dioxide depleted Fischer-Tropsch off-gas to synthesis gas manufacturing and c) using another part of the carbon dioxide depleted Fischer-Tropsch off-gas for generating energy.

ASSINK GERRIT JAN BAREND; VAN DORST EVA MARFILIA; HENNINGS ULRICH MARKUS HINRICH

46

Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.).

1974-08-12

47

Method and apparatus for off-gas composition sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus and method for non-intrusive collection of off-gas data in a steelmaking furnace includes structure and steps for transmitting a laser beam through the off-gas produced by a steelmaking furnace, for controlling the transmitting to repeatedly scan the laser beam through a plurality of wavelengths in its tuning range, and for detecting the laser beam transmitted through the off-gas and converting the detected laser beam to an electrical signal. The electrical signal is processed to determine characteristics of the off-gas that are used to analyze and/or control the steelmaking process.

Ottesen, David Keith (Livermore, CA); Allendorf, Sarah Williams (Fremont, CA); Hubbard, Gary Lee (Richmond, CA); Rosenberg, David Ezechiel (Columbia, MD)

1999-01-01

48

PURETEX program. Laboratory investigations to minimize the saline load of dissolution off gas scrubbing solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PURETEX program aims to reduce the quantity of wastes generated by reprocessing according PUREX process. Particularly, the objective involves vitrifying the LA-MA effluents of the currently operated facilities, which requires to reduce significantly their saline load. Concerning the dissolution off gas scrubbing, it is necessary to decrease or even to suppress sodium cation and sulfate anion in the reagents solutions. Non saline reactants, hydroxyl-ammonium nitrate (HAN) and hydrogen peroxide, respectively for off gas scrubbing and iodine processing, have been tested on the laboratory scale; the results are positive enough to justify further laboratory tests and a validation in a micro-pilot rig. (author)

1995-01-01

49

Evaluation of off-gas characteristics in vitrification process of ion-exchange resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow rate and composition of off-gas generated from the combustion of ion-exchange resin in glass melter were analyzed. For the comparison, theoretical composition and flow rate of the off-gas were calculated from the chemical composition of resin and the operating condition of CCM. Actual flow rate and composition of gases were measured during pilot plant tests using ion-exchange resin. Theoretical calculation showed the flow rate of off-gas generated from the vitrification process of ion-exchange resin with 40kg/h was 67.9Nm3/h, and the off-gas consisted of CO2(41.4%), steam(40.4%), O2(13.3%), NO(3.4%), SO2 (1.6%). Actual flow rate of the off-gas was about 1.6 times higher than the theoretical values, which suggested the in-leakage rate into the CCM to be about 36.3Nm3/h. The composition of toxic gas showed large fluctuation because of continuous change in the combustion environment in side CCM. However, CO concentration, a barometer of incompleteness of combustion, has become settled with the lapse of combustion time, from which the combustion condition in side CCM could be considered to reach equilibrium state.

2000-01-01

50

Evaluation of off-gas characteristics in vitrification process of ion-exchange resin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow rate and composition of off-gas generated from the combustion of ion-exchange resin in glass melter were analyzed. For the comparison, theoretical composition and flow rate of the off-gas were calculated from the chemical composition of resin and the operating condition of CCM. Actual flow rate and composition of gases were measured during pilot plant tests using ion-exchange resin. Theoretical calculation showed the flow rate of off-gas generated from the vitrification process of ion-exchange resin with 40kg/h was 67.9Nm{sup 3}/h, and the off-gas consisted of CO{sub 2}(41.4%), steam(40.4%), O{sub 2}(13.3%), NO(3.4%), SO{sub 2} (1.6%). Actual flow rate of the off-gas was about 1.6 times higher than the theoretical values, which suggested the in-leakage rate into the CCM to be about 36.3Nm{sup 3}/h. The composition of toxic gas showed large fluctuation because of continuous change in the combustion environment in side CCM. However, CO concentration, a barometer of incompleteness of combustion, has become settled with the lapse of combustion time, from which the combustion condition in side CCM could be considered to reach equilibrium state.

Park, S. C.; Kim, H. S.; Ha, T. W.; Shin, S. W. [Korea Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2000-05-01

51

Dynamic Modelling of an Industrial Smelter Furnace and Converter Off-gas System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In smelters, metal ores or concentrates are smelted to reduce a metal oxide to a metal through a series of reactions and processes. In a smelting process, a large amount of off-gas emissions are often generated, which can cause serious environmental and plant hygiene problems if not properly treated. Off-gas systems extract and treat the off-gas emissions, and ensure that the smelter operation is in accordance with environmental and industrial hygiene regulations. In this paper, the dynamic models for an industrial smelter furnace and converter off-gas system, tackling hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), are developed using mass continuity, momentum and energy conservation laws. Based on the developed dynamic models, the effects of important variables on the system?s dynamics are studied via simulations. The developed dynamic models provide a necessary basis for high performance control development of smelter off-gas systems because online measurements are limited and additional ones must be justified.

H. Shang; M. Dillabough; P. Nelson; B. Salt

2008-01-01

52

Adsorptive separation of NOsub(x) from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After precleaning the dissolver off-gas contains, besides the noble gases Xe and Kr, about 0.5 vol.% each of NOsub(x) and H2O. For the removal of these NOsub(x) and H2O residues to below 1 ppm, an adsorptive gas cleaning process has been developed and tested on a lab-scale. For the process, an acid resistant molecular sieve was selected and its properties investigated with respect to application; e.g. the dependence of the adsorption capacity on temperature, gas composition and face velocity. By the operation of a lab-scale facility with 400 Nl/h continuous off-gas throughput the suitability of the adsorption process has been demonstrated for off-gas cleaning and recycling of the separated NO2 and H2O to the dissolver. (orig.).

1984-01-01

53

Heat exchangers and thermal energy storage concepts for the off-gas heat of steelmaking devices  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluctuating thermal emissions of electric arc furnaces require energy storage systems to provide downstream consumers with a continuous amount of thermal energy or electricity. Heat recovery systems based on thermal energy storage are presented. A comparison of different thermal energy storage systems has been performed. For the purpose, suitable heat exchangers for the off-gas heat have been developed. Dynamic process simulations of the heat recovery plants were necessary to check the feasibility of the systems and consider the non-steady-state off-gas emissions of the steelmaking devices. The implementation of a pilot plant into an existing off-gas duct of an electric arc furnace was required to check the real behavior of the heat exchanger and determine suitable materials in view of corrosion issues. The pilot plant is presented in this paper.

Steinparzer, T.; Haider, M.; Fleischanderl, A.; Hampel, A.; Enickl, G.; Zauner, F.

2012-11-01

54

Boiling water reactor off-gas systems evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An evaluation of the off-gas systems for all 25 operating Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) was made to determine the adequacy of their design and operating procedures to reduce the probability of off-gas detonations. The results of the evaluations are that, of the 25 operable units, 13 meet all the acceptance criteria. The other 12 units do not have the features needed to meet the criteria, but have been judged to have, or are committed to provide, features which give reasonable assurance that the potential for external off-gas detonations is minimized. The 12 units which did not originally meet the criteria are aware of the potential hazards associated with off-gas detonations and have agreed to take action to minimize the probability of future detonations

1979-01-01

55

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

56

Integrated DM 1200 Melter Testing Of HLW C-106/AY-102 Composition Using Bubblers VSL-03R3800-1, Rev. 0, 9/15/03  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

2011-01-01

57

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NOx removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NOx flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given

1998-01-01

58

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

Flament, T.A.

1998-08-25

59

Investigation of air cleaning processes for removing tributyl phosphate vapors from fuel reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as an extractant in combination with the solvent dodecane in the dissolution process in a conventional nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. When recycled acid is used in the process, the dissolver off-gas (DOG) may contain small amounts of TBP and dodecane vapor. The vessel off-gas (VOG) will also contain TBP vapors in even higher fractions. Under some conditions, TBP vapor in these gas streams adversely affects the performance of silver-loaded solid sorbent beds used in the treatment of these streams to remove iodine and organic iodide compounds. An investigation is reported of the use of inorganic solid sorbent beds located upstream of the silver-loaded sorbent beds to remove TBP and extend the useful life of the silver beds. Laboratory scale experiments have been conducted using selected inorganic solid sorbent materials which have specific properties indicating their effectiveness for removing TBP or similar organic compounds. Results indicated 4 inorganic materials would retain greater than 95% of inlet TBP over a 3-hour run time. These four materials are being tested in a small packed glass column arrangement using variations in TBP concentration, face velocity and column temperature. As a part of this work, a sensitive quantitative analysis technique was developed enabling continous real time analysis of TBP vapor concentrations, as low as 1 x 10-7 g/l, so that breakthrough progression can be measured

1979-01-01

60

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. The method involves a sequence of adsorption and desorption steps which are specified. Particular reference is made to the separation of xenon and krypton from the off-gas stream, and to the use of silver-exchanged mordenite as the adsorbent. (U.K.).

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters have been investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The results of these studies have established the identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance. 8 figures, 16 tables.

1982-09-06

62

Technology survey for real-time monitoring of plutonium in a vitrifier off-gas system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We surveyed several promising measurement technologies for the real-time monitoring of plutonium in a vitrifier off-gas system. The vitrifier is being developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Corp. and will be used to demonstrate vitrification of plutonium dissolved in nitric acid for fissile material disposition. The risk of developing a criticality hazard in the off-gas processing equipment can be managed by using available measurement technologies. We identified several potential technologies and methods for detecting plutonium that are sensitive enough to detect the accumulation of a mass sufficient to form a criticality hazard. We recommend gross alpha-monitoring technologies as the most promising option for Westinghouse Savannah River Corp. to consider because that option appears to require the least additional development. We also recommend further consideration for several other technologies because they offer specific advantages and because gross alpha-monitoring could prove unsuitable when tested for this specific application.

Berg, J.M.; Veirs, D.K.

1996-01-01

63

Simple hobby computer-based off-gas analysis system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Apple II computer has been adapted to monitor fermentation offgas in laboratory and pilot scale fermentors. It can calculate oxygen uptake rates, carbon dioxide evolution rates, respiratory quotient as well as initiating recalibration procedures. In this report the computer-based off-gas analysis system is described.

Forrest, E.H.; Jansen, N.B.; Flickinger, M.C.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-02-01

64

Performance testing accountability measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) provides assessment support to the DOE Operations Offices in the area of Material Control and Accountability (MC and A). During surveys of facilities, the Operations Offices have begun to request from NBL either assistance in providing materials for performance testing of accountability measurements or both materials and personnel to do performance testing. To meet these needs, NBL has developed measurement and measurement control performance test procedures and materials. The present NBL repertoire of performance tests include the following: (1) mass measurement performance testing procedures using calibrated and traceable test weights, (2) uranium elemental concentration (assay) measurement performance tests which use ampulated solutions of normal uranyl nitrate containing approximately 7 milligrams of uranium per gram of solution, and (3) uranium isotopic measurement performance tests which use ampulated uranyl nitrate solutions with enrichments ranging from 4% to 90% U-235. The preparation, characterization, and packaging of the uranium isotopic and assay performance test materials were done in cooperation with the NBL Safeguards Measurements Evaluation Program since these materials can be used for both purposes.

Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.; Spaletto, M.I. [New Brunswick Lab., Argonne, IL (United States)

1993-12-31

65

Isolation of the toluene degrading bacteria and application to the biotrickling filtration system of off-gas treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The period of acclimation in biotrickling filtration system was studied using toluene degrading bacteria. Toluene degrading bacteria were isolated from the test biotrickling filtration apparatus used for the degradation of toluene off-gas. Five colonies found in an agar culture medium were identified to be toluene degrading bacteria; one was classified Acinetobacter genospecies 10 and the other four were Rhodococcus erythropolis. The count of the toluene degrading bacteria was 5.6 x 10 to the power 8th Colony Forming Units/ml-packing space. The toluene elimination activity was found to be 7.4 and 2.0 mg-toluene/g-dry cell/min for colony {number{underscore}sign}1 and colony {number{underscore}sign}2, respectively, using batch vial system. They were higher than that obtained when the original sludge in the test biotrickling filtration apparatus was applied to the same system. The performance of colony {number{underscore}sign}1 was also tested by the test biotrickling filtration system. Urethane foam, which constituted a lattice-like structure internally, was used as the microbial carrier. The artificial off-gas of 100ppm toluene/air was prepared with reagent grade chemical. The space velocity (versus the packed bed) was 100/h. Immediately after the start-up, the removal percentages of toluene was 39%, and it became 84% after two days continuous treatment. This result indicates that addition of colony {number{underscore}sign}1 was thus shown to be an effective means of shortening the acclimation period of a trickle bed biofilter.

Yamashita, Shigeki

1999-07-01

66

Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -600C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste.

1985-01-01

67

FY-2001 Accomplishments in Off-gas Treatment Technology Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the efforts funded by the Tank Focus Area to investigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) destruction (a.k.a. deNOx) technologies and off-gas scrubber system designs. The primary deNOx technologies that were considered are staged combustion (a.k.a. NOx reburning), selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, and steam reformation. After engineering studies and a team evaluation were completed, selective catalytic reduction and staged combustion were considered the most likely candidate technologies to be deployed in a sodium-bearing waste vitrification facility. The outcome of the team evaluation factored heavily in the establishing a baseline configuration for off-gas and secondary waste treatment systems.

Marshall, Douglas William

2001-09-01

68

Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

2003-01-01

69

Absorption of organic substances from off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solvent-carrying off-gas accrues from many production processes. Its emission into the atmosphere is subject to observing at least the limiting values laid down in the Clean Air Code. A method for separation and recycling of solvents is by absorption using scrubbing liquids with a high boiling point. The paper discusses the essential factors of influence of this technique and points out possibilities for its optimization. (orig.).

1994-01-01

70

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

Pence, Dallas T. (San Diego, CA); Chou, Chun-Chao (San Diego, CA)

1984-01-01

71

Treatment of the off-gas stream from the HTR reprocessing head-end  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The AKUT II-facility (nominal throughput 10 m3/h, STP) for the clean-up of the burner off-gas has been operated for 20 cold runs in parallel to the JUPITER reprocessing head-end. Two of these runs were continuous operation tests with a duration of 50 and 80 hours, respectively. The facility met or exceeded all design specifications. In a further test series the distillation column alone was run with pure CO2 and two- and three-component gas mixtures to determine the flooding curves and the stage height (HETP)

1985-01-01

72

Tests of cycling performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Performance tests are an integral component of assessment for competitive cyclists in practical and research settings. Cycle ergometry is the basis of most of these tests. Most cycle ergometers are stationary devices that measure power while a cyclist pedals against sliding friction (e.g. Monark), electromagnetic braking (e.g. Lode), or air resistance (e.g. Kingcycle). Mobile ergometers (e.g. SRM cranks) allow measurement of power through the drive train of the cyclist's own bike in real or simulated competitions on the road, in a velodrome or in the laboratory. The manufacturers' calibration of all ergometers is questionable; dynamic recalibration with a special rig is therefore desirable for comparison of cyclists tested on different ergometers. For monitoring changes in performance of a cyclist, an ergometer should introduce negligible random error (variation) in its measurements; in this respect, SRM cranks appear to be the best ergometer, but more comparison studies of ergometers are needed. Random error in the cyclist's performance should also be minimised by choice of an appropriate type of test. Tests based on physiological measures (e.g. maximum oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold) and tests requiring self-selection of pace (e.g. constant-duration and constant-distance tests) usually produce random error of at least approximately 2 to 3% in the measure of power output. Random error as low as approximately 1% is possible for measures of power in 'all-out' sprints, incremental tests, constant-power tests to exhaustion and probably also time trials in an indoor velodrome. Measures with such low error might be suitable for tracking the small changes in competitive performance that matter to elite cyclists.

Paton CD; Hopkins WG

2001-01-01

73

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2011-05-01

74

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, George T. (15 Cherry Hills Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1992-01-01

75

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a ''wavy film,'' while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs

1996-02-08

76

Single-column-based absorption process for treating dissolver off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fluorocarbon absorption process for krypton and xenon removal from dissolver off-gas is based on exploitation of solubility differences which exist among noble gases and other gas-phase constituents in the fluorocarbon solvent dichlorofluoromethane (refrigerant-12). Process performance and reliability have been demonstrated on an engineering scale with over 10 years of pilot plant operation, including testing with /sup 85/Kr, /sup 133/Xe, and /sup 131/I. The culmination of this work is a single-column design which results in a simplified process with improved reliability and lower cost. Data are presented summarizing recent single-column development activities. These include data plots depicting decontamination factor vs feed gas flow rate, DF vs process absorption factor (kG/L), and location of the concentration peak via the solvent flow rate. In general, 99% removal is easily obtainable for Kr, Xe, and CO/sub 2/ while attaining concentration factors on the order of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/. Further concentration of the Kr product is investigated using solid sorbent and cold trapping technologies. Effective removal of entrained fluorocarbon solvent and CO/sub 2/ from the single-column product stream is demonstrated using 13X and 5A molecular sieves, respectively. Additional separation of Xe is studied using a silver mordenite bed and compared to existing methods using cryogenic charcoal beds or selective cold trap sublimation. Regardless of the method for Xe removal, Kr is ultimately concentrated via a simple cold trap to > 90% purity from a feed gas containing 10 ppM. 14 figures.

Eby, R.S.; Little, D.K.; Merriman, J.R.; Stephenson, M.J.

1982-05-21

77

Exergetic Optimization of a Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of LNG Boil-Off Gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA The development of liquefaction process for liquefied natural gas boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for gas transport. Onboard boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction is a new technology that liquefies BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. Exergetic efficiency optimization for cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of LNG boil-off gas is performed. Thermodynamic modeling has been performed based on the energy and exergy analyses. Objective problem is developed based on maximization of the plant exergetic efficiency and selected decision variables and constraints. Optimization process is performed using MATLAB genetic algorithm optimization toolbox. The results of exergetic efficiency optimization are compared with the corresponding results of the base case system obtained in the previous study. Finally, effects of some operating parameters on the exergetic efficiency are discussed by sensitivity analysis.

Hoseyn Sayyaadi; Mojtaba Babaelahi

2010-01-01

78

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO{sub 3}{sup -} with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion.

Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

2007-06-06

79

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) where the glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Experimental glass melters used to develop the vitrification process for immobilization of the waste have experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. Off-gas deposits from the DWPF 1/2 Scale Glass Melter (SGM) and the 1/10th scale Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel, and frit particles. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cement the entrained particulates causing off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggage indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. Scale glass melter operating experience indicates that a velocity of >50 fps is necessary in order to transport the volatile species to the quencher to prevent having condensation occur in the off-gas line. Hotter off-gas line temperatures would retain the alkali compounds as vapors so that they would remain volatile until they reach the quencher. However, hotter off-gas temperatures can only be achieved by using less air/steam flow at the off-gas entrance, e.g. at the off-gas film cooler (OGFC). This would result in lower off-gas velocities. Maintaining a high velocity is, therefore, considered to be a more important criterion for controlling off-gas pluggage than temperature control. 40 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-03-01

80

The head-end off-gas purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Following the explanation of the term 'head-end', the author deals with the problems of the head-end off-gas purification in reprocessing. A report is given on the tasks and the choice of method for waste gas purification, on the apparatus models, state of development in the GfK, as well as on achievable decontamination factors in waste gas treatment. (HR)[de] Nach der Erlaeuterung des Begriffes Head-End geht der Verfasser auf die Problematik der Head-End Abgasreinigung bei der Wiederaufarbeitung ein. Ueber die Aufgabenstellung und die Verfahrensauswahl fuer die Abgasreinigung, ueber das Apparateschema, den Stand der Entwicklung in der GfK sowie ueber erreichbare Dekontaminationsfaktoren bei der Abgasbehandlung wird berichtet. (HR)

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Concerning the time-schedule of reactor performance tests they normally begin when suppliers or constructors have finished construction and made all necessary construction and coordinated tests. If the last-mentioned tests are conducted profoundly, they contribute substantially to a quick and simple carrying-out of the last performance tests and to the general quality of components and systems. At this stage all components of a system should be properly fixed, machinery, instruments and electrical components adjusted and calibrated, all set-points tested, electrical and other supply units in operation or ready to operate and all functions pretested. Just at this stage of the work most of the existing defects and failures of systems can be found. Remembering the fact that the difficulty of operation of complex systems results from detail problems, it is extremely useful to remove all things of this kind as soon as possible, at the latest at this time where it is done easily and normally quickly without influencing start-up-procedures of other systems or even of the total plant. (orig./TK)[de] Die Zeitplaene der Leistungspruefungen beginnen normalerweise dann, wenn die Lieferanten oder Konstrukteure die Konstruktion beendet und alle notwendigen Konstruktions- und Koordinationstests durchgefuhrt haben. Wenn die letzteren Tests gruendlich durchgefuhrt werden, tragen sie in bedeutendem Mass zu einer schnellen und einfachen Durchfuhrung der Leistungstests und zur allgemeinen Qualitaet von Bestandteilen und Systemen bei. In diesem Stadium sollten alle Bestandteile eines Systems eingebaut, Maschinen, Instrumente und elektrische Teile angepasst und geeicht, alle Einstellwerte ueberprueft, elektrische und andere Versorgungsgeraete in Betrieb oder betriebsfertig und auf ihre Funktion hin geprueft sein. Eben in diesem Arbeitsstadium koennen die meisten Defekte und Fehler im System entdeckt werden. In Anbetracht der Tatsache, dass die Schwierigkeit des Betriebs von komplexen Systemen von Detail-Problemen herruehrt, ist es aeusserst nuetzlich, alle Dinge dieser Art zu eliminieren, und zwar so bald wie moeglich, spaetestens zu der Zeit, wo man es leicht und normalerweise schnell und ohne Beeinflussung der Inbetriebnahme anderer Systeme oder sogar der ganzen Anlage durchfuehren kann. (orig./TK)

1975-09-08

82

Thoron filter design for the off-gas line of the ITREC reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operational tests of the ITREC reprocessing plant have shown some problems on the monitoring of beta-gamma emitters at the stack; the alarm threshold was reached within a few minutes, from the beginning of the fuel reprocessing steps. Nevertheless, this getting over was not attributable to beta - gamma emitter particulates which were not retained by the absolute filters of the off-gas line, but to the interference of the short lived radioactive particulate thoron daughters for which the limit of discharge is a thousand times higher. With the aim of avoiding such spurious alarms the authors examined the possibility of inserting a charcoal delay bed for reducing thoron concentration to an acceptable level by natural decay. The decontamination factor that the decay bed must satisfy depends on the decay constant of 220Rn and daughters. This can be evaluated from the characteristics of the measuring device on the basis of the off-gas flow rate, stack flow rate and monitoring line sampling flow rate. Dynamic adsorption characteristics of a selected charcoal were experimentally determined by the pulse technique and are reported in this paper. Finally sizing criteria are outlined and the filter design is shown

1987-01-01

83

Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF.

Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Lee, H. H

2006-09-15

84

Analysis of Off Gas From Disintegration Process of Graphite Matrix by Electrochemical Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using electrochemical method with salt solutions as electrolyte, some gaseous substances (off gas) would be generated during the disintegration of graphite from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements. The off gas is determined to be composed of H2, O2, N2, CO2 and NOx by gas chromatography. Only about 1.5% graphite matrix is oxidized to CO2. Compared to the direct burning-graphite method, less off gas,especially CO2, is generated in the disintegration process of graphite by electrochemical method and the treatment of off gas becomes much easier. (authors)

2010-01-01

85

Experimental determination of the solubilities of dissolver off-gas constituents in a Kr-85 recovery solvent (CCl2F2). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental determination of the solubility of the major off-gas constituent-Nitrogen was performed with a new solubility measurement apparatus. The new apparatus was designed, built and tested; an algorithm for thermodynamic consistency testing of P-T-x-y data for solubility systems was developed, and thermodynamically consistent Nitrogen-R-12 solubility data were taken. The Henry's Law constant for the Nitrogen-R-12 system can be represented by the equation ln H/sub N2-R-12/ (atm) = 0.44 + 1.0708 lnT (0K). The solubility data extend the range of known equilibrium data into a region where process equipment operate and are consistent with both other data at lower temperatures by other researchers and with regular solution theory

1983-01-01

86

Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems

1992-01-01

87

CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

2008-01-01

88

Computer model for the KALC process studies in the ORGDP Off-Gas Decontamination Pilot Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A computer model of the KALC process is presented for the equipment configuration in use during HTGR off-gas studies at the ORGDP Off-Gas Decontamination Pilot Plant. The model is tailored to require input routinely available during such experimental studies. A program is included to provide McCabe-Thiele plots as an additional convenience

1976-01-01

89

A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public`s concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions.

Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Leatherman, G. [SAIC, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). STAR Center

1995-12-31

90

A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

1995-01-01

91

Iodine removal by silver-exchanged zeolite filters from the vessel off gas in Tokai reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the active operation of Tokai reprocessing plant started on September 1977, the measurements of 129I in the liquid and gaseous streams have been carried out. From the results of measurements, it was confirmed that more than 99% of the calculated amount of 129I in spent fuel was released into the off-gas circuit during the dissolution. Most of the released 129I was desorbed to liquid streams and then transferred to the waste disposal facility, where some amounts of 129I was released into the vessel off-gas line. Through the investigation of iodine distribution in the plant, it was understood that the removal of 129I in the vessel off gas led to a decrease in the amount of 129I discharged to the atmosphere, so that the silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX) filters were installed in the vessel ventilation system at the waste disposal facility. The removal test has been carried out through the active operation. The decontamination factor (DF) of AgX filter has been kept in the range of 50 to 100 through 20,000 hours loading (over two years since the start of operation in November 1979). Consequently, it was confirmed that AgX adsorbent was effective for the removal of airborne 129I from the vessel off gas. At present, by means of the installation of AgX filters on the vessel ventilation system, the 129I discharged to the atmosphere has been effectively controlled at a low level in the plant.

1983-01-01

92

Final Report DM1200 Tests With AZ 101 HLW Simulants VSL-03R3800-4, Rev. 0, 2/17/04  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

2011-01-01

93

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

94

Improvement of melter off-gas design for commercial HALW vitrification facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan commercial reprocessing plant is now under construction, and it will commence the operation in 2005. The High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) generated at the plant is treated into glass product at the vitrification facility using the Liquid Fed Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (LFCM). The characteristic of the LFCM is that the HALW is fed directly onto the molten glass surface with the glass forming material. This process was developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The JNC process was first applied to the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), which is a pilot scale plant having about 1/6 capacity of the commercial facility. The TVF has been in operation since 1995. During the operation, the rapid increase of the differential pressure between the melter plenum and the dust scrubber was observed. This phenomenon is harmful to the long-term continuous operation of TVF. And, it is also anticipated that the same phenomenon will occur in commercial vitrification facility. In order to solve this problem, the countermeasures were studied and developed. Through the study on the deposit growing mechanism, it was probable that the rapid increased differential pressure was attributed to the condensation of meta-boric acid at the outlet of the air-film cooler slits. And, the heating and the humidification of purge air were judged to be effective as the countermeasures to suppress the condensation. On the other hand, the water injection into melter off-gas pipe was found to be very effective to reduce the differential pressure as the results of the various tests. The deposit adhered on the inner surface of the off-gas pipe was almost washed out. And, it was also demonstrated that the system was superior to other systems by virtue of its simplicity and stability. In order to apply the system to the commercial scale plant, the scale-up tests were conducted at JNC mock-up facility using the acrylic model. (author)

2001-01-01

95

Improvement of melter off-gas design for commercial HALW vitrification facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Japan commercial reprocessing plant is now under construction, and it will commence the operation in 2005. The High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) generated at the plant is treated into glass product at the vitrification facility using the Liquid Fed Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (LFCM). The characteristic of the LFCM is that the HALW is fed directly onto the molten glass surface with the glass forming material. This process was developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The JNC process was first applied to the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), which is a pilot scale plant having about 1/6 capacity of the commercial facility. The TVF has been in operation since 1995. During the operation, the rapid increase of the differential pressure between the melter plenum and the dust scrubber was observed. This phenomenon is harmful to the long-term continuous operation of TVF. And, it is also anticipated that the same phenomenon will occur in commercial vitrification facility. In order to solve this problem, the countermeasures were studied and developed. Through the study on the deposit growing mechanism, it was probable that the rapid increased differential pressure was attributed to the condensation of meta-boric acid at the outlet of the air-film cooler slits. And, the heating and the humidification of purge air were judged to be effective as the countermeasures to suppress the condensation. On the other hand, the water injection into melter off-gas pipe was found to be very effective to reduce the differential pressure as the results of the various tests. The deposit adhered on the inner surface of the off-gas pipe was almost washed out. And, it was also demonstrated that the system was superior to other systems by virtue of its simplicity and stability. In order to apply the system to the commercial scale plant, the scale-up tests were conducted at JNC mock-up facility using the acrylic model. (author)

Ohno, A.; Kitamura, M.; Yamanaka, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Yoshioka, M.; Endo, N.; Asano, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

2001-07-01

96

Infiniband Performance Testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A look at the performance of the infiniband interconnect using the Voltaire host stack. This will attempt to compare not only infiniband to other high-performance interconnects, but will also take a look at comparing some of the different hardware choices available at the time of writing (e.g. Opteron, EM64T, pci-express and pci-x).

