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1

Off gas condenser performance modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A suite of three programmes has been developed to model the ruthenium decontamination performance of a vitrification plant off-gas condenser. The stages of the model are: condensation of water vapour, NOx absorption in the condensate, RuO4 absorption in the condensate. Juxtaposition of these stages gives a package that may be run on an IBM-compatible desktop PC. Experimental work indicates that the criterion [HNO2] > 10 [RuO4] used to determine RuO4 destruction in solution is probably realistic under condenser conditions. Vapour pressures of RuO4 over aqueous solutions at 70o-90oC are slightly lower than the values given by extrapolating the ln Kp vs. T-1 relation derived from lower temperature data. (author)

1989-01-01

2

HC-21C off-gas test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Test procedure WHC-SD-CP-TC-032, HC-21C Off-Gas Test Procedure, was performed to determine the cause and establish a method of the elimination of liquid formation in the HC-21C Furnace off-gas system. This report discusses the findings of the test procedure and the changes implemented.

Cunningham, L.T.

1995-09-12

3

HC-21C off-gas test procedure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future. This test procedure will include a series of tests to determine where and why liquid is condensing in the HC-21C furnace off-gas system. The tests will take a sequential, graded approach and may be concluded one the results have satisfactorily resolved the problem.

Cunningham, L.T.

1994-12-14

4

HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future.

Cunningham, L.T.

1995-02-02

5

HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future

1995-01-01

6

In-place testing of off-gas iodine filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, both charcoal and silver zeolite (AgX) filters are used for radioactive iodine off-gas cleanup of reactor systems. These filters are used in facilities which are conducting research in the areas of reactor fuel failure, reactor fuel inspection, and loss of fluids from reactor vessels. Iodine retention efficiency testing of these filters is dictated by prudent safety practices and regulatory guidelines. A procedure for determining iodine off-gas filter efficiency in-place has been developed and tested on both AgX and charcoal filters. The procedure involves establishing sample points upstream and downstream of the filter to be tested. A step-by-step approach for filter efficiency testing is presented

1980-06-14

7

Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625 (9%), and Hastelloy C-276 (16%), as well as titanium and zirconium, remained free of attack under all conditions tested. When the other materials, notably the austenitic stainless steels, were exposed to gas streams containing even only low concentrations of iodine and water vapors at 25 and 400C, a highly corrosive, brownish-green liquid formed on their surfaces. In the complete absence of water vapor, the iodine-containing liquid did not form and all materials remained unaffected. The liquid that formed had a low pH (usually 2 inhibited attack

1981-01-01

8

Decontamination performance in off-gas cleaning system of radioactive solid waste incineration unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the radioactive solid waste incineration unit with a capacity of 100 kg/h was installed in 1979, since then the unit has been routinly operated. An off-gas cleaning system of the unit consists mainly of a primary and secondary ceramic filters, a heat resistant HEPA filter and a scrubber. A series of hot test was carried out to examine the docontamination performance for radionuclides in the off-gas cleaning system. In the test, simulated wastes contaminated with a known quantity of radionuclides were burned in the unit, and radioactive concentrations in the off-gas were measured. And then, the following data were obtained: a retention factor of radionuclides in a furnace and a decontamination factor for radionuclides in each of off-gas cleaning components. And also overall decontamination factors, defined as the ratio of radioactivities input to the furnace to radioactivities passed through outlet of the HEPA filter, were 9 x 106 (2 x 107) or more for 58Co (60Co), 1 x 102 for 75Se, 4 x 104 for 106Ru and 1 x 108 or more for 134Cs. (author)

1988-01-01

9

ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

2009-01-01

10

Test results from the GA Technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test results are available from the GA Technologies (GA) off-gas treatment facilities using gas streams from both the graphite fuel element burner system and from the spent fuel dissolver. The off-gas system is part of a pilot plant for development of processes for treating spent fuel from high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO_2, CO, O_2, and SO_2. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constituents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO_2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Integrated testing of major BOG system components confirmed the performance of units evaluated in individual tests. Design decontamination and conversion factors were maintained for up to 72 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO_3-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

1985-03-01

11

ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. A simulant of the DWPF SB4 feed was successfully fed and melted in a small pilot-scale CCIM system during two test series. The OGSE tests provide initial results that (a) provide melter operating conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated periodically on-demand. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was operated with a target melt temperature of either 1,250oC or 1,300oC, and with either a partial or complete cold cap of unmelted feed on top of the molten glass. Samples of all input and output streams including the starting glass, the simulant feed, the off-gas particulate matter, product glass, and deposits removed from the crucible and off-gas pipe after the test were collected for analysis.

Nick Soelberg

2009-04-01

12

Test results from the GA technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO2, CO, O2, and SO2. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constitutents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Silver-based iodine adsorbents were found to catalyze the premature conversion of CO to CO2. Subsequent tests showed that iodine removal could not be performed downstream of the CO/HT oxidizer since iodine in the BOG system rapidly deactivated the Pt-coated alumina CO catalyst. Lead-exchanged zeolite (PbX) was found to be an acceptable alternative for removing iodine from BOG without CO conversion. Intermittent and steady-state tests of the pilot-plant SO2 removal unit containing sodium-exchanged zeolite (NaX) demonstrated that decontamination factors greater than or equal to 100 could be maintained for up to 50 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system at GA, iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO3-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

1984-08-13

13

Test results from the GA technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 2/, and SO/sub 2/. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constitutents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO/sub 2/ adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Silver-based iodine adsorbents were found to catalyze the premature conversion of CO to CO/sub 2/. Subsequent tests showed that iodine removal could not be performed downstream of the CO/HT oxidizer since iodine in the BOG system rapidly deactivated the Pt-coated alumina CO catalyst. Lead-exchanged zeolite (PbX) was found to be an acceptable alternative for removing iodine from BOG without CO conversion. Intermittent and steady-state tests of the pilot-plant SO/sub 2/ removal unit containing sodium-exchanged zeolite (NaX) demonstrated that decontamination factors greater than or equal to 100 could be maintained for up to 50 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system at GA, iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective.

Jensen, D.D.; Olguin, L.J.; Wilbourn, R.G.

1984-06-01

14

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

2014-01-01

15

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27

16

Test results in the treatment of HTR reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT II-facility (throughput 10 m"3/h, STP) for the clean up of the burner off-gas has been tested with synthetic off-gas and with off-gas from cold burner tests. The results are reported. During dissolution of the burner ash in nitric acid an off-gas is formed whose main component is air and which, besides the gaseous fission products, contains NO/sub x/. Before the separation of the gaseous fission products NO/sub x/ and/or O_2 are removed by reaction with H_2 or NH_3. For these reactions catalysts were used. Because of the known disadvantages of catalytic systems, like reduction in efficiency by poisoning or thermal influence, the alternative method of thermal, flameless reduction was tested. The reactions were carried out in a stainless steel and a quartz reactor. Throughput, reaction temperature, O_2-, NO/sub x/-, H_2-, and NH_3-concentrations respectively were varied. The goal of these tests was to remove O_2 and NO/sub x/ to below 1 ppM behind the reactor and NH_3 to below the detection limit of 50 ppM. It was found that at a reaction temperature of 750"0C in the stainless steel reactor these goals can be reached for both H_2 and NH_3 as reducing agents. In the quartz reactor only the O_2-H_2-reaction takes place. Obviously stainless steel acts as a catalyst for all other reactions

1983-02-01

17

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

1993-01-01

18

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

1995-01-01

19

Iodine and NO sub x behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX (Iodine Oxidation) systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NO{sub x} in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NO{sub x} is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Birdwell, J.F.

1990-01-01

20

Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

1997-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

LFCM [liquid-fed eramic melter] emission and off-gas system performance for feed component cesium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Except for volatile off-gas effluents, overall adequacy of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) system depends most upon its effectiveness in dealing with cesium. However, the mechanism responsible for melter cesium losses has proved insensitive to many LFCM operating and processing conditions. As a result, variations in inleakage, plenum temperature, feeding rate and waste loading do not significantly influence melter cesium performance. Feed composition, specifically halogen content, is the only processing variable that has had a significant effect. Due to the submicron nature of LFCM-generated aerosols, melter disengagement design features are not expected to be particularly effective in reducing cesium emission rates. For the same reason, the cesium performance of conventional quench scrubbers is quite low, being dependent only upon the magnitude of melter entrainment losses. Although a deep bed washable filter has been effective in removing submicron aerosols from the process exhaust, high performance has only been achieved under dry operating conditions. The melter's idling state does not appear to place additional demands upon the off-gas treatment system

1986-09-14

22

Decontamination Performance Assessment for the Plasma Arc Vitrification pilot plant on the basis of Trial Burn Results(I): Decontamination characteristics for hazardous metal, radioactive surrogate and radioactive tracer in off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the results of off-gas analysis at 3 sampling points in plasma arc melting vitrification pilot plant, it was evaluated the partitioning of spiked materials in off-gas and the decontamination characteristic of off-gas treatment system. Spiked materials are hazardous heavy metals(Pb, Cd, Hg), radioactive surrogate(Co, Cs) and radioactive materials(60Co, 137Cs). Through the Trial burn tests, Decontamination factor of spiked materials in off-gas treatment system is calculated

2000-06-01

23

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-21

24

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 (99Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are 129I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 241Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove 90Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for 99Tc, and zeolites for 137Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of 99Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl2 as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alkaline pH, with a DF of 17.9. As anticipated, ammonium ion probab

2014-01-01

25

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

2014-01-07

26

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined

2014-03-02

27

TREATMENT TANK OFF-GAS TESTING FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate of the volume of hydrogen gas generated during Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) of residual sludge remaining in a Type I or Type II treatment tank as well as to provide results independent of the sludge volume in the waste tank to be cleaned. Previous testing to support Chemical Cleaning was based on a 20:1 oxalic acid to sludge ratio. Hydrogen gas evolution is the primary safety concern. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. These values were quantified based on a small scale methodology similar to the one described in WSRC-STI-2007-00209, Rev. 0. The measured rates support identified Safety Class functions. The tests were performed with ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound confidence limit for the hydrogen generation rate is represented by the following equation. ln (G{sub v}) = -8.22-0.0584 t + 0.0002 t{sup 2}. This equation should be utilized to estimate the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate per unit surface area, G{sub v}, at a given time, t. The units for G{sub v} and t are ft{sup 3}/ft{sup 2}/min and hours, respectively. The total volume of hydrogen gas generated during the test was calculated from the model equation. An upper bound on the total gas generated was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the total hydrogen generated during the 163 hour test was 0.332 ft{sup 3}/ft{sup 2}. The maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate for this scenario is greater than that previously measured in the 8 wt.% oxalic acid tests due to both the absence of sludge in the test (i.e., greater than 20:1 ratio of acid to sludge) and the use of polished coupons (vs. mill scale coupons). However, due to passivation of the carbon steel surface, the corrosion rate decays by an order of magnitude within the first three days of exposure such that the instantaneous hydrogen generation rates are less than that previously measure in the 8 wt.% oxalic acid tests. While the results of these tests are bounding, the conditions used in this study may not be representative of the ECC flowsheet, and the applicability of these results to the flowsheet should be evaluated for the following reasons: (1) The absence of sludge results in higher instantaneous hydrogen generation rates than when the sludge is present; and (2) Polished coupons do not represent the condition of the carbon steel interior of the tank, which are covered with mill scale. Based on lower instantaneous corrosion rates measured on mill scale coupons exposed to oxalic acid, lower instantaneous hydrogen generation rates are expected for the tank interior than measured on the polished coupons. Corrosion rates were determined from the coupon tests and also calculated from the measured hydrogen generation rates. Excellent agreement was achieved between the time averaged corrosion rate calculated from the hydrogen generation rates and the corrosion rates determined from the coupon tests. The corrosion rates were on the order of 18 to 28 mpy. Good agreement was also observed between the maximum instantaneo

Wiersma, B.