Minich, M

2005-10-13

97

Cryogenic system for collecting noble gases from boiling water reactor off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In boiling water reactors, noncondensible gases are expelled from the main condenser. This off-gas stream is composed largely of radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen, air in-leakage, and traces of fission product krypton and xenon. In the Air Products' treatment system, the stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen are reacted to form water in a catalytic recombiner. The design of the catalytic recombiner is an extension of industrial gas technology developed for purification of argon and helium. The off-gas after the recombiner is processed by cryogenic air-separation technology. The gas is compressed, passed into a reversing heat exchanger where water vapor and carbon dioxide are frozen out, further cooled, and expanded into a distillation column where refrigeration is provided by addition of liquid nitrogen. More than 99.99 percent of the krypton and essentially 100 percent of the xenon entering the column are accumulated in the column bottoms. Every three to six months, the noble-gas concentrate accumulated in the column bottom is removed as liquid, vaporized, diluted with steam, mixed with hydrogen in slight excess of oxygen content, and fed to a small recombiner where all the oxygen reacts to form water. The resulting gas stream, containing from 20 to 40 percent noble gases, is compressed into small storage cylinders for indefinite retention or for decay of all fission gases except krypton-85, followed by subsequent release under controlled conditions and favorable meteorology. This treatment system is based on proven technology that is practiced throughout the industrial gas industry. Only the presence of radioactive materials in the process stream and the application in a nuclear power plant environment are new. Adaptations to meet these new conditions can be made without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety

1973-09-24

98

Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the early 1980`s, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

1991-12-31

99

Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

1991-01-01

100

Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe2O3 spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, 14C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

1988-01-01

102

Inspection system performance test procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system

1995-01-01

103

Performance testing of shock absorbers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a better understanding and evaluation of shock absorber performance, detailed data upon their relevant physical parameters, such as spring characteristics and energy dissipation properties, have been measured in a test jig. Down hole tests where well defined sinusoidal vibrations are generated in a 1000 m vertical drill string by means of a down hole exciter were also performed. The drill string response above the shock absorber is measured by a hard wired MWD tool giving high frequency data on accelerations, WOB, torque and pressures. Examples of test results for different types of absorbers are presented and discussed for both laboratory and downhole tests.

Skaugen, E.; Kyllingstad, A.

1986-01-01

104

Modelling of EAF off-gas post combustion in dedusting systems using CFD methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To comply with the increasingly strict environmental regulations, the poisonous off-gas species, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), produced in the electric arc furnace (EAF) must be treated in the dedusting system. In this work, gas flow patterns of the off-gas post combustion in three different dedusting system units were simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code: (1) post combustion in a horizontal off-gas duct, (2) post combustion in a water cooled post combustion chamber without additional energy supply (no gas or air/oxygen injectors) and (3) post combustion in a post combustion chamber with additional energy input (gas, air injectors and ignition burner, case study of VAI-Fuchs GmbH). All computational results are illustrated with gas velocity, temperature distribution and chemical species concentration fields for the above three cases. In case 1, the effect of different false air volume flow rates at the gap between EAF elbow and exhaust gas duct on the external post combustion of the off-gas was investigated. For case 2, the computed temperature and chemical composition (CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) of the off-gas at the post chamber exit are in good agreement with additional measurements. Various operating conditions for case 3 have been studied, including different EAF off-gas temperatures and compositions, i. e. CO content, in order to optimize oxygen and burner gas flow rates. Residence time distributions in the external post combustion chambers have been calculated for cases 2 and 3. Derived temperature fields of the water cooled walls yield valuable information on thermally stressed parts of post combustion units. The results obtained in this work may also gain insight to future investigation of combustion of volatile organic components (VOC) or formation of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and permit the optimization of the operation and design of the off-gas dedusting system units. (orig.)

Tang, X.; Kirschen, M.; Pfeifer, H. [Inst. for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering in Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Abel, M. [VAI-Fuchs GmbH, Willstaett (Germany)

2003-04-01

105

Performance testing With JMeter 29  

CERN Multimedia

Performance Testing With JMeter 2.9 is a standard tutorial that will help you polish your fundamentals, guide you through various advanced topics, and along the process help you learn new tools and skills.This book is for developers, quality assurance engineers, testers, and test managers new to Apache JMeter, or those who are looking to get a good grounding in how to effectively use and become proficient with it. No prior testing experience is required.

Erinle, Bayo

2013-01-01

106

Present status and problems of conventional off-gas cleaning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas from reprocessing dissolution process contains volatile radioactive nuclides such as H-3, Kr-85, I-129 and C-14. The establishment of the method for removing or fixing them in order to prevent the release into environment is a social concern. The study group investigated the present status of the research and development on the volatile nuclides from the generation to the disposal, and attempted to set up the off-gas cleaning system which is considered to be more rational. It is important that the dissolution off-gas cleaning system is composed of the processes which are highly safe and reliable, economical and simple. It is necessary to pay attention to use the techniques of high reliability, to remove strongly corrosive nuclides such as iodine at the first step, to make the system into a continuous type or close to it to prevent the accumulation of radioactive substances, to avoid high temperature, high pressure operation as far as possible, to avoid the use of toxic and highly explosive chemical substances and to make the process flexible so as to be able to cope with the variation of operational condition. From these viewpoints, the existing off-gas cleaning system was examined, and the plan of its improvement was proposed as a total off-gas cleaning system. (Kako, I.).

1986-01-01

107

Sport performance and agility tests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect agility on sports performance and agility measurement tests. Agility is described as a rapid whole body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus. Good agility requires a combination of speed, balance, power and co-ordination. Agility, which is a motoric ability, can be improved by regular progressive exercise. As an important component, agility is used to be an acceptable method in sports performance test batteries. As a result of the study; agility, which is a required characteristic in most of the sports activities, is a quality that successful athletes should have. While administering the sports performance test batteries to enhance sports performance both the exercise to improve agility and to develop dynamic balance that support agility has importance.

Kür?at Karacabey

2013-01-01

108

Self absorption and geometric correction factors for reactor off-gas samples relative to NBS standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Although they can be counted in identical bottles using identical counting systems, real gas samples differ from the NBS solution standards (e.g., mock reactor off-gas) in two respects--geometry and self absorption. Because both detector and source are real and finite, the simple ''narrow beam'' linear attenuation coefficient approximations currently used in the industry are quite inadequate for correction. Accordingly, the well-tested, complete-analog program, BIM 130, was used to compute the fraction of photons, and the photon energy spectra, reaching typical detectors used in the industry. Using this method, it was possible to correct the given NBS standard activity to its effective activity relative to a gas sample in an identical bottle. Factors were much closer to unity than predictions based on ''narrow beam'' linear attenuation coefficient approximations. At 80 keV, for example, such approximations gave 0.76, whereas the factor proved to be 1.03 for a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) crystal and a 3 cm distance. Results are presented for various gamma energies of interest from 80 keV to 1,830 keV, and for the commonly used industrial distances of 3, 10, and 30 cm from the bottom of the sample bottle to the top of the detector container. Complete spectra for photons entering the detectors, as well as factors derived from these for typical NaI(Tl) and Ge(Li) detector resolutions, are given

1973-09-24

109

Development of the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process for HTGR off-gas reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel involves burning of the graphite-matrix elements to release the fuel for recovery purposes. The resulting off-gas is primarily CO2 with residual amounts of N2, O2, and CO, together with fission products. Trace quantities of krypton-85 must be recovered in a concentrated form from the gas stream, but processes commonly employed for rare gas removal and concentration are not suitable for use with off-gas from graphite burning. The KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2) process employs liquid CO2 as a volatile solvent for the krypton and is, therefore, uniquely suited to the task. Engineering development of the KALC process is currently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The ORNL system is designed for close study of the individual separation operations involved in the KALC process, while the ORGDP system provides a complete pilot facility for demonstrating combined operations on a somewhat larger scale. Packed column performance and process control procedures have been of prime importance in the initial studies. Computer programs have been prepared to analyze and model operational performance of the KALC studies, and special sampling and in-line monitoring systems have been developed for use in the experimental facilities. (U.S.)

1974-08-12

110

Parametric studies of off-gas release during in situ vitrification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gases are released from underground sources during the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. Most of these gases will be generated beyond the melt front where advancing high temperatures will cause pyrolysis and vaporization of organic and volatile materials. Some of these gases will enter the bottom of the melt pool and propagate upwards to the surface where they will enter the ISV confinement hood. A computer code called OGRE (Off-Gas RElease) has been written to model bubble-rise physics in the melt pool for given volumetric gas flux rates into the bottom of the pool. The models incorporated into OGRE have previously been reported. The purpose of the present document is to report the results of a series of parametric studies performed with OGRE. The numerical studies involve the variation of seventeen parameters for each of the two different inlet bubble-size models. Results indicate that while predictions appear qualitatively reasonable, additional development of the agglomeration and drift flux models is needed. This development will require experimental data for bubble formation and terminal velocity. 5 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs.

Mousseau, V.A.; Johnson, R.W.; MacKinnon, R.J.

1990-09-01

111

Performance testing for scintillation camera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] According to the test schedule there are thirteen number of tests to check the performance of a scintillation camera. But due to lack of apparatus, only nine tests were carried out during the study.Preset and manual PHA (Pulse Height Analyzer) window settings were tested using Tc sup 99m, I sup 131 sources and 20 percent window was used. Percentage change in count rate on changing from the manual mode to the present mode was measured. Intrinsic flood-field uniformity of the camera was tested by a point source of Tc sup 99m in solution with 20 percent window width. Values were obtained for useful field-of-view, (UFOV) and central field-of-view (CFOV). Intrinsic flood-field-uniformity over available PHA window widths also tested using a Tc sup 99m source and with 20 percent PHA window. Images were observed for each PHA window using a computer. Tc sup 99m solution containing flood phantom was used to test the system flood-field uniformity with a 20 percent PHA window. Digital image was observed. Flood phantom containing Tc sup 99m in solution and, quadrant bar phantoms were used to test the intrinsic s patial resolution of the camera. Intrinsic spatial resolution in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) was measured, also the digital image was observed. System spatial resolution of the camera was also measured and the digital image was observed. The intrinsic count-rate performance of the camera was tested using two point sources of Tc sup 99m. Maximum count- rate of the scintillation camera was measured by varying the distance of the Tc sup 99m point source from the surface of the detector. Finally the total performance of the scintillation camera used for the study was tested using a total performance phantom (Liver slice phantom). Images of liver phantom were observed. (author)

2000-01-01

112

Performance test of the pretreatment unit for Kr-85 recovery system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pretreatment process has been performed to removed the undesirable gases such as hydrocarbon, oxygen and nitrogen oxides from the off-gas using the installation described on a previous report (695). The obtained operation results were satisfied with the performances of the process. (auth.)

1976-01-01

113

Method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method is based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents. The basis for the development of the process concept are laboratory experiments corroborating the feasibility of the individual process steps. Moreover, the different adsorption processes for krypton separation described in the past are taken into account. The entire process essentially consists of three stages which are coupled together: Retention of NOsub(x) residues from the off-gas on molecular sieve and recycling the NOsub(x) with part of the waste gas into the dissolver; deposition of xenon on activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas; deposition of krypton from the remaining off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography with coupled filling of pure crypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. (orig./HP)

1981-01-01

114

Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities reflect the normal development by manufacturers of new and improved equipment and the demand for more safety, greater reliability, and higher collection efficiency as an aftermath of the well publicized accident at Three Mile Island. The latter event has to be viewed as a watershed in the history of off-gas treatment requirements for nuclear facilities. It is too soon to predict what these will be with any degree of assurance but it seems reasonable to expect greatly increased interest in containment venting systems for light water and LMFBR nuclear power reactors and more stringent regulatory requirements for auxiliary off-gas cleaning systems. Although chemical and waste handling plants share few characteristics with reactors other than the presence of radioactive materials, often in large amounts, tighter requirements for handling reactor off-gases will surely be transferred to other kinds of nuclear facilities without delay. Currently employed nuclear off-gas cleaning technology was largely developed and applied during the decade of the 1950s. It is regrettable that the most efficient and most economical off-gas treatment systems do not always yield the best waste forms for storage or disposal. It is even more regrettable that waste management has ceased to be solely a technical matter but has been transformed instead into a highly charged political posture of major importance in many western nations. Little reinforcement has been provided by detailed studies of off-gas treatment equipment failures that show that approximately 13% of over 9000 licensee event reports to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission pertained to failures in ventilating and cleaning systems and their monitoring instruments.

1980-02-22

115

LFK, FORTRAN Application Performance Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LFK, the Livermore FORTRAN Kernels, is a computer performance test that measures a realistic floating-point performance range for FORTRAN applications. Informally known as the Livermore Loops test, the LFK test may be used as a computer performance test, as a test of compiler accuracy (via checksums) and efficiency, or as a hardware endurance test. The LFK test, which focuses on FORTRAN as used in computational physics, measures the joint performance of the computer CPU, the compiler, and the computational structures in units of Mega-flops/sec or Mflops. A C language version of subroutine KERNEL is also included which executes 24 samples of C numerical computation. The 24 kernels are a hydrodynamics code fragment, a fragment from an incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient code, the standard inner product function of linear algebra, a fragment from a banded linear equations routine, a segment of a tridiagonal elimination routine, an example of a general linear recurrence equation, an equation of state fragment, part of an alternating direction implicit integration code, an integrate predictor code, a difference predictor code, a first sum, a first difference, a fragment from a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code, a part of a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code, an example of how casually FORTRAN can be written, a Monte Carlo search loop, an example of an implicit conditional computation, a fragment of a two-dimensional explicit hydrodynamics code, a general linear recurrence equation, part of a discrete ordinates transport program, a simple matrix calculation, a segment of a Planck distribution procedure, a two-dimensional implicit hydrodynamics fragment, and determination of the location of the first minimum in an array. 2 - Method of solution: CPU performance rates depend strongly on the maturity of FORTRAN compiler machine code optimization. The LFK test-bed executes the set of 24 kernels three times, resetting the DO-loop controls so that short, medium, and long vector performance is sampled and can be compared. Following these three executions, the 72 timings are combined for statistical analysis and printed. The entire LFK test is executed seven times to measure experimental timing errors. An analysis of these timing errors for each kernel is provided to confirm the accuracy of the test. The LFK test also computes a sensitivity analysis of the weighted harmonic mean rate by assigning 49 sets of weights to the kernels. This analysis may be used for risk analysis to understand the variation in net performance that different workloads would cause. The LFK test report concludes with an analysis of the sensitivity of the net FORTRAN rate to optimization using the SISD/SIMD model, a two-component form of the weighted harmonic mean (harmonic Mflops) model. This analysis may be used to gauge the performance of applications from a knowledge of their vectorizability. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Although the LFK test evaluates the performance of a broad sampling of FORTRAN computations, it is not an application program; neither is it a complete benchmark test nor a substitute for one

1991-01-01

116

Removal of Mercury from the Off-Gas from Thermal Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acidic, radioactive wastes with a high nitrate concentration, and containing mercury are currently being stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). In the past, these wastes were converted into a dry, granular solid by a high temperature fluidized-bed calcination process. In the future, the calcined solids may be immobilized by a vitrification process prior to disposal. It has been proposed that a vitrification facility be built to treat the acidic wastes, as well as the calcined solids. As was the case with the calcination process, NOx levels in the vitrification off-gas are expected to be high, and mercury emissions are expected to exceed the Maximum Control Technology (MACT) limits. Mitigation of mercury emissions by wet scrubbing, followed by adsorption onto activated carbon is being investigated. Scoping tests with sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, KCl-impregnated activated carbon and non-impregnated activated carbon were conducted with a test gas containing1% NO2, 28% H2O, 4% O2 and 67% N2. Average removal efficiencies for Hgo and HgCl2 were 100 ± 2.5% and 99 ± 3.6% respectively, for sulfur-impregnated carbon. The KCl-impregnated carbon removed 99 ± 4.6% HgCl2. The removal efficiency of the non-impregnated carbon was 99 ± 3.6% for HgCl2. No short-term detrimental effects due to NO2 and H2O were observed. These results indicate that, placed downstream of a wet scrubber, an activated carbon adsorption bed has the potential of reducing mercury levels sufficiently to enable compliance with the MACT limit. Long-term exposure tests, and bed size optimization studies are planned for the future.

Deldebbio, John Anthony; Olson, Lonnie Gene

2001-05-01

117

Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

1999-07-01

118

Performance Testing From the Cloud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the opportunities and challenges when leveraging the cloud to performance test large-scale websites and applications. Getting performance right, particularly at web-scale, requires a level of passion that results in both a view of the big picture and an attention to detail. We'll describe how to use the scale of the cloud to gain confidence when deploying sites servicing potentially massive amounts of web traffic. We'll start by describing what we mean by the cloud in order to set context. We'll then describe the components that comprise SOASTA's CloudTest and focus on how we deliver the offering to the market, including a look at the key tenets of the cloud testing methodology based on SOASTA's experiences.

Tom Lounibos

2010-01-01

119

Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lewis, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01

120

Reprocessing off-gas treatment research in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (S.C.K./C.E.N.) is technologically oriented and aims at the development of industrially applicable techniques for capture of in the perspective of increasingly severe discharge authorizations at the stack of reprocessing plants. Attention was focussed on the I problem particularly, the long lived I129 isotope. Among the many capture techniques, scrubbing by HgNO3-HNO3 solutions, followed by adsorption on silver impregnated zeolites was chosen. Pilot installations with a throughput of 25 m3h-1 have been constructed and operated with simulated gases resulting fram a mock-up dissolver and traced with molecular I131 and CH3 I131 at up to several hundred mCi. The second nuclide of interest to the environment is Kr85 which has to be retained within the limits imposed by the new US regulations. Cryogenic absorption-distillation was chosen as reference technique. A pilot installation of 15 m3h-1 has been installed and operated on a continuous basis. Capture of T gas and tritiated water vapour was studied parametrically in simulated conditions. A new pilot equipment of 15 m3h-1 combining catalytic oxidation and adsorption on molecular sieves has been constructed. All the selected techniques will be integrated into a mock-up gas loop of 25 m3h-1 in order to test the mutual influence of the different unit steps on each other and on the ultimate decontamination factor. Finally a pilot facility for studying head-end processing (HERMES) has been designed in which the most appropriate gas purification techniques will be tested in hot cell conditions. (orig./HP)

1977-11-25

 
 
 
 
121

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas systems utilizing silver-exchanged mordenite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, silver loadings and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests was 142 mg CH/sub 3/I per g of substrate on fully exchanged zeolite, approximately the same as elemental iodine loadings. A filter using fully exchanged silver mordenite operating at 200/sup 0/C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 150/sup 0/C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen rather than dry air, at a temperature of 200/sup 0/C, also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. Partially exchanged silver mordenite achieved higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. The partially exchanged mordenite also achieved higher loadings at 200/sup 0/C than at 250/sup 0/C. The iodine loaded onto these beds was not stripped at 500/sup 0/C by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen; however, the iodine could be removed by air at 500/sup 0/C, and the bed could be reloaded. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500/sup 0/C. The loss of adsorbent capacity is much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing.

Jubin, R.T.

1981-01-01

122

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using partially exchanged silver mordenite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide adsorption of partially exchanged silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, filter temperature, and degree of silver exchange. Partially exchanged silver mordenite, in general, achieved significantly higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. Silver utilizations of > 95% were achieved, assuming the formation of AgI. The experimental results indicate that CH/sub 3/I loadings increase proportionally with silver loading up to 5 wt % silver and then appear to level off. Tests conducted to determine the effect of temperature on the loading showed higher loadings at 200/sup 0/C than at either 150 or 250/sup 0/C. The presence of NO, NO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O vapor showed negligible effects on the loading of CH/sub 3/I. In contrast to iodine loaded onto fully exchanged silver mordenite, the iodine loaded onto the partially exchanged silver mordenite could not be stripped by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen at temperatures up to 500/sup 0/C. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates a decreased adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500/sup 0/C. The loss of adsorbent capacity was much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing. A cost evaluation for the use of the partially exchanged silver mordenite shows that the cost of the silver mordenite on a once-through basis is < $10/h of operation for a 0.5-t/d reprocessing plant.

Jubin, R.T.

1982-01-01

123

Analysis of fire and smoke threat to off-gas HEPA filters in a transuranium processing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author performed an analysis of fire risk to the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that provide ventilation containment for a transuranium processing plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A fire-safety survey by an independent fire-protection consulting company had identified the HEPA filters in the facility's off-gas containment ventilation system as being at risk from fire effects. Independently studied were the ventilation networks and flow dynamics, and typical fuel loads were analyzed. It was found that virtually no condition for fire initiation exists and that, even if a fire started, its consequences would be minimal as a result of standard shut-down procedures. Moreover, the installed fire-protection system would limit any fire and thus would further reduce smoke or heat exposure to the ventilation components. 4 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

1988-01-01

124

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECOVERING ETHYLENE FROM FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING (FCC) OFF-GAS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed herein are a method and apparatus for concentrating and recovering ethylene from the off-gas from an apparatus which produces gasoline, propylene and the like by fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) of heavy oils such as atmospheric residue, generated in a crude oil refining process. The method and apparatus can reduce the amount of ethylene rinse in the subsequent ethylene displacement desorption process by increasing the ethylene purity of a raw material gas and reducing the concentration of weakly adsorbing components in the raw material gas and can reduce the loss of a desorbent during a distillation process for separating the desorbent from the weakly adsorbing components. Thus, according to the present invention, ethylene can be recovered from the off-gas from fluidized catalytic cracking of heavy oils at high concentration and low cost.

PARK JONG HO; KIM JONG NAM; BEUM HEE TAE; LEE SEONG JUN; LEE JANG JAE; KIM DONG WOOK; KO CHANG HYUN; HAN SANG SUP; CHO SOON HAENG

125

The combination of head-end off-gas cleaning with a tritium concentrating step  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The integrated cleaning process for head-end off-gas such as developed by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol has the potential to reduce the concentration of I-129 and Kr-85 in the stack gases to very small levels compatible with anticipated more stringent regulations. The addition of conditioning steps for the isotopes trapped allows to conclude that 99.9% of the iodine present in the dissolver off-gas can be trapped and converted to copper iodide; that 99.9% of the krypton present can be transferred to a small gas bottle and that at the same time the tritium containing effluents of a reprocessing plant can be concentrated for 90% in a volume which is only 1% of the initial tritium contaminated water volume

1983-01-01

126

Protection and safety functions of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaseous effluent cleaning installations are designed to protect workmen and environment and must be efficient enough to guarantee that the amounts of gases and dusts emitted by a furnace operating normally or accidentally are at an acceptable level in the atmosphere on the incinerator site. The process equipments necessary to operations and the monitoring devices must be reliable. The main risk in normal operation is occupational exposure close to the radioactive products accumulation points. The accidental risks are mainly related to an outage of the off-gas cleaning or a tightness failure with radioactive products dissemination resulting from either internal perturbation (filter tear, exhauster failure, ...) or external incident (electricity cut-off, furnace disarrangements, fire or explosion inside the incinerator). In view of these risks, it is interesting to examine the safety and protection functions of different components of off-gas treatment systems.

1986-01-01

127

Monitoring and analysis of process streams in a krypton-85 off-gas decontamination system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The methods used to monitor, sample, and analyze process streams in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility are described. This facility is designed to study the removal of noble gases, particularly 85Kr, from reactor fuel reprocessing off-gas streams by high pressure scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide or Freon. Krypton-85 concentrations in the most important gas streams are monitored continuously with beta-sensitive radiation detectors using a CaF2(Eu) scintillation disc. These detectors were designed specifically for use with corrosive fluids at high pressures. Representative samples of gas and liquid are withdrawn from 14 process streams via a semiautomatic sampling system. These samples are then analyzed for 85Kr using a beta detector, and for inactive constituents by mass spectrometry. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

128

Cut performance levels and testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

2011-11-01

129

Cut performance levels and testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

Bennett B; Moreland J

2011-11-01

130

Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in dedusting plants and comparison to off-gas measurements at electric arc furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical simulation tool is presented in order to model enthalpy flow rates of off-gas and heat transfer of cooling systems at dedusting plants in electric steel making sites. The flexibility of the simulation tool is based on a user-defined series of modular units that describe elementary units of industrial dedusting systems, e.g. water-cooled hot gas duct, air injector, drop-out box, mixing chamber, post-combustion chamber, filter, etc. Results of simulation were checked with measurements at industrial electric steel making plants in order to validate the models for turbulence, heat transfer and chemical reaction kinetics. Comparison between computed and measured gas temperature and composition yield excellent agreement. The simulation tool is used to calculate off-gas temperature and volume flow rate, where off-gas measurements are very difficult to apply due to high gas temperatures and high dust load. Heat transfer from the off-gas to the cooling system was calculated in detail for a pressurised hot water EAF cooling system in order to investigate the impact of the cooling system and the dedusting plant operation on the energy sinks of the electric arc furnace. It is shown that optimum efficiency of post-combustion of EAF off-gas in the water-cooled hot gas duct requires continuous off-gas analysis. Common operation parameters of EAF dedusting systems do not consider the non-steady-state of the EAF off-gas emission efficiently.

Kirschen, Marcus [Institute for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstrasse 16, 52074 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kirschen@iob.rwth-aachen.de; Velikorodov, Viktor [Institute for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstrasse 16, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pfeifer, Herbert [Institute for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstrasse 16, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

2006-11-15

131

Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in dedusting plants and comparison to off-gas measurements at electric arc furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical simulation tool is presented in order to model enthalpy flow rates of off-gas and heat transfer of cooling systems at dedusting plants in electric steel making sites. The flexibility of the simulation tool is based on a user-defined series of modular units that describe elementary units of industrial dedusting systems, e.g. water-cooled hot gas duct, air injector, drop-out box, mixing chamber, post-combustion chamber, filter, etc. Results of simulation were checked with measurements at industrial electric steel making plants in order to validate the models for turbulence, heat transfer and chemical reaction kinetics. Comparison between computed and measured gas temperature and composition yield excellent agreement. The simulation tool is used to calculate off-gas temperature and volume flow rate, where off-gas measurements are very difficult to apply due to high gas temperatures and high dust load. Heat transfer from the off-gas to the cooling system was calculated in detail for a pressurised hot water EAF cooling system in order to investigate the impact of the cooling system and the dedusting plant operation on the energy sinks of the electric arc furnace. It is shown that optimum efficiency of post-combustion of EAF off-gas in the water-cooled hot gas duct requires continuous off-gas analysis. Common operation parameters of EAF dedusting systems do not consider the non-steady-state of the EAF off-gas emission efficiently.