2011-08-29

28

Test Plan to Demonstrate Removal of Iodine and Tritium from Simulated Nuclear Fuel Recycle Plant Off-gas Streams using Adsorption Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This letter documents the completion of the FCR&D Level 4 milestone for the Sigma Team – Off-Gas - ORNL work package (FT-14OR031202), “Co-absorption studies - Design system complete/test plan complete” (M4FT-14OR0312022), due November 15, 2013. The objective of this test plan is to describe research that will determine the effectiveness of silver mordenite and molecular sieve beds to remove iodine and water (tritium) from off-gas streams arising from used nuclear fuel recycling processes, and to demonstrate that the iodine and water can be recovered separately from one another.

Bruffey, Stephanie H. [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B. [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2013-12-11

29

FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increase

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

30

Results of cleaning dissolver off-gas in the PASSAT prototype dissolver off-gas filter system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For demonstration of an advanced dissolver off-gas cleaning system the new PASSAT filter system has been developed, set up under licensing conditions pertinent to industrial scale reprocessing facilities and commissioned for trial operation. Major components of the PASSAT off-gas cleaning system are the packed fiber mist eliminator with flushing capability (Brink filter) for initial removal of droplet and solid aerosols, which has been installed to extend the service life of HEPA filters, and the series connected iodine adsorption filters for optimum utilization of the iodine adsorption material, AC 6120. The tests performed so far and the experience accumulated in testing these remotely operated filter components under simulated dissolver off-gas conditions, are described and discussed

1981-02-01

31

AFCI Fuel Reprocessing R and D: Performance of the Coupled End-to-End: Integrated Voloxidation and Dissolver Off-gas Treatment Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ORNL is conducting a complete, coupled end-to-end (CETE) demonstration of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing to support the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). These multi-kilogram scale reprocessing operations provide a unique opportunity to test integrated off-gas treatment systems designed to recover the primary volatile fission and activation products (3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I) released from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during the head-end operations. The CETE project is demonstrating an advanced dry head-end process referred to as Voloxidation designed to condition the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), separate the SNF from the cladding, and release of tritium contained in the fuel matrix. The off-gas from this process as well as from the more traditional fuel dissolution process will be treated separately and the volatile components recovered. The CETE has recently completed the voloxidation of three batches of SNF. This paper will provide descriptions of the head end operations and the off-gas treatment systems for both the Voloxidation process and for the fuel dissolution process, and provide preliminary results from the CETE processing runs using two different spent fuels. Impacts of processing parameters on the relative quantities of volatile components released and recovery efficiencies will be discussed. (authors)

2009-06-01

32

Off-gas control project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program to develop and study off-gas abatement techniques has recently been initiated at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). This report provides information on the properties and expected behaviour of reprocessing plant off-gases, and outlines the experimental program to be undertaken. (author)

1978-01-01

33

LIBS: Application to toxic metal concentration measurements in a plasma torch off-gas emission system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to monitor the metal concentrations of the off-gas system of a 250 kW plasma treatment system during vitrification of a Savannah River surrogate waste. LIBS spectra of different elements in the off-gas emission have been recorded in various spectral regions to select the appropriate spectral lines for the concentration measurements. The LIBS concentration measurement were then performed at different test run conditions. The results of various measurements are presented. These measurements demonstrated LIBS`s capability for real-time toxic metal monitoring.

Singh, J.P.; Yueh, F.Y.; Zhang, H.; Etheridge, J.; Kirkland, R.L. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Lab.

1995-12-31

34

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Emissions of chlorinated aromatic compounds e.g. polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) have been reported recently from a large number of industrial processes such as waste incineration and metal smelters. Due to the toxicity of PCDD/F, stringent emission limits have been imposed. State of the art for emission control are adsorption processes, which have removal efficiencies, but produced PCDD contaminated wastes. The incineration or disposal of these material is rather costly. Therefore, new technologies are being developed, which do not yield secondary wastes, such as catalysts, hydrogen peroxide injection or electron beam irradiation. Here the results on the electron beam induced decomposition of PCDD/F in incinerator off gas are reported. We used a mobile off gas cleaning plant (AGATE-M), which is equipped with 200 keV electron accelerator (EB). The off gas was sampled in the upstream and downstream of the irradiation zone by a condensation method. Subsequent clean-up and GC-MS analyses were performed using standard analytical methods. The analyses show that very high decompositions for PCDD and PCDF are achieved depending on the experimental parameters and the German emission standards are surpassed. In addition, chlorinated phenols and benzenes are destroyed. A computer model (AGATE-code) was developed to analyse the gas phase chemistry of the process. The experimental and the theoretical results are reported and compared. The energy consumption of the process is of the order of 3-5 kWh per 100 m3 of treated off gas. The process has a very low pressure difference. The industrial application of the technology will be evaluated in comparison to competing methods with respect to costs and technical aspects

1998-02-01

35

Off gas film cooler cleaner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus is described for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remotely controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter. The main application for this invention is to clean the off gas cooler of a radioactive waste vitrification unit.

Dhingra, H.S.; Koch, W.C.; Burns, D.C.

1995-12-31

36

FY'99 final report for the expedited technology demonstration project: demonstration test results for the MSO/off-gas and salt recycle system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

as system with ion exchange resins, two real waste specimens, activated carbon, and TNT-loaded activated carbon, both at regular feed rates and higher feed rates up to a superficial gas velocity of 1.75 ft/s. We also drained the salt three times (SR7, SR8, SR9) in FY99 and sent the spent salts to the salt recycle system for further processing. This report presents the results obtained from the demonstration of the MSO/off-gas system and the salt recycle system from October 1998 to April 1999. We then shut down the operation and cleaned the equipment and the facility in May 1999

1999-01-01

37

Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion of highly radioactive waste liquor into glass by the pot vitrification process has been studied at Harwell using a full-scale inactive pilot plant. A summary of the off-gas behavior and its interpretation is presented. Experimental runs were carried out on 3 representative wastes (MAGNOX - thermal reactor, metal fuel, THORP - thermal oxide fuel and PFR - fast reactor oxide fuel) using 2 methods of feeding the glass-formers (slurry and crizzle). Materials were carried over from the vitrification vessel into the off-gas system by entrainment supplemented by volatilization. The overall behavior of the off-gas was consistent with the presence in it of 5 separate aerosols of particulate matter. Sources of entrainment gave rise to 3 aerosols, and a further 2 aerosols were formed as a result of chemical reaction (Ru) and condensation (Cs) processes involving the volatile species. Entrainment was enhanced when the feed contained free alkali nitrate. The Ru volatility correlated directly with the amount of salt nitrates in the feed. The off-gas equipment consisted of a condenser followed by two packed tower scrubbers. The variation in equipment performance between different sets of experiments could be attributed entirely to changes in the proportion of air present in the off-gas. The entrainment aerosols were the easiest to remove from the off-gas, whilst the Cs aerosol proved to the most difficult. The overall process decontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x10"4 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x10"3 for particulate-Ru, and 5x10"3-1x10"4 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 10"3 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

1983-01-01

38

Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

2013-08-15

39

Development of integrated dissolver off-gas systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas from dissolving vessels in reprocessing plants contains high concentrations of virtually all the harmful gaseous products typically arising during reprocessing and must therefore be efficiently cleaned. Practically 100% of the volatile pollutants such as I"1"2"9, Kr"8"5 or C"1"4, (in the form of CO_2) can be led into the off-gas from the dissolving vessels, if a suitable process is used, and then separated for subsequent waste treatment. Other substances, such as oxides of nitrogen or radioactive aerosols, can be returned to the process with the spent scrubbing acids after separation, so as to avoid any additional waste flows. A number of individual processes were selected and a range of variants investigated in a cold prototype at 25 Nm"3/h. Important individual processes include the following:- iodine desorption from the fuel solution, gas scrubbing with dilute HNO_3, fine cleaning of the off-gas can be carried out by cold scrubbing, absorption of noble gases out of pre-cleaned off-gas, incorporation of fission krypton into a metal matrix. These individual processes will be interconnected to form integrated dissolving vessel off-gas systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the various processes are discussed on the basis of the test findings, and the implications for further development described. (author)

1986-01-01

40

Clinoptilolite filter for the decontamination of radioactive off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small scale burning apparatus and a fluidized bed filter filled with a sand or a clinoptilolite were made and the decontamination properties were tested. It was found that the off-gas cleaning by the passage through a clinoptilolite filter was advantageous than a sand filter and the overall decontamination factor for 32P was 3.6 x 106. The dusts or aerosols in the off-gas accompanying with moisture and radioisotope could be easily caught onto the surface or the cavities of the clinoptilolite. (auth.)

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

2013-02-24

42

Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

2013-07-01

43

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

Newell, J.

2011-11-14

44

Characterization Of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Quencher Sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from ?750 C to ?375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

2011-01-01

45

Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

Daniel, W.E.

2000-05-04

46

FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

2012-08-01

47

Determination of process conditions for the spray nozzle for the DWPF melter off-gas HEME  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DWPF melter off-gas systems have High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) upstream of the High Efficiency Particulates Air filters (HEPA) to remove fine mist and particulates from the off-gas. To have an acceptable filter life and an efficient HEME operation, air atomized water is sprayed into the melter off-gas and onto the HEME surface. The water spray keeps the HEME wet, which dissolves the soluble particulates and enhances the HEME efficiency. DWPF Technical requested SRL to determine the conditions for the DWPF nozzle which will give complete atomization of water so that the HEME will operate efficiently. Since the air pressure and flow rate to generate the desired spray are not known before hand, an experiment was performed in two stages. The first stage involved preliminary tests which mapped out a general operating region for producing the desired spray pattern. Afterward, all the gages and meters were changed to suitable ranges for the conditions which generated an acceptable spray. This report summarizes the results and the conclusions of the second stage experiment.

Lee, L.

1991-12-15

48

Development of HLW vitrification off-gas treatment process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic and bench-scale experiments have been carried out in order to develop the vitrification off-gas process and equipment. Effects of process parameters on the decontamination factors of the melter and off-gas equipment and performance of the down stream adsorbents for Ruthenium and Iodine have been studied with a small scale experimental apparatus using the RI tracer. A full scale plastic model of the submerged bed scrubber has been developed. Its dynamic and decontamination performance of this scrubber have been studied and the results of experiments show the superiority of this scrubber. Water scrubbing of the volatile Ruthenium has been studied with the bench-scale apparatus and a high decontamination factor of the system has been reached. Results of these experiments are used in the construction of the PNC Tokai vitrification plant and the JNFS (Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co. LTD.) Shimokita vitrification plant. (author)

1989-01-01

49

Processing device for volatile ruthenium in off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile ruthenium has a nature of forming stable non-volatile ruthenium dioxide solids upon contact with an organic solvent. In view of the above, in a volatile ruthenium processing device comprising an off-gas inlet pipeway, a cooler, a demister and a heater connected to each other, a gas scrubbing tower having an organic solvent as a cleaning solution is disposed between the off-gas inlet pipeway and tahe cooler and the organic solvent and the off-gases are brought into contact in a counter-current manner in the gas scrubging tower. This enables to convert the volatile ruthenium in the gases into stabale ruthenium dioxide solids and deposit them into the organic solvent. Further, since the deposited ruthenium dioxide solides can easily be separated by filters, the organic solvent as the cleaning solution can always be kept clean and the adsorption performance for volatile ruthenium is not reduced even after repeating use. (T.M.)