2006-01-01

132

Theory to boil-off gas cooled shields for cryogenic storage vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intermediate refrigeration with boil-off gas cooled shields using the boil-off gas stream is an alternative method to the conventional intermediate refrigeration with a cryogenic liquid. By using an analytical calculation method relations are derived, which enable complete predictions about the effectiveness of an intermediate refrigeration with boil-off gas cooled shields as a function of the number of shields for the different stored cryogenic liquids. For this theoretical derivation however, the restrictive assumption must be made that the thermal conductivity of the used insulation material has a constant value between the considered temperature boundaries. For purposes of a more exact calculation a numerical method is therefore suggested, which takes into consideration that the thermal conductivity is temperature-dependent. For a liquid hydrogen storage vessel with a perlite-vacuum insulation e.g., the effectiveness of one shield and its equilibrium temperature are given as a function of the position of the shield in the insulation space. (author)

Hofmann, A.

2004-03-01

133

Removal of Mercury from SBW Vitrification Off-Gas by Activated Carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive, acidic waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have been previously converted into a dry, granular solid at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). As an alternative to calcination, direct vitrification of the waste, as well as the calcined solids in an Idaho Waste Vitrification Facility (IWVF) is being considered to prepare the waste for final disposal in a federal repository. The remaining waste to be processed is Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Off-gas monitoring during NWCF operations have indicated that future mercury emissions may exceed the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) limit of 130 ug/dscm (micrograms/dry standard cubic meter) (at) 7% O2 for existing Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWC) if modifications are not made. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions may also exceed the MACT limits. Off-gas models have predicted that mercury levels in the off-gas from SBW vitrification will exceed the proposed MACT limit of 45 ug/dscm (at) 7% O2 for new HWCs. NO2/44% H2O.

2001-01-01

134

Recovery of volatile materials from off-gas; Rueckgewinnung leichtfluechtiger Stoffe aus Abgasstroemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gases are produced in many industrial processes. The maximum permissible emission limits are specified in the TA-Luft. Off-gas can be purified by absorption, adsorption, permeation, combustion and condensation. Condensation processes are applied only of the vapour pressures of the components to be separated are comparatively low. Using the example of a multistage condensation process for temperatures down to /165 C, the authors show that also volatile materials can be removed from off-gas and recycled. The off-gas is purified to below the limiting values of the TA-Luft. (orig.) [Deutsch] In vielen Industriezweigen fallen Abgase an. Die maximal zulaessigen Emissionsgrenzwerte werden durch die TA-Luft geregelt. Gaengige Verfahren zur Abgasreinigung sind die Absorption, die Adsorption, die Permeation, die Verbrennung sowie die Kondensation. Kondensationsverfahren werden normalerweise nur angewandt, wenn die abzuscheidenden Komponenten vergleichsweise niedrige Dampfdruecke aufweisen. Am Beispiel eines mehrstufigen Kondensationsverfahrens, das bei Temperaturen bis -165 C arbeitet, wird gezeigt, dass auch leichtfluechtige Stoffe aus Abgasstroemen abgeschieden und recycelt werden koennen. Dabei wird das Abgas soweit gereinigt, dass die Grenzwerte der TA Luft sicher eingehalten werden. (orig.)

Eufinger, J. [Goldschmidt (Thailand) AG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Verfahrenstechnik; Mehrwald, A. [Goldschmidt (Thailand) AG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Verfahrenstechnik

1997-01-01

135

Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line

1992-01-01

136

Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line.

Lee, L.

1992-02-25

137

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of ?125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

2010-12-06

138

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of {approx}125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

Nenoff, Tina Maria; Chupas, Peter J. (Argonne National Laboratory); Garino, Terry J.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Chapman, Karena W. (Argonne National Laboratory); Sava, Dorina Florentina

2010-11-01

139

Concrete testing - is performance assured  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quality assurance in relation to manufacturing, curing and testing concrete is discussed. The need for testing in situ as well as laboratory testing in accordance with BSI specifications is considered. The importance of establishing concrete durability as well as strength is emphasized. It is stated that typical examples of the application of quality assurance are the two nuclear power stations at Heysham and Torness.

Elliott, R.L. (Taywood Engineering Ltd., Sothall (UK))

1983-12-01

140

Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse.

Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

2000-05-15

 
 
 
 
141

Experimental evaluation of nitrogen oxides and iodine retention during the scrubbing of dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolution of nuclear fuel in reprocessing operations. Dissolver off-gas contains large quantities of water vapor and nitrogen oxides and much smaller quantities of iodine and other fission product gases. It is desirable to recover the nitrogen oxides by absorption into water, where subsequent reactions produce nitric acid, which may be recycled to dissolution operations. The NO/sub x/ scrubber system was operated in a mode thought to be prototypic of a dissolver off-gas NO/sub x/ scrubber system for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, including recycle of the scrubbing liquid. Chemical reactions occurring simultaneously with the absorption of NO/sub x/ into dilute HNO3 solutions produce liquid HNO3 and HNO2. In general, the presence of HNO3 in dilute concentrations in the scrub solution does not have a significant effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency; however, the presence of HNO2 in this solution does have a significant deleterious effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency. In the results reported here, NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency is shown to increase when the HNO2 content of the scrub solution is reduced by oxidation with O2 or H2O2. In other experiments involving the presence of I2 in the feed gas, the I2 content of the recycled scrub solution increased to a steady-state value. At this condition, the bulk of the gaseous I2 passes through the NO/sub x/ scrubber system.

1987-01-01

142

Test Software Functionality, but Test its Performance as Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software product testing has great importance in the detection of errors appearing in the course of software development and reflecting directly on software quality enhancement before its implementation in the working environment. Special priority in the software product testing phase is given to testing software performance. In contrast to functional testing, which should show if software is capable of carrying out planned functions without making errors, performance testing should show if the software will realize planned tasks in accordance with previously defined and expectedperformance. Software performance testing tools are used for simulating conditions under which software will work.In this article, the authors point to the importance of the testing phases in the software product development process and give a review of up-to-date testing techniques. The focus of the article is placed on software performance testing and overview of performance testing tools.

Jovica ?urkovi?; Jelica Trnini?; Vuk Vukovi?

2011-01-01

143

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

Goles, R.W.

1996-03-01

144

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

1996-01-01

145

Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

1990-01-01

146

The art of application performance testing  

CERN Document Server

The Art of Application Performance Testing provides a step-by-step approach to testing mission-critical applications for scalability and performance before they're deployed -- a critical topic to which other books devote, at most, one chapter. With it, you'll learn the complete life cycle of the testing process, along with best practices to help you plan, gain approval for, coordinate, and conduct performance tests on your applications

Molyneaux, Ian

2009-01-01

147

Canadian development program for off-gas management in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Canadian program for the development and evaluation of processes and technology for the separation and containment of radioactive species in off-gases is directed towards the following specific aspects: 1) assessment of available treatment technology and evaluation of future clean-up requirements; 2) development and engineering evaluation, under realistic conditions, of promising new processes that would be inherently simpler and safer; and 3) specification of off-gas emission control systems for future nuclear facilities based on the most favourable technology. The program is being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in collaboration with the electrical utility, Ontario Hydro, and selected Canadian universities. A brief description is presented of methods for removing tritium and carbon-14 from the moderator systems of CANDU power reactors, methods for removing iodine from the off-gases of a molybdenum-99 production facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and procedures for monitoring the off-gas effluent composition in the Thorium Fuel Reprocessing Experiment (TFRE) facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

1983-01-01

148

Peak performance. Haulers on test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early 1970s, when large scale mining of the Bowen Basin coal got up a real head of steam, Euclid trucks established a strong presence. That has been maintained - presently BHP-Utah has no less than fifty CH120 coal haulers on site at four mines and two R85s at another. The three largest coal trucks operating in Australia are on test at the Peak Downs mine. These Euclid CH210 machines are believed to be the largest mechanical drive haulers in the world. A significant fraction of the componentry of the Peak Downs trucks was made in Australia. 2 figs.

1988-10-01

149

42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel. ...Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1487 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing...

2009-10-01

150

Aerosol-source term in the head-end-dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To demonstrate an advanced dissolver off-gas cleaning system, the PASSAT prototype filter system and the WAESCHE off-gas simulation facility have been developed, modified, and coupled together for operation. The WAESCHE facility consists of a dissolver, a condenser, and an NO/sub x/-scrubber and serves to simulate and study the aerosol and iodine formation, behavior, and distribution in the head-end under realistic conditions. The report describes the aerosol distribution during simulated shear and dissolver operations in the WAESCHE-PASSAT dissolver off-gas simulation and treatment facility. Also the aerosol concentration and removal was measured in the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant in hot operation during several dissolutions of spent fuel elements

1987-01-01

151

Decomposition of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial off-gas by electron beams: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam induced decomposition of volatile organic compounds (e.g. aromatic compounds, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins) in industrial off gas has been investigated by several research groups in Germany and Japan. The method was shown to be effective for cleaning the waste gas of a paint factory, the waste air discharged from an automobile tunnel, the off gas cleaning from a groundwater remediation plant and the flue gas of a waste incinerator. The electron beam process achieves high removal efficiencies for volatile organic compounds. Reaction models have been developed, which suggest that the organic compounds are oxidized by hydroxyl radicals. The electron beam process may treat very large off-gas volumes at ambient temperatures and has a low energy consumption. The production of secondary wastes can be avoided or minimized. Compared to conventional methods the investment and operation costs of the process seem to be attractive for selected applications

1998-01-01

152

Off-gas desulphurisation. Fremgangsmaade til fjernelse af svovloxider fra afgasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gas containing sulphur oxides is fed through a fixed bed of sorbent, a mixture of V[sub 2]O[sub 5] and alkali metal pyrosulphates on a porous carrier at 250-400 deg. C to catalytically convert and sorb oxides as sulphur oxide. Sorbent loaded with sulphur oxide is regenerated with air at 500-650 deg. C. Desorbed sulphur oxide is removed from the air by hydration to sulphuric acid for removal in an H2SO4 condenser. Part of the regeneration air is recycled to the sorbent bed. Process costs are lower. H2SO4 condenser is of smaller size. Process can be continuous in at least 2 beds operated in an adsorption mode and regenerating mode. Volume of air used in regeneration is small with reference to off-gases Dwg. 0/1. (AB)

Schoubye, P.; Topsoee, H.F.A.

1994-01-03

153

Low energy process for separating carbon dioxide and acid gases from a carbonaceous off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is disclosed for the separation of carbon dioxide and sulfide gases from oil shale retort off-gases, coal gasification off-gases, oxygen fire-flooding or carbon dioxide miscible flood enhanced oil recovery off-gases for recycle to a retort, gasifier or petroleum reservoir or alternately delivery to another process. The process separates the off-gases into an essentially sulfur-free fuel gas and an acid gas for recycle to such a retort, gasifier or reservoir wherein the off-gas is compressed if necessary and cooled to separate the two streams, the acid gas is expanded in an auto refrigeration step to provide the necessary process refrigeration and the acid gas is then recycled to such a retort, gasifier or reservoir. In the oil shale retorting and coal gasification applications, the gas' sulfur constituents are sorbed on spent oil shale particles or coal ash.

Hegarty, W.P.; Schmidt, W.P.

1984-05-22

154

Process for separating carbon dioxide and acid gases from a carbonaceous off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for the separation of carbon dioxide and sulfide gases from oil shale retorting off-gases, coal gasification off-gases, oxygen fireflooding off-gases or carbon dioxide miscible flood enhanced oil recovery off-gases for recycle to a retort, gasifier, petroleum reservoir or to further sulfide processing prior to export. The process separates the off-gases into an essentially sulfur-free light BTU fuel gas, a heavy hydrocarbon stream and a carbon dioxide acid gas stream wherein the off-gas is compressed if necessary and cooled to separate the various streams. The carbon dioxide acid gas stream is expanded in an auto-refrigeration step to provide the necessary process refrigeration. In the oil shale retort and coal gasification applications the sulfur constituents are sorbed on spent oil shale particles or coal ash.

Hegarty, W.P.; Schmidt, W.P.

1983-11-29

155

Performance of a large-scale melter off-gas system utilizing simulated SRP DWPF waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy and the DuPont Company have begun construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility to immobilize radioactive waste now stored as liquids at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The immobilization process solidifies waste sludge by vitrification into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. Development of the process has been the responsibility of the Savannah River Laboratory. As part of the development, two large-scale glass melter systems have been designed and operated with simulated waste. Experimental data from these operations show that process requirements will be met. 6 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Kessler, J L; Randall, C T

1984-03-01

156

JOYO MK-III performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MK-III upgrading project was completed in the experimental fast reactor JOYO to increase irradiation capability for irradiation tests. The performance tests were carried out from June 2003 as the last phase of MK-III modification work. During the performance tests, the reactor power was raised step by step, while confirming the nuclear and thermal characteristics of MK-III core and the heat removal capability of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the dump heat exchanger (DHX). All performance tests were successfully carried out and it was confirmed that the performance of JOYO MK-III plant satisfied the design requirement. A pre-use inspection pass certificate for JOYO MK-III was granted from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 27th November 2003 and the MK-III modification work was completed. This report shows the results of the performance tests of JOYO MK-III. (author)

2005-01-01

157

Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

DAVIS, S.J.

2000-04-06

158

42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel...Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1421 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing...

2009-10-01

159

Improving health physics measurements by performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance testing standards have been written to establish minimum performance requirements for personnel dosimeters, radiation survey instruments, and bioassay laboratory measurements. These standards were subjected to experimental evaluation and to a consensus review to assure that the requirements were practical. Programs have been established using the personnel dosimeters standards to improve and control the performance of dosimeter processors. Similarly, implementation of performance testing of instruments will result in improved reliability of field measurements and initiation of a program based on the bioassay standard will improve the accuracy, precision, and detectability levels for the measurement of radioactivity in occupationally exposed workers. Evaluating the performance of health physics measurement tools will lead to improved accuracy and precision and to an improved knowledge of personnel exposures. Performance testing will become a more widely recognized tool for maintenance of a quality program and the concept will be applied to additional measurements. 32 refs., 3 tabs

1986-01-01

160

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

Elliott, D.

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

1983-01-01

162

Experimental Evaluation of NO/sub X/ and I sub 2 Retention During the Scrubbing of Dissolver off-Gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolutio...

R. M. Counce W. S. Groenier R. T. Jubin

1986-01-01

163

Field application of standard day performance tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A standard day test was used to benchmark the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. The performance of SDHW systems vary due to site conditions such as local climate, the slope of the collectors and their azimuths. The RETScreen modeling tool was used to model the performance of SDHW systems in 7 major Canadian cities. The recorded performance values were compared with values used in the standard day test. Peak relative output values were placed onto contour maps representing percentage improvement or penalty compared to standard day test results. A general correlation was found between the latitude of the city and the ideal orientation of the solar collector. Although the graphs indicate that there are many orientations in which solar collectors will perform well, all ideal orientations were found to occur with an azimuth of due south when modelling with RETScreen. 1 tab., 8 figs.

Russell, D.M.; Thwaites, J.D.R. [Taylor Munro Energy Systems Inc., Delta, BC (Canada)

2004-08-01

164

Dexterity testing and residents' surgical performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. With some exceptions, those who choose ophthalmology as a career may approximate the general population in innate manual dexterity. 2. Many factors other than manual dexterity influence the development of surgical skills by residents. 3. If dexterity testing is to be used, the addition or inclusion of tests for spatial aptitudes may be more helpful than simple dexterity tests alone. The predictive value of such tests for surgical performance would need vertification. 4. The development of a special test directly related to handling surgical instruments, to cutting, and to sewing (the criteria) may be more practical than the ones used in this study.

Kirby TJ

1979-01-01

165

Performance testing of super Fe magnet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is given of the data obtained during the testing of a proof of principle iron-dominated low field and cost, high efficiency dipole. The magnet was tested for performance with the design field of 2.0T.

McInturff, A.D.

1982-06-30

166

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

Winkler, J.

2012-03-01

167

Experience with Shell Claus off-gas treating and the Shell incineration catalyst in the 'SCOT' unit at natural gas plant Grossenkneten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SCOT unit in the BEB/Mobil oil joint venture natural gas plant Grossenkneten, W. Germany, has operated successfully for over five years since the start up. The catalytic performance of the sulphur reduction catalyst (S-534) has been very encouraging, the current activity level still being close to the original design value. These results confirm the positive experience with this catalyst in about thirty SCOT units in Japan. For the incineration of the Claus off-gas the S-099 catalyst has been operational for more than five years. Current catalyst performance with respect to COS/CS/sub 2/ conversion, SO/sub 3/ make and temperature runaways are presented and discussed.

Grinsven, P.F.A. van; Sandkuehler, H.; Schaper, L.

1985-01-01

168

RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L. [and others

1997-08-01

169

Modelling of a selective absorption process for rare gas removal from reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for a selective absorption process for rare gas recovery from the dissolver off-gas will be presented. The process is a conventional gas absorption-desorption procedure using circulating CC12F2 solvent at cryogenic temperatures. A high product purity is achieved with an additional intermediate stripping step for the removal of coabsorbed carrier gases. The mathematical model is based on the stage theory. The absorber and the final desorber can be described by simple equations, because the operating conditions are constant over the packed length. For the intermediate stripper the whole system of material and energy balance equations has to be solved for each stage. An iterative procedure has been developed, which allows the determination of flow and concentration profiles for each gas component. A selfconsistent temperature profile terminates the iteration. The model requires experimental distribution data of the various gas components, operating conditions and design parameters such as the number of stages in the packed zones, which must be determined experimentally. Optimum operation conditions have been predicted by the model and verified in the pilot plant.

1989-01-01

170

NNWSI waste form performance test development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test method has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated NNWSI repository conditions, and to provide information concerning materials interactions that may occur in the repository. Data from 13 weeks of unsaturated testing are discussed and compared to that from a 13-week analog test. The data indicate that the waste form test is capable of producing consistent, reproducible results that will be useful in evaluating the role of the waste in the long-term performance of the repository. 6 references, 3 figures

1984-01-01

171

Combined cycle thermal performance diagnostic testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trend toward higher combined cycle power plant capacity and efficiency have resulted in increasingly complex thermodynamic designs. The testing methods, instrumentation, and analytical techniques employed on these complex combined cycle systems have advanced commensurate with the needs to not only validate the design, but also to diagnose thermal performance problems. More accurate techniques have been developed to accurately determine critical thermal performance operating parameters of the gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG`s), and steam turbine. These diagnostic methods borrow heavily from ASME power Test Code acceptance test techniques, but go much deeper into sub-system and sub-component performance. The knowledge and expertise developed through years of new development testing at GE has been channeled into the aftermarket service diagnostic business. This is to address the operation and maintenance needs of the owners and operators of these complex combined cycle plants. Owners of these plants now have the opportunity to have their plant performance diagnosed accurately and cost-effectively. This paper will present the testing methods and analytical techniques associated with diagnosing thermal performance problems on combined cycle plants.

Schmitt, T.P. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1999-11-01

172

Firewall Security: Policies, Testing and Performance Evaluation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper explores the firewall security andperformance relationship for distributed systems.Experiments are conducted to set firewall security intoseven different levels and to quantify their performanceimpacts. These firewall security levels are formulated,designed, implemented, and tested phase by phase underan experimental environment in which all performed testsare evaluated and compared. Based on the test results,the impacts of the various firewall security levels onsystem performance with respect to transaction time andlatency are measured and analyzed. It is interesting tonote that the intuitive belief about security toperformance, i.e. the more security would result in lessperformance, does not always hold in the firewall testing.The results reveal that the significant impact fromenhanced security on performance could only beobserved under some particular scenarios and thus theirrelationships are not necessarily inversely related. Wealso discuss the tradeoff between security andperformance.

Michael R. Lyu; Lorrien K. Y. Lau

173

Performance tests for steam methane reformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

1982-08-01

174

Testing stemming performance, possible or not?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming performance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different (more) stemming products have differences in terms of their functionality, which can have a major impact on the efficiency of rock breaking. Two test procedures were used, one through the exclusive use of compressed air and the second using a purposebuilt high pressure test rig with small quantities of explosives. Both tests were used to identify and evaluate the ability of various stemming products to resist the escape of explosive gas through the collar of a blasthole. An investigation was done to determine the types of stemming products most commonly used in South African underground hard rock mines, and these products were used during the tests. The first stage of tests using compressed air only did not prove adequate to predict with certainty the pressure behaviour in the borehole of a particular product under high pressure conditions. The purpose-built high pressure test rig also did not prove to be a very effective tool to test stemming products under high pressure conditions. The test rig incorporated only the effect of gas pressure on the stemming product, and excluded the effect of the shock wave. This study therefore proved that to take into account only the gas pressure generated in the blasthole is not sufficient to effectively test stemming product performance.

Boshoff, D.; Webber-Youngman, R.C.W.

2011-12-01

175

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2009-03-25

176

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant operators being aware, or the reduction in recovery may be caused by operating problems of which the operator is aware but feels cannot be solved with the equipment available. A plant performance test may find the unknown problem or the test will show the problem can be solved and recoveries improved with existing equipment. Sometimes a computer simulation of the plant, using the test data, may be required to find or solve the problem.

Herrin, J.P.

1983-01-01

177

Estimating skimmer performance using controlled test data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early 1990s the ASTM F20 Committee on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response began a major effort to upgrade existing standards on oil spill response and to develop new ones that would support the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. More than 20 new standards were developed and many existing standards were revised. One of the most significant revisions was the requirement to estimate the potential performance level of various kinds of skimmers used in the event of oil spills. The ASTM F20 Committee authorized the preparation of the 200 page guide entitled `Oil Spill Response Performance Review of Skimmers`. The guide reviews all available test reports for any skimmer type based on test results. Data in the review indicates where more research and development is needed to estimate the performance of skimmer types in certain environments. The factors affecting skimmer performance include: (1) oil type, condition and viscosity, (2) effects of waves and currents, and (3) slick thickness.

Schulze, R. [Environmental Consultant Inc., Elkridge, MD (United States)

1998-09-01

178

Heat exchanger bypass test report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test report documents the results that were obtained while conducting the test procedure which bypassed the heat exchangers in the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. The test was performed on November 15, 1994 using WHC-SD-CP-TC-031, ''Heat Exchanger Bypass Test Procedure.'' The primary objective of the test procedure was to determine if the heat exchangers were contributing to condensation of moisture in the off-gas line. This condensation was observed in the rotameters. Also, a secondary objective was to determine if temperatures at the rotameters would be too high and damage them or make them inaccurate without the heat exchangers in place

1995-01-01

179

Thermal-hydraulic aspects of the large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests were performed using four types of concrete (siliceous, serpentine, limestone, and limestone/common sand) and a range of metal oxidation for BWR and PWR core material. Melt temperatures, ablation rates, off-gas composition, and superficial gas velocity as a function of time during each test were processed from the recorded test data. These thermal hydraulic results are described for the ACE MCCI tests. (orig./HP).

1992-01-01

180

Evaluation of tests of maximum kicking performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Despite the important role of kicking in various athletic activities, the reliability of tests of maximum kicking performance has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of performance of standing kick, instep kick and drop kick. METHODS: Male physical education students (n=77) were tested on maximum kicking performance by means of a standard Doppler radar gun. RESULTS: The maximal ball speed in the standing kick, instep kick and drop kick (averaged across the subjects and trials) were 19.8+/-1.9 m s(-1), 26.7+/-2.7 m s(-1) and 25.3+/-2.2 m s(-1), respectively. There were no significant differences in the tested performances among the consecutive kicking trials of each test. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.94 and 0.96 (95% confidence intervals 0.93-0.97). The limits of agreement for maximum ball speed in all three tests ranged from 0.2+/-1.4 m(-1) to 0.3+/-1.3 m s(-1), suggesting that in 95% of repeated trials the ball speed might be from 1.2 m s(-1) less to 1.6 m s(-1) greater than the original estimate. The coefficients of variation for all kicking tests were between 2.6% and 3.3% (95% confidence intervals; 2.2-3.9%) suggesting a low intra-subject variability. CONCLUSIONS: Due to a high reliability, relative simplicity, and a small number of participants needed to detect worthwhile changes, the evaluated kicking tests could be highly recommended for sport specific profiling and early selection of young athletes, as well as for the assessment of training procedures and other interventions applied on individual teams of elite soccer, rugby or American football players.

Markovic G; Dizdar D; Jaric S

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Performance and testing of pressure vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions collected in this book present information for engineers and plant operators, technicians and experts who in their professional life have to deal with pressure vessel performance and testing. The material presented is intended to make the reader familiar with the Pressure Vessel Code, and to explain the requirements posed to experts, together with the tasks to be performed. The authors are experts from trade supervisory authorities and the Technical Control Boards who in eleven contributions report about the Pressure Vessel Code, technical rules for pressure vessels, engineered safety equipment, expert opinions and tasks to be performed by experts, operation and maintenance, defects and repair work. (orig.)

1985-01-01

182

Performance evaluation tests for environmental research (PETER): code substitution test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of repeated testing on code substitution performance were studied in three experiments to determine reliability and stability of task performance under laboratory and at-sea conditions. In Exp. 1, a single 2-min. testing trial per day was administered to a group of 19 subjects for 15 consecutive weekdays. In the second experiment a 4-min. per-day test was administered to 12 of the 19 original subjects for an additional 15 consecutive weekdays. In Exp. 3, six US Coast Guardsmen were tested hourly for four consecutive days, two days at dockside and two days at sea. In Exps. 1 and 2, means, variances, and cross-session correlations became stable after Day 8. Stabilized reliabilities were .75 for Exp. 1 and .80 for Exp. 2. The results of Exp. 3 were comparable to those obtained in the first two experiments with the exception that decrements in performance corresponding to high frequencies of motion sickness symptoms occurred during the at-sea trials. The Code Substitution Test is recommended for inclusion in the PETER battery.

Pepper RL; Kennedy RS; Bittner AC Jr; Wiker SF; Harbeson MM

1985-12-01

183

Testing of noncatalytic thermal oxidation for treatment of waste air from a mechanical-biological waste treatment stage. Project 1: Investigation of the system conception from a process-related point of view. Project 2: Investigation of off-gas managment. Final report; Erprobung einer nichtkatalytischen thermischen Oxidation zur Behandlung von Abluft aus der mechanisch-biologischen Abfallbehandlung. Teilvorhaben 1: Verfahrenstechnische Ueberpruefung der Anlagenkonzeption. Teilvorhaben 2: Untersuchungen des Abluftmanagements. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rigid specifications of the 30. BImSchV (Nuisance Protection Ordinance) are presented in some detail. The regulations have consequences for off-gas management and purification. In this project, the possibilities of waste air management (reduction of the present specific waste air volumes) and the further development and suitability of a thermal process (regenerative thermal oxidation by the VocsiBox {sup trademark} process of Haase Energietechnik for part current treatment of 1000 m{sup 3}/h) for elimination of the total organic C were investigated at the MBA Bassum (RABA) plant. The following aspects were investigated in particular: Achievable pure gas concentrations and freights; effects of the reduction of specific waste air volumes; influence of enhanced NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} concentrations on nitrogen emissions by selective dosing of these substances; odours emitted by RTO plants; utilisation of biogas from part current fermentation prior to composting for auxiliary heat supply as a substitute for propane. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund der neuen rechtlichen Vorgaben muessen die MBA-Konzepte der neuen Generation den hohen Anforderungen des Immissionsschutzes der 30. BImSchV angepasst werden. Demnach sind alle bei der Anlieferung und Behandlung der Abfaelle entstehenden Abluftstroeme zu erfassen und einer Abluftreinigung zuzufuehren. Zum Schutz des Klimas sind fuer die Parameter Gesamtkohlenstoff (Ges.-C) einschl. Methan Grenzwerte fuer Halbstundenmittelwerte (HMW), Tagesmittelwerte (TMW) und Monatsmittelwerte festgesetzt. Als Monatsmittelwerte werden erstmalig in einer BImSchV zusaetzlich Emissionsfaktoren fuer Ges.-C sowie Lachgas (N{sub 2}O) als Emissionsgrenzwerte herangezogen. Die Konsequenzen daraus erstrecken sich sowohl auf die Verfahrenswahl und die bauliche Ausfuehrung als auch auf das Abgasmanagement und die Abgasreinigung. Im Rahmen des durchgefuehrten Vorhabens wurden daher die Moeglichkeiten des Abluftmanagements (Verminderung der bisherigen spezifischen Abluftvolumina) und die Weiterentwicklung und Eignung eines thermischen Abluftbehandlungsverfahrens (regenerative thermische Oxidation - RTO; eingesetzt wurde die VocsiBox {sup trademark} der Firma Haase Energietechnik; Teilstrombehandlung: 1000 m{sup 3}/h) zur weitgehenden Elimination der Gesamt-C{sub org.} an der grosstechnischen MBA Bassum (RABA) erprobt. Besonderes Augenmerk bei den Versuchen lag auf der Ueberpruefung: - erreichbarer Reingaskonzentrationen und -frachten; - des Einflusses einer Minderung der spezifischen Abluftvolumina; - des Einflusses erhoehter NH{sub 3}- und H{sub 2}S-Konzentrationen auf Stickstoffemissionen durch gezielte Dosierung dieser Substanzen; - der Geruchsemissionen von RTO-Anlagen; - der Eignung von Biogas aus einer Teilstromvergaerung vor der Rotte anstelle Propangas fuer die Stuetzfeuerung. (orig.)

Doedens, H.; Kahn, R.; Stockinger, J.; Gluesing, J.

2002-07-01

184

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG) in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP) and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS) empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 200,000kl LNG tanks were analyzed using the LKP and BWRS models. The heat leakage of LNG tanks depends on the structure of tanks, and the small tanks lose heatto the environment due to their large surface area to volume ratio. As the operation pressure was dropped to 200mbar, all four of the LNG tanks’ BOG levels reached 0.05vol%/day. In order to satisfy the BOG design requirement, the operating pressure of the four large LNG tanks in the case study was maintained above 200mbar. Thus, the operating pressure impacts BOG on LNG tanks, but this effect is limited under the extreme high operation pressure. An attempt was made to determine the relationship between the compositions of LNGand BOG; one been combustible and the other non-combustible gases. The main component of combustible gas was methane, and nitrogen was of non-combustible gases. The relationship between BOG and methane compositions was that, as the methane fraction increases in the LNG, the BOG volume also increases. In general, results showed a direct correlation between BOG and operating pressure. The study also found that larger LNG tanks have less BOG; however as the operation pressure is increased the differences in the quantity of BOGamong the four tanks decreased.

Ebenezer Adom; Sheikh Zahidul Islam; Xianda Ji

2010-01-01

185

Modeling of off-gas emissions from wood pellets during marine transportation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a fatal accident during the discharge of wood pellets at Helsingborg, emissions from pellets during marine transportation became a concern for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets. In this paper, a two-compartment model has been developed for the first time to predict the concentrations of CO, CO?, CH?, and O? inside the cargo ship and the time and rate of forced ventilation required before the safe entry into the stairway adjacent to the storage hatch. The hatch and stairway are treated as two perfectly mixed tanks. The gas exchange rate between these two rooms and the gas exchange rate with the atmosphere are fitted to satisfy a measured tracer final concentration of 33 p.p.m.v. in the stairway and an average final hatch to stairway CO, CO?, and CH? concentration ratio of 1.62 based on measurement from five other hatch and stairway systems. The reaction kinetics obtained from a laboratory unit using a different batch of pellets, however, need to be scaled in order to bring the prediction to close agreement with onboard measured emission data at the end of voyage. Using the adjusted kinetic data, the model was able to predict the general trend of data recorded in the first 12.5 days of the voyage. Further validation, however, requires the data recorded over the whole journey. The model was applied to predict the effect of ocean temperature on the off-gas emissions and the buildup of concentrations in the hatch and stairway. For safe entry to the cargo ship, the current model predicted that a minimal ventilation rate of 4.4 hr?¹ is required for the stairway's CO concentration to lower to a safe concentration of 25 p.p.m.v. At 4.4 hr?¹, 10 min of ventilation time is required for the safe entry into the stairway studied.

Pa A; Bi XT

2010-10-01

186

Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant using preparative gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Kr-85 can be separated from the pre-purified purge air in the final processing step of the purification phase for dissolver off-gases of a reprocessing plant with the aid of preparative gas chromatography. Activated carbon adsorbers in combination with helium as carrier gas permits maximum gas mixture through-flow. A separation temperature of 300C is considered optimal. An adsorbent volume of 40 dm3 is necessary for processing the residual gas flow of 2.5 Nm3/h; the adsorbent is divided between 2 columns linked in series each of which are 2 m long with an internal diameter of 100 mm. The helium flow required is five times greater than the off-gas flow. The degree of purity for krypton is greater than 90% for a decontamination factor of greater than 1000. (orig./HP)[de] Im letzten Verfahrensschritt einer Reinigungsanlage fuer das Aufloeserabgas einer Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage kann Kr-85 von der vorgereinigten Spuelluft unter Anwendung der praeparativen Gaschromatographie abgetrennt werden. Das Adsorbenz Aktivkohle in Verbindung mit dem Traegergas Helium erlaubt den hoechsten Gasgemischdurchsatz. Eine Trenntemperatur von ca. 300C wird als optimal angesehen. Zur Verarbeitung eines restlichen Abgasflusses von 2,5 Nm3/h ist ein Adsorbensvolumen von 40 dm3 erforderlich, das auf zwei hintereinandergeschaltete Saeulenstuecke, die jeweils bei einer Laenge von 2 m einen Innendurchmesser von 100 mm haben, verteilt ist. Der erforderliche Heliumstrom ist etwa fuenfmal groesser als der Abgasstrom. Die erzielbare Kryptonreinheit ist groesser 90% bei einem Dekontaminationsfaktor von groesser 1000. (orig./HP)

1984-01-01

187

A laser-based sensor for measurement of off-gas composition and temperature in basic oxygen steelmaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are developing an optical sensor for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. The sensor measures gas temperature and relative CO/CO2 concentration ratios in the furnace off-gas by transmitting the laser probe beam directly above the furnace lip and below the exhaust hood during oxygen blowing. Dynamic off-gas information is being evaluated for optimizing variables such as lance height, oxygen flow, post-combustion control, and prediction of final melt-carbon content. The non-invasive nature of the optical sensor renders it robust and relatively maintenance-free. Additional potential applications of the method are process control for electric arc furnace and bottom-blown oxygen steelmaking processes. (author)

1999-01-01

188

Performance testing rotating gamma camera SPECT systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems

1984-01-01

189

Experimental evaluation of NO/sub x/ and I2 retention during the scrubbing of dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolution of nuclear fuel in reprocessing operations. Dissolver off-gas contains large quantities of water vapor and nitrogen oxides and much smaller quantities of iodine and other fission product gases. It is desirable to recover the nitrogen oxides by absorption into water, where subsequent reactions produce nitric acid, which may be recycled to dissolution operations. The NO/sub x/ scrubber system was operated in a mode through to be prototypic of a dissolver off-gas NO/sub x/ scrubber system for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, including recycle of the scrubbing liquid. Chemical reactions occurring simultaneously with the absorption of NO/sub x/ into dilute HNO3 solutions produce liquid HNO3 and HNO2. In general, the presence of HNO3 in dilute concentrations in the scrub solution does not have a significant effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency; however, the presence of HNO2 in this solution does have a significant deleterious effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency. 8 refs., 3 figs.

1986-01-01

190

Blowdown tests performed in the KWU test facility in Karlstein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From June to August 1975 the Kernkraftwerk Union in Karlstein performed blowdown tests relating to the dynamic behaviour of pressure-suppression system of boiling water reactors during loss-of-coolant accidents. Part of the blowdown channels used had the same dimensions as used in the BWR-line 69 (600 mm ID). The Institute of Reactor Development participated in these tests with its own instrumentation for pressure measurement. This report describes the test facility and the test performance and gives a survey of the pressures measured as a function of time. In addition, the report contains preliminary results of three-dimensional attenuation and of propagation rates of pressure pulses in the water pool. (orig.)[de] Im Zeitraum Juni bis August 1975 wurden von der Fa. Kraftwerk Union in Karlstein Kondensationsversuche zum dynamischen Verhalten von Siedewasserreaktor-Druckabbausystemen bei Kuehlmittelverlustunfaellen durchgefuehrt. Die eingesetzten Kondensationsrohre hatten teilweise die reaktormassstaeblichen Abmessungen der Baulinie 69 (600 mm Querschnitt). Das Institut fuer Reaktorentwicklung nahm an diesen Versuchen mit eigener Druckmess-Instrumentierung teil. Der Bericht beschreibt die Versuchseinrichtung und Versuchsdurchfuehrung und gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die gemessenen Druckverlaeufe in Abhaengigkeit der Zeit. Ausserdem enthaelt er die Ergebnisse einer ersten Auswertung ueber die raeumliche Abschwaechung und die Ausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit der Druckimpulse im Wasserraum. (orig.)

1977-01-01

191

Performance testing of large metallic seals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware.

1980-11-10

192

HSE performance tests for dosimetry services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the United Kingdom a dosimetry service that measures and assesses whole-body or part-body doses arising from external radiation must successfully complete a performance test. Results of the performance tests for routine whole-body, routine extremity/skin and special accident dosimetry, carried out over the past six years by the AEA Technology Calibration Service at Winfrith, and DRaStaC, the AWE Calibration Service at Aldermaston, are presented. The test involves irradiating groups of dosemeters to known doses of gamma radiation and determining the bias and relative standard deviations for each dose group. The results are compared with the pass criteria specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. For routine whole-body dosimetry, both the film badge and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) perform adequately for irradiations between 0.6 and 30 mSv. For higher doses up to 250 mSv, where the slow emulsion of the film is used, the film badge shows poorer performance with a tendency to overestimate the dose. For routine extremity/skin dosimetry there is a wider spread of relative standard deviation results than is seen for routine whole-body dosimetry. This is to be expected since the results will include dosemeters that are based on 'disposable' TLDs and ones based on lithium fluoride powder in sachets. For special accident dosimetry the dosemeters are tested between 0.26 and 6 Gy. For the highest dose group the film badge invariably underestimates the true dose, whereas the TLD has a tendency to overestimate it. (author)

2000-01-01

193

Advances in the fluorocarbon process for decontamination of nuclear facility off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A selective adsorption process using R-12 was developed for removing noble gas fission products, 14C, etc., from gaseous wastes of nuclear facilities. Its reliability has been proven by 10 years, operation of a 3-column process at ORGDP. A third generation pilot plant has undergone initial testing, which has showed that the combination column can perform essentially as well as the 3-column process

1979-11-30

194

Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

2011-01-01

195

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2010-08-18

196

Estimating skimmer performance using controlled test data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the early 1990s the ASTM F20 Committee on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response began a major effort to upgrade existing standards on oil spill response and to develop new ones that would support the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. More than 20 new standards were developed and many existing standards were revised. One of the most significant revisions was the requirement to estimate the potential performance level of various kinds of skimmers used in the event of oil spills. The ASTM F20 Committee authorized the preparation of the 200 page guide entitled 'Oil Spill Response Performance Review of Skimmers'. The guide reviews all available test reports for any skimmer type based on test results. Data in the review indicates where more research and development is needed to estimate the performance of skimmer types in certain environments. The factors affecting skimmer performance include: (1) oil type, condition and viscosity, (2) effects of waves and currents, and (3) slick thickness

1998-01-01

197

Distinctive characteristics of ASME performance test code 47, and comparison with performance test code 46  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance Test Code 47, Gasification Combined Cycle Plant Performance, is being written to define the significant performance factors in a gasification combined cycle plant and recommend how these factors should be calculated from measurements. PTC 47 is unique in that it provides a test code for a technology that is now being demonstrated, but has not yet been commercialized. PTC 47 is similar to PTC 46, Overall Plant Performance, in its evaluation of overall plant performance, but is unlike PTC 46 in several areas. PTC 47 also extends beyond the scope of PTC 46 into areas of power generation technology now being demonstrated. The code will indicate where improved instrumentation and measurement techniques may be required to achieve a desired degree of certainty in the determination of performance factors. By providing a means for accurate testing, this code should also help develop this important technology, leading to full commercialization.

Horazak, D.A.; Bannister, R.L.; Archer, D.H.; Zachary, J.J.

1998-07-01

198

Heating facility for blanket and performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A design and a fabrication of heating test facility for a mock-up of the blanket module to be installed in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been conducted to evaluate/demonstrate its heat removal performance and structural soundness under cyclic heat loads. To simulate surface heat flux to the blanket module, infrared heating method is adopted so as to heat large surface area uniformly. The infrared heater is used in vacuum environment (10{sup -4} Torr{approx}), and the lamps are cooled by air flowing through an annulus between the lamp and a cover tube made of quartz glass. Elastomer O rings (available to be used up to {approx}300degC) and used for vacuum seal at outer surface of the cover tube. To prevent excessive heating of the O ring, the end part of the cover tube is specially designed including the tube shape, flow path of air and gold coating on the surface of the cover tube to protect the O ring against thermal radiation from glowing tungsten filament. To examine the performance of the facility, steady state and cyclic operation of the infrared heater were conducted using a small-scaled shielding blanket mock-up as a test specimen. The important results are as follows: (1) Heat flux at the surface of the small-scaled mock-up measured by a calorimeter was {approx}0.2 MW/m{sup 2}. (2) A comparison of thermal analysis results and measured temperature responses showed that the small-scaled mock-up had good heat removal performance. (3) Steady state operation and cyclic operation with step response between the rated and zero powers of the infrared heater were successfully performed, and it was confirmed that this heating facility was well-prepared and available for the thermal cyclic test of a blanket module. (author)

Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hara, Shigemitsu

1999-03-01

199

Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered. This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From 312 single results, 26 fell outside the limits of the trumpet curve and 32 were outside the range 1/1.5 to 1.5. Most outliers resulted from high energy R-F irradiations without electronic equilibrium. These fields are not routinely encountered by many of the participating dosimetry services. If the results for this field are excluded, most participating services satisfied the evaluation criteria.

Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.

2001-01-01

200

Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity 5.4 W-m (2) static wicking height 1.42 cm and (3) overall heat pipe conductance 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Performance testing of proprietary coal cleaning equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project has been carried out to obtain performance data on coal cleaning and dewatering processes, the benefits of which will enable coal preparation engineers to make the correct choice of process when faced with a particular type of coal. Eight performance tests of coal cleaning equipment were carried out at various coal mines in the United Kingdom. These included the Simonacco Baum jig at Bentinck Colliery; the ROSE washbox at Seaham Colliery; the DSM Cyclones at Houghton Main Colliery; the 720 mm Vorsyl at Moorgreen Colliery; the 610 mm Vorsyl at Dinnington Colliery; the Screenbowl centrifuges at Ollerton and Ashington collieries; the multi-roller filter belt presses at East Side coal preparation plant; and the solid bowl centrifuges at Hem Heath Colliery. Each was evaluated and then compared with one another.

Shaw, S.R.; Brown, D.W.; Parker, D.S.

1987-01-01

202

Performance test of a TMS strip chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new type of track chamber is presented which uses the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) in an ionization chamber. Performance of the chamber and test results in an electron beam are described. The results demonstrate that this type of chamber is an interesting tracking device particular in an environment of high background radiation. (orig.)[de] Es wird ein neuer Typ einer Spurkammer vorgestellt, der als Medium in der Ionisationskammer die Fluessigkeit Tetramethylsilan (TMS) benutzt. Es werden Funktionsweise der Kammer und Testergebnisse in einem Elektronenstrahl beschrieben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass dieser Kammertyp ein interessantes Instrument zum Nachweis von Spuren in einem hohen Strahlenuntergrund darstellt. (orig.)

1987-01-01

203

ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Gasification island thermal performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past several years, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have been introduced in a number of competitive markets. Most of the demonstration projects have been subsidized. However, as the technology is further developed, its versatility will lead to its application in a variety of market segments. This leads to the need of the user to evaluate the performance of the gasification process within the IGCC power plant through field testing. This paper deals with an approach to measuring the gasification island thermal performance. A thermal efficiency term based upon an input/output test approach is introduced. Measured parameters and pre-test planning are discussed. Computational procedures for determining the thermal efficiency of the gasification island are described including an uncertainty analysis for the performance test.

Mirolli, M.D.; Doering, E.L.

1998-07-01

204

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

205

Performance of LSCF cathodes in cell tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SOFC development at Forschungszentrum Julich is aiming at high power density and high durability to achieve cost reduction in manufacturing and installation. For higher power density, the work on materials development has been focused on improving the cathode performance using perovskites based on (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF). Materials screening and preliminary investigations were carried out with 5cmx5cm cells. SOFCs with La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} cathodes have successfully been developed giving reproducibly a power output of 1.2Wcm{sup -2} at 800{sup o}C and 0.7V with hydrogen as fuel gas. Long-term cell tests lasting up to 3000h revealed a degradation of the cells between 0.5 and 1.5%/1000h of operation. This loss in performance is higher than for conventional cathodes based on (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} (LSM) and under further investigation to find the reason for the performance losses. (author)

Tietz, F.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Mai, A.; Mertens, J.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Werkstoffe und Verfahren der Energietechnik (IWV), D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2006-05-19

206

Analytical method for assessing the gamma-ray exposure resulting from continuously discharged radioactive off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple model for computing the medium gamma dose rate under the radioactive off-gas plume of a continuously emitting source is described, in which the plume is assumed to be a radioactive slab source with a specific source strength inversely proportional to the distance from the release point but not varying with height above ground level. The model results in dose rates slightly higher than those obtained by means of METEOR II, the programme recommended for such computations in the GDR. However, it has the advantage of requiring only a pocket electronic calculator as calculating device. (author).

1980-01-01

207

Real-time monitoring of iodine in process off-gas by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste immobilization, iodine monitors are required on-line to ensure that discharged iodine is within regulation limits. Reliable methods are needed that are capable of measuring iodine-129 in real time at or below the maximum permissible concentration of 0.1 part per million (ppm) (v/v) in the off-gas. This paper describes a method for monitoring the gas phase of iodine by ICP emission spectroscopy. The technique uses the spectral lines in the vacuum ultraviolet region with the aid of a vacuum spectrometer. The gas sample containing iodine molecules is fed directly into the plasma

1990-02-15

208

CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

1996-01-01

209

PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work is to improve continuous working hours,reducing preparation time, reducing losses in melting, reducing slag formation and to increase the combustion efficiency of coke and overall productivity and to improve the quality and Mechanical properties of steel using Cupola.

PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL; MEGHA S. LONDHEKAR

2013-01-01

210

Performance Tests of a Dust Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with an analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. The goal of the trajectory sensor is to measure dust charges in the range 10-16 to 10-13 C and dust speeds in the range 6 to 100 km/s. The trajectory sensor has four sensor planes consisting of about 15 wire electrodes each. Two adjacent planes have orthogonal wire direction. An ASIC charge sensitive amplifier has been developed with a RMS noise of about 1.5 10-17 C. The signals from 32 electrodes are digitized and sampled at 20 MHz rate by an ASIC transient recorder. This trajectory sensor was subject to performance tests at the Heidelberg dust accelerator. Signals from dust particles in the speed range from 5 to 30 km/s demonstrate that trajectories can be measured with accuracies of ~ 1° in direction, and ~ 1% in speed. A large area chemical analyzer has been designed and fabricated that has an impact area of > 0.1 m2 and sufficient mass resolution in order to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to 100. The mass spectrometer consists of the annular target area with an acceleration grid and the single-stage reflectron and the central ion detector. Several field configurations have been found that provide a theoretical mass resolution of M/? M > 150. An Ion Detector of 50 to 110 mm radius is necessary to collect all generated ions. Two lab models have been constructed (one in Heidelberg and one in Boulder) and first laser and dust accelerator tests with different projectile materials have been performed. Spectra of positive and negative ions demonstrate that the performance goal (M/? M > 150) has been reached. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by NASA grant NAG5-11782 and by DLR grant 50OO0201.

Grun, E.; Srama, R.; Rachev, M.; Srowig, A.; Helfert, S.; Kempf, S.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Sternovski, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Amyx, K.; Auer, S.

2005-12-01

211

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

2004-01-01

212

Test Anxiety and Performance on Reading Competency Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a 20 item self-report psychometric scale that was used to assess test anxiety levels in 67 students. Reports that the higher the anxiety level, as measured by the Revised Test Anxiety Scale (RTA), the lower the score on a reading and writing competency exam taken subsequently, and that students who received extra time on the reading test

Stallworth-Clark, Rosemarie; Cochran, Jeff; Nolen, Martha T.; Tuggle, Durelle L.; Scott, Janice S.

2000-01-01

213

Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans form a family of more than 200 compounds which are relatively stable in the biosphere and tend to accumulate in the human body. The tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dioxins and furans are considered highly toxic. To facilitate the assessment of the total toxicity of dioxin and furan mixtures, the estimated toxic effects of the individual compounds relative to the 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were introduced as Toxic Equivalent Factors which yield, when multiplied with the respective concentrations, the Toxic Equivalent (TE) of the mixture. Toxic dioxins and furans are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering, in the chemical industry and in household heating. To keep the emissions as low as possible, off-gas clearing systems for the collection of dioxins and furans are increasingly prescribed by the authorities. In addition, it appears desirable to select process conditions that are unfavourable for the formation of these compounds. A simulation of the relevant processes on the basis of thermodynamic data may be helpful in defining such process conditions. To simulate dioxin formation in the sintering process, all major gas-solid reactions taking place in the sinter bed must also be simulated. A sufficiently accurate reproduction of the off-gas compositions along the length of the sinter strand requires detailed assumptions concerning the relative amounts of `active` O{sub 2} as well as the distribution of reacting carbon and water over the strand length. From this basis, an equilibrium calculation for the gas/solid reactions at the sintering temperature of 1150 deg C and an equilibrium calculation restricted to the gas phase at 700 deg C produced values for the concentrations of the major off-gas constituents in very good agreement with the measured values. The further assumption that below 700 deg C all reactions are frozen appears to be reasonable. The latter assumption has consequently been extended to the formation of dioxins from the off-gas. Making use of the calculated data for 700 deg C, it was found that for dioxins to form in the amounts observed in practice, three further assumptions must be made: The formation of solid carbon must be suppressed, the oxygen partial pressure must be set to very low values and the C/H ratio must be >2, which implies that a large part of the hydrogen present does not take part in the reaction. With these assumptions, the calculated dioxin concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the measured values. Furthermore, the different dioxins appear with closely similar partial pressures. This is also in accordance with observation. The calculated TE concentrations increase along the length of the sinter strand in a similar manner to the observed values. Beyond Stage 10, the simulation reads to a further strong increase which is not found in reality. In the calculation, the oxygen and chlorine concentrations as well as the C/H ratio are kept constant along the length of the strand. What varies is the carbon content as given in the sum of CO{sub 2} + CO. It thus appears that the Cl/C ratio, which increases with strand length, strongly enhances the formation of dioxins. General conclusions which may be drawn from the present calculations with regard to restricting possible formation of dioxins are: increase the content of hydrogen-containing species in the system; decrease the chlorine content in the gas phase and if possible, avoid local extremely reducing conditions in the system. (author) 12 refs.

Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

1997-12-31

214

Information Model for Machine-Tool-Performance Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report specifies an information model of machine-tool-performance tests in the EXPRESS language. The information model provides a mechanism capable of describing the properties and results of machine-tool-performance tests. The objective of the infor...

Y. T. Lee J. A. Soons M. A. Donmez

2000-01-01

215

Earthquake early warning performance tests for Istanbul  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marmara Region is the most densily populated region in Turkey. The greater area of the mega-city Istanbul inhabits about 14 million people. The city is located in the direct vicinity of the Main Marmara Fault, a dextral strike-slip fault system intersecting the Sea of Marmara, which is the western continuation of the North Anatolian Fault [Le Pichon et al., 2001]. Its closest distance to the city of Istanbul ranges between 15 and 20 km. Recent estimates by Parsons [2004] give a probability of more than 40% of a M ? 7 earthquake that will affect Istanbul within the next 30 years. Due to this high seismic risk, earthquake early warning is an important task in disaster management and seismic risk reduction, increasing the safety of millions of people living in and around Istanbul and reducing economic losses. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) includes a set of 10 strong-motion sensors used for early warning which are installed between Istanbul and the Main Marmara Fault. The system works on the exceedance of amplitude thresholds, whereas three alarm levels are defined at three different thresholds [Erdik et al., 2003]. In the context of the research project EDIM (Earthquake Disaster Information System for the Marmara Region, Turkey), the early warning network is planned to be extended by an additional set of 10 strong-motion sensors installed around the Sea of Marmara to include the greater Marmara Region into the early warning process. We present performance tests of both the existing and the planned extended early warning network using ground motion simulations for 280 synthetic earthquakes along the Main Marmara Fault with moment magnitudes between 4.5 and 7.5. We apply the amplitude thresholds of IERREWS, as well as, for comparison, an early warning algorithm based on artificial neural networks which estimates hypocentral location and magnitude of the occurring earthquake. The estimates are updated continuously with proceeding time. Applying the amplitude thresholds increase the number of alarms by 6.5% for alarm level 1, by 6% for alarm level 2, and by 4% for alarm level 3, mainly due to false alarms caused by earthquakes further away from Istanbul but closer to the additional stations. However, applying the neural network algorithm to the extended network increases the reliability of source parameter estimates by 8% already 2 seconds after the first station triggers, and by 19% after 5 seconds. We analyse the effects of the network extension to the greater region and discuss possible advantages as well as arising problems.

Köhler, N.; Wenzel, F.; Erdik, M.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.

2009-04-01

216

Modified MTS MRB500 Catalyst Performance Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar...

G. R. Longhurst R. J. Pawelkos

2008-01-01

217

Prescriptive testing of air barrier system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provisions of the 1995 National Building Code of Canada regarding air leakage were discussed. The discussion was motivated by the recognition that air leakage is an important contributor both to premature deterioration of the building envelope and space conditioning energy requirements. Airtightness of the existing building stock was compared to the maximum air leakage recommendations of the Code. Problems that may arise in testing and inspection of airtightness of masonry ties were examined and the potential improvement in the airtightness of air barrier membrane systems at masonry ties, resulting from rigorous testing and inspection were evaluated. Quantitative airtightness test results demonstrated that a large difference exists between the airtightness of the existing building stock and recommended maximum leakage rates in the National Building Code. However, laboratory testing of air barrier system components indicate that the Code recommendations are achievable, provided that quality in design detailing, material selection and workmanship are maintained at a high level.

Knight, K.; Sharp, J.

1997-12-31

218

Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site.

Josten, N.E.

1993-09-01

219

Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site.

1993-01-01

220

Phase 1: ISOCELL demonstration test performance review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document consolidates and organizes information available concerning cryogenic retrieval of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes and is mainly derived from a report on the ISOCELL Demonstration Project prepared by Concept RKK, Ltd. ISOCELL cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust. A test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in Carnation, Washington by Concept RKK, Ltd. Test conditions were compared to possible testing conditions at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze wet soil into a soil block capable of being lifted. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Chatwin, T.D.

1991-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Phase 1: ISOCELL demonstration test performance review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document consolidates and organizes information available concerning cryogenic retrieval of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes and is mainly derived from a report on the ISOCELL Demonstration Project prepared by Concept RKK, Ltd. ISOCELL cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust. A test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in Carnation, Washington by Concept RKK, Ltd. Test conditions were compared to possible testing conditions at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze wet soil into a soil block capable of being lifted. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

1991-01-01

222

Comparison of performance test for protective aprons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Each one radioprotective apron (lead equivalent, 0.35 mmPb) was commercially available in November 1988 from 7 domestic and 3 foreign companies. According to the JIS standards 4803, these aprons were evaluated for the following items: 1) display of aprons, including packing and the structure; 2) non-breaking test, including appearance, size, lead equivalent, and uniformity; 3) breaking test, including lead equivalent, uniformity, stregth, and structure; 4) feeling of wearing an apron. An overall evaluation revealed that only two aprons were in accordance with the JIS standard. Careful wearing of the protective apron is stressed. (N.K.)