1987-11-19

50

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-03-01

51

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

2011-01-01

52

Evaluation of off-gas characteristics in vitrification process of ion-exchange resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of off-gas generated from vitrification process of ion-exchange resin were characterized. Theoretical composition and flow rate of the off-gas were calculated based on chemical composition of resin and it's burning condition inside CCM. The calculated off-gas flow rate was 67.9 Nm3/h at the burning rate of 40 kg/h. And the composition of off-gas was evaluated as CO2(41.4%), Steam (40.0%), O2 (13.3%), NO (3.6%), and SO2 (1.6%) in order. Then, actual flow rate and composition of off-gas were measured during pilot-scale demonstration tests and the results were compared with theoretical values. The actual flow rate of off-gas was about 1.6 times higher than theoretical one. The difference between theoretical and actual flow rates was caused by the in-leakage of air to the system, and the in-leakage rate was evaluated as 36.3 Nm3/h. Because of continuous change in the combustion parameters inside CCM, during demonstration tests, the concentration of toxic gases showed wide fluctuation. However, the concentration of CO, a barometer of incompleteness of combustion inside CCM, was stabilized soon. The result showed quasi-equilibrium state was achieved two hours after feeding of resin. (author)

2001-02-01

53

Design of an Engineering Scale Off-gas Trapping System for Capturing Semi-volatile Nuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design of an engineering-scale trapping system to be used in PRIDE (Pyroprocess Integrated Inactive Demonstration) facility of KAERI to remove semi-volatile fission gases generated from the advanced vololoxdation process of 50 kg-SF/batch was performed. The design was performed to produce flow diagram for the off-gas trapping system. The gaseous waste arisings for off-gas trapping system was estimated considering the release rate of each target fission product. To design the off-gas trapping system, zero release concept was taken to the environment through off-gas trapping system. Each unit process in the trapping system is arranged to effectively remove the species of interest by considering the chemical properties of the target fission products to be trapped. Cs and Rb are trapped on a fly ash filter at around 900 .deg. C. Tc, Te, Se, and Mo on a calcium filter are trapped at about 700 .deg. C, and I on a AgX is trapped at about 250 .deg. C. Off-gas trapping system was designed based on the design requirements such as trapping media, fission products to be trapped, design temperatures of the trapping units, optimum operation temperatures and specifications of the filters. Off-gas trapping system was also designed based on the design requirements such as reomoteability, accessibility, operationability and flexibility of instrument, separability of trapping basket, material of instrument

2010-01-01

54

Cleanable sintered metal filters in hot off-gas systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Filters with sintered metal elements, arranged as tube bundles with backflush air cleaning, are the equivalent of bag filters for high-temperature, harsh environments. They are virtually the only alternative for high-temperature off-gas systems where a renewable, highly efficient particle trap is required. Tests were conducted which show that the sintered metal elements installed in a filter system provide effective powder collection in high-temperature atmospheres over thousands of cleaning cycles. Such a sintered metal filter system is now installed on the experimental defense waste calciner at the Savannah River Laboratory. The experimental results included in this paper were used as the basis for its design

1981-02-01

55

Separation technology for radioactive iodine from off-gas streams of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine separation technology using an inorganic adsorption material has been investigated in order to apply the technology to the off-gas treatment systems of nuclear facilities. Iodine removal efficiencies were checked by laboratory experiments using simulated off-gas streams of various conditions and the developed adsorbent, silver impregnated alumina (AgA). Laboratory test results demonstrated effective iodine removal with high decontamination factors (DF's) at relatively high temperatures (?100degC). Then the removal efficiency were confirmed using actual off-gas streams sampled from the dissolver off-gas treatment system of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The DF's were over 10"3 with the AgA bed depth of 10 cm and showed little change during the adsorption period, which indicated applicability of the iodine removal technology with AgA to nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Iodine absorption capacity and its release property were also investigated using simulated off-gas streams. The former had a value of ?0.22 g/g-AgA and this value could well predict the breakthrough property. The adsorbed iodine was judged stable during the storage of AgA saturated with iodine in air at temperatures below 500degC and in water at ?20degC after changing the adsorbed iodine form from AgIO_3 to AgI. Thus, the separation technology provided effective and stable iodine separation from the off-gas of nuclear facilities. (author)

1994-10-01

56

Spent fuel dissolution test including dissolver off-gas treatment in the NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Facility) alpha-gamma cell: Spent fuels with burnups up to 44 GWDT{sup -1}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spent fuel dissolution test was carried out to study the dissolution behavior of nuclides and the behavior of volatile nuclides, using a bench-scale reprocessing test rig in the NUCEF alpha-gamma cell. 29 and 44 GWdt{sup -1} spen fuels were respectively dissolved. Study on the dissolution behavior showed that the dissolution rate of uranium and plutonium were similar. Also, other species: Cesium, Americium, Strontium and Neodymium were found to dissolve in the similar manor to uranium. The fraction of Mo dissolved was found to decrease during the dissolution. Zirconium molybdate (Zr(Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}) was identified from the XRD pattern of residue in the 29 GWdt{sup -1} spent fuel dissolution. Those results suggested the precipitation of the hydrate during dissolution. As for the iodine-129 removal, decontamination factor of AGS (silica-gel impregnated with silver nitrate) column was more than 36,000. Measurement of iodine-129 in the dissolver solution revealed that less than 0.57% of total iodine-129 generated, which was estimated by ORIGEN II calculation, was remained in the dissolver solution. Also, measurement of iodine-129 by an iodine-stripping operation from dissolver solution using potassium iodate suggested that another 2.72% of total iodine-129 precipitated as iodide. In addition, about 70% of total iodine generated was measured in the AGS columns. Rest of iodine-129 was supposed to adsorb to the HEPA filter and the inner surface of dissolver off-gas lines. Those results on iodine-129 distribution were found to be almost identical to the results obtained in the study using iodine-131 as tracer. Release of carbon-14 as carbon dioxide during dissolution was found to occur when the release of Kr-85. From the measurement of carbon-14, initial nitrogen-14 concentration in the fuel was estimated to be about several ppms, which was within the range reported. (author)

Mineo, H.; Iizuka, M.; Fujisaki, S.; Isogai, H.; Hotoku, S.; Asakura, T.; Uchiyama, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2002-03-01

57

Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

1975-03-01

58

Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kumasaka, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikubo, M. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

2001-07-01

59

Dynamic Modelling of an Industrial Smelter Furnace and Converter Off-gas System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In smelters, metal ores or concentrates are smelted to reduce a metal oxide to a metal through a series of reactions and processes. In a smelting process, a large amount of off-gas emissions are often generated, which can cause serious environmental and plant hygiene problems if not properly treated. Off-gas systems extract and treat the off-gas emissions, and ensure that the smelter operation is in accordance with environmental and industrial hygiene regulations. In this paper, the dynamic models for an industrial smelter furnace and converter off-gas system, tackling hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2, are developed using mass continuity, momentum and energy conservation laws. Based on the developed dynamic models, the effects of important variables on the system?s dynamics are studied via simulations. The developed dynamic models provide a necessary basis for high performance control development of smelter off-gas systems because online measurements are limited and additional ones must be justified.

H. Shang

2008-01-01

60

Boiling water reactor off-gas systems evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation of the off-gas systems for all 25 operating Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) was made to determine the adequacy of their design and operating procedures to reduce the probability of off-gas detonations. The results of the evaluations are that, of the 25 operable units, 13 meet all the acceptance criteria. The other 12 units do not have the features needed to meet the criteria, but have been judged to have, or are committed to provide, features which give reasonable assurance that the potential for external off-gas detonations is minimized. The 12 units which did not originally meet the criteria are aware of the potential hazards associated with off-gas detonations and have agreed to take action to minimize the probability of future detonations

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Integrated DM 1200 Melter Testing Of HLW C-106/AY-102 Composition Using Bubblers VSL-03R3800-1, Rev. 0, 9/15/03  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

2011-01-01

62

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

63

Computer simulation of the off gas treatment process for the KEPCO pilot vitrification plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrification technology for treatment of low and intermediate radioactive wastes can remarkably reduce waste volume to about one twentieth of the initial volume as they are collected and converted into a very stable form. Therefore, it can minimize environmental impact when the vitrified waste is disposed of. But an off gas treatment system is necessary to apply this technology because air pollutants and radioisotopes are generated like those of other conventional incinerators during thermal oxidation process at high temperature. KEPCO designed and installed a pilot scale vitrification plant to demonstrate the feasibility of the vitrification process and then to make a conceptual design for a commercial vitrification facility. The purpose of this study was to simulate the off gas treatment system(OGTS) in order optimize the operating conditions. Mass balance and temperature profile in the off gas treatment system were simulated for different combinations of combustible wastes by computer simulation code named OGTS code and removal efficiency of each process was also calculated with change of design parameters. The OGTS code saved efforts,time and capital because scale and configuration of the system could be easily changed. The simulation result of the pilot scale off gas process as well as pilot tests will be of great use in the future for a design of the commercial vitrification facility. (author)

1999-11-04

64

Investigation of sulfur-impregnated activated carbon for removal of mercury vapor from a thermal desorption off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulfur-impregnated activated carbon is being studied for use as a final mercury emission control device for a thermal desorption unit. Bench-scale tests are being conducted to demonstrate the performance of the sulfur-impregnated activated carbon for mercury vapor recovery and to determine design parameters needed to implement this control technology in a pilot-scale thermal desorption process. These experiments are designed to analyze break-through time, adsorption capacity, and rate of adsorption. The performance of the sulfur-impregnated activated carbon will be compared with the base-activated carbon. A bench-scale experiment has been constructed to simulate the conditions of a mercury off-gas stream from a thermal desorption unit to collect the required data. Because a high concentration of water vapor is expected in the thermal desorption offgas, the experiments will be conducted both with and without water vapor present in the experimental off-gas to verify the impact of water vapor on performance of the carbon and to determine if preventive measures should be taken in the pilot-scale system

1995-01-01

65

Investigation of sulfur-impregnated activated carbon for removal of mercury vapor from a thermal desorption off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulfur-impregnated activated carbon is being studied for use as a final mercury emission control device for a thermal desorption unit. Bench-scale tests are being conducted to demonstrate the performance of the sulfur-impregnated activated carbon for mercury vapor recovery and to determine design parameters needed to implement this control technology in a pilot-scale thermal desorption process. These experiments are designed to analyze break-through time, adsorption capacity, and rate of adsorption. The performance of the sulfur-impregnated activated carbon will be compared with the base-activated carbon. A bench-scale experiment has been constructed to simulate the conditions of a mercury off-gas stream from a thermal desorption unit to collect the required data. Because a high concentration of water vapor is expected in the thermal desorption offgas, the experiments will be conducted both with and without water vapor present in the experimental off-gas to verify the impact of water vapor on performance of the carbon and to determine if preventive measures should be taken in the pilot-scale system.

Cecala, C.M.; Davis, W.T. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

66

Shell Claus off-gas process reduces sulfur (sic) emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In modern Claus units, with 94 to 96% sulfur recovery efficiency, the theoretically possible yield is closely approached. The remaining 4 to 6% of the sulfur present in the Claus unit off-gas is converted into sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in a catalytic or thermal incinerator and is discharged to atmosphere. Although the total quantity of SO/sub 2/ originating from Claus units is small compared with the emissions originating from fossil-fuel-fired installations, the desulfurization of Claus off-gases has received special attention. A flow diagram is illustrated of the Shell Claus off-gas treating process. The Shell Claus Off-gas Treating Process (SCOT) belongs to the conversion/concentration type of processes; it contains a reduction section and an amine absorption section. With the SCOT process, the total sulfur recovery can be increased to above 99.8% on sulfur intake to the Claus unit.

Naber, J.E.; Wesselingh, J.A.; Groenendall, W.

1973-08-01

67

Sulfur developments: new Shell process treats Claus off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Shell Claus Off-gas Treating (SCOT) process can achieve virtually complete removal of the residual sulfur compounds present in the off-gas of Claus type sulfur recovery units. The process consists essentially of 2 parts, as illustrated by a diagram: (1) a reduction stage, in which all sulfur compounds and elemental sulfur in the off-gas are reduced to hydrogen sulfide, and (2) an absorption stage, in which--after water removal by condensation--hydrogen sulfide is selectively removed by amine absorption/regeneration and is recycled to the Claus unit. A SCOT process unit is flexible and easy to operate, and it produces no secondary waste streams. This article discusses its development, its current technology, and its costs.

Naber, J.E.; Wesselingh, J.A.; Groenendaal, W.