1989-01-01

223

Comparison of performance test for protective aprons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each one radioprotective apron (lead equivalent, 0.35 mmPb) was commercially available in November 1988 from 7 domestic and 3 foreign companies. According to the JIS standards 4803, these aprons were evaluated for the following items: (1) display of aprons, including packing and the structure; (2) non-breaking test, including appearance, size, lead equivalent, and uniformity; (3) breaking test, including lead equivalent, uniformity, stregth, and structure; (4) feeling of wearing an apron. An overall evaluation revealed that only two aprons were in accordance with the JIS standard. Careful wearing of the protective apron is stressed. (N.K.).

Fukutomi, Yukimi; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kawakami, Toshiaki (Ehime University Hospital (Japan))

1989-12-01

224

Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

2008-10-01

225

Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

2004-01-01

226

Design and Testing of High Performance Brushes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new breed of electrical brush, i.e., unlubricated flexible metal brushes, has been developed. Of these, two specific types, namely metal fiber brushes and metal foil brushes, have been constructed and tested, and theory has been developed which accounts...

D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf

1982-01-01

227

Final Report Integrated DM1200 Melter Testing Using AZ-102 And C-106/AY-102 HLW Simulants: HLW Simulant Verification VSL-05R5800-1, Rev. 0, 6/27/05  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

2011-01-01

228

Development of refining technology of Xe recovered from reprocessing plant off gas for commercial use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is aiming to develop refining system of recovered Xe at Krypton Recovery Facility (KRF) by pressure swing adsorption with purge system for commercial use, such as to lighting and ion engine. Refined Xe with low radioactive Kr was prepared through three series of adsorption column packing synthetic Ca-X zeolite. And the computer simulation by molecular mechanics was practiced to obtain purification mechanism for Xe/Kr mixed gas. The simulation was fitted with the practical adsorption test. So the effects of pressure and cation were studied about adsorption. (author)

2002-01-01

229

A Study on Volatile and Chemical Characteristics of Off-Gas Trapping Filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile behaviors on ceramic spent filters at high temperature were studied using TGA equipment in order to find optimal immobilizing processes. It was found that cesium does not volatilized at over 1000 .deg. C, and rhenium starts to volatilized at near 700 .deg. C. However, volatilized mass could not be found exactly since moisture was absorbed to AgX during the trapping of iodine. The analysis of SEM-EDX and XRD were performed, to confirm that cesium was converted to pollicite, rhenium to calcium rhenium oxide, and iodine to AgI

2010-01-01

230

Surface Decontamination of Simulated Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Nonequilibrium Plasma with Off-Gas Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

InnovaTek is developing a surface decontamination technology that utilizes active species generated in a nonequilibrium corona plasma. The plasma technology was tested against DMMP, a simulant for the chemical agent Sarin. GC-MS analysis showed that a greater than four log10 destruction of the DMMP on an aluminum surface was achieved in a 10 minute treatment. An ion-trap mass spectrometer was utilized to collect time-resolved data on the treatment off-gases. These data indicate that only non-toxic fragments of the broken down DMMP molecule were present in the gas phase. The technology is being further refined to develop a product that will not only decontaminate surfaces but will also sense when decontamination is complete

Moeller, Trevor M.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Luna, Maria L.; Irving, Patricia M.

2002-08-01

231

Performance testing of HTHP electrostic precipitator at NYU PFBC facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss an ongoing research program to test three types of high-pressure, high-temperature filters. The main objectives of the testing program are: to establish the performance capability of the filters under high-pressure and high-collection efficiency. Shakedown tests for a duration of about 50 hours was completed during October 1986. Testing of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is in progress. The first test with ESP was performed during the middle of November 1986. The operating experience with respect to the test facility, and in particular with the particulate sampling systems, is reported in this paper. Additionally, some test results are also discussed.

Radhakrishnan, R.; Gounder, P.K.; Kavidass, S.; Zakkay, V. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Applied Science); Dellefield, R. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA))

1988-01-01

232

Performance testing of CANDU MOX fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANDU fuel bundles containing 0.5 wt % plutonium in natural uranium were fabricated at Chalk River Laboratories and were successfully irradiated in the NRU reactor at powers up to 65 Min and to burnups ranging from 13 to 23 MW·d/kg HE. Two of the bundles experienced power histories that bound the normal powers and burnups of natural UO2 CANDU fuel (2 fuel. Significantly more grain growth was observed than that typically expected for UO2 fuel; however, this increase in grain growth had no apparent effect on the overall performance of the fuel. Pellet-centre columnar grain growth was accompanied by plutonium homogenization. Two other MOX bundles operated to extended burnups of 19 to 23 MW·d/kg HE. Burnup extension above 15 MW·d/kg HE had no apparent effect on sheath strain or grain growth, and only a small effect on FGR and the amount of oxide observed on the inner surface of the sheath. (author)

1998-05-01

233

Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system turbine performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Turbine to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System Test Plan. The test objectives are to characterize turbine performance so that data can be used for turbine configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing

1979-01-01

234

Step-feed biofiltration: a low cost alternative configuration for off-gas treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clogging due to biomass accumulation and the loss of structural stability of the packing media are common operational drawbacks of standard gas biofiltration inherent to the traditional biofilter design, which result in prohibitive pressure drop buildups and media channeling. In this work, an innovative step-feed biofilter configuration, with the air emission supplied in either two or three locations along the biofilter height, was tested and compared with a standard biofilter using toluene as a model pollutant and two packing materials: compost and perlite. When using compost, the step-feed biofilter supported similar elimination capacities (EC ? 80 g m(-3) h(-1)) and CO2 production rates (200 g m(-3) h(-1)) to those achieved in the standard biofilter. However, while the pressure drop in the step-feed system remained below 300 Pa m bed(-1) for 61 days, the standard biofilter reached this value in only 14 days and 4000 Pa m bed(-1) by day 30, consuming 75% more compression energy throughout the entire operational period. Operation with perlite supported lower ECs compared to compost in both the step-feed and standard biofilters (? 30 g m(-3) h(-1)), probably due to the high indigenous microbial diversity present in this organic packing material. The step-feed biofilter exhibited 65% lower compression energy requirements than the standard biofilter during operation with perlite, while supporting similar ECs. In brief, step-feed biofiltration constitutes a promising operational strategy capable of drastically reducing the operating costs of biofiltration due to a reduced energy consumption and an increased packing material lifespan.

Estrada JM; Quijano G; Lebrero R; Muñoz R

2013-09-01

235

Step-feed biofiltration: a low cost alternative configuration for off-gas treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clogging due to biomass accumulation and the loss of structural stability of the packing media are common operational drawbacks of standard gas biofiltration inherent to the traditional biofilter design, which result in prohibitive pressure drop buildups and media channeling. In this work, an innovative step-feed biofilter configuration, with the air emission supplied in either two or three locations along the biofilter height, was tested and compared with a standard biofilter using toluene as a model pollutant and two packing materials: compost and perlite. When using compost, the step-feed biofilter supported similar elimination capacities (EC ? 80 g m(-3) h(-1)) and CO2 production rates (200 g m(-3) h(-1)) to those achieved in the standard biofilter. However, while the pressure drop in the step-feed system remained below 300 Pa m bed(-1) for 61 days, the standard biofilter reached this value in only 14 days and 4000 Pa m bed(-1) by day 30, consuming 75% more compression energy throughout the entire operational period. Operation with perlite supported lower ECs compared to compost in both the step-feed and standard biofilters (? 30 g m(-3) h(-1)), probably due to the high indigenous microbial diversity present in this organic packing material. The step-feed biofilter exhibited 65% lower compression energy requirements than the standard biofilter during operation with perlite, while supporting similar ECs. In brief, step-feed biofiltration constitutes a promising operational strategy capable of drastically reducing the operating costs of biofiltration due to a reduced energy consumption and an increased packing material lifespan. PMID:23764582

Estrada, José M; Quijano, Guillermo; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

2013-05-21

236

Contracts and performance testing combined cycle cogeneration plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early stages of power project development, plant performance testing requirements need to be addressed by the developers in order to clearly define guarantees and relationships between the project contracts. In general, the contracts include; the power purchase agreement, the joint venture agreement, the turnkey construction contract, the fuel supply agreement, financing agreements, and several major equipment purchase contracts. Normally the power purchase, financing, and turnkey contracts include total plant performance test requirements and the major equipment purchase contracts include component performance test requirements. The developer needs to clearly understand the relationship between the tests and the way that the contracts and the testing impact the project risk.

McNeilly, J.D. [Enron Corp., Houston, TX (United States). Enron Power Corp.

1994-12-31

237

Effects of humor on test anxiety and performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study evaluated the moderating effects of humor in test items on the hypothesized relationship between test anxiety and performance. Subjects initially completed anxiety scales, as well as coping-humor and sense-of-humor scales. 34 women and 26 men received achievement tests under one of three test conditions: (1) nonhumorous, (2) low-humor (15% of test items), or (3) moderate-humor (30% of test items). These test versions were administered under both low, i.e., short quiz, and high, i.e., examination, outcome-value conditions. Humor frequency did not improve the test performance of highly test-anxious subjects under either outcome-value condition. Together with other previous disconfirmatory findings, the present results suggest that the hypothesized moderating role of item humor in the anxiety-performance relationship may be overstated. Ancillary analyses suggest that individual differences in the use of humor as a coping strategy significantly predict examination scores.

Perlini AH; Nenonen RG; Lind DL

1999-06-01

238

Design and operation of off-gas cleaning and ventilation systems in facilities handling low and intermediate level radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The number of developing countries constructing new nuclear facilities is increasing. These facilities include the production and processing of radioisotopes, as well as all types of laboratories and installations, which handle radioactive material and deal with the treatment of radioactive wastes. Ventilation and air cleaning systems are a vital part of the general design of any nuclear facility. The combination of a well designed ventilation system with thorough cleaning of exhaust air is the main method of preventing radioactive contamination of the air in working areas and in the surrounding atmosphere. This report provides the latest information on the design and operation of off-gas cleaning and ventilation systems for designers and regulatory authorities in the control and operation of such systems in nuclear establishments. The report presents the findings of an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 1 to 5 December 1986 and attended by 12 experts from 11 Member States. Following this meeting, a revised report was prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency Secretariat and three consultants, M.J. Kabat (Canada), W. Stotz (Federal Republic of Germany) and W.A. Fairhurst (United Kingdom). The final draft was commented upon and approved by the participants of the meeting. 69 refs, 37 figs, 12 tabs

1986-12-05

239

Process-integrated biological off-gas treatment: Biological filters in waste treatment; Prozessintegrierte biologische Abluftreinigung: Biofilter im Bereich Restmuellbehandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovations in biological filters have extended their range of possible applications. The contribution describes a biomethanation plant for waste treatment with a throughput of 18,000 t/a. Instead of the conventional 'end of pipe' solution for pollutant filtering and reduction of olfactory emissions, the off-gas purification unit was integrated in the process so that waste water of the process is evaporated and is then passed across the biological filter as process vapour together with the waste air current. This way, the anaerobic digestion plant produces no waste water. [German] Innovationen bei Biofilteranlagen erweitern deren Einsatzmoeglichkeiten, hier in einer Restabfallbehandlungsanlage mit Biomethanisierung fuer 18 000 t Abfall/a. Statt der ueblichen 'end of pipe'-Loesung zum Schadstoffabbau und zur Geruchsverminderung wurde die Abluftreinigungsanlage so in den Prozess integriert, dass waehrend des Prozesses entstehendes Abwasser eingedampft und als Prozessdampf mit dem Abluftstrom ueber die Biofilter geleitet und so entsorgt wird. Damit ist ein abwasserfreier Betrieb der Vergaerungsanlage moeglich. (orig.)

Sabo, F.; Schneider, T.; Wuestlich, S. [Reinluft Umwelttechnik Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2000-04-01

240

Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to continues research to improve existing ratings and develop new ones. NFRC needs to continue the work it has begun in several nations to implement the NFRC rating system that has been introduced. Many nations are eager to accept the expertise NFRC can offer to achieve energy conservation goals. NFRC looks forward to a continues partnership with the US Department of Energy to cooperatively achieve both.

Jim Benney

2009-11-30

 
 
 
 
241

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, in which natural condition soil can be used as testing materials, were carried out to study the migration behavior of radionuclides in a natural barrier. The apparatuses consist of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones, the air control apparatus, the measurement apparatuses of water and radionuclide moving velocities, etc. As performance tests, characteristics tests were done for these apparatuses and overall test of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones was also done under the actual test condition. It was confirmed that the all of apparatuses have achieved the designated performance requirements. This report describes the results of performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, which is categorized into three parts, that is, objective, method and result. (author)

1986-01-01

242

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

243

Feedback, test anxiety and performance in a college course.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of three forms of test feedback and text anxiety on test performance were examined within the context of a self-paced, criterion-based course in educational psychology. 73 undergraduate students completed seven units of work and were evaluated by computer-administered unit tests. Students were randomly assigned to one of three test feedback forms: (1) item-by-item knowledge of responses, (2) answer-until-correct, and (3) delayed feedback. Students received their assigned feedback during the first two units, after which they were allowed to choose. Test anxiety was measured prior to testing on Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale and during testing on an item administered by the computer program. Students who reported high test anxiety on the Test Anxiety Scale experienced more anxiety during testing than students reporting low test anxiety. Anxiety during testing was not related to type of feedback, and the two variables were not related to course performance on the second unit. Data collected at the conclusion of the semester indicated that students who reported higher test anxiety required more attempts to pass unit tests than those reporting lower test anxiety. Given a choice, students preferred answer-until-correct feedback. This preference was not related to Test Anxiety Scale scores. Anxiety during testing was not related to being allowed to choose forms of feedback.

Clark JW 2nd; Fox PA; Schneider HG

1998-02-01

244

Verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator was implemented. The test items include performance determination for the system when solid wastes (include resins) or spent oil were incinerating and off gas was cleaning, tracer test for determining decontamination factor and 72 h continuos running test. 500 h tests verify the reliability and feasibility of designs of technological process, main structure, instrument control and system safety. The incineration system ran smoothly, devices and instruments worked stably. The specifications such as capacity, volume reduction factor, carbon remainder in ash and decontamination factor all meet the design requirements

2002-01-01

245

42 CFR 493.1481 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist. 493...Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1481 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist....

2010-10-01

246

42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director...Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1441 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory...

2010-10-01

247

42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant...Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1453 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical...

2010-10-01

248

42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor...Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1459 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general...

2009-10-01

249

Performance demonstration tests for detection of intergranular stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report evaluates detection tests of inservice inspectors (ISI), procedures and equipment that are employed to find intergranular stress corrosion cracks in nuclear power plant piping. Performance is described by two fundamental parameters: false call probability and probability of detection. Acceptable inspection performance and detection tests are therefore defined in terms of these two parameters. 14 refs., 25 figs

1986-01-01

250

Report of tests for radiation control executed in the JOYO MK-III performance tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the JOYO MK-III Project, after the modification of primary coolant system started in Oct. 2000 and the integrated function tests, from Jun. 2003, the performance test was executed for the purpose of verification of designed performance and confirmation of basic characteristics as an irradiation reactor. While the JOYO MK-III performance test, 28 tests were executed. Radiation control section took charge of 3 of them, 'Dose Rate Distribution', 'Radiation Control' and 'Gaseous Waste Radioactive Concentration Measurement'. The performance tests in charge of radiation control section was started on Jun. 27, 2003, that is before the start-up of reactor, and were carried out when the thermal output of reactor was 40 MWt, 70 MWt, 105 MWt and effective full power, 140 MWt. The pre-operation tests in charge of radiation control section are 'Test of dose rate measurement in operation and after shutdown', 'Test of radioactive concentration measurement of air', and 'Test of gaseous waste processing performance'. The final test was 'Test of dose rate measurement after shutdown', which was executed on Nov. 27, 2003. JOYO passed the inspection and the performance test was finished. The representative results in these performance tests are: 1. Every result is under the criterion. 2. Dose rate and monitoring data are totally less than the data in MK-II operation. Though it confirmed that all the data are under the criterion, it is considered that these tests should be performed at proper intervals because the circumstances may change. (author)

2004-01-01

251

Off gas sampling device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mist filter collects radioactive mists of Cs-137, Ru-106 and Tc-99, in which a first absorbing tube collects C-14, H-3, I-129 and nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide among radioactive gases. An oxidation bubbler oxidizes carbon monoxide not collected by the first absorbing tube to carbon dioxide so as to make the carbon dioxide to be absorbed to the second absorbing tube. A H-3-C-14 collecting device collects H-3 in a state of hydrogen and organized H-3, C-14 and I-129. All of these mist filter, first and second absorbing tubes, oxidation bubbler and H-3-C-14 collecting device are contained in an air tight box and arranged compact so that a sampling gas flows in this order. The inside of the air tight box is kept at a negative pressure by an evacuating device in order to confine the radioactive gases. (N.H.)

Ono, Yoshinobu; Nagai, Fumitoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Kirishima, Kenji; Ozeki, Noboru [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hitoshi; Miura, Nobuyuki

1997-03-07

252

Off gas sampling device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mist filter collects radioactive mists of Cs-137, Ru-106 and Tc-99, in which a first absorbing tube collects C-14, H-3, I-129 and nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide among radioactive gases. An oxidation bubbler oxidizes carbon monoxide not collected by the first absorbing tube to carbon dioxide so as to make the carbon dioxide to be absorbed to the second absorbing tube. A H-3-C-14 collecting device collects H-3 in a state of hydrogen and organized H-3, C-14 and I-129. All of these mist filter, first and second absorbing tubes, oxidation bubbler and H-3-C-14 collecting device are contained in an air tight box and arranged compact so that a sampling gas flows in this order. The inside of the air tight box is kept at a negative pressure by an evacuating device in order to confine the radioactive gases. (N.H.)

1995-08-23

253

History and Performance of Chinese LSAT Test Takers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) has been administered to Chinese test takers in Taiwan and Hong Kong for more than 22 years and in China for the past decade, there is very little documentation on the history, test taker volumes, performance, or law school admission rates of these candidates. The current study addresses the following…

Wang, Xiang Bo; Harris, Vincent

254

Comprehensive performance testing on a routine basis. [Coal preparation plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A loss in production of coal can be caused by inefficient washing. The necessity for performance testing on a regular basis is argued, and the types of test that can be undertaken are discussed. The results obtained from a series of such tests are reviewed.

Fourie, P.T.F.

1980-08-01

255

A consciousness-sampling analysis of test anxiety and performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to evaluate cognitive-interference, reassertion, and reaction-to-performance models of test anxiety, 82 students completed the Test Anxiety Scale, provided state measures of anxiety just before and after a course examination, described their preparation for the test, and reported thought content and state anxiety up to six times during the test. Test Anxiety Scale scores were predictive of pre- and posttest state anxiety but not performance or problem-solving thought frequency during the test. Thought content was significantly but weakly correlated with performance, which was well correlated with posttest state anxiety but not with pretest anxiety. Pretest state anxiety was virtually uncorrelated with posttest state anxiety, with the correlations gradually declining during the test. Question-answering thought content correlated inversely with anxiety during the test. There was no group for whom anxiety appeared to facilitate performance. Preparation correlated only with performance. The pattern of results appears inconsistent with a cognitive-interference interpretation of test anxiety and suggests that in the naturalistic setting used, anxiety is more clearly an effect than a cause of poor performance.

Klinger E

1984-12-01

256

Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

2002-01-01

257

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I{sub 2} + I <=> I{sub 3}{sup -}NH{sub 3}OH{sup +} + 2 I{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O ->HNO{sub 2} + 4 I{sup -} + 5 H{sup +}; NH{sub 3}OH{sup +} + HNO{sub 2} -> N{sub 2}O + 2 H{sub 2}O + H-+ 2HNO{sub 2} + 2 I{sup -} + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O). (authors). 12 refs.

Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Devisme, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Chopin, J.; Vargas, S.

1996-12-31

258

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I2 + I I3-NH3OH+ + 2 I2 + H2O ->HNO2 + 4 I- + 5 H+; NH3OH+ + HNO2 -> N2O + 2 H2O + H-+ 2HNO2 + 2 I- + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I2 + H2O). (authors).

1996-01-01

259

Preliminary research on the removal of radioiodine by silver-free zeolite 13X from dissolver off-gas and desorption behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary research on the possibility of Silver-free zeolite 13X to remove radioactive iodine from dissolving off-gas in reprocessing plant was made. The influence of the amount of NO2 in air stream and the temperature on the adsorption of elementary iodine and methyl iodine on zeolite 13X was studied. The experiment results indicated that the existence of NO2 in air stream had adverse influence on the adsorption efficiency and stability of elementary iodine and methyl iodine on zeolite 13X. The temperature had no significant influence on the adsorption of methyl iodide but exerted significant, adverse influence on that of elementary iodine. The amount of NO2 in dissolving off-gas is usually about 1%. Under this condition, the efficiency of silver-free zeolite 13X for removing elementary iodine and methyl iodide was still very high.

1994-01-01

260

AKUT: a process for the separation of aerosols, krypton, and tritium from burner off-gas in HTR-fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT process consists of the following process steps: (1) aerosol retention by an electrostatic separator followed by HEPA filters, (2) oxidation of CO with O2 or reaction of excess O2 with CO, respectively, (3) compression, (4) scrubbing and/or liquefaction, (5) separation of krypton by distillation, and (6) separation of tritiated water and iodine by adsorption or chemical reaction. Liquefied off-gas with low permanent gas content resulting from graphite burning with oxygen may be distilled at ambient temperature. Off-gas with higher permanent gas content from burning with oxygen enriched air must be processed at lower temperature. The ambient temperature flow sheet is preferable from an economic as well as safety point of view. (U.S.)

1974-08-12

 
 
 
 
261

Performance based testing and maintenance for check valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a methodology for optimizing check valve testing and maintenance activities. Generic Letter 89-04, open-quotes Guidance on Developing Acceptable Inservice Testing Programsclose quotes, and the 1989 Edition of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code specify the current requirements for testing of check valves. Recent advances in technology and the trend toward performance-based approaches to testing and maintenance represent an opportunity to reduce check valve operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes an evaluation methodology that leads to the specification of an optimum set of inservice testing and maintenance activities for a plant check valve population. The process involves analyzing check valve performance based on preestablished performance attributes. Attributes include relative consequence of failure, historical reliability, maintenance frequency, physical degradation, and service fluid. Each check valve is numerically scored based on the valves' performance against the stated attributes. This score is used to justify a reprioritization of check valve work activities such that safety-significant (high-risk), poor performing valves receive a higher degree of maintenance and testing rigor, while good performing check valves receive less. Applying this methodology may allow justifications for alternative testing and maintenance to be developed and substantiated on the basis of valve performance characteristics versus across-the-board implementation of the ASME Code requirements

1994-01-01

262

Motivated cultural worldview adherence and culturally loaded test performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic tests and their conditions of administration are culturally loaded when they make salient culturally specific knowledge structures in addition to measuring the intended cognitive ability. Cultural loading demonstrably influences test performance, but why? Drawing on converging perspectives on the psychological function of culture, this article proposes that one factor is the individual's internal motivation to affirm and uphold the cultural worldview. This possibility is tested within the framework of terror management theory, which claims that cultural worldview adherence defends against mortality-related concerns. It is hypothesized that making mortality salient would (a) improve performance on standardized test items when, incidental to the problem structure, the correct answers affirm prevailing cultural stereotypes and (b) impair test performance when excelling violates stereotypic expectancies for one's group. Two studies provide support for these hypotheses. Implications for test validity are briefly discussed. PMID:19155423

Landau, Mark J; Greenberg, Jeff; Rothschild, Zachary K

2009-01-20

263

Motivated cultural worldview adherence and culturally loaded test performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Academic tests and their conditions of administration are culturally loaded when they make salient culturally specific knowledge structures in addition to measuring the intended cognitive ability. Cultural loading demonstrably influences test performance, but why? Drawing on converging perspectives on the psychological function of culture, this article proposes that one factor is the individual's internal motivation to affirm and uphold the cultural worldview. This possibility is tested within the framework of terror management theory, which claims that cultural worldview adherence defends against mortality-related concerns. It is hypothesized that making mortality salient would (a) improve performance on standardized test items when, incidental to the problem structure, the correct answers affirm prevailing cultural stereotypes and (b) impair test performance when excelling violates stereotypic expectancies for one's group. Two studies provide support for these hypotheses. Implications for test validity are briefly discussed.

Landau MJ; Greenberg J; Rothschild ZK

2009-04-01

264

Distillation as a means of separating krypton from the off-gas of a reprocessing plant for graphite-coated HTR fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT-II facility is described, which is designed for an off-gas throughput of 10 Nm3/h. The low-pressure section is for primary purification in several steps, whereas in the high-pressure CO2 section (70 bar, 200C) the separation of Kr-85 by means of distillation is achieved. The parameters for the design of the rectifying columns have been determined experimentally. (HP)

1984-01-01

265

Performance testing of ambient air analyzers for SO2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 1975 EPA regulation provided for the certification of certain methods and instruments used in government-mandated air pollution monitoring. To be certified, a particular method or instrument must be tested according to specific test procedures, must meet prescribed minimum performance specifications, and must meet certain other requirements, such as having a suitable calibration procedure and an adequate operation and instruction manual. Precertification performance test procedures and minimum performance specifications for models that analyze the sulfur dioxide concentration in ambient air samples are described. (3 diagrams, 1 graph, 4 tables)

Purdue, L.J.; McElroy, F.F.

1980-12-01

266

Experimental evaluation of NO/sub x/ and I/sub 2/ retention during the scrubbing of dissolver off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolution of nuclear fuel in reprocessing operations. Dissolver off-gas contains large quantities of water vapor and nitrogen oxides and much smaller quantities of iodine and other fission product gases. It is desirable to recover the nitrogen oxides by absorption into water, where subsequent reactions produce nitric acid, which may be recycled to dissolution operations. The NO/sub x/ scrubber system was operated in a mode through to be prototypic of a dissolver off-gas NO/sub x/ scrubber system for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, including recycle of the scrubbing liquid. Chemical reactions occurring simultaneously with the absorption of NO/sub x/ into dilute HNO/sub 3/ solutions produce liquid HNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 2/. In general, the presence of HNO/sub 3/ in dilute concentrations in the scrub solution does not have a significant effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency; however, the presence of HNO/sub 2/ in this solution does have a significant deleterious effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Counce, R.M.; Groenier, W.S.; Jubin, R.T.

1986-01-01

267

Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice candidates at entry to practice. PURPOSE: To study the association between performance in a novel aptitude test of fine-motor skills and performance in simulated procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The test was based on manual course-tracking using a proprietary hand-operated roller-bar device coupled to a personal computer with monitor view rotation. A total of 40 test repetitions were conducted separately with each hand. Test scores were correlated with simulator performance. Group A (n?=?14), clinicians with various levels of endovascular experience, performed a simulated procedure of contralateral iliac artery stenting. Group B (n?=?19), medical students, performed 10 repetitions of crossing a challenging aortic bifurcation in a simulator. RESULTS: The test score differed markedly between the individuals in both groups, in particular with the non-dominant hand. Group A: the test score with the non-dominant hand correlated significantly with simulator performance assessed with the global rating scale SAVE (R?=?-0.69, P?=?0.007). There was no association observed from performances with the dominant hand. Group B: there was no significant association between the test score and endovascular skills acquisition neither with the dominant nor with the non-dominant hand. CONCLUSION: Clinicians with increasing levels of endovascular technical experience had developed good fine-motor control of the non-dominant hand, in particular, that was associated with good procedural performance in the simulator. The aptitude test did not predict endovascular skills acquisition among medical students, thus, cannot be suggested for selection of novice candidates. Procedural experience and practice probably supplant the influence of innate abilities (talent) over time.

Bech B; Lönn L; Schroeder TV; Ringsted C

2013-06-01

268

Recommended procedures for performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: Volume 3, In vivo test phantoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N13.30 (Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay) was developed for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to help ensure that bioassay laboratories provide accurate and consistent results. The draft standard describes the procedures necessary to establish a bioassay performance-testing laboratory and program. The bioassay performance-testing laboratory will conduct tests to evaluate the performance of service laboratories. Pacific Northwest Laboratory helped develop testing procedures as part of an effort to evaluate the draft ANSI N13.30 performance criteria by testing the existing measurement capabilities of various bioassay laboratories. This report recommends guidelines for the preparation, handling, storage, distribution, shipping, and documentation of test phantoms used for calibration of measurement systems for direct bioassay. The data base and recommended records system for documenting radiobioassay performance at the service laboratories are also presented.

MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.

1988-11-01

269

Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

2005-04-29

270

Heritability in cognitive performance: evidence using computer-based testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of 267 parent-child dyads were selected from a larger database of computerized neurocognitive test results. Correlations were determined between parent-child dyads, as well as matched parent-child dyads. Univariate regression analyses were estimated to determine the extent to which children's performance could be accounted for by that of their parents, compared with matched control parents. Multiple significant positive correlations in neurocognitive test performance were found in parent-child dyads. Parent performance accounted for a greater proportion of variability in every case. These findings indicated that a computerized neurocognitive battery is an effective tool for studying heritability in cognitive performance in a large sample.

Hervey AS; Greenfield K; Gualtieri CT

2012-01-01

271

CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: QA TESTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Confocal Microscopy System Performance: QA tests, Quantitation and Spectroscopy. Robert M. Zucker 1 and Jeremy M. Lerner 2, 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research Development, U.S. Environmen...

272

SILEX final ground testing and in-flight performance assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

SILEX (Semi-Conductor Inter-satellite Link EXperiment) consists of one optical terminal on-board the French LEO observation satellite SPOT 4, and another on-board the European GEO telecommunication satellite ARTEMIS. While the first part of the SILEX verification plan had been oriented towards verification at equipment and subsystem levels, the final stages have mainly been devoted to terminal and system (terminals coupling effects) verification. During this final stage, a thermal vacuum test was conducted in a class 100- cleanliness environment with optical ground support equipment of outstanding performances. The obtained tests results, used to determine software compensations and verify optical and static pointing performances, have been entered into overall system simulation models to finalize flight performances budgets. In addition, systems tests were performed on each terminal with respective partner simulator to validate system simulation models and assess link performances and robustness and to verify communication bit error rate.

Planche, Gilles; Laurent, Bernard; Guillen, Jean-Claude; Chorvalli, V.; Desplats, Eric

1999-04-01

273

A Survey on Performance Testing Approaches of Web Application and Importance of WAN Simulation in Performance Testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s era of internet most of the applications developed are either web applications or web interface is provided to the applications. In either of the cases it’s very much critical for developers of such applications to know how their application behaves over the internet. This paper gives a review on various approaches used to test the performance of web application. This paper begins with describing various approaches in performance testing of web application. Then it explains the importance of WAN simulation in performance testing.

Dr. Ramakanth Kumar P.; Kalpan Bhargav

2012-01-01

274

42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director...Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1403 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory...

2010-10-01

275

Performance test codes for gas turbines and measurement uncertainties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different recommendations of performance test codes of the ASME and of the ISO may cause different measurement uncertainties. The paper surveys the relevant differences and their consequences on the test results: power output, efficiency, exhaust mass flow and turbine inlet temperature. Measuring uncertainties of importance are pointed out.

Pfost, H.

1999-07-01

276

UKAEA stress rupture results from tests performed in sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UKAEA is involved in stress rupture tests in sodium. Stress rupture tests of up to 15,000h in static sodium and 10,000h in dynamic sodium have been performed on N+T 9%Cr1%Mo steel and on Type 316 steel. Small differences in strength, generally

277

[Performance of normal young adults in two temporal resolution tests].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: temporal auditory processing is defined as the perception of sound or of sound alteration within a restricted time interval and is considered a fundamental ability for the auditory perception of verbal and non verbal sounds, for the perception of music, rhythm, periodicity and in the discrimination of pitch, duration and of phonemes. AIM: to compare the performance of normal Brazilian adults in two temporal resolution tests: the Gaps-in-Noise Test (GIN) and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), and to analyze potential differences of performance in these two tests. METHOD: twenty-five college students with normal hearing (11 males and 14 females) and no history of educational, neurological and/or language problems, underwent the GIN and RGDT at 40dB SL. RESULTS: statistically significant gender effects for both tests were found, with female participants showing poorer performance on both temporal processing tests. In addition, a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the GIN and RGDT revealed significant differences in the threshold measures derived for these two tests. In general, significantly better gap detection thresholds were observed for both male and female participants on the GIN test when compared to the results obtained for the RGDT. CONCLUSION: male participants presented better performances on both RGDT and GIN, when compared to the females. There were no differences in performance between right and left ears on the GIN test. Participants of the present investigation, males and females, performed better on the GIN when compared to the RGDT. The GIN presented advantages over the RGDT, not only in terms of clinical validity and sensibility, but also in terms of application and scoring.

Zaidan E; Garcia AP; Tedesco ML; Baran JA

2008-01-01

278

Report on long range alpha detector (LRAD) performance tests  

CERN Document Server

At present, alpha contamination measurement on objects is conducted with ZnS scintillation survey meter (direct method) and smear test (indirect method). But it is difficult to measure large and complicated objects by direct method. Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) was produced as a solution for this problem. We carried out performance tests of this LRAD. As a result of the performance tests, we confirmed the linear relation between the measurement values of LRAD and alpha-radioactivity on the surface of objects.

Kobayashi, H; Ishikawa, H; Unno, M; Yoshida, T

2002-01-01

279

A survey on Cattle Performance Testing Centres in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance test is the main selection tool for beef and dual purpose cattle, but it is used also in dairy cattle, despite the different aim of testing in this case. This study has aimed to obtain all available information about organisation and characteristic of performance test in Italy carried out in year 2006 by Italian Cattle Breeders Associations. The results of the survey here reported have the final aim of exploiting actual organization of selection processes carried out in Italy for beef, dual purpose and dairy cattle breeds through performance test. The survey has indicated different intensity of selection among Italian breeds, ranging from 2.45 to 3.13.

Fiorella Sbarra; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Roberto Mantovani

2010-01-01

280

Testing catalysts for production performance and runaway limits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of laboratory catalyst tests, conducted in recycle reactors under fixed conditions of feed rate and composition and otherwise at average production conditions, permit the evaluation of catalyst performance for production reactors. These tests are performed in short steady-state runs at stepwise increasing temperatures until a specified product concentration is reached. From these results, in addition to performance evaluation, the thermal stability criteria of the reaction can also be calculated. This information is needed to maximize production within the thermal runaway limit. Since the thermal runaway limit, estimated from the catalyst test, does not contain assumptions on kinetics, the experimentally evaluated runaway limit can be used as a benchmark to help discriminate between kinetic models that were developed from other data sets. The evaluation of the performance as well as the thermal runaway limit is shown on actual experimental measurements made for the production of ethylene oxide by oxidation of ethylene.

Berty, I.J.; Berty, J.M.; Brinkeroff, P.T.; Chovan, T. (Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd., Akron, OH (US))

1989-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Performance demonstration experience for reactor pressure vessel shell ultrasonic testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most ultrasonic testing techniques used by many vendors for pressurized water reactor (PWR) examinations were based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers 'Boiler and Pressurized Vessel Code' (ASME B and PV Code) Sections XI and V. The Addenda of ASME B and PV Code Section XI, Edition 1989 introduced Appendix VIII - 'Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems'. In an effort to increase confidence in performance of ultrasonic testing of the operating nuclear power plants in United States, the ultrasonic testing performance demonstration examination of reactor vessel welds is performed in accordance with Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) program which is based on ASME Code Section XI, Appendix VIII requirements. This article provides information regarding extensive qualification preparation works performed prior EPRI guided performance demonstration exam of reactor vessel shell welds accomplished in January 1997 for the scope of Appendix VIII, Supplements IV and VI. Additionally, an overview of the procedures based on requirements of ASME Code Section XI and V in comparison to procedure prepared for Appendix VIII examination is given and discussed. The samples of ultrasonic signals obtained from artificial flaws implanted in vessel material are presented and results of ultrasonic testing are compared to actual flaw sizes. (author)

1997-01-00

282

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

1997-01-01

283

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted

1997-01-10

284

Stability of performance on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability of performance on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) was assessed in 45 healthy elderly subjects over a 9-month period. Stability coefficients were moderate but statistically significant for total recall (r = 0.50), true-positive recognitions (r = 0.66), and false-positive errors (r = 0.42). These correlations are comparable to test-retest correlations reported for other clinical tests of verbal memory (e.g., Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test) and are sufficient for its clinical use. PMID:14588448

Rasmusson, D X; Bylsma, F W; Brandt, J

1995-01-01

285

Stability of performance on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stability of performance on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) was assessed in 45 healthy elderly subjects over a 9-month period. Stability coefficients were moderate but statistically significant for total recall (r = 0.50), true-positive recognitions (r = 0.66), and false-positive errors (r = 0.42). These correlations are comparable to test-retest correlations reported for other clinical tests of verbal memory (e.g., Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test) and are sufficient for its clinical use.

Rasmusson DX; Bylsma FW; Brandt J

1995-01-01

286

Filter method for transient testing of collector performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transient methods for collector performance testing are significant in those areas where the weather is often unsuitable for steady outdoor tests. A new filter method is proposed for transient testing of solar collectors. A second order model is used to describe the dynamic characteristics of a collector in the present study. According to the impulse response function of the collector, a recursive digital filter is constructed for transient test data processing. It is found that the filter method is simple, fast acting, and is valid in real-time applications. The experimental results with a filter have shown good agreement with those of standard steady-state method.

Wang, X.A.; Xu, Y.F.; Meng, X.Y.

1987-01-01

287

Performance testing and dose verification for extremity ring dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the testing performed on an extremity dosimetry system to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07) in photon and beta reference fields. This research refers to the American National Standard Institute to organize the performance testing for the INER's TLD-100H extremity ring dosimeters. The results show that tolerance level (L), absolute of bias (|B|) and standard deviation (S) for all categories of performance testing meet the ANSI N13.32 performance testing criteria. The performance testing results were suggested to be an important step of an accreditation procedure for the extremity ring dosimetry system in Taiwan. Besides, the dose evaluation of extremity ring dosimeters to measure Hp(0.07) in realistic fields of nuclear medicine is also verified. The reference values of Hp(0.07) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method normalized by the measured activity of the radioactive solution. For nuclear medicine irradiations the relative response to 201Tl and 99mTc radionuclides produced by INER are also satisfactory.

2010-01-01

288

Performance testing on wind turbine in natural wind  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine whether a practical wind turbine will operate as expected, performance tests should be carried out in natural wind at the actual site. In field testing, however, the velocity and direction of wind is always fluctuating, making it difficult to select a wind velocity to be used as a basis for calculating the performance. Both the peripheral speed ratio and the torque coefficient, dimensionless values to be used for expressing the turbine performance, should be calculated by using the wind velocity. Thus, results of performance tests in natural wind tend to show large variations and it is often difficult to determine the output characteristics inherent in the wind turbine. In the present study, data are processed by a method that has been proposed by Stacey et al. to be applied to performance testing under outdoor conditions with large fluctuations in wind velocity. A Darrieus-Savonius combination type wind turbine is tested using a battery to apply a load. Results indicate that this data processing method is effective. (11 figs, 2 tabs, 9 refs)

Motohashi, Gen; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shiono, Osamu; Mitobe, Noriaki; Ono, Tomoaki

1987-06-01

289

Effects of Computer-Based Test Administrations on Test Anxiety and Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the degree to which computer and test anxiety have a predictive role in performance across three computer-administered placement tests. Subjects (72 undergraduate students) were measured with the Computer Anxiety Rating Scale, the Test Anxiety Inventory, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results suggest that much of what is considered…

Shermis, Mark D.; Lombard, Danielle

1998-01-01

290

Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: In vivo measurements, Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of two rounds of in vivo laboratory performance testing was undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the appropriateness of the in vivo performance criteria of draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard ANSI N13.3, Performance Criteria for Bioassay.'' The draft standard provides guidance to in vivo counting facilities regarding the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. This report concludes the testing program by presenting the results of the Round Two testing. Testing involved two types of measurements: chest counting for radionuclide detection in the lung, and whole body counting for detection of uniformly distributed material. Each type of measurement was further divided into radionuclide categories as defined in the draft standard. The appropriateness of the draft standard criteria by measuring a laboratory's ability to attain them were judged by the results of both round One and Round Two testing. The testing determined that performance criteria are set at attainable levels, and the majority of in vivo monitoring facilities passed the criteria when complete results were submitted. 18 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.; Olsen, P.C.

1990-04-01

291

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

1990-02-01

292

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

1990-01-01

293

Development of energy-saving processes for the cleaning of carbon-burdened off-gas. Final report. Entwicklung von energiesparenden Verfahren fuer die Reinigung von kohlenstoffhaltigen Abgasen aus der Kohlenstoff-Fabrikation. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two different processes for separating pitch vapours from formed plastics production are described. In the first process, fine powdered carbon is blown into the off-gas current in order to adsorb the pitch vapours. The second process consists in a modification of the flow path and combustion chamber arrangement, after which the pitch vapours will be combusted in the reaction zone without burdening the off-gas. With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rott, V.; Christ, H.

1984-01-01

294

Gamma-ray shielding design and performance test of WASTEF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was planned in 1978 to test the safety performance of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long term storage and disposal, and completed in August 1981. The designed feature of the facility is to treat the vitrified forms contain actual high-level wastes of 5 x 104 Ci in maximum with 5 units of concrete shilded hot cells (3 units : Bate-Gamma cells, 2 units : Alpha-Gamma cells) and one units of Alpha-Gamma lead shielded cell, and to store radioactivity of 106 Ci in maximum. The safety performance of this facility is fundamentally maintained with confinement of radioactivity and shielding of the radiation. This report describes the method of gamma-ray shielding design, evaluation of the shielding test performed by using sealded gamma-ray sources(Co-60). (author)

1984-01-01

295

High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be successfully calcined at 600 C with an AAR of 1.75. Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced to less than 10 ppm (7% O2, dry basis), with >90% reduction of NOx emissions. Mercury removal by the carbon bed reached 99.99%, surpassing the control efficiency needed to meet MACT emissions standards. No deleterious impacts on the carbon bed were observed during the tests. The test results imply that upgrading the NWCF calciner with a more efficient cyclone separator and the proposed MACT equipment can process the remaining tanks wastes in 3 years or less, and comply with the MACT standards.

Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

2004-02-01

296

Performance test of large BaF2 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ? total absorption facility (GTAF) was being built in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). It was composed of 40 BaF2 detector modules. The performance of every single module, such as detector construction, choosing of crystal packaging condition, energy resolution, time resolution, and long time stability were tested. From the energy resolution and time resolution test, it shows that the detector modules are good for using in neutron capture cross section measurement. (authors)

2009-01-01

297

Performance of rapid influenza testing in hospitalized children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza infection is associated with high hospitalization rates among young children. Rapid diagnosis of influenza infection is particularly useful in order to prevent nosocomial infection and allows for the timely initiation of antiviral treatment. We evaluated the performance of a rapid influenza test in hospitalized children during the influenza season. All children (aged 6 months to 14 years) hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, admitted during the 2005 influenza season, participated in the study. A multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), able to identify IFV-A H1N1, H3N2, and IFV-B subtypes, was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates. The nasal swab was tested with a lateral-flow immunoassay (QuickVue Influenza Test). The performance of the rapid test was compared with the results of PCR. Influenza infection was diagnosed by PCR in 41/217 (19%) patients. Infection with influenza A virus (H3N2) was diagnosed in all cases. The performance of the QuickVue Influenza Test was estimated as follows: sensitivity 67.5%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 79%, and negative predictive value 93%. The sensitivity of the test was higher in infants aged 6-12 months, in those with short duration of symptoms, and in the peak phase of the epidemic. The QuickVue Influenza Test is useful and reasonably accurate to detect influenza infection in hospitalized children during the influenza season. Infection with influenza virus is unlikely if the test is negative. A positive result suggests that infection is probable if influenza virus circulates in the community.

Stripeli F; Sakkou Z; Papadopoulos N; Georgiou V; Gratsia P; Christodoulou I; Tsolia M

2010-06-01

298

TRAC analyses and GIRAFFE tests for PCCS performance prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) would remove decay heat by steam condensation without any electric power supply or operator's action if an accident should occur in nuclear reactors. There is, however, concern that non-condensable gas might influence the PCCS performance in the event of an accident. This paper summarizes Toshiba's activities respecting PCCS development, in particular those activities relating to TRAC qualification for PCCS performance prediction and the GIRAFFE tests. TRAC is a best estimate thermal hydraulic analysis code. GIRAFFE is a full-height test facility simulating the SBWR containment with the PCCS, at Toshiba's Ukishima site. (author)

2000-01-01

299

Performance tests of haemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the results of quality control tests performed in hemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography, which have fundamental importance to the image quality guaranty and to control the doses ministered to patients and staff. These tests are based on national and international standards and they can evaluate the performance of these systems. The results showed that the equipment do not present problems in their digital subtraction systems. Nevertheless, one of the equipment presented patient entrance skin air kerma rates above the limit prescribed by the national standard. (author)

2001-01-01

300

Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Website Performance Analysis Based on Component Load Testing: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developers typically measure a Web application’s quality of service in terms of response time, throughput, and availability. Poor QoS translates into frustrated customers, which can lead to bad opportunities. One way to assess IT infrastructure performance is through load testing, which assess how the website supports its expected workload by running specified set of scripts that emulate behavior at different load levels. This paper addresses the website performance analysis based on component load testing with different QoS measures.

1Charu Babbar 2Neha Bajpai

2011-01-01

302

Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particularly in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. The IEC document 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' is discussed

1982-01-01

303

A prospective cohort study of neuropsychological test performance in ALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of cognitive impairment in ALS, measure differences in survival among impaired and unimpaired patients, and assess changes in neuropsychological test performance over time. Fifty patients were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of neuropsychological performance. ANOVA and chi(2) tests assessed differences in clinical characteristics and neuropsychologic test results; general estimating equations assessed change in test performance; multiple regression determined which variables contributed to cognitive status; and Cox models compared survival. Thirty-six patients were categorized as cognitively normal, and 14 were impaired. Impaired patients were older at testing (p = 0.024), but no more likely to have bulbar signs. Predicators of impairment were symptom duration (p < 0.001), motor function (p < 0.001), and rate of ALS progression (p < 0.001). The Benton recognition (p < 0.001), Boston naming (p = 0.001), Wisconsin Card Sort (p = 0.001) and word generation (p = 0.001) tests contributed most strongly to cognitive status. Survival was worse in impaired patients (p = 0.027). Over time, only animal word generation declined (p = 0.016). In conclusion, 28% percent of patients were cognitively impaired. Older age and more severe ALS were associated with impairment. The strongest neuropsychological predictors of cognitive status were measures of executive, episodic memory and language function. Cognitively impaired patients had shorter survival time.

Gordon PH; Goetz RR; Rabkin JG; Dalton K; McElhiney M; Hays AP; Marder K; Stern Y; Mitsumoto H

2010-05-01

304

Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. when the vehicle`s battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W{center_dot}h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W{center_dot}h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

Kramer, W.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

1994-06-01

305

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – the gold standard in physical performance assesment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is a modern procedure that allows us to evaluate the global performanceof a subject. Because CPX devices are expensive and less popular due to a less amount of specialists in this field, many oflaboratories uses the more common ECG stress tests for physical performance assessment. Aim: to demonstrate theimportance and accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing comparing with traditional maximal electrocardiographic (ECG)stress test without gas exchange analysis. Methods: 18th elite soccer players (age 22.7±6 years, body mass 74.6±9.5 kg,height 175.4±9.8 cm) participated in the study. The subjects accomplished two treadmill effort tests with and without gasanalyses, in 2 consecutive days interval. Results: At the end of the study we noticed a highly significant statistical difference(p<0.0001) between the investigated testing methods. In gas exchange testing method we found a decreased level of all theparameters evaluated comparing to stress ECG: VO2 peak (ml*kg-1*min-1) = 55.4±5.2 vs. 67.8±5.7; AT (ml*kg-1*min-1) =41.2±7.6 vs. 47.4±6.9; VO2/HR (ml) = 23.8±2.5 vs. 23.8±2.5. Conclusions: Asessment of exercise performance based solelyon a maximal stress ECG without gas analyzing is inaccurate. Furthermore, estimation of peak exercise responses based uponcalculation of VO2 peak from peak work rate are inappropriate in sportsman. The study demonstrate once again that CPXremain the most accurate and reliable test for detection of AT and for a comprehensive physical performance assessment andcannot be replace by other surrogate laboratory exercise tests like stress ECG.

Claudiu Avram; Mihaela Oravi?an; Adrian Nagel; Lucian Hoble

2008-01-01

306

Results of radiation hardness tests and performance tests of the HS9008RH flash ADC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from tests characterizing the performance and radiation hardness of the HS9008RH flash analog to digital converter (FADC) are presented. These tests were performed primarily to evaluate the suitability of this device for use in the GEM Central Tracker at the SSC experiment. Basic performance characteristics and susceptibility of these characteristics to radiation were examined. Performance test results indicate that the device integral nonlinearity is sampling rate dependent and worsens rapidly above rate of 15 megasamples per second (MSPS). No degradation in performance of the device was observed after its exposure of up to 81 Mrad of 1.25 MeV ? radiation from a 60Co source. Exposure of the device to a reactor fast neutron fluence (E > 100keV) of 5 x 1014/cm2 resulted in no significant observed performance degradation as well.

1993-11-06

307

Comparative study on Cs volatility as a function of temperature and off-gas flow rate during vitrification of simulated borate waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A loss of species during vitrification is dependent on processing conditions such as temperature, off-gas flow rate, time, etc. In these conditions, Cs volatility as a function of temperature and off-gas flow rate was examined in a vitrification pilot plant. Temperature of the melter can be reduced by adding B{sub 2}O{sub 3} which is a reagent for lowering the melting points of glass. In order to change the off-gas flow rate, negative pressure of the system was operated under- 10 mmH{sub 2}O, -40 mmH{sub 2}O, respectively. In case of lowering temperature about 100 .deg. C, the Cs concentration in the vitrified glass was higher about 700ppm compared with the non-additive state. In case of raising the flow rate about 12Nm{sup 2}/hr(operated at -40 mmH{sub 2}O), the Cs concentration in the glass was lower about 600ppm. As a result, higher temperature and flow rate increase the volatility of Cs in the system. It is anticipated that the major radioactive contaminated region is CCM-Pipe Cooler-HTF in this system. The Cs volatility was highest at this region in case of the non-additive state. It means that a governing factor of the Cs volatility is the temperature of the melter. On the other hand, mass of collected dust was highest at this region in case of raising flow rate; these results shows dust generation is not proportional to degree of Cs volatility. This was supposed that semi-volative Cs leaves the system as type of an aerosol.

Choi, J. S.; Ji, M. K.; Yim, H. N.; Yoo, Y. H. [Hyundai Mobis, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, K. S.; Kim, C. W.; Hwang, T. W.; Shin, S. W. [KEPCO, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-01

308

Comparative study on Cs volatility as a function of temperature and off-gas flow rate during vitrification of simulated borate waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A loss of species during vitrification is dependent on processing conditions such as temperature, off-gas flow rate, time, etc. In these conditions, Cs volatility as a function of temperature and off-gas flow rate was examined in a vitrification pilot plant. Temperature of the melter can be reduced by adding B2O3 which is a reagent for lowering the melting points of glass. In order to change the off-gas flow rate, negative pressure of the system was operated under- 10 mmH2O, -40 mmH2O, respectively. In case of lowering temperature about 100 .deg. C, the Cs concentration in the vitrified glass was higher about 700ppm compared with the non-additive state. In case of raising the flow rate about 12Nm2/hr(operated at -40 mmH2O), the Cs concentration in the glass was lower about 600ppm. As a result, higher temperature and flow rate increase the volatility of Cs in the system. It is anticipated that the major radioactive contaminated region is CCM-Pipe Cooler-HTF in this system. The Cs volatility was highest at this region in case of the non-additive state. It means that a governing factor of the Cs volatility is the temperature of the melter. On the other hand, mass of collected dust was highest at this region in case of raising flow rate; these results shows dust generation is not proportional to degree of Cs volatility. This was supposed that semi-volative Cs leaves the system as type of an aerosol.

2001-01-01

309

Performance testing of West Valley Reference 6 glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical durability of West Valley Reference 6 glass is being evaluated by using a suite of laboratory tests which highlight the early, interim, and long-term stages of corrosion. The test results are being used to describe the glass corrosion path and its long-term durability. The long-term durability of the SRL Environmental Assessment glass is being evaluated for comparison. Test results also provide parameter values for an analytical corrosion model that can be used in performance assessments of specific disposal sites

1995-01-01

310

Numerical analysis on letdown system performance test for YGN 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrated performance test of Chemical and Volume control System was successfully performed in 1994. However, an extensive effort to correct hardware and software problems in the letdown line was required mainly due to the lack of adequate simulation code to predict the test accurately. Although the LTC computer code was used during the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design process, the code can not satisfactorily predict the test due to its insufficient letdown line modeling. This study developed a numerical model to simulate the letdown test by modifying the current LTC code, and then verified the model by comparing with the test data. The comparison shows that the modified LTC computer code can predict the transient behavior of letdown system tests very well. Especially, the model was verified to be able to predict the instantaneous fluctuations in the letdown backpressure and flowrate which are caused by the `Stiction (composition of stick and friction)` of valve. Therefore, it is concluded that the modified LTC computer code with the ability of calculating the `Stiction` phenomena will be very useful for future plant design and test predictions. 1 tab., 11 figs., 7 refs. (Author).

Seo, Ho Taek; Sohn, Seok Hoon; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-09-01

311

Performance test of a mockup of the capsule assembly machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although fruitful experiences have been obtained from the various in-pile tests in the HANARO reactor over the past ten years, it is necessary for us to have leading-edge technology to satisfy the specific test requirements of the recent R and D activities such as the high-fluence- and high-burnup-related tests. To meet the demands for the high burnup test at HANARO, new capsule assembling technology and re-instrumentation technology are required in the HANARO reactor. In 2003, a mockup of the capsule assembly machine was designed and fabricated. The objective of this study is to undertake performance assessments of the mockup, review the various problems expected from the assembly process, and obtain more qualified data for the design and fabrication of the HANARO capsule assembly machine. From this study, the assembly procedure of the capsule components is developed. Functional test results of the key components of the capsule assembly machine show that the design requirements of the machine are fully reflected in the manufacturing process and this was also confirmed through the performance tests. For the long-time irradiation tests in HANARO, the capsule assembly machine will be manufactured and installed in the service pool of HANARO.

Kang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byung; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Bong Gu

2005-03-01

312

Performance test of a mockup of the capsule assembly machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Although fruitful experiences have been obtained from the various in-pile tests in the HANARO reactor over the past ten years, it is necessary for us to have leading-edge technology to satisfy the specific test requirements of the recent R and D activities such as the high-fluence- and high-burnup-related tests. To meet the demands for the high burnup test at HANARO, new capsule assembling technology and re-instrumentation technology are required in the HANARO reactor. In 2003, a mockup of the capsule assembly machine was designed and fabricated. The objective of this study is to undertake performance assessments of the mockup, review the various problems expected from the assembly process, and obtain more qualified data for the design and fabrication of the HANARO capsule assembly machine. From this study, the assembly procedure of the capsule components is developed. Functional test results of the key components of the capsule assembly machine show that the design requirements of the machine are fully reflected in the manufacturing process and this was also confirmed through the performance tests. For the long-time irradiation tests in HANARO, the capsule assembly machine will be manufactured and installed in the service pool of HANARO

2005-01-01

313

Nuclebras' installations for performance tests of nuclear power plants components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The reasons for Nuclebras' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufactures, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of facilities under construction: the components Test Loop and Facility for Testing N.P.P. components under Accident conditions, and other already in operation, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results had already obtained are also presented. (Author)[pt] Abordam-se as razoes que induziram o Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, da Nuclebras, a implantar um laboratorio de suporte aos fabricantes nacionais, facultando a estes, meio de realizacao de testes de desempenho de produtos industriais. Descrevem-se suscintamente as instalacoes de testes em implantacao: o circuito de Testes de componentes, a Instalacao de Testes em condicoes de Acidente, e outras ja em operacao, bem como suas finalidades e caracteristicas. Descrevem-se ainda alguns resultados de testes ja realizados. (Autor)

1984-01-01

314

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

315

Effects of Delayed Visual Feedback on Grooved Pegboard Test Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of vi...