1973-12-01

68

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. The method involves a sequence of adsorption and desorption steps which are specified. Particular reference is made to the separation of xenon and krypton from the off-gas stream, and to the use of silver-exchanged mordenite as the adsorbent. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

69

High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

1980-03-10

70

Numerical analysis of off-gas flow in hot area of the vitrification plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate numerical models for the simulation of off-gas flow in hot area of the vitrification plant have been developed in this study. The models have been applied to analyze the effect of design parameters of real plant and numerical analyses have been performed for CCM(Cold Crucible Melter), pipe cooler and HTF(High Temperature Filter). At first, the effect of excess oxygen and the ratio of oxygen distribution on combustion characteristics in the CCM has been studied. Next, solidification behavior of radio nuclide in the pipe cooler has been numerically modeled and scrutinized. Finally, flow pattern in accordance with the location of off-gas entrance of the HTF has been compared

2007-09-01

71

Numerical analysis of off-gas flow in hot area of the vitrification plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate numerical models for the simulation of off-gas flow in hot area of the vitrification plant have been developed in this study. The models have been applied to analyze the effect of design parameters of real plant and numerical analyses have been performed for CCM(Cold Crucible Melter), pipe cooler and HTF(High Temperature Filter). At first, the effect of excess oxygen and the ratio of oxygen distribution on combustion characteristics in the CCM has been studied. Next, solidification behavior of radio nuclide in the pipe cooler has been numerically modeled and scrutinized. Finally, flow pattern in accordance with the location of off-gas entrance of the HTF has been compared

2005-11-01

72

Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost

2005-09-04

73

Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

2005-05-26

74

Reprocessing plant off-gas decontamination by selective absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fluorocarbon-based selective absorption process was developed for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and other contaminants from the off-gas of conventional LWR, alternate, and advanced fuel reprocessing plants. The process has an especially high tolerance for nitrogen dioxide, water, carbon dioxide, and various organics and does not rely upon elaborate feed pretreatment steps. The second generation development pilot plant has been in operation for over three years. The pilot plant is designed to process a nominal 15 scfm of contaminated off-gas. A facility capable of handling approximately 550 scfm is required for a typical 5 ton/day LWR reprocessing plant. The pilot plant can remove better than 99% of the feed gas, krypton-85 and carbon-14 (as carbon dioxide). Krypton product concentration factors in excess of 3000 have also been achieved. Since final product separation and isolation equipment has been added, concentration factors in excess of 10,000 are now possible

1978-03-19

75

Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-07-01

76

Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO/sub 2//krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO/sub 2/ from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO/sub 2/ concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO/sub 2//krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO/sub 2/ was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO/sub 2/ and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N/sub 2/ or air. Gas streams rich in CO/sub 2/ were diluted with N/sub 2/ to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO/sub 2/ concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products.

Hirsch, P.M.; Higuchi, K.Y.; Abraham, L.

1982-07-01

77

Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO2/krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO2 from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO2 concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO2/krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO2 was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO2 and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N2 or air. Gas streams rich in CO2 were diluted with N2 to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO2 concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products

1982-09-06

78

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO /SUB x/ , hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140/sup 0/ to -160/sup 0/ C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140/sup 0/ to -160/sup 0/C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.

1984-05-08

79

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

Pence, Dallas T. (San Diego, CA); Chou, Chun-Chao (San Diego, CA)

1984-01-01

80

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO /SUB x/ , hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -1400 to -1600 C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -1400 to -1600C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Proposed Strategies for DWPF Melter Off-Gas Surge Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas surging is inherent to the operation of slurry-fed melters. Although the melter design and the feed chemistry are both known to significantly affect off-gas surging, the frequency and intensity of surges are in essence unpredictable. In typical off-gas surges, both condensable and non condensable flows spike simultaneously. Condensable or steam surges have been observed to occur as the boiling water layer occasionally falls into the crevices of the cold cap or flows over the edges of the cold cap, thereby coming in contact with the melt surface. The resulting steam surges can pressurize the melter considerably and, therefore, are responsible for the bulk of pressure transients that propagate throughout the off-gas system. The non condensable surges occur as the calcine gases that have been accumulating within the cold cap finally build up enough pressure to be released through the temporary openings of the cold cap. The analysis of off-gas data has shown that over 90 of the gas released during a surge is due to steam.1 Therefore, it is essential to have a large inventory of water in the cold cap for any significant pressure spikes to occur. With the Melter 2 vapor space temperature typically running at 720C, the water layer in the cold cap will quickly evaporate once the feeding stops, and the potential for any large pressure spikes should practically cease to exist. The analysis also showed that large pressure spikes well above 2 inches H2O cannot occur under the steam surge scenarios described above. More severe conditions should prevail and one such condition would be that the feed materials form a mound with a growing lake on top, while the melt below remains very fluidic due to its low viscosity, thus resulting in greater movements both in the lateral as well as vertical directions. Once the mound begins to grow, its rate should accelerate, since the heat transfer rate to the upper regions of the cold cap is inversely proportional to the cold cap thickness. Then, when the mound reaches some critical mass, it may begin sink into the bulk melt or tip over, thereby creating a condition almost like a steam explosion

2004-01-01

82

Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2012-08-01

83

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2011-05-01

84

Modelling turbulent combustion with finite chemical kinetics, applied to furnace off-gas combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on turbulent chemical reacting flows which are generally very complex, involving interactions of chemical, thermodynamic, and fluid which mechanical processes. A combustion model based on algebraic moment closure has been developed. The model is applicable for reaction rates where the chemical kinetics can vary from slow to fast. The effects of turbulence is taken into accounts by means of modifications to the wellknown k-? modelling procedure. The model is applied to an industrial combustion process. Calculation of furnace off-gas combustion from an aluminum reduction cell has been performed. The theoretical results agree well with experimental values

1992-03-01

85

Investigation on volume reduction of off gas filtrating element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods for volume reduction of the spent filtrating elements, which are installed in the off gas equipment of the high active waste treatment process, were investigated. Volume reduction of those spent filtrating elements is very important because the activities of them are supposed to be higher than that of the elements of other off gas systems. In this work, melting method of volume reduction for a glass fiber and silica gel beads, which were not so suitable for pressurized compaction, were studied. The major portion of the glass fiber for a mist filter consists of SiO2, B2O3 and some other components and the silica gel beads for a ruthenium adsorption column is composed of SiO2. The spent filtrating materials mentioned above will be possible to reuse as the glass former materials because both SiO2 and B2O3 are the major constituents of the borosilicate glass former that will be used in a vitrification process of high active liquid waste. After the composition of the glass fiber was adjusted to that of the borosilicate glass former, the volume reducing ratio of the melted glassy product and the initial glass fiber was about 15 vol. %. On the other hand, the silica gel beads were not melted in case of unadjusted composition, but melted into homogenized glass in case of adjusted composition. And then, the volume reducing ratio of the melted glassy product and the initial silica gel beads was about 23 vol%

1996-08-18

86

Effect of anode off-gas recycling on reforming of natural gas for solid oxide fuel cell systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of anode off-gas recycling (AOGR) on the characteristic performance of a natural gas reformer equipped with a precious metal catalyst is investigated experimentally. The reformer is operated both with synthetic AOGR gas and in steam reforming (SR) conditions. The characteristic performance in SR and AOGR mode are compared with equilibrium, and it is found that equilibrium is more readily achieved in AOGR mode. The reformer is used for extended periods of time (100-1,000 h) in conditions where carbon formation is thermodynamically possible to measure any changes in characteristic performance. No significant change in the performance is observed due to carbon formation or catalyst deactivation. The reformer could be successfully implemented in a 10 kW SOFC system with an anode off-gas recycling loop. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Halinen, M.; Thomann, O.; Kiviaho, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

2012-10-15

87

Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF

2006-01-01

88

Thoron filter design for the off-gas line of the ITREC reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operational tests of the ITREC reprocessing plant have shown some problems on the monitoring of beta-gamma emitters at the stack; the alarm threshold was reached within a few minutes, from the beginning of the fuel reprocessing steps. Nevertheless, this getting over was not attributable to beta - gamma emitter particulates which were not retained by the absolute filters of the off-gas line, but to the interference of the short lived radioactive particulate thoron daughters for which the limit of discharge is a thousand times higher. With the aim of avoiding such spurious alarms the authors examined the possibility of inserting a charcoal delay bed for reducing thoron concentration to an acceptable level by natural decay. The decontamination factor that the decay bed must satisfy depends on the decay constant of 220Rn and daughters. This can be evaluated from the characteristics of the measuring device on the basis of the off-gas flow rate, stack flow rate and monitoring line sampling flow rate. Dynamic adsorption characteristics of a selected charcoal were experimentally determined by the pulse technique and are reported in this paper. Finally sizing criteria are outlined and the filter design is shown

1987-05-01

89

Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF.

Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Lee, H. H

2006-09-15

90

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TOA PARTITIONING ON DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar? L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, G.

2013-06-18

91

Selection among aqueous and off-gas treatment technologies for synthetic organic chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology for selecting the least-cost treatment technology for waters contaminated by organic wastes was developed using performance and cost models. This methodology simplifies the selection of the least expensive treatment process(es) for a given set of conditions. Two aqueous-phase treatment options were considered: air stripping and liquid-phase adsorption (granular activated carbon). When the off-gases from air stripping must be treated, four off-gas treatment options were considered: gas-phase adsorption (with both on- and off-site regeneration of the granular activated carbon), thermal incineration, and catalytic oxidation. Methodologies were developed for rapidly selecting the least-cost off-gas treatment option [for volatile organic compound (VOC) sources such as an air stripping tower], for selecting the least-cost overall (liquid and gas phase treatment) system, and for selecting the least-cost overall system for a multicomponent mixture. The comparison methodology is based on physical parameters of the target chemical: Henry`s constant and the solute distribution parameter. The results are a set of diagrams and heuristics for rapid identification of cases for which one treatment option is significantly less expensive than the other.

Dvorak, B.I. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Herbeck, C.J. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States); Meurer, C.P. [Bee County Coll., Beeville, TX (United States); Lawler, D.F.; Speitel, G.E. Jr. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-07-01

92

Assessment of the impact of TOA partitioning on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar (TM) L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

2013-01-01

93

CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

MAY TH

2008-04-16

94

CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated

2008-01-01

95

Filters for aerosol and iodine seperation from the dissolver off-gas of a future reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a future German reprocessing plant a dissolver off-gas line is developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, for which the separation of suspended matter and iodine is tested in the pilot plant PASSAT. For a pre-separation of droplets and solid aerosols, a remote-handled fibre package separator has been developed which can be backwashed when installed and which has such dimensions that it fits into a waste barrel and can be removed without any problem. The decontamination factors achieved are above 1,000 for droplet and solid aerosols under suitable differential pressures. Iodine separation is carried out by means of chemical sorption on a special filter containing iodine sorption material and in contrast to the wet scrubbing process, produces a solid, storable product in a single step. It has been possible to gain valuable experience and to obtain data for interpreting a head-end off-gas system. (RB)

1982-03-01

96

Cutting Fluid Performance Testing: Tapping Torque Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tapping torque test was conducted on 10 cutting and tapping fluid samples. The test was performed to establish the comparative efficacy of competitive fluids in controlled conditions. The recent health concern over trichloroethane in tapping fluids has ...

E. E. Kelley

1989-01-01

97

Teachers' Tactics and Test Performance  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Teachers' Tactics and Test Performance HealthDay May 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages School Health Teen Health Transcript Motivation and test performance among high school students may suffer when ...

98

Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

2007-08-02

99

Infiniband Performance Testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A look at the performance of the infiniband interconnect using the Voltaire host stack. This will attempt to compare not only infiniband to other high-performance interconnects, but will also take a look at comparing some of the different hardware choices available at the time of writing (e.g. Opteron, EM64T, pci-express and pci-x).

Minich, M

2005-10-13

100

Time-dependent analysis of dissolver off-gas cleaning installations in a reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The iodine- and aerosol-filtering test facility PASSAT of the Nuclear Research Centre in Karlsruhe has been investigated using a method which allows time-dependent analyses under accident conditions. This method which is closely related to fault-tree analysis needs subdivision in barriers of the system, and their logical combination in a tree. The barriers have binary states: defect and intact. The defect state will be described by a fault tree, whereas the intact state includes dependences of a barrier operation on physical parameters. The intact state enables time-dependent calculations. Calculations have been done for iodine filtering, because the best known entrance data are given. Results demonstrate clearly that the amount of iodine released increases only if both heaters failed, which heat the off-gas from 300C to 800C and then to 1300C. Additionally the integrated amount of iodine released depends on time period between the failures of the heaters

1983-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Iodine removal by silver-exchanged zeolite filters from the vessel off gas in Tokai reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the active operation of Tokai reprocessing plant started on September 1977, the measurements of 129I in the liquid and gaseous streams have been carried out. From the results of measurements, it was confirmed that more than 99% of the calculated amount of 129I in spent fuel was released into the off-gas circuit during the dissolution. Most of the released 129I was desorbed to liquid streams and then transferred to the waste disposal facility, where some amounts of 129I was released into the vessel off-gas line. Through the investigation of iodine distribution in the plant, it was understood that the removal of 129I in the vessel off gas led to a decrease in the amount of 129I discharged to the atmosphere, so that the silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX) filters were installed in the vessel ventilation system at the waste disposal facility. The removal test has been carried out through the active operation. The decontamination factor (DF) of AgX filter has been kept in the range of 50 to 100 through 20,000 hours loading (over two years since the start of operation in November 1979). Consequently, it was confirmed that AgX adsorbent was effective for the removal of airborne 129I from the vessel off gas. At present, by means of the installation of AgX filters on the vessel ventilation system, the 129I discharged to the atmosphere has been effectively controlled at a low level in the plant

1983-02-01

102

Improvement of melter off-gas design for commercial HALW vitrification facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan commercial reprocessing plant is now under construction, and it will commence the operation in 2005. The High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) generated at the plant is treated into glass product at the vitrification facility using the Liquid Fed Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (LFCM). The characteristic of the LFCM is that the HALW is fed directly onto the molten glass surface with the glass forming material. This process was developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The JNC process was first applied to the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), which is a pilot scale plant having about 1/6 capacity of the commercial facility. The TVF has been in operation since 1995. During the operation, the rapid increase of the differential pressure between the melter plenum and the dust scrubber was observed. This phenomenon is harmful to the long-term continuous operation of TVF. And, it is also anticipated that the same phenomenon will occur in commercial vitrification facility. In order to solve this problem, the countermeasures were studied and developed. Through the study on the deposit growing mechanism, it was probable that the rapid increased differential pressure was attributed to the condensation of meta-boric acid at the outlet of the air-film cooler slits. And, the heating and the humidification of purge air were judged to be effective as the countermeasures to suppress the condensation. On the other hand, the water injection into melter off-gas pipe was found to be very effective to reduce the differential pressure as the results of the various tests. The deposit adhered on the inner surface of the off-gas pipe was almost washed out. And, it was also demonstrated that the system was superior to other systems by virtue of its simplicity and stability. In order to apply the system to the commercial scale plant, the scale-up tests were conducted at JNC mock-up facility using the acrylic model. (author)

2001-04-08

103

Flame Tests Performed Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable learning experiences. One very popular demonstration is the flame test. The author provides a safe and effective alternative to the traditional flame test without the traditional use of methanol, and provides strategies that allow students to safely gain a better understanding of the atomic structure, the nature of light, and the electromagnetic spectrum.

Dogancay, Deborah

2005-09-01

104

Final Report DM1200 Tests With AZ 101 HLW Simulants VSL-03R3800-4, Rev. 0, 2/17/04  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

2011-01-01

105

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

106

Cryogenic system for collecting noble gases from boiling water reactor off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In boiling water reactors, noncondensible gases are expelled from the main condenser. This off-gas stream is composed largely of radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen, air in-leakage, and traces of fission product krypton and xenon. In the Air Products' treatment system, the stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen are reacted to form water in a catalytic recombiner. The design of the catalytic recombiner is an extension of industrial gas technology developed for purification of argon and helium. The off-gas after the recombiner is processed by cryogenic air-separation technology. The gas is compressed, passed into a reversing heat exchanger where water vapor and carbon dioxide are frozen out, further cooled, and expanded into a distillation column where refrigeration is provided by addition of liquid nitrogen. More than 99.99 percent of the krypton and essentially 100 percent of the xenon entering the column are accumulated in the column bottoms. Every three to six months, the noble-gas concentrate accumulated in the column bottom is removed as liquid, vaporized, diluted with steam, mixed with hydrogen in slight excess of oxygen content, and fed to a small recombiner where all the oxygen reacts to form water. The resulting gas stream, containing from 20 to 40 percent noble gases, is compressed into small storage cylinders for indefinite retention or for decay of all fission gases except krypton-85, followed by subsequent release under controlled conditions and favorable meteorology. This treatment system is based on proven technology that is practiced throughout the industrial gas industry. Only the presence of radioactive materials in the process stream and the application in a nuclear power plant environment are new. Adaptations to meet these new conditions can be made without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety

1973-09-24

107

Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, W. E.

2013-02-13

108

Performance Assessment in Language Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past few decades, educators in general, and language teachers in specific, were more inclined towards using testing techniques that resembled real-life language performance. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil language tests that required test-takers to attempt tests that were based on artificial and contrived language content,…

Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2008-01-01

109

Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, 14C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

1988-01-01

110

Inspection system performance test procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system

1995-01-01

111

Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the off-gas analysis of samples collected during the radioactive vitrification experiments. Production and characterization of the Hanford waste-containing LAW and HAW glasses are presented in related reports from this conference.

Ha, B.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Choi, A.S.; Bibler, N.E.

1998-03-01

112

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08

113

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-12-31

114

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-01-01

115

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe2O3 spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam

1991-05-02

116

Exergetic Optimization of a Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of LNG Boil-Off Gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of liquefaction process for liquefied natural gas boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for gas transport. Onboard boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction is a new technology that liquefies BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. Exergetic efficiency optimization for cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of LNG boil-off gas is performed. Thermodynamic modeling has been performed based on the energy and exergy analyses. Objective problem is developed based on maximization of the plant exergetic efficiency and selected decision variables and constraints. Optimization process is performed using MATLAB genetic algorithm optimization toolbox. The results of exergetic efficiency optimization are compared with the corresponding results of the base case system obtained in the previous study. Finally, effects of some operating parameters on the exergetic efficiency are discussed by sensitivity analysis.

Mojtaba Babaelahi

2010-11-01

117

Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

1988-01-01

118

Modular design of a reprocessing plant dissolver off-gas system. Variations, flexibility and stage of development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and economic control of the volatile radionuclides in a reprocessing plant requires two equally important prerequisites: suitable processing in the plant head-end and reliable operation of the dissolver off-gas (DOG) purification system. A small number of DOG purification modules was selected from various alternatives. The major selection criteria are removal efficiency, simplicity, convenient operating conditions and flexibility that provide compatibility with other off-gas treatment steps, subsequent waste treatment and different processing modes in the head-end. The behaviour of noxious materials was investigated in nitric acid off-gas scrubbers of different design and for a wide range of operating modes and conditions. A concentration range of nitric acid from very dilute to hyperazeotropic concentrations and a temperature range from -55 deg. C to above room temperature as well as the use of hydrogen peroxide were studied on an engineering scale. Nitrous gases and iodine can be removed to the trace level at special operating modes. Aerosol and iodine filters are discussed briefly. A selective absorption process using CF2Cl2 solvent for noble gas and 14C removal was developed on a laboratory scale. It operates at low temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Xe and Kr were separated using two absorption columns. Pilot-plant scale noble gas scrubbers are under construction and are being integrated into the existing test facility. A series of process steps has been chosen for integrated process demonstration runs on an engineering scale. The integrated DOG system consists of several scrubbers and filters operating at atmospheric pressure. The temperature decreases stepwise, without producing large changes in the opposite direction, providing compatibility within the process train

1983-05-16

119

Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force and tool life uncertainty is proposed.

Belluco, Walter

2001-01-01

120

Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m"3/h (15-ft"3/min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Detailed Design Data Package item 3.9a: Cadmium buildup in off-gas lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste currently stored at the Hanford Reservation in underground double-shell and single-shell tanks is being considered for vitrification and disposal. To achieve this, Hanford is conducting a Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Technology Development Project melter campaign. In this campaign, a requirement was identified to quantify the amount of cadmium depositing in the off-gas line between the liquid-fed ceramic melter and the submerged bed scrubber. This issue of cadmium volatility was raised due to the limited data on cadmium volatility in HLW vitrification. Prior to the start of slurry processing, the off-gas line sections were removed and inspects. Any pre-existing deposits were removed. Following the melter campaign, the lines were again removed and solids deposits were sampled and the quantity of deposits were estimated. The data presented in this package include chemical analysis of feed, glass, line deposits, in-ling off-gas stream, and SBS condensate samples. Process data includes melter feeding and glass production rates, off- gas flow rate, and plenum and off-gas stream temperatures

1996-01-01

122

Present status and problems of conventional off-gas cleaning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas from reprocessing dissolution process contains volatile radioactive nuclides such as H-3, Kr-85, I-129 and C-14. The establishment of the method for removing or fixing them in order to prevent the release into environment is a social concern. The study group investigated the present status of the research and development on the volatile nuclides from the generation to the disposal, and attempted to set up the off-gas cleaning system which is considered to be more rational. It is important that the dissolution off-gas cleaning system is composed of the processes which are highly safe and reliable, economical and simple. It is necessary to pay attention to use the techniques of high reliability, to remove strongly corrosive nuclides such as iodine at the first step, to make the system into a continuous type or close to it to prevent the accumulation of radioactive substances, to avoid high temperature, high pressure operation as far as possible, to avoid the use of toxic and highly explosive chemical substances and to make the process flexible so as to be able to cope with the variation of operational condition. From these viewpoints, the existing off-gas cleaning system was examined, and the plan of its improvement was proposed as a total off-gas cleaning system. (Kako, I.)

1986-01-01

123

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using silver-exchanged mordenite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The removal of methyl iodide by absorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide absorption of silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests has been 34 mg CH/sub 3/I per g of substrate, approximately five times less than the elemental iodine loadings. Results indicate that a filter operating at a temperature of 150/sup 0/C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 100/sup 0/C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen, rather than dry air, at a temperature of 200/sup 0/C also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. A study of the regeneration characteristics of silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500/sup 0/C. 9 figures.

Jubin, R.T.