Fujisaki, Waka

316

The Mathematics Assessment Collaborative: Performance Testing to Improve Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe a collaborative effort involving 30 school districts in California's Silicon Valley that are seeking to overcome the ill effects of mandatory high-stakes standardized testing in mathematics. These districts administer, score, and analyze a common set of performance assessments in mathematics in a way that…

Foster, David; Noyce, Pendred

2004-01-01

317

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

318

Performance Testing of Rate Adaptation Algorithms in WLAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we test the performance of Rate Adaptation mechanisms in 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks. We consider three different Rate Adaptation Algorithms i.e. SampleRate, Onoe and AMRR (Adaptive Multi Rate Retry) available on Atheros Chipsets for which open source MadWiFi (Multi-band Ather...

Sohail Khan, Muhammad

319

WhalePower tubercle blade power performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toronto-based WhalePower Corporation has developed turbine blades that are modeled after humpback whale flippers. The blades, which incorporate tubercles along the leading edge of the blade, have been fitted to a Wenvor 25 kW turbine installed in North Cape, Prince Edward Island at a test site for the Wind Energy Institute of Canada (WEICan). A test was conducted to characterize the power performance of the prototype wind turbine. This report described the wind turbine configuration with particular reference to turbine information, power rating, blade information, tower information, control systems and grid connections. The test site was also described along with test equipment and measurement procedures. Information regarding power output as a function of wind speed was included along with power curves, power coefficient and annual energy production. The results for the power curve and annual energy production contain a level of uncertainty. While measurements for this test were collected and analyzed in accordance with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines (IEC 61400-12-1), the comparative performance data between the prototype WhalePower wind turbine blade and the Wenvor standard blade was not gathered to IEC data standards. Deviations from IEC-61400-12-1 procedures were listed. 6 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2008-07-15

320

The evolution and impact of testing baghouse filter performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1995, the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program for the purpose of generating both independent and credible performance verification of innovative technologies and helping to accelerate acceptance of these products into the marketplace to further benefit the environment and protect public health. The EPA has approved a testing protocol under this program to verify the performance of commercially available filtration products for pulse-jet baghouses in removingfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 microm; PM2.5). This verification testing protocol was later used as a basis for the development of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D6830-02 and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Method 11057. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California and the EPA s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) highly encourage the use of ETV/ASTM-verified filtration media. This paper highlights the evolution of the standard test methods, the EPA's and SCAQMD's regulatory activities, the benefits of using verified filtration media, and the importance of including the filter performance testing in future consideration of baghouse permitting, baghouse operation and maintenance (O&M) plans, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and bag monitoring plans.

Pham M; Clark C; Mckenna J

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test...and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,â appendix A of this part...chromium electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and...

2009-07-01

322

Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general…

Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

2010-01-01

323

Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB) have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT) and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB) children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB) and 69 boys (44 NB and 25 MB). Variables were analyzed during the 6MWT: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, distance walked in six minutes and modified Borg scale. All the variables studied were statistically different between groups NB and MB, with the exception of school performance and HR in 6MWT. CONCLUSION: MB affects physical performance and not the academic performance, we noticed a changed pattern in the 6MWT in the MB group. Since the MBs in our study were classified as non-severe, other studies comparing the academic performance variables and 6MWT are needed to better understand the process of physical and academic performances in MB children.

Boas AP; Marson FA; Ribeiro MA; Sakano E; Conti PB; Toro AD; Ribeiro JD

2013-03-01

324

Gamma camera performance assessment using an orthohole test pattern (OHTP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The orthohole test pattern (OHTP) has been useful for weekly comparative tests of spatial distortion differential non-uniformity, spatial resolution and image pixel size and its use has minimised the camera time needed for quality control. By analysing the images obtained, it has been possible to provide quantitative information for comparing weekly performances and for the intercomparison of two systems. It should be stressed though that the measurements described are non-standard and hence the OHTP should be used only for observing general trends in performance which may indicate that the camera needs adjusting. When standard measurements are required, for example when checking camera performance with the manufacturer's specifications, NEMA phantoms should be used.

Fielding, S.L.; Chittenden, S.J.; Flower, M.A.

1987-05-01

325

Heat of detonation, the cylinder test, and performance munitions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heats of detonation of CHNO explosives correlate well with copper cylinder test expansion data. The detonation products/calorimetry data can be used to estimate performance in the cylinder test, in munitions, and for new molecules or mixtures of explosives before these are made. Confidence in the accuracy of the performance estimates is presently limited by large deviations of a few materials from the regression predictions; but these same deviations, as in the insensitive explosive DINGU and the low carbon systems, appear to be sources of information useful for detonation and explosives research. The performance correlations are functions more of the detonation products and thermochemical energy than they are of the familiar parameters of detonation pressure and velocity, and the predictions are closer to a regression line on average than are those provided by CJ calculations. The prediction computations are simple but the measurements (detonation calorimetry/products and cylinder experiments) are not. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

Akst, I.B.

1989-01-01

326

Performance of the CANFLEX fuel bundle under mechanical flow testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CANFLEX is a 43-element fuel bundle consisting of two element sizes, to reduce element ratings, while maintaining the same bundle power, and an uranium content very close to the uranium content of a standard 37-element bundle. The overall dimensions of the bundle are designed to be the same as the overall dimensions of the standard 37-element fuel bundle. Several out-reactor tests were performed, under in-reactor operating conditions of flow, pressure and temperature, to demonstrate the hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design. The hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design were verified through various out-reactor tests conducted at the laboratories of KAERI and AECL to show that the CANFLEX bundle design meets the design requirements of the CANDU 6 reactor fuel [1] and that it is also compatible with the CANDU 6 fuelling machine. (author)

Chung, C.H.; Chang, S.K.; Suk, H.C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI), Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Alavi, P.; Oldaker, I.E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-07-01

327

Performance of the CANFLEX fuel bundle under mechanical flow testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] CANFLEX is a 43-element fuel bundle consisting of two element sizes, to reduce element ratings, while maintaining the same bundle power, and an uranium content very close to the uranium content of a standard 37-element bundle. The overall dimensions of the bundle are designed to be the same as the overall dimensions of the standard 37-element fuel bundle. Several out-reactor tests were performed, under in-reactor operating conditions of flow, pressure and temperature, to demonstrate the hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design. The hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design were verified through various out-reactor tests conducted at the laboratories of KAERI and AECL to show that the CANFLEX bundle design meets the design requirements of the CANDU 6 reactor fuel [1] and that it is also compatible with the CANDU 6 fuelling machine. (author)

1997-01-01

328

Gamma camera performance assessment using an orthohole test pattern (OHTP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The orthohole test pattern (OHTP) has been useful for weekly comparative tests of spatial distortion differential non-uniformity, spatial resolution and image pixel size and its use has minimised the camera time needed for quality control. By analysing the images obtained, it has been possible to provide quantitative information for comparing weekly performances and for the intercomparison of two systems. It should be stressed though that the measurements described are non-standard and hence the OHTP should be used only for observing general trends in performance which may indicate that the camera needs adjusting. When standard measurements are required, for example when checking camera performance with the manufacturer's specifications, NEMA phantoms should be used. (author).

1987-01-01

329

Performance testing of pressure relief devices for NGV cylinders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been a history of failures involving pressure relief devices used on cylinders in NGV service. Recent incidences in North America involving the premature release of gas from certain devices brought into question the validity of existing standards used for NGV pressure relief devices (e.g. Compressed Gas Association S-1.1-1994). The pressure relief devices defined in the S-1.1 standard were not specifically designed to address NGV service conditions. Accordingly, the NGV industry recognized that changes to the S-1.1 standard were required to accommodate newer technology devices and to more closely reflect NGV service conditions. An NGV industry task group was subsequently formed to develop a new pressure relief device standard, ANSI/AGA PRD-1, `Basic Requirements for Pressure Relief Devices for Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Fuel Containers`. Powertech Labs Inc. has recently completed work to establish the validity of the proposed ANSI/AGA PRD-1 standard in a program funded jointly by Gas Technology Canada, the Gas Research Institute (Chicago) and British Gas. The PRD-1 performance tests were applied to a wide range of existing and prototype pressure relief device designs manufactured in North America and Europe to validate the proposed standard. The performance tests were found to be successful in replicating the in-service performance of pressure relief devices. Four of the tests (thermal cycling, salt corrosion resistance, stress corrosion cracking resistance and vibration) required certain procedural revisions to be satisfactory. Specific recommended changes to these procedures were forwarded to the appropriate ANSI/AGA committee for consideration. Implementation of Powertechis findings regarding the proposed PRD-1 standard will significantly increase the long term reliability of pressure relief devices used in NGV service. The identification of test requirements for these components will promote the development of reliable (safer) devices of lower cost. In addition, the performance tests could be used to reduce the number of full-scale bonfire tests required on cylinder designs. (orig.)

Gambone, L.R. [Powertech Labs. Inc. (United States); Oppenheimer, A.J. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago (United States); White, N.P. [Gas Technology (Canada)

1998-12-31

330

Linear Magnetic Break of Special Test Requirements with Dynamic Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research running at the Department ofElectrical and Electronic Engineering of theUniversity of Miskolc aims to develop a linearmagnetic break suitable for simulating real loadingenvironment for machines making linear movementwith fast direction changes. The linear break will beused in product development department, whereconstructors should have accurate, reliable anddetailed test results on the machine’s performance.Practical test of certain electrical household equipmentis performed by unskilled laborers when testcircumstances cannot be accurately registered, e.g.during a jigsaw or drill test force applied by the workercan change in time. Therefore, intelligent testequipment is required where test phases andparameters can be set exactly and results arereproducible. Practical tests at product developmentphase include special time schedules with run and haltoperation phases, as well as different loads are appliedin run phases. Loading test of the electrical equipmentsoperating with fast (approx. 50Hz) alternatingmovement has serious theoretical and practicaldifficulties. The linear magnetic break presented inthis paper is suitable for applying force to a jigsaw’sblade in range of -500N and +500N. The forceaffecting the blade has special characteristics, itdepends not only on the direction of the instantaneousmovement but also on the instantaneous position of theblade. Therefore, control of the loading force, namelycontrol of the linear magnetic break, is a complex task,requiring the development of a sophisticated intelligentsystem based on deep analysis of magnetic fields,weight compensation and reaction times.

VÁRADINÉ SZARKA Angéla

2010-01-01

331

Post-test analysis for the APR1400 LBLOCA DVI performance test using MARS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Post-test analyses using a multi-dimensional best-estimate analysis code, MARS, are performed for the APR1400 LBLOCA DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) performance tests. This report describes the code evaluation results for the test data of various void height tests and direct bypass tests that have been performed at MIDAS test facility. MIDAS is a scaled test facility of APR1400 with the objective of identifying multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the downcomer during the reflood conditions of a large break LOCA. A modified linear scale ratio was applied in its construction and test conditions. The major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as ECC bypass fraction, steam condensation fraction, and temperature distributions in downcomer are compared and evaluated. The evaluation results of MARS code for the various test cases show that: (a) MARS code has an advanced modeling capability of well predicting major multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer, (b) MARS code under-predicts the steam condensation rates, which in turn causes to over-predict the ECC bypass rates. However, the trend of decrease in steam condensation rate and increase in ECC bypass rate in accordance with the increase in steam flow rate, and the calculation results of the ECC bypass rates under the EM analysis conditions generally agree with the test data.

Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Bae, Y. Y.; Park, J. K.; Lee, W

2002-03-01

332

Post-test analysis for the APR1400 LBLOCA DVI performance test using MARS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Post-test analyses using a multi-dimensional best-estimate analysis code, MARS, are performed for the APR1400 LBLOCA DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) performance tests. This report describes the code evaluation results for the test data of various void height tests and direct bypass tests that have been performed at MIDAS test facility. MIDAS is a scaled test facility of APR1400 with the objective of identifying multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the downcomer during the reflood conditions of a large break LOCA. A modified linear scale ratio was applied in its construction and test conditions. The major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as ECC bypass fraction, steam condensation fraction, and temperature distributions in downcomer are compared and evaluated. The evaluation results of MARS code for the various test cases show that: (a) MARS code has an advanced modeling capability of well predicting major multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer, (b) MARS code under-predicts the steam condensation rates, which in turn causes to over-predict the ECC bypass rates. However, the trend of decrease in steam condensation rate and increase in ECC bypass rate in accordance with the increase in steam flow rate, and the calculation results of the ECC bypass rates under the EM analysis conditions generally agree with the test data

2002-01-01

333

Performance test on testing apparatus for radionuclide migration on ground surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Testing apparatus for radionuclide migration on ground surface was constructed to study the radionuclide migration on ground surface which is one of radionuclide migration paths in a natural barrier. The apparatus is composed of inflow section of solution, testing section of soil sample, outflow section of effluent solution, measurement section of water velocity, measurement section of water content et al., which can test the soil sample taken from natural field undestructively. As performance tests, four tests were carried out for each section and over all test was also carried out to confirm the linking of each section on the operation of the apparatus under actual test condition. From the performance test, it is confirmed that each section accomplishes the prescribed performance of the apparatus. As to water velocity on ground surface and water content in soil, which are important parameters to analyze the behavior of radionuclide migration, it is confirmed that sufficient information can be obtained about the distribution of surface water velocity and the infiltration of surface water, from the measurement test of each section and the overall test. (author)

1989-01-01

334

Performance testing of HEPA filters under hot dynamic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A test facility has been designed and built to enable the performance of air filters under conditions of hot air flow to be evaluated. The facility is designed to provide up to 3400 standard m3/h of air heated to temperatures not exceeding 5000C to the filter and housing under test. Differential pressures up to 400mm water gauge across the test filter can be accommodated. Provision has been made for the measurement of the efficiency of filters at temperatures up to 5000C using thermally generated sodium chloride aerosols and standard photometry techniques. Preliminary tests have shown that the combination of differential pressure across the filter and hot gas flow significantly reduces the strength of the filter compared with results obtained from the currently specified test procedures of static oven test followed by dust loading to a stated differential pressure across the filter. Tests have also been carried out to study the temperature gradients generated across the filter and housing associated with the flow of hot air through the test assembly. These show that the temperatures of housing and associated ductwork should not give cause for concern for air temperatures up to 5000C. The effect of temperature on filtration efficiency is not significant below 3000C, but temperatures in excess of 3000C cause a reduction in the filtration efficiency of glass fibre media

1985-01-01

335

Specification and performance of testing and balancing in biological facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biologics facilities for pilot, clinical trial, and manufacturing applications have special testing and balancing requirements. The testing and balancing function can ensure the integrity of the design intent through start-up; it provides valuable test data for clean room certification and validation while providing the owner long-term mechanical system reliability. One of the most important functions of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in these facilities is the maintenance of different pressures between rooms. A testing and balancing procedure to accomplish this is not addressed effectively by NEBB or AABC standards. A detailed specification of the testing and balancing procedures and incorporation of all system design data in the testing and balancing contract package is essential to the ultimate success of the project. The pressure differential instrumentation furnished and installed by the controls contractor should be calibrated during the testing and balancing activity. A final verification of the system performance by the engineer must be conducted prior to beginning clean room testing and certification activities.

Burns, J.T.; Milburn, W.F.

1999-07-01

336

Four square step test performance in people with Parkinson disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Four Square Step Test (4SST), a quick and simple test of multidirectional stepping, may be useful in predicting falls in people with Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the reliability of the 4SST and its ability to discriminate between freezers and nonfreezers, between fallers and nonfallers, and factors predictive of 4SST performance in people with PD. METHODS: Fifty-three individuals with idiopathic PD completed the full protocol, including the 4SST as well as measures of balance, walking, and disease severity on anti-PD medication. RESULTS: Interrater (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.99) and test-retest reliability were high (ICC = 0.78). The median 4SST performance was 9.52 seconds. There was a significant difference between 4SST time on-medication versus off (P = 0.03), while differences between fallers and nonfallers (P = 0.06) and between freezers and nonfreezers (P = 0.08) did not reach significance. All outcome measures were significantly related to 4SST time. In an exploratory, simultaneous regression analysis, 56% of the variance in 4SST performance could be accounted for by 3 measures: Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), Five Time Sit to Stand, and Nine Hole Peg Test. The 4SST cutoff score for distinguishing fallers from nonfallers was 9.68 seconds (Area under curve = 0.65, sensitivity = 0.73, specificity = 0.57). The posttest probability of an individual with a score greater than the cutoff being a faller was 31% (pretest probability = 21%). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The 4SST is a reliable, quick test that can distinguish between on-and off-medication conditions in PD but is not as good as other tests (eg, Mini-BESTest) for distinguishing between fallers and nonfallers. Video Abstract available (see the Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A31) for more insights from the authors.

Duncan RP; Earhart GM

2013-03-01

337

MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls), aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance

Juan A. Moreno; David González-Cutre; José Martín-Albo; Eduardo Cervelló

2010-01-01

338

Threshold values of physical performance tests for locomotive syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Our previous study determined which physical performance tests were the most useful for evaluating locomotive syndrome. Our current study establishes reference values for these major physical performance tests with regards to diagnosing and assessing risk of locomotive syndrome (LS). METHODS: We measured timed-up-and-go test, one-leg standing time, back muscle strength, grip strength, 10-m gait time and maximum stride in 406 individuals (167 men, 239 women) between the ages of 60-88 years (mean 68.8 ± 6.7 years) during Yakumo Study 2011-12. The LS was defined as having a score of >16 points on the 25-Question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25). The reference value of each physical test was determined using receiver operating characteristics analysis. RESULTS: Women had a significantly higher prevalence of LS than men did and also scored significantly higher on the GLFS-25: women, 9.2 ± 10.3 pts; men, 6.7 ± 8.0 pts. Both genders in the non-LS group performed significantly better in all physical performance test gender except for back muscle strength in men and grip strength in both genders than those in the LS group, even after adjusting for age. The results of all the physical performance tests correlated significantly with the GLFS-25 scores of both genders even after adjusting for age except for grip strength. Reference values for TUG, one-leg standing time, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, maximum stride and grip strength in men were 6.7 s, 21 s, 78 kg, 5.5 s and, 119 cm and 34 kg, respectively, and those for women were 7.5 s, 15 s, 40 kg, 6.2 s, 104 cm, and 22 kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We established reference values for major physical performance tests used when assessing locomotive syndrome as defined by the GLFS-25. Our results can be used to characterize physical function and to help tailor an anti-LS training program for each individual.

Muramoto A; Imagama S; Ito Z; Hirano K; Tauchi R; Ishiguro N; Hasegawa Y

2013-07-01

339

Computer-controlled test benches for conducting performance and wear tests on internal-combustion engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental legislation calls for internal-combustion engines having low exhaust emissions, good fuel economy and a long service life. Test benches for endurance tests are needed for the development of highly wear-resistant engine components. The engine test bay at TRW Thompson GmbH, Barsinghausen, has been equipped with two test benches having a DC dynamometer and a Type B3 high-speed DC generator with torque calculator. A Siemens process computer performs control functions, acquires and processes data and also evaluates the results of the test runs. The system concept employed allows the energy delivered through the engine shaft to be fed back into the grid, thus achieving significant savings in energy during endurance testing. In addition, the use of the computer has greatly enhanced the capacity of the test facilities and has made the test results extremely reliable.

Dieckhoff, T.; Kappey, H.H.; Mueller, K.; Schoenlau, H.

1985-01-01

340

H2 fuel prototype hydride bed performance tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

H2Fuel is a project to design, build, and demonstrate a hydrogen-electric hybrid city bus for Augusta, GA. The H2Fuel bus uses metal hydride technology for on-board hydrogen fuel storage. This document reports on tests by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to measure the performance of the H2Fuel prototype hydride bed. Bed diameter measurements were made before and after hydrogen testing. Seven hydrogen absorption-desorption cycles were completed. Significant results include: - maximum hydrogen capacity of approximately 3500 STP liters (0.315 kg) - practical hydrogen capacity of approximately 3000 STP liters (0.270 kg) - absorption tests at four hydrogen supply pressures (75, 100, 140, and 300 psia) - desorption tests at three hydrogen rates (20, 30, and 50 slpm) - no measurable swelling of the hydride bed

Dyer, E.F.

1996-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

Eaton, W.C.

1995-11-01

342

Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

2001-01-01

343

Neurocognitive test performance and symptom reporting in cheerleaders with concussions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurocognitive test results and symptom reporting after sports-related concussion in a group of female cheerleaders. STUDY DESIGN: Junior and senior high school female cheerleaders (n = 138) underwent preparticipation baseline testing and repeated the ImPACT (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) evaluation within 7 days of concussive injury (range, 0-7 days; mean, 3.9 days). Postinjury neurocognitive and symptom scores were compared with preinjury (baseline) scores. "Abnormal" test performance was determined statistically using Reliable Change Index scores and self-reported symptoms. Main outcome variables included the composite scores indices from the ImPACT test, as well as symptoms reported by participants. Preinjury baseline and postinjury test results were compared using MANOVA. RESULTS: As a group, cheerleaders with concussion evaluated within 7 days of injury performed poorly on the ImPACT test battery relative to their own baseline (F = 6.5; P = .00). In addition, 61% of the cheerleaders with concussions reported an increase in symptoms compared with baseline. The groups did not differ significantly by position on the squad (F = 0.37; P = .96). Of the group of cheerleaders who did not report increased symptoms at the time of postinjury evaluation, 37% had at least 1 abnormal ImPACT composite score result, suggesting some residual cognitive decline compared with baseline. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis and management of concussion in cheerleaders should not consist solely of self-reported symptoms. Neurocognitive test results represent an important component of the evaluation process and may identify athletes with residual neurocognitive deficits who report being clinically asymptomatic.

Lovell MR; Solomon GS

2013-10-01

344

Development and performance test of a small trailer-mounted moveable natural gas liquefier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A compact moveable small natural gas liquefier has been developed. ? All components used are easily available from the market as off-the-shelf products. ? A maximum liquefaction capacity of 15,000 Nm3/d was achieved using methane resources. ? The measured minimum specific power is 0.54 kW h/Nm3. ? Building a distributed liquefaction center with a group of liquefiers was proposed. - Abstract: A portable small liquefier for natural gas or coal-bed methane liquefaction has been designed and tested. The liquefier is very compact, and the compressor is directly mounted on a trailer. The liquefier is based on a mixed-refrigerant liquefaction cycle with R22 precooling. Most of the components in the liquefier are easily available off-the-shelf refrigeration products. An oil-lubricated single-stage R22 screw compressor is used for the mixed-refrigerant compression. An aluminum plate-fin heat exchanger with four flow passages was designed as the core of the cold box. The liquefier was tested for about 4 months by circulating pure methane as the natural gas resource. A maximum liquefaction capacity of 15,000 Nm3 was achieved with a minimum specific power consumption of about 0.54 kW h/Nm3. This liquefier can be used in various applications such as small natural gas or coalbed methane exploitations, distributed peak-shaving, and boil-off gas reliquefaction. These can also be used as a flexible distributed liquefaction center with a set of small liquefiers.

2012-01-01

345

Performance test of a ceramic turbo-viscous pump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the special fields of nuclear fusion facilities and semiconductor production installation, the development of new vacuum pumps which can cope with strong magnetic fields, high temperature gas and corrosive gas is demanded. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. has advanced the development of ceramic turbo-molecular pumps and ceramic turbo-viscous pumps, which use ceramic rotors and gas bearings since 1985. The evaluation test of the ceramic turbo-viscous vacuum pump CT-3000H which can evacuate from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum with one pump was carried out, and the experimental results on the performance and the reliability were obtained, therefore, those are reported in this paper. The structure, specification and features of the CT-3000H are shown. The exhaust performance test of the pump was carried out in conformity with the standard of the Vacuum Society of Japan, JVIS 005 'Method of performance test for turbo-molecular pumps'. The gases used were nitrogen and helium. The results are shown. The exhaust test from atmospheric pressure was carried out by two methods, and the results are shown. (K.I.).

1994-01-01

346

The effect of commercial coaching on selection test performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To investigate whether commercial coaching affects performance in the Undergraduate Medical and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT). METHOD: The effect of coaching on the UMAT scores of 402 final high school students applying for medicine was examined using t-tests and multiple regression analyses that controlled for academic performance, high school type and gender. RESULTS: Over half (56.2%) of the participants had enrolled in commercial coaching. Coaching had no influence on UMAT Section 1 or 2, even after controlling for academic performance, gender and type of high school. UMAT Section 3 was significantly higher for coached students, but this was only the case for high ability students. Coaching had a slight negative effect for lower ability students. Those attending academically selective high school also had higher UMAT scores. CONCLUSION: The results have implications for the fairness and validity of the UMAT. The differential effect of coaching possibly occurred because high academic ability students are able to learn solution rules for non-verbal tests. We propose that the effect of school type relates to a competitive culture that drives extended test practice in academically selective schools.

Griffin B; Carless S; Wilson I

2013-04-01

347

Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO2-5wt%CeO2 powder mixture, UO2-5wt%CeO2 powder mixture with poreformer, M3O8 powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

2001-01-01

348

Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture, UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture with poreformer, M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

Lee, Young Woo; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S

2001-02-01

349

Practical tests for monitoring performance, fatigue and recovery in triathletes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few studies have described simple tests which can be used to provide an early warning of overreaching. The purpose of this study was to examine selected practical tests for monitoring changes in performance, fatigue and recovery of endurance athletes. Sixteen male triathletes were randomly assigned into matched groups. The normal training (NT) and intensified training (IT) groups completed 4 weeks of training followed by a 2-week taper. Physiological measures were taken pre- and post-overload and post-taper periods during an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Performance was assessed weekly using a 3-km run time trial (3 kmTT). Five-bound jump for distance (5BT) and submaximal running heart rate (HR(submax)) test were measured twice weekly and the Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) were recorded. During the overload training period, the IT group completed approximately 290% more training load than the NT group (p<0.001). After the overload training period, 3kmTT in the IT group was reduced compared to both pre-training (3.7%, p<0.05) and the NT group (6.8%, p<0.05). 5BT was decreased by 7.9% in the IT group following the overload period (p<0.05). The IT group also demonstrated increases in stress reaction symptoms from the DALDA. Following the taper, the IT group improved 3 kmTT. In contrast, the performance, physiological and psychological markers of NT group remained relatively unchanged throughout the 6-week training period. There were weak significant correlations between weekly changes in 3 kmTT and 5BT (r=-0.37, p<0.01). The DALDA and 5BT may be practical tests for assessing changes in performance, fatigue and recovery of endurance athletes.

Coutts AJ; Slattery KM; Wallace LK

2007-12-01

350

Utilization of LOTUS computer program for rotary kiln, secondary combustion chamber and off-gas system design for a mixed and LLW incinerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the advantages of the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet as used in the design of an incineration facility. The program is used to calculate material and energy balances, excess air requirements, and temperature control requirements. The flexibility of the LOTUS system in exploring a variety of design scenarios is discussed. The spreadsheet models a rotary kiln which burns solids and liquids and a secondary combustion chamber which burns liquids. The incineration facility uses a wet scrubbing off-gas system for particulates and acid gas removal and control. The computer program is extremely useful for calculating excess air and fuel oil requirements for incineration system temperature control and for determining off-gas system flow rates. The single most important factor is that once all the chemical equations for all wastes to be fired have been developed and the spreadsheet set up, any number of cases may be evaluated. This is essential to compare the effects of feed components on flue gas volume, quantities of acid gases and metal oxides generated, and particulate loading, all of which affect the proper sizing, selection and cost of equipment.