1980-01-01

124

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using silver-exchanged mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by absorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide absorption of silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests has been 34 mg CH_3I per g of substrate, approximately five times less than the elemental iodine loadings. Results indicate that a filter operating at a temperature of 150"0C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 100"0C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen, rather than dry air, at a temperature of 200"0C also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. A study of the regeneration characteristics of silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500"0C. 9 figures

1980-10-23

125

Parametric studies of off-gas release during in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gases are released from underground sources during the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. Most of these gases will be generated beyond the melt front where advancing high temperatures will cause pyrolysis and vaporization of organic and volatile materials. Some of these gases will enter the bottom of the melt pool and propagate upwards to the surface where they will enter the ISV confinement hood. A computer code called OGRE (Off-Gas RElease) has been written to model bubble-rise physics in the melt pool for given volumetric gas flux rates into the bottom of the pool. The models incorporated into OGRE have previously been reported. The purpose of the present document is to report the results of a series of parametric studies performed with OGRE. The numerical studies involve the variation of seventeen parameters for each of the two different inlet bubble-size models. Results indicate that while predictions appear qualitatively reasonable, additional development of the agglomeration and drift flux models is needed. This development will require experimental data for bubble formation and terminal velocity. 5 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

126

LFK, FORTRAN Application Performance Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LFK, the Livermore FORTRAN Kernels, is a computer performance test that measures a realistic floating-point performance range for FORTRAN applications. Informally known as the Livermore Loops test, the LFK test may be used as a computer performance test, as a test of compiler accuracy (via checksums) and efficiency, or as a hardware endurance test. The LFK test, which focuses on FORTRAN as used in computational physics, measures the joint performance of the computer CPU, the compiler, and the computational structures in units of Mega-flops/sec or Mflops. A C language version of subroutine KERNEL is also included which executes 24 samples of C numerical computation. The 24 kernels are a hydrodynamics code fragment, a fragment from an incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient code, the standard inner product function of linear algebra, a fragment from a banded linear equations routine, a segment of a tridiagonal elimination routine, an example of a general linear recurrence equation, an equation of state fragment, part of an alternating direction implicit integration code, an integrate predictor code, a difference predictor code, a first sum, a first difference, a fragment from a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code, a part of a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code, an example of how casually FORTRAN can be written, a Monte Carlo search loop, an example of an implicit conditional computation, a fragment of a two-dimensional explicit hydrodynamics code, a general linear recurrence equation, part of a discrete ordinates transport program, a simple matrix calculation, a segment of a Planck distribution procedure, a two-dimensional implicit hydrodynamics fragment, and determination of the location of the first minimum in an array. 2 - Method of solution: CPU performance rates depend strongly on the maturity of FORTRAN compiler machine code optimization. The LFK test-bed executes the set of 24 kernels three times, resetting the DO-loop controls so that short, medium, and long vector performance is sampled and can be compared. Following these three executions, the 72 timings are combined for statistical analysis and printed. The entire LFK test is executed seven times to measure experimental timing errors. An analysis of these timing errors for each kernel is provided to confirm the accuracy of the test. The LFK test also computes a sensitivity analysis of the weighted harmonic mean rate by assigning 49 sets of weights to the kernels. This analysis may be used for risk analysis to understand the variation in net performance that different workloads would cause. The LFK test report concludes with an analysis of the sensitivity of the net FORTRAN rate to optimization using the SISD/SIMD model, a two-component form of the weighted harmonic mean (harmonic Mflops) model. This analysis may be used to gauge the performance of applications from a knowledge of their vectorizability. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Although the LFK test evaluates the performance of a broad sampling of FORTRAN computations, it is not an application program; neither is it a complete benchmark test nor a substitute for one

1991-01-01

127

Method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method is based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents. The basis for the development of the process concept are laboratory experiments corroborating the feasibility of the individual process steps. Moreover, the different adsorption processes for krypton separation described in the past are taken into account. The entire process essentially consists of three stages which are coupled together: Retention of NOsub(x) residues from the off-gas on molecular sieve and recycling the NOsub(x) with part of the waste gas into the dissolver; deposition of xenon on activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas; deposition of krypton from the remaining off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography with coupled filling of pure crypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. (orig./HP)

1981-01-01

128

Dissolution off-gases at the marcoule pilot facility: Iodine trapping and off-gas characterization unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Marcoule Pilot Reprocessing Facility (APM) reprocesses spent fuel from light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. A batch dissolution process is used with an annual throughput capacity of 5 metric tons. The off-gas treatment unit is described together with its characterization laboratory in order to highlight the functions and potential of the facilities. The objectives are consistent with the Marcoule site policy regarding diminished iodine release and investigation of the off-gas treatment process. The equipment used to meet these objectives is described from a functional standpoint. The facility implements measurement techniques to allow continuous quantitative measurements of nitrogen oxides, oxygen, iodine and krypton, as well as continuous monitoring of the demister inlet flow by ? spectrometry. Sorbents used for iodine trapping may be tested over a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, flow rate, iodine concentration) with representative dissolution off-gases. An X-ray and ? counting system is used to assess the activity of the adsorbed radionuclides, notably 129I

1993-07-01

129

VRD plant performance testing project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis is written on the subject of BP Norway’s installation of a new field centre (PH), at Valhall. The project, called Valhall Re-Development (VRD), needed to outline procedures on how to verify performance of equipment installed into the process module at PH. The purpose of developing these procedures is to make a program on how to verify that BP Norway, as the purchaser, receives the equipment and systems they have ordered. The aim of the performance test is to verify that t...

Enerstvedt, A?sbjørn

2010-01-01

130

Reflectors for SAR performance testing.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2008-01-01

131

Automated Testing Performed by Developers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The commissioner of the thesis was Digia Plc and the target of the thesis was to research and improve automated testing performed by the software developers. The main topics of the thesis were research, development and training. Various technologies were evaluated in order to find good set of tools to support the teams. Trainings were arranged related to these technologies and tools for the teams. In addition to that, there were two surveys that were used to evaluate how the software develope...

Turto, Tuukka

2013-01-01

132

Organic Iodine Removal from Simulated Dissolver off-Gas Systems Utilizing Silver-Exchanged Mordenite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of ...

R. T. Jubin

1981-01-01

133

Organic Iodine Removal from Simulated Dissolver off-Gas Streams Using Partially Exchanged Silver Mordenite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide adsorption of partially exchanged silver mordenite was examined f...

R. T. Jubin

1982-01-01

134

Organic Iodine Removal from Simulated Dissolver off-Gas Streams Using Silver-Exchanged Mordenite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of methyl iodide by absorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide absorption of silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO...

R. T. Jubin

1980-01-01

135

Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lewis, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01

136

Continuous off-gas measurement and energy balance in electric arc steelmaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system has been developed for continuous determination of off-gas composition and off-gas volume rate during EAF steelmaking. It comprises devices for gas sampling and analysis of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon, and of measurement of off-gas temperature. The data are processed by a computer to set up the differential heat balance which indicates the flow rates of chemical and sensible heat of the off-gas leaving the furnace at each moment. Several operations during the melting process were investigated with respect to energy utilization. For instance, the hydrogen content during injection of natural gas decreases strongly with increasing oxygen input. During coal injection there is high loss of chemical energy due to non-complete combustion. Also, the extent of combustion depends on the position of the coal lances. Injection of oxygen in the upper furnace part leads to lower loss of chemical but higher loss of sensible heat. The system is optimized at present to decrease the dead time between gas sampling and print out of the analysis.

Kuhn, R.; Geck, H.G.; Schwerdtfeger, K. [Georgsmarienhutte GmbH, Georgsmarienhutte (Germany)

2005-07-01

137

Reprocessing off-gas treatment research in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (S.C.K./C.E.N.) is technologically oriented and aims at the development of industrially applicable techniques for capture of in the perspective of increasingly severe discharge authorizations at the stack of reprocessing plants. Attention was focussed on the I problem particularly, the long lived I"1"2"9 isotope. Among the many capture techniques, scrubbing by HgNO_3-HNO_3 solutions, followed by adsorption on silver impregnated zeolites was chosen. Pilot installations with a throughput of 25 m"3h"-"1 have been constructed and operated with simulated gases resulting fram a mock-up dissolver and traced with molecular I"1"3"1 and CH_3 I"1"3"1 at up to several hundred mCi. The second nuclide of interest to the environment is Kr"8"5 which has to be retained within the limits imposed by the new US regulations. Cryogenic absorption-distillation was chosen as reference technique. A pilot installation of 15 m"3h"-"1 has been installed and operated on a continuous basis. Capture of T gas and tritiated water vapour was studied parametrically in simulated conditions. A new pilot equipment of 15 m"3h"-"1 combining catalytic oxidation and adsorption on molecular sieves has been constructed. All the selected techniques will be integrated into a mock-up gas loop of 25 m"3h"-"1 in order to test the mutual influence of the different unit steps on each other and on the ultimate decontamination factor. Finally a pilot facility for studying head-end processing (HERMES) has been designed in which the most appropriate gas purification techniques will be tested in hot cell conditions. (orig./HP)

1977-11-25

138

Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

1992-04-01

139

Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs

1991-06-11

140

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas systems utilizing silver-exchanged mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, silver loadings and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests was 142 mg CH_3I per g of substrate on fully exchanged zeolite, approximately the same as elemental iodine loadings. A filter using fully exchanged silver mordenite operating at 200"0C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 150"0C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen rather than dry air, at a temperature of 200"0C, also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. Partially exchanged silver mordenite achieved higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. The partially exchanged mordenite also achieved higher loadings at 200"0C than at 250"0C. The iodine loaded onto these beds was not stripped at 500"0C by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen; however, the iodine could be removed by air at 500"0C, and the bed could be reloaded. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500"0C. The loss of adsorbent capacity is much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing

1981-11-12

 
 
 
 
141

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using partially exchanged silver mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide adsorption of partially exchanged silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, filter temperature, and degree of silver exchange. Partially exchanged silver mordenite, in general, achieved significantly higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. Silver utilizations of > 95% were achieved, assuming the formation of AgI. The experimental results indicate that CH_3I loadings increase proportionally with silver loading up to 5 wt % silver and then appear to level off. Tests conducted to determine the effect of temperature on the loading showed higher loadings at 200"0C than at either 150 or 250"0C. The presence of NO, NO_2, and H_2O vapor showed negligible effects on the loading of CH_3I. In contrast to iodine loaded onto fully exchanged silver mordenite, the iodine loaded onto the partially exchanged silver mordenite could not be stripped by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen at temperatures up to 500"0C. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates a decreased adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500"0C. The loss of adsorbent capacity was much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing. A cost evaluation for the use of the partially exchanged silver mordenite shows that the cost of the silver mordenite on a once-through basis is < $10/h of operation for a 0.5-t/d reprocessing plant

1982-09-06

142

Analysis of fire and smoke threat to off-gas HEPA filters in a transuranium processing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author performed an analysis of fire risk to the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that provide ventilation containment for a transuranium processing plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A fire-safety survey by an independent fire-protection consulting company had identified the HEPA filters in the facility's off-gas containment ventilation system as being at risk from fire effects. Independently studied were the ventilation networks and flow dynamics, and typical fuel loads were analyzed. It was found that virtually no condition for fire initiation exists and that, even if a fire started, its consequences would be minimal as a result of standard shut-down procedures. Moreover, the installed fire-protection system would limit any fire and thus would further reduce smoke or heat exposure to the ventilation components. 4 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

1988-07-01

143

Negative surface ionization mass spectrometry for real-time monitoring of iodine molecules in process off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negative surface ionization mass spectrometry is being developed for continuous measurement of iodine found in the atmospheric environment as a result of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Studies have been made on a series of low work function surface materials (CaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3, BaCO3-SrCO3, LaB6) with the intent of developing improved methods for iodine analysis, particularly at the environmental level (ppb concentration range). The results demonstrate the feasibility of performing real-time measurements of the trace amount of iodine encountered in process off-gas by use of a CaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-coated rhenium filament emitter. This emitter surface with thermoelectronic work function ? at 2.0 eV gives 37.5 times greater sensitivity than the established LaB6 emitter for iodine analysis. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

1994-12-15

144

Performance test on polaroid films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests were carried out, taking the opportunity of beginning the sale of an instant film Type 611 from Japan Polaroid Co., Ltd. This new product was developed as the special film for recording video image diagnosis, therefore it was compared with Types 107 and 667 used mostly for recording CRT images so far. As for the experimental method, the characteristic curves for these products were determined by intensity scale method. The test pattern of 15 steps sticking X-ray films with different density, density meters, the image diagnosis apparatus of Toshiba SSL-53H type and a Polaroid camera were used. The characteristic curves obtained were compared, and the examples of applying these films to ultrasonic diagnosis were also compared. As compared with conventional Types 107 and 667, the sensitivity of the new Type 611 was about 1/8, and corresponds to ASA 350. It is easy to use as the coating is unnecessary, and the allowable range of photographing condition is wide. The contrast is considerably low, accordingly the latitude is wide. As the defect, the time required for the development is as long as 45 sec. The possibility to obtain the images suitable to diagnosis has been widened by changing the contrast of CRT images utilizing the wide latitude, therefore it is an excellent film very useful for diagnosis. (Kako, I.)

1980-01-01

145

Removal of carbon dioxide in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel off gas by adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off gases produced in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel contain various radioactive components and emission of these components to the environment must be prevented as low as possible. Carbon-14 with a long half-life, which is mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide, is one of such gaseous radioactive materials. One of the measures to capture radioactive gases from the off-gas is the utilization of adsorption technique. In this work, the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide on synthetic zeolites and natural mordenites was studied at lower partial pressure ranges. Moreover, the authors quantitatively investigated the influence of coexistent water vapor, which is also contained in the off-gas, on the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide. (author)

1999-10-01

146

The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

1991-01-01

147

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas by the mobile irradiation plant AGATE-M  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mobile irradiation plant (AGATE-M) has been constructed for on-site demonstration of off-gas treatment by electron beam. AGATE-M has been designed for flow rates up to 1000 Nm3/h and is equipped with a pre-filter, a reaction chamber connected to a low energy (200 kV) accelerator, a product filter and measurement systems. (author)

1995-01-01

148

Treatment of off-gas evolved from thermal decomposition of sludge waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of a uranium conversion plant. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of sludge waste are nitrate salts and uranium. The sludge waste is denitrated by thermal decomposition. The treatment of off-gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts in the sludge waste is investigated. The nitrate salts in the sludge were decomposed in two steps: the first decomposition is due to the ammonium nitrate, and the second is due to the sodium and calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate. The components of off-gas from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at low temperature are NH3, N2O, NO2, and NO. In addition, the components from the decomposition of sodium and calcium nitrate at high temperature are NO2 and NO. Off-gas from the thermal decomposition is treated by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Ammonia is converted into nitrogen oxides through the oxidation catalyst and all nitrogen oxides are removed by SCR treatment besides nitrous oxide, which is greenhouse gas. An additional process is needed to remove nitrous oxide, and the feeding rate of ammonia in SCR should be controlled properly for evolved nitrogen oxides. (author)

2013-03-01

149

Regulatory off-gas analysis from the evaporation of Hanford simulated waste spiked with organic compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, the remaining low-activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation before being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile, and pesticide compounds and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River National Laboratory. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds (1 mm Hg vapor pressure) in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program (licensed by OLI Systems, Inc.) evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate, and off-gas streams, with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI Environmental Simulation Program model is constrained by available literature data. PMID:15540577

Saito, Hiroshi H; Calloway, T Bond; Ferrara, Daro M; Choi, Alexander S; White, Thomas L; Gibson, Luther V; Burdette, Mark A

2004-10-01

150

Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporation of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate and off-gas streams with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI ESP model is constrained by available literature data

2003-01-01

151

Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in dedusting plants and comparison to off-gas measurements at electric arc furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical simulation tool is presented in order to model enthalpy flow rates of off-gas and heat transfer of cooling systems at dedusting plants in electric steel making sites. The flexibility of the simulation tool is based on a user-defined series of modular units that describe elementary units of industrial dedusting systems, e.g. water-cooled hot gas duct, air injector, drop-out box, mixing chamber, post-combustion chamber, filter, etc. Results of simulation were checked with measurements at industrial electric steel making plants in order to validate the models for turbulence, heat transfer and chemical reaction kinetics. Comparison between computed and measured gas temperature and composition yield excellent agreement. The simulation tool is used to calculate off-gas temperature and volume flow rate, where off-gas measurements are very difficult to apply due to high gas temperatures and high dust load. Heat transfer from the off-gas to the cooling system was calculated in detail for a pressurised hot water EAF cooling system in order to investigate the impact of the cooling system and the dedusting plant operation on the energy sinks of the electric arc furnace. It is shown that optimum efficiency of post-combustion of EAF off-gas in the water-cooled hot gas duct requires continuous off-gas analysis. Common operation parameters of EAF dedusting systems do not consider the non-steady-state of the EAF off-gas emission efficiently

2006-11-01

152

Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line

1992-01-01

153

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of ?125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

2010-12-06

154

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of {approx}125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

Nenoff, Tina Maria; Chupas, Peter J. (Argonne National Laboratory); Garino, Terry J.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Chapman, Karena W. (Argonne National Laboratory); Sava, Dorina Florentina

2010-11-01

155

Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse.

Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

2000-05-15

156

A conceptual study on LH2 tank system with no relief of boil-off gas into the atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The greenhouse effect is an important problem facing the global community, and it is caused in part by the use of fossil fuel in transportation. By changing the fossil fuel to hydrogen, a countermeasure was found. A challenge is hydrogen storage. The largest amount of energy per weight and volume is achieved with storing liquid hydrogen. The low temperature of the liquid hydrogen results in the generation of boil-off gas, causing heat inflow into the liquid hydrogen. This boil-off gas is then released into the atmosphere. The authors described a novel design concept for liquid hydrogen with an ultra-low temperature refrigerator installed in the tank in an effort to completely eliminate the release of boil-off gas in the atmosphere. It was concluded that using a commercially available refrigerator system can completely eliminate the boil-off gas. An improvement in the thermal efficiency of the system was noted. 4 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

2002-06-09

157

Teachers' Tactics and Test Performance  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... education. During a period leading up to a final math exam the teens were surveyed twice. All ... study. Survey responses were then stacked up against final math scores. The result: when teachers discussed testing ...

158

Experimental evaluation of nitrogen oxides and iodine retention during the scrubbing of dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolution of nuclear fuel in reprocessing operations. Dissolver off-gas contains large quantities of water vapor and nitrogen oxides and much smaller quantities of iodine and other fission product gases. It is desirable to recover the nitrogen oxides by absorption into water, where subsequent reactions produce nitric acid, which may be recycled to dissolution operations. The NO/sub x/ scrubber system was operated in a mode thought to be prototypic of a dissolver off-gas NO/sub x/ scrubber system for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, including recycle of the scrubbing liquid. Chemical reactions occurring simultaneously with the absorption of NO/sub x/ into dilute HNO3 solutions produce liquid HNO3 and HNO2. In general, the presence of HNO3 in dilute concentrations in the scrub solution does not have a significant effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency; however, the presence of HNO2 in this solution does have a significant deleterious effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency. In the results reported here, NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency is shown to increase when the HNO2 content of the scrub solution is reduced by oxidation with O2 or H2O2. In other experiments involving the presence of I2 in the feed gas, the I2 content of the recycled scrub solution increased to a steady-state value. At this condition, the bulk of the gaseous I2 passes through the NO/sub x/ scrubber system

1987-05-01

159

Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO_2) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

1982-01-01

160

Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC_5_0 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

1996-01-01

162

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG) in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP) and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS) empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 20...

2010-01-01

163

Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A low-emissions power generator comprising a solid oxide fuel cell coupled to a gas turbine has been developed by Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems. As part of the cycle, a fraction of the unreacted fuel (the off-gas) and oxidizer streams is reacted in a burner, which is the main source of pollutant formation. In this thesis a computational model of the burner has been developed which captures the formation of NOx and the oxidation of CO. This model gives accurate predictions at lo...

Collins, William Tristan

2008-01-01

164

Gestión del boil off gas en la planta de regasificación de Cartagena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este proyecto trata sobre la gestión del boil-off gas, o BOG (vapor de gas natural que se produce en las instalaciones de gas natural licuado de las plantas de regasificación), generado en la planta de regasificación de Gas Natural Licuado de Cartagena, tanto en las situaciones en las que se opera por debajo del mínimo técnico, como en las cargas y descargas de buques, en las cuales se ha de gestionar una cantidad del boil-off adicional. Para recuperar el boil-off, las plantas cuentan co...

2013-01-01

165

Astronaut Scott Carpenter tests balance mechanism performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter's balance mechanism performance is tested by his walking on a narrow board in his bare feet. He is performing this test at the School of Aviation Medicine, Pensicola, Florida (04570); Carpenter walks a straight line by putting one foot directly in front of the other to test his balance (04571).

1961-01-01

166

OFF-gas processing device for use in spent fuel reprocessing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent iodine-corrosion in an OFF-gas processing device of a spent fuel reprocessing facility. Constitution: Means for oxidizing or reducing iodine contained in OFF-gases into IO3- or I- ions and means for separating and recovering IO3- ions or I- ions as less soluble iodine compounds are disposed. Corrosion is caused by a slight amount of iodine contained in the gas phase by from 10 to several hundreds ppm. The corrosive nature of iodine is eliminated by the conversion of iodine into IO3- ions with the oxidizing agent or into I- ions with the reducing agent. Then, the iodine as the fission products is precipitated and solidified as less soluble compounds such as AgIO2, AgI, CuI and BaIO3 and then separated and recovered in the form of solids. Further, since nitric acid as a processing solution is present together in a range where iodine is present as it is, corrosion does not occur, and the reliability of the OFF-gas processing device can be improved with inexpensive material. (Horiuchi, T.)

1986-10-22

167

2009 Ford Mustang Performance Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our goal is to find the time required for a 2009 Ford Mustang to accelerate from rest to 88 feet per second. We begin with three equations involving force, velocity, and force inverse, which is a value derived from Newton's Law, F=ma. The Mustang has three gears with three different gear ratios that must be used as the car accelerates. We found results from 2000 to 6000 RPMs for all three gears. Once the force inverse was found, we plotted the force inverse vs. velocity graph. The area beneath this curve from 0 to 88 feet per second is the time it takes to reach that speed. Using a Riemann sum approximation, we found that the time to be 4.109 seconds. This is a very brief time and is comparable to 5.2 seconds, the time found in a real test by RSPORTSCARS.com.

Daniel Fernandes

2009-01-01

168

Concentrating solar collector-performance tests  

Science.gov (United States)

Report summarizes test results from evaluation of concentrating solar collector thermal performance, from transient behavior, and incident-of-angle behavior. Tests were conducted using National Bureau of Standards recommedations and specifications.

1979-01-01

169

Thermoeconomic optimization of a cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of the LNG boil-off gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the liquefaction process for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for the gas transportation. In this manner, onboard boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system as a cryogenic refrigeration cycle is utilized in order to re-liquefy the BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. In this paper, a thermoeconomic optimization of the LNG-BOG liquefaction system is performed. A thermoeconomic model based on energy and exergy analyses and an economic model according to the total revenue requirement (TRR) are developed. Minimizing of the unit cost of the refrigeration effect as a product of BOG re-liquefaction plant is performed using the genetic algorithm. Results of thermoeconomic optimization are compared with corresponding features of the base case system. Finally, sensitivity of the total cost of the system product with respect to the variation of some operating parameters is studied. (author)

Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaelahi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

2010-09-15

170

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

2012-10-01

171

Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K. [Multilayer insulation (MLI)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

1992-04-01

172

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-10-01

173

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-09-01

174

Experimental assessment of a catalytic hydrogen oxidation system for the off-gas processing of the ITER WDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Setup of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Commissioning of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of a hydrogen dilution tube. • CFD simulation and computation of a Pd reactor. -- Abstract: During normal operation of the ITER Water Detritiation System (WDS) and Isotope Separation System (ISS) large amounts of hydrogen isotopes containing mostly hydrogen and deuterium with some traces of tritium, will be produced and potentially released into the environment. Therefore an investigation has been carried out to handle the off gas safely. The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen is a conventional and reliable method, which has been selected to be tested. Thus, having discarded any hazards related to hydrogen explosion, the exhaust gases could be safely released into the environment. A scaled prototype oxidation reactor has been installed and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to investigate the selected method. This paper will present several simulation approaches for the main components of the oxidation system and compare them with experimental data.

Plusczyk, C., E-mail: christoph.plusczyk@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Michling, R.; Moosmann, H.; Welte, S.