Sanders, N.; Voshell, M.E.

1987-04-01

351

Evaluation technology for burnup and generated amount of plutonium by measurement of Xenon isotopic ratio in dissolver off-gas at reprocessing facility (Joint research)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The amount of Pu in the spent fuel was evaluated from Xe isotopic ratio in off-gas in reprocessing facility, is related to burnup. Six batches of dissolver off-gas (DOG) at spent fuel dissolution process were sampled from the main stack in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) during BWR fuel (approx. 30GWD/MTU) reprocessing campaign. Xenon isotopic ratio was determined with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Burnup and generated amount of Pu were evaluated with Noble Gas Environmental Monitoring Application code (NOVA), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Inferred burnup evaluated by Xe isotopic measurements and NOVA were in good agreement with those of the declared burnup in the range from -3.8% to 7.1%. Also, the inferred amount of Pu in spent fuel was in good agreed with those of the declared amount of Pu calculated by ORIGEN code in the range from -0.9% to 4.7%. The evaluation technique is applicable for both burnup credit to achieve efficient criticality safety control and a new measurement method for safeguards inspection. (author)

2006-01-01

352

1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

Sky +, Inc.

1998-09-01

353

Performance Test of a Capsule Load Device and Fatigue Test using the Device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A fatigue capsule is one of the special capsules to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the nuclear materials in a research reactor, HANARO. In this report, the performance test of a periodic load device and the preliminary fatigue test by using the load device newly developed for a fatigue capsule was performed. In order to obtain the characteristics such as a realization of the periodic wave shape and a controllability of the wave shape including the amplitude, the holding time and the period of the pressure, a spring and rigid bar specimens were used. The basic performance of the load device was reconfirmed by a preliminary test by using a specimen of 2.0mm in diameter made of aluminum and stainless steel, and a size of the specimen and test conditions suitable for the in-pile fatigue test were also investigated. Based on the preliminary test results, the fatigue test for the STS 316L specimen with 1.8mm in diameter and 12.5mm in gage length was performed under the same conditions as the temperature(550 .deg. C) of the specimen during irradiation tests except for the gamma flux. The test was conducted in the range of pressure from 10 to 15 kgf/cm2 and the periodic load of 4 cycles per minute during 18.5 days, but the specimen kept the initial displacement without large variation. Thus, in order to show the fracture within one period(23 days) of the reactor, the pressure was increased from 14 to 19 kgf/cm2. Finally, the fracture of the specimen occurred at a total of 127,865 cycles (22 days), and the displacement was 2.63mm. These results will be used for a determination of the test conditions and a comparison of the in-pile fatigue test results

2006-01-01

354

Performance Test of a Capsule Load Device and Fatigue Test using the Device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fatigue capsule is one of the special capsules to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the nuclear materials in a research reactor, HANARO. In this report, the performance test of a periodic load device and the preliminary fatigue test by using the load device newly developed for a fatigue capsule was performed. In order to obtain the characteristics such as a realization of the periodic wave shape and a controllability of the wave shape including the amplitude, the holding time and the period of the pressure, a spring and rigid bar specimens were used. The basic performance of the load device was reconfirmed by a preliminary test by using a specimen of 2.0mm in diameter made of aluminum and stainless steel, and a size of the specimen and test conditions suitable for the in-pile fatigue test were also investigated. Based on the preliminary test results, the fatigue test for the STS 316L specimen with 1.8mm in diameter and 12.5mm in gage length was performed under the same conditions as the temperature(550 .deg. C) of the specimen during irradiation tests except for the gamma flux. The test was conducted in the range of pressure from 10 to 15 kgf/cm{sup 2} and the periodic load of 4 cycles per minute during 18.5 days, but the specimen kept the initial displacement without large variation. Thus, in order to show the fracture within one period(23 days) of the reactor, the pressure was increased from 14 to 19 kgf/cm{sup 2}. Finally, the fracture of the specimen occurred at a total of 127,865 cycles (22 days), and the displacement was 2.63mm. These results will be used for a determination of the test conditions and a comparison of the in-pile fatigue test results.

Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Kang, Y. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, B. G

2006-04-15

355

PROP re-refined oil engine test performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

Linnard, R.E.

1980-11-01

356

Performance of CREAM Calorimeter: Results of Beam Tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

2006-01-01

357

Network Performance Testing for the BaBar Event Builder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an overview of the design of event building in the BABAR Online, based upon TCP/IP and commodity networking technology. BABAR is a high-rate experiment to study CP violation in asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In order to validate the event-builder design, an extensive program was undertaken to test the TCP performance delivered by various machine types with both ATM OC-3 and Fast Ethernet networks. The buffering characteristics of several candidate switches were examined and found to be generally adequate for our purposes. We highlight the results of this testing and present some of the more significant findings.

Pavel, Tomas J

1998-11-17

358

Performance of CREAM Calorimeter Results of Beam Tests  

CERN Document Server

The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

Ahn, H S; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, M Y; Kim, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S W; Nutter, S; Park, N H; Park, H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Syed, S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zhang, H Q; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

2005-01-01

359

Laboratory performance in a food microbiology proficiency testing scheme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results from two shipments in a proficiency testing scheme in which almost 200 food microbiology laboratories participated are summarized. Freeze-dried mixtures of bacteria were used as simulated food samples. Four and six samples, respectively, were examined. The statistical procedures used to evaluate the performance of participating laboratories are described. It is shown that laboratories which had been in the scheme for a long time perform, on average, better than those that had been in the scheme for a short time. The former laboratories produced fewer false and outlying results, and were more accurate and precise in their determinations.

Peterz M

1992-09-01

360

Laboratory performance in a food microbiology proficiency testing scheme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from two shipments in a proficiency testing scheme in which almost 200 food microbiology laboratories participated are summarized. Freeze-dried mixtures of bacteria were used as simulated food samples. Four and six samples, respectively, were examined. The statistical procedures used to evaluate the performance of participating laboratories are described. It is shown that laboratories which had been in the scheme for a long time perform, on average, better than those that had been in the scheme for a short time. The former laboratories produced fewer false and outlying results, and were more accurate and precise in their determinations. PMID:1399915

Peterz, M

1992-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Performance of CMS ECAL Preshower in 2007 test beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Preshower detector is part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter, located in the endcap regions, in front of the lead tungstate crystals. It consists of two orthogonal planes of silicon strip sensors interleaved with two planes of lead absorbers. A combined beam test of close-to-final prototypes of the Hadron calorimeter, the crystal calorimeter and the Preshower detector was performed in the summer of 2007. Calibrations were made using electron and pion data. Good signal/noise performance was obtained in both gains of measurements

Li, S-W; Go, Apollo; Kuo, C-M, E-mail: Syue-Wei.Li@cern.c [National Central University, Taiwan, No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China)

2009-04-01

362

Performance Test of a R134a Centrifugal Water Chiller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A centrifugal water chiller using alternative refrigerant R134a have been developed. The prototype was designed to have refrigeration capacity of 300 RT. Its compressor employs a single high-speed impeller, airfoil diffuser and collector. Newly developed enhanced tubes were installed in the evaporator and the condenser to reduce the required head for the compressor. Off-design characteristics at various conditions, performance test of the compressor and analysis of the refrigeration cycle were performed. So the probability of use in part load condition was checked and the direction for revision was suggested. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Lee, Hyeonkoo; Yoon, Pil Hyun; Kim, Choon Dong; Lee, Yong Duck; Jeong, Jinhee [LG Cable Ltd., Anyang (Korea)

2001-05-01

363

Testing and Performance Analysis on Air Conditioner cum Water Dispenser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work on developing the heat pumps for space conditioning and water heating has been gone for half a century. The earlier water heating pumps and air to water heating pumps gives only hot water and space conditioning. But in this air conditioning cum water dispenser we get hot and cold water with hot and cold air, thus the system becomes multifunctional. The actual cycles and operating conditions for air and water cycle present in this paper. The paper introduced basic design principles and the test analysis performed in the laboratory. The test results were found encouraging especially the parameters of dispenser output along with air conditioner. The paper also introduced comfort conditions and suitable coefficient of performance with respect to atmospheric condition, without sacrificing the air conditioning output

Dr. U. V.Kongrea , A. R. Chiddarwarb , P. C. Dhumatkarc , A.B.Aris

2013-01-01

364

Testing the performance of a blind burst statistic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, we estimate the performance of a method for the detection of burst events in the data produced by interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We compute the receiver operating characteristics in the specific case of a simulated noise having the spectral density expected for Virgo, using test signals taken from a library of possible waveforms emitted during the collapse of the core of type II supernovae.

Vicere, A [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Calamai, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Campagna, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Conforto, G [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Cuoco, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Dominici, P [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Fiori, I [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Guidi, G M [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Losurdo, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Martelli, F [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Mazzoni, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Perniola, B [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy); Stanga, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Vetrano, F [Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino (Italy)

2003-09-07

365

Test beam performance of the CDF plug upgrade hadron calorimeter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the performance of the CDF End Plug Hadron Calorimeter in a test beam. The sampling calorimeter is constructed using 2 inch iron absorber plates and scintillator planes with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The linearity and energy resolution of the calorimeter response to pions, and the transverse uniformity of the response to muons and pions are presented. The parameter e/h, representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to hadronic response, is extracted from the data.

de Barbaro, P. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); CDF Plug Upgrade Group

1998-01-13

366

Performance test of the CMS link alignment system  

CERN Document Server

A first global test of the CMS Alignment System was performed at the I4 hall of the CERN ISR tunnel. Positions of the network, reproducing a set of points in the CMS detector monitored by the Link System, were reconstructed and compared to survey measurements. Spatial and angular reconstruction precisions reached in the present experimental set-up are already close to the CMS requirements.

Arce, P; Calvo, E; Fernández, M G; Ferrando, A; Figueroa, C F; García, N; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Molinero, A; Oller, J C; Rodrigo, T; Vila, I; Virto, A L

2002-01-01

367

Five Times Sit to Stand Test Performance in Parkinson Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Our objectives were to: 1) determine intra-rater and test-retest reliability of the FTSTS in Parkinson disease (PD), 2) characterize Five Time Sit to Stand (FTSTS) performance in PD at different disease stages, 3) determine predictors of FTSTS performance in PD, and 4) determine utility of the FTSTS for discriminating between fallers and non-fallers with PD, identifying an appropriate cutoff score to delineate between these groups. Design Measurement study of community-dwelling individuals with idiopathic PD. Setting Participants were examined in a medical school laboratory. Participants Eighty-two participants were recruited via population-based sampling. The final sample included eighty participants. Two were excluded per exclusion criteria and unrelated illness, respectively. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSTS) time (seconds). Secondary outcome measures included: Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BEST), Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction – Quadriceps (MVIC), nine hole peg test (9HPT), six minute walk, freezing of gait questionnaire, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39, and Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Results Interrater and test-retest reliability for the FTSTS were high (Intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.99 and 0.76, respectively). Mean FTSTS performance was 20.25 ± 14.12 (seconds). All mobility measures were significantly correlated with FTSTS (p<0.01). The Mini-BEST and 9HPT together explained 53% of the variance in FTSTS. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis determined a cutoff of 16.0 seconds (sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.68) for discriminating between fallers and non-fallers, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. Conclusion The FTSTS is a quick, easily administered measure useful for gross determination of fall risk in individuals with PD.

Duncan, Ryan P.; Leddy, Abigail L.; Earhart, Gammon M.

2011-01-01

368

Seismic testing and performance of buckling-restrained bracing systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes a subassemblage seismic test program performed on six buckling-restrained braces (BRBs). Two different brace core segment lengths and two different buckling-restraining mechanisms were examined. The applied loading histories included a qualifying quasi-static cyclic test with stepwise incremental displacement amplitudes and a dynamically applied seismic loading. A test was also carried out on a conventional bracing member for comparison purposes. The concrete-filled tube specimens exhibited satisfactory performance under the quasi-static loading protocol, regardless of the length of the core segment. Strain hardening and frictional responses resulted in brace axial forces significantly exceeding the core yield capacity. The steel BRB system exhibited good performance under the quasi-static and dynamic loading sequences, provided that the clearance between the brace core and the buckling-restrained mechanism was kept to a minimum. The dynamic loading protocol was less severe for low-cycle fatigue than the quasi-static loading, but higher strain rates resulted in amplified yield resistance. The conventional bracing member withstood the entire quasi-static loading history but exhibited limited energy-dissipation capacity compared with the concrete-filled BRBs. (author)

2006-01-01

369

Seismic testing and performance of buckling-restrained bracing systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a subassemblage seismic test program performed on six buckling-restrained braces (BRBs). Two different brace core segment lengths and two different buckling-restraining mechanisms were examined. The applied loading histories included a qualifying quasi-static cyclic test with stepwise incremental displacement amplitudes and a dynamically applied seismic loading. A test was also carried out on a conventional bracing member for comparison purposes. The concrete-filled tube specimens exhibited satisfactory performance under the quasi-static loading protocol, regardless of the length of the core segment. Strain hardening and frictional responses resulted in brace axial forces significantly exceeding the core yield capacity. The steel BRB system exhibited good performance under the quasi-static and dynamic loading sequences, provided that the clearance between the brace core and the buckling-restrained mechanism was kept to a minimum. The dynamic loading protocol was less severe for low-cycle fatigue than the quasi-static loading, but higher strain rates resulted in amplified yield resistance. The conventional bracing member withstood the entire quasi-static loading history but exhibited limited energy-dissipation capacity compared with the concrete-filled BRBs. (author)

Tremblay, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Structural Engineering Research Group, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: robert.tremblay@polymtl.ca; Bolduc, P. [Consultants BPR, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Neville, R.; DeVall, R. [Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2006-02-15

370

Evaluation of a composite test of kicking performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of variables for the direct assessment of kicking performance in young soccer players. One hundred and six elite young soccer players were divided into 4 age groups (12-15 years). Absolute error (AE), variable error (VE), and constant error (CE) were evaluated as the variables of kicking accuracy, whereas the kicking velocity variables involved the maximum ball velocity (BVmax) and the ball velocity during accurate kicks (BVacc). Results suggested low-to-moderate reliability of the kicking accuracy (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.00-0.67) and high reliability of the kicking velocity variables (ICC = 0.87-0.94). Regarding the sensitivity, most of the variables detected the differences both between the dominant and nondominant legs and among the age groups. Because the evaluated variables should have a property of face validity, the findings obtained generally suggest that AE (and perhaps VE, as the measures of kicking accuracy) and both BVmax and BVacc (as the measures of kicking velocity) could be used within a routine composite test of kicking performance in young elite soccer players. Further development of the evaluated composite test of kicking performance could be based on the involvement of other kicking techniques and on testing the athletes of different ages, levels of skill, or sport specialization.

Berjan Bacvarevic B; Pazin N; Bozic PR; Mirkov D; Kukolj M; Jaric S

2012-07-01

371

Performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage test load  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A high-power, water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of 2 megawatts dissipation at 95 kV DC, was built and installed at the Advanced Photon Source for use in load-testing high voltage power supplies. During this testing, the test load has logged approximately 35 hours of operation at power levels in excess of one mezawatt. Slight variations in the resistance of the load during operation indicate that leakage currents in the cooling water may be a significant factor affecting the performance of the load. Sufficient performance data have been collected to indicate that leakage current through the deionized (DI) water coolant shunts roughly 15 percent of the full-load current around the load resistor elements. The leakage current could cause deterioration of internal components of the load. The load pressure vessel was disassembled and inspected internally for any signs of significant wear and distress. Results of this inspection and possible modifications for improved performance will be discussed

1995-01-01

372

High performance CLSM field mixing and pumping test results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved low bleed water CLSM mix was field tested on May 13, 1997 at the Throop portable auger batching plant. Production and pumping tests were very successful. The four cubic yards of material pumped into a ply wood form where it flowed 48 feet (the entire length of the form). The CLSM slurry was very uniform, self leveling, cohesive, showed no segregation, and had no bleed water. Properties of the High Performance CLSM were the same for material collected at the auger and at the end of the pipeline except for the air content which was 5.5% at the auger and 3.2% at the end of the pipeline. This is exactly what was expected and indicates that this CLSM is easy to mix and pump in the Throop/BSRI equipment. CLSM Mix TW-10 is recommended for Tank Closure based on the field batching and pumping tests.

Rajendran, N. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center

1997-05-14

373

Imaging performance and tests of soft x-ray telescopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photos obtained during 5 min. of observation time from the flight of our 10 in. normal incidence soft x-ray ({lambda} = 63.5{Angstrom}) telescope on September 11, 1989 are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. These tests cover a range of spatial periods from 25 cm to 1{Angstrom}. The photos demonstrate a reduction in the scattering of the multilayer mirror compared to a single surface for scattering angles above 1 arcmin, corresponding to surface irregularities with spatial periods below 10 {mu}m. Our results are used to predict the possible performance of future flights. Sounding rocket observations might be able to reach a resolution around 0.1 arcsec. Higher resolutions will require flights of longer durations and improvements in mirror testing for the largest spatial periods. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Spiller, E.; McCorkle, R.; Wilczynski, J. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Golub, L.; Nystrom, G. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA)); Takacz, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Welch, C. (Lockheed Missile and Space Co., Las Cruces, NM (USA))

1990-08-01

374

Update on the performance and application of basophil activation tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The basophil activation test (BAT) is a flow-cytometry-based functional assay that assesses the degree of cell activation after exposure to a stimuli. Though no standardized technique currently exists, recent advances have improved the performance of this assay, including identification of new basophil-specific markers and comparisons of the expression of CD63 to CD203c during activation. The basophil activation test has also been validated for many IgE-mediated disease conditions, which have been extensively reviewed elsewhere. This review focuses on the most recent applications of this test to the diagnosis of allergy to drugs, foods, venoms, and pollens, and the evolving role of the BAT in monitoring immunotherapy.

McGowan EC; Saini S

2013-02-01

375

Final tests and performances verification of the European ALMA antennas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is under erection in Northern Chile. The array consists of a large number (up to 64) of 12 m diameter antennas and a number of smaller antennas, to be operated on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. The antennas will operate up to 950 GHz so that their mechanical performances, in terms of surface accuracy, pointing precision and dimensional stability, are very tight. The AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics is assembling and testing the 25 antennas. As of today, the first set of antennas have been delivered to ALMA for science. During the test phase with ESO and ALMA, the European antennas have shown excellent performances ensuring the specification requirements widely. The purpose of this paper is to present the different results obtained during the test campaign: surface accuracy, pointing error, fast motion capability and residual delay. Very important was also the test phases that led to the validation of the FE model showing that the antenna is working with a good margin than predicted at design level thanks also to the assembly and integration techniques.

Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

2012-09-01

376

Predicting residency performance with the new Medical College Admission Test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was examined using the criterion of residency performance. Two different measures of residency performance were used for three successive classes at one medical school: a locally developed, 5-criteria rating scale (n = 67) with the class of 1982 and an externally developed, 18-criteria rating scale (n = 102) with the classes of 1983 and 1984. Physician residency supervisors completed the criterion measure for the three classes. The finding of no statistically significant relationships between the new MCAT and residency performance supports the pattern which was found with the old MCAT and thus far has resulted with the new MCAT. Specifically, the MCAT decreases in predictive validity as the student progresses through and beyond medical school.

Markert RJ

1986-11-01

377

Neuropsychological test performance of Spanish speakers: is performance different across different Spanish-speaking subgroups?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Even though theories and research have pointed out the importance of variables such as age, gender, or education on neuropsychological assessment, much less emphasis has been placed on language and culture. With the increasing population of Spanish speakers in North America and the limited amount of clinical and scholarly information currently available, neuropsychological assessment of this group has similarly become of increasing importance. Though several studies have been published over the last two decades, an assumption exists that all Spanish speakers, holding education and age constant, would perform similarly regardless of their origin. To address this assumption, a sample of 126 participants was tested from four different countries (Chile, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Participants were compared on the following commonly used neuropsychological tests: Verbal Serial Learning Curve, Rey- Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Trail Making Test. Analyses revealed significant differences across the groups in two of the five tests administered. Significant differences were observed in the delayed recall of the Serial Learning Test and in the Verbal Fluency Test. The findings highlight the importance of within-group differences between Spanish speakers.

Buré-Reyes A; Hidalgo-Ruzzante N; Vilar-López R; Gontier J; Sánchez L; Pérez-García M; Puente AE

2013-01-01

378

What predicts changes in useful field of view test performance?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) has been used as an examination of age-related changes in visual processing and cognition and as an indicator of everyday performance outcomes, particularly driving, for over 20 years. How UFOV performance changes with age and what may impact such changes have not previously been investigated longitudinally. Predictors of change in UFOV performance over a 5-year period among control group participants (N=690) from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study were examined. Random effects models were estimated with 4-subtest-total UFOV as the outcome and with baseline age, education, gender, race, visual acuity, depressive symptoms, mental status, and self-rated health, as well as attrition, as predictors. UFOV performance generally followed a curvilinear pattern, improving and then declining over time. Only increased age was consistently related to greater declines in UFOV performance over time. UFOV and Digit Symbol Substitution subtest, a standard measure of cognitive speed, had similar trajectories of change. The implications of these results are discussed.

Lunsman M; Edwards JD; Andel R; Small BJ; Ball KK; Roenker DL

2008-12-01

379

What predicts changes in useful field of view test performance?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) has been used as an examination of age-related changes in visual processing and cognition and as an indicator of everyday performance outcomes, particularly driving, for over 20 years. How UFOV performance changes with age and what may impact such changes have not previously been investigated longitudinally. Predictors of change in UFOV performance over a 5-year period among control group participants (N=690) from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study were examined. Random effects models were estimated with 4-subtest-total UFOV as the outcome and with baseline age, education, gender, race, visual acuity, depressive symptoms, mental status, and self-rated health, as well as attrition, as predictors. UFOV performance generally followed a curvilinear pattern, improving and then declining over time. Only increased age was consistently related to greater declines in UFOV performance over time. UFOV and Digit Symbol Substitution subtest, a standard measure of cognitive speed, had similar trajectories of change. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19140660

Lunsman, Melissa; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Small, Brent J; Ball, Karlene K; Roenker, Daniel L

2008-12-01

380

Effects of Delayed Visual Feedback on Grooved Pegboard Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of visual feedback delays from 120 to 2120?ms in 16 steps. Performance sharply decreased until about 490?ms, then more gradually until 2120?ms, suggesting that two mechanisms were operating under delayed visual feedback. Since delayed visual feedback differs from delayed auditory feedback in that the former induces not only temporal but also spatial displacements between motor and sensory feedback, this difference could also exist in the mechanism responsible for spatial displacement. The second experiment was hence conducted to provide simultaneous haptic feedback together with delayed visual feedback to inform correct spatial position. The disruption was significantly ameliorated when information about spatial position was provided from a haptic source. The sharp decrease in performance of up to approximately 300?ms was followed by an almost flat performance. This is similar to the critical interval found in audition. Accordingly, the mechanism that caused the sharp decrease in performance in experiments 1 and 2 was probably mainly responsible for temporal disparity and is common across different modality–motor combinations, while the other mechanism that caused a rather gradual decrease in performance in experiment 1 was mainly responsible for spatial displacement. In experiments 3 and 4, the reliability of spatial information from the haptic source was reduced by wearing a glove or using a tool. When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared. These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback.

Fujisaki, Waka

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Exercise testing and hemodynamic performance in healthy elderly persons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To determine the effect of age on cardiovascular performance, 39 healthy elderly men and women, 70 to 83 years old, underwent treadmill thallium-201 exercise perfusion imaging and radionuclide equilibrium angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Five volunteers who had a positive exercise thallium test response were excluded from the study. Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall abnormalities, relative cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were measured. Seventy-four percent of the subjects maintained or increased their ejection fraction with exercise. With peak exercise, mean end-diastolic volume did not change, end-systolic volume decreased and cardiac output and stroke volume increased. Moreover, in 35% of the subjects, minor regional wall motion abnormalities developed during exercise. There was no significant difference in the response of men and women with regard to these variables. However, more women than men had difficulty performing bicycle ergometry because they had never bicycled before. Subjects who walked daily performed the exercise tests with less anxiety and with a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure

1984-11-01

382

Exercise testing and hemodynamic performance in healthy elderly persons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effect of age on cardiovascular performance, 39 healthy elderly men and women, 70 to 83 years old, underwent treadmill thallium-201 exercise perfusion imaging and radionuclide equilibrium angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Five volunteers who had a positive exercise thallium test response were excluded from the study. Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall abnormalities, relative cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were measured. Seventy-four percent of the subjects maintained or increased their ejection fraction with exercise. With peak exercise, mean end-diastolic volume did not change, end-systolic volume decreased and cardiac output and stroke volume increased. Moreover, in 35% of the subjects, minor regional wall motion abnormalities developed during exercise. There was no significant difference in the response of men and women with regard to these variables. However, more women than men had difficulty performing bicycle ergometry because they had never bicycled before. Subjects who walked daily performed the exercise tests with less anxiety and with a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure.

Hitzhusen, J.C.; Hickler, R.B.; Alpert, J.S.; Doherty, P.W.

1984-11-01

383

Operation and performance of the CFFF LMF upstream test train in early western coal tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the design of the CFFF LMF upstream test train and its subsystems is presented. This review details major components of the upstream from an historical perspective and summarizes the design that has been used in POC testing. Modifications to upstream hardware that were made in preparation for the 1992 western coal POC test program are detailed. Past operation of the CFFF is revisited to define the capabilities of the LMF upstream. Characterizations of the combustion plasma are given to compare eastern with western coal operation. Analyses and data on the plasma-dynamic and heat transfer throughout the upstream are also presented. The operation and demonstrated performance of the LMF upstream during the Montana Rosebud coal shakedown tests of 1991 is presented and compared to past eastern coal tests.

Lineberry, J.T.; Schmidt, H.J.

1992-06-01

384

Operation and performance of the CFFF LMF upstream test train in early western coal tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the design of the CFFF LMF upstream test train and its subsystems is presented. This review details major components of the upstream from an historical perspective and summarizes the design that has been used in POC testing. Modifications to upstream hardware that were made in preparation for the 1992 western coal POC test program are detailed. Past operation of the CFFF is revisited to define the capabilities of the LMF upstream. Characterizations of the combustion plasma are given to compare eastern with western coal operation. Analyses and data on the plasma-dynamic and heat transfer throughout the upstream are also presented. The operation and demonstrated performance of the LMF upstream during the Montana Rosebud coal shakedown tests of 1991 is presented and compared to past eastern coal tests.

Lineberry, J.T.; Schmidt, H.J.

1992-01-01

385

ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Air separation issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air separation units have been incorporated into the designs of many gasification combined cycle projects worldwide for the supply of pressurized oxygen and nitrogen. Pressurized gaseous oxygen at a purity usually above 95% by volume is supplied to the gasification unit to partially oxidized a hydrocarbon feed to yield syngas. Nitrogen streams are used for purging and inerting purposes or for the reactor. Several facilities have incorporated integration of air and/or nitrogen streams between the gas turbine and the air separation unit to improve overall facility cost, power output and efficiency. Gasification processes that are based on air as the oxidant source may also require an air separation unit to supply pressurized nitrogen for inerting and dry fuel transport. This paper reports on the progress of PTC 47's air separation subcommittee in defining test measurement boundaries and performance parameter definitions for the testing of an air separation unit as a subsystem of the gasification combined cycle facility.

Smith, A.R.

1998-07-01

386

Performance Tests of CMSSW on the CernVM  

Science.gov (United States)

The CERN Virtual Machine (CernVM) Software Appliance is a project developed in CERN with the goal of allowing the execution of the experiment's software on different operating systems in an easy way for the users. To achieve this it makes use of Virtual Machine images consisting of a JEOS (Just Enough Operating System) Linux image, bundled with CVMFS, a distributed file system for software. This image can then be run with a proper virtualizer on most of the platforms available. It also aggressively caches data on the local user's machine so that it can operate disconnected f