2013-10-15

175

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boric acid wastewater and spent ion exchange resins are generated as a low- and medium- level radioactive wastes from pressurized light water reactors. In Korea, boric acid wastewater is concentrated and dried in the form of granules, and finally solidified by using paraffin wax. In this study, polymer solidification was attempted to produce the stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. The polymer mixture which consists of epoxy resin, amine compounds and antimony trioxide was used to solidify the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. To evaluate the stability of polymer waste forms, a series of standardized performance tests was conducted. Also, by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea, an additional test was performed to estimate fire resistance and gas generation of the waste forms. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test and an analysis of gas generation were performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal

2012-05-10

176

Simulation of the treatment system for gases from radioactive wastes (Off-Gas)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The simulator of Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant was developed with the idea of provide training to the operators of the Central, for what the systems were modelled on the basis of physical considerations using equations that satisfy thise needs. In this article, some equations used in the development of the treatment system for gases from radioactive wastes (Off-Gas) are shown, observing that such equations are of common use, being only necessary to satisfy the balances of matter, energy and momentum, in order to reach the steady conditions of the system. Some graphs where the behavior of different properties (temperatue, pressure and vlume) are observed, and are shown from the start-up of the plant to 100% of the charge, that is its maximum real opration. (Author)

1991-11-01

177

Statistical methods to monitor the West Valley off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the of-gas system for the ceramic melter operated at the West Valley Demonstration Project at West Valley, NY, monitored during melter operation. A one-at-a-time method of monitoring the parameters of the off-gas system is not statistically sound. Therefore, multivariate statistical methods appropriate for the monitoring of many correlated parameters will be used. Monitoring a large number of parameters increases the probability of a false out-of-control signal. If the parameters being monitored are statistically independent, the control limits can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired probability of a false out-of-control signal. The principal component (PC) scores have desirable statistical properties when the original variables are distributed as multivariate normals. Two statistics derived from the PC scores and used to form multivariate control charts are outlined and their distributional properties reviewed

1990-10-04

178

Some aspects of the treatment of typical off-gas streams from reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a fluidized sand-bed filter for filtration of particulate activity as applied to the process off-gas systems in fuel reprocessing plants, and an evaluation of its efficiency, is described. A comparative statement of the relative merits of various other filtration systems, such as the deep-bed glass fibre filters and the fixed sand-bed filters for such application, is made and a composite filtration system consisting of a fluidized sand-bed pre-filter and a final glass fibre polishing filter is recommended. Also included are studies carried out on the use of stainless steel sieve plates as de-entrainers, proposing a correlation for efficiency. (author)

1980-02-22

179

Off-gas processing facility and iodine adsorbent material and method of manufacturing the same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an off-gas processing facility for removing radioactive iodine from off-gases released from a nuclear power plant, an iodine adsorbent formed by depositing at least two silver compounds to a carrier is filled. The ratio of silver in an easily soluble silver compound among two silver compounds relative to the total amount of silver is determined as 3 to 75%, and the ratio of silver in a less soluble silver compound is determined as 97 to 25%. Then the easily soluble silver compound and less soluble silver compound may be deposited as layers, or may be deposited homogeneously. With such a constitution, iodine can be separated and removed at high efficiency even under a severe condition of both of non-coexistence of NO[sub x] and high humidity. In addition, since peeling of silver can be prevented, an advantage capable of depositing a relatively great amount of silver to the absorbent is provided. (T.M.).

Kondo, Shigekazu; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Fumio; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru.

1994-08-05

180

Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant using preparative gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kr-85 can be separated from the pre-purified purge air in the final processing step of the purification phase for dissolver off-gases of a reprocessing plant with the aid of preparative gas chromatography. Activated carbon adsorbers in combination with helium as carrier gas permits maximum gas mixture through-flow. A separation temperature of 300C is considered optimal. An adsorbent volume of 40 dm3 is necessary for processing the residual gas flow of 2.5 Nm3/h; the adsorbent is divided between 2 columns linked in series each of which are 2 m long with an internal diameter of 100 mm. The helium flow required is five times greater than the off-gas flow. The degree of purity for krypton is greater than 90% for a decontamination factor of greater than 1000. (orig./HP)

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

2013-09-01

182

Decomposition of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial off-gas by electron beams: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam induced decomposition of volatile organic compounds (e.g. aromatic compounds, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins) in industrial off gas has been investigated by several research groups in Germany and Japan. The method was shown to be effective for cleaning the waste gas of a paint factory, the waste air discharged from an automobile tunnel, the off gas cleaning from a groundwater remediation plant and the flue gas of a waste incinerator. The electron beam process achieves high removal efficiencies for volatile organic compounds. Reaction models have been developed, which suggest that the organic compounds are oxidized by hydroxyl radicals. The electron beam process may treat very large off-gas volumes at ambient temperatures and has a low energy consumption. The production of secondary wastes can be avoided or minimized. Compared to conventional methods the investment and operation costs of the process seem to be attractive for selected applications

1998-06-01

183

Steam Pressurizer test and water level measurement performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reports discuss steam high pressure chamber test and water level measurement system performance test. In the report, the necessity and the methodology of test is described. The test loop and small scale steam chamber are designed. The validation for the design is conducted. Muliti-channel(200 or more) high-speed data acquisition system is required and chosen. The achievement of 1st year and 2nd year plan are presented

Park, M. R.; Hwang, S. C.; Han, S. J. [KIMM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-15

184

Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of "8"5Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The "8"5Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

1997-01-01

185

MC and A performance testing status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past few years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) inspections identified performance testing deficiencies in both contractor nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) programs and field office nuclear material survey programs. Questions about the usefulness and effectiveness of these DOE performance testing programs prompted this evaluation. Information about MC and A performance testing was solicited from DOE sites and compared with results of OSE inspections of nuclear materials survey programs and contractor MC and A programs. This paper summarizes the results of this evaluation and highlights those systems that have received minimal attention as well as those that have been adequately reviewed using performance testing programs. Conclusions are presented and recommendations are made. A catalog of performance tests was generated from this evaluation using input from the field and OSE inspections that will enhance performance testing programs. In addition, a compilation of information generated from OSE inspections is discussed that relates these performance tests to the DOE MC and A standards and Criteria

1991-07-28

186

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

1997-01-01

187

Improving health physics measurements by performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance testing standards have been written to establish minimum performance requirements for personnel dosimeters, radiation survey instruments, and bioassay laboratory measurements. These standards were subjected to experimental evaluation and to a consensus review to assure that the requirements were practical. Programs have been established using the personnel dosimeters standards to improve and control the performance of dosimeter processors. Similarly, implementation of performance testing of instruments will result in improved reliability of field measurements and initiation of a program based on the bioassay standard will improve the accuracy, precision, and detectability levels for the measurement of radioactivity in occupationally exposed workers. Evaluating the performance of health physics measurement tools will lead to improved accuracy and precision and to an improved knowledge of personnel exposures. Performance testing will become a more widely recognized tool for maintenance of a quality program and the concept will be applied to additional measurements. 32 refs., 3 tabs

1986-10-21

188

SI PC104 Performance Test Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

Montelongo, S

2005-12-16

189

Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1990-02-01

190

FFTF absorber-pin performance verification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) Absorber Pin Performance Verification Test - (HA006) is an irradiation test of neutron absorber pins with integral temperature and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The pins, containing boron carbide, are representative of the FFTF Row 3 Safety, Row 5 Control and Row 7 Fixed Shim Absorber Assemblies. In the 300 full power days (FPD) this test will reside in its 2610 Position in the reactor, it will generate test data that will be used to infer the effects of irradiation on the absorber assemblies it simulates. Design and fabrication of the test vehicle began in 1976 and the forty-foot test assembly was loaded in the FFTF on February 10, 1981. The test provided data in March 1981 during a series of natural circulation tests, and again in November 1981 during the eight-day full power run establishing base-line data

1982-04-15

191

Effect of encouragement on walking test performance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Walking tests, frequently used to document effects of treatment on exercise capacity, have never been standardised. We studied the effects of encouragement on walking test performance in a randomised study that controlled for the nature of the underlying disease, time of day, and order effects. We randomised 43 patients with chronic airflow limitation or chronic heart failure or both to receive or not receive encouragement as they performed serial two and six minute walks every fortnight for ...

1984-01-01

192

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

193

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

Winkler, J.

2012-03-01

194

RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L. [and others

1997-08-01

195

RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning

1997-05-12

196

Performance of smokeless gasoline fire test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Packaging for radioactive materials must perform satisfactorily when subjected to temperatures simulating an accident involving a fire. The new thermal test facility has proved to be a reliable method for satisfactorily performing the required test. The flame provides sufficient heat to assure that the test is valid, and the temperature can be controlled satisfactorily. Also, the air and water mist systems virtually eliminate any smoke and thereby exceed the local EPA requirements. The combination of the two systems provides an inexpensive, low maintenance technique for elimination of the smoke plume

1978-05-12

197

Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

1983-01-01

198

Experience with Shell Claus off-gas treating and the Shell incineration catalyst in the 'SCOT' unit at natural gas plant Grossenkneten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SCOT unit in the BEB/Mobil oil joint venture natural gas plant Grossenkneten, W. Germany, has operated successfully for over five years since the start up. The catalytic performance of the sulphur reduction catalyst (S-534) has been very encouraging, the current activity level still being close to the original design value. These results confirm the positive experience with this catalyst in about thirty SCOT units in Japan. For the incineration of the Claus off-gas the S-099 catalyst has been operational for more than five years. Current catalyst performance with respect to COS/CS/sub 2/ conversion, SO/sub 3/ make and temperature runaways are presented and discussed.

Grinsven, P.F.A. van; Sandkuehler, H.; Schaper, L.

1985-01-01

199

Retrofit design of a boil-off gas handling process in liquefied natural gas receiving terminals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generation of Boil-off gas (BOG) in liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals considerably affects operating costs and the safety of the facility. For the above reasons, a proper BOG handling process is a major determinant in the design of a LNG receiving terminal. This study proposes the concept of a retrofit design for a BOG the handling process using a fundamental analysis. A base design was determined for a minimum send-out case in which the BOG handling becomes the most difficult. In the proposed design, the cryogenic energy of the LNG stream is used to cool other streams inside the process. It leads to a reduction in the operating costs of the compressors in the BOG handling process. Design variables of the retrofit design were optimized with non-linear programming to maximize profitability. Optimization results were compared with the base design to show the effect of the proposed design. The proposed design provides a 22.7% energy saving ratio and a 0.176 year payback period. -- Highlights: ? A retrofit design of the BOG handling process was proposed to maximize energy savings. ? The superstructure of the proposed design was developed based on a thermodynamic analysis. ? In the proposed design, the cryogenic energy of the LNG stream was utilized to directly cool down the BOG streams. ? The payback period of the proposed design is sufficiently short for investment in industry.

2012-08-01

200

Multi-level computational chemistry study on hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system, we investigate by using multi-level computational chemistry simulation methods. The recombiner apparatus is modeled by the numerical mesh system in the axial coordinates, and unsteady, advection and reaction rate equations are solved by using a finite difference method. The chemical reactions are formulated to represent adsorption-desorption of hydrogen and oxygen on Pt catalyst, and time developments of the coverage factors of Pt are solved numerically. The computational simulations successfully reproduce the very similar behaviors observed by experiments, such as increasing of the inversion rates of H2 to H2O, the temperatures distributions along the flow direction, dependencies of experimental condition, and so on. Thus Pt poisoning is considered to cause the deactivation of the hydrogen recombination catalyst. To clarify the poisoning mechanism, the molecular level simulation is applied to the system of Pt on boehmite attacked by a cyclic siloxane which has been detected by experiments and considered as one of poisoning spices. The simulation shows ring-opening reaction of the cyclic siloxane on Pt, then attachment of two ends of the chain-like siloxane to Pt and boehmite, respectively, and that finally the recombination reaction is prevented. This may be the first study to find out the detailed dynamical mechanism of hydrogen recombination catalyst poisoning with cyclic siloxane. (author)

2011-10-24

 
 
 
 
201

Performance tests for steam methane reformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

1982-08-01

202

Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

2007-01-01

203

REA-2023 BWR cask performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A performance test of a REA 2023 spent fuel storage cask sponsored by the Department of Energy was conducted at GE Morris Operation during the winter of 1984/85. The cask was configured for BWR spent fuel storage. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three fill conditions. The first five test runs were conducted with a partially loaded cask so that temperatures and radiation dose rates could be better approximated for the fully loaded cask. The next six test runs were conducted with a fully loaded cask. The final three test runs included insulation of the neutron shield to raise the surface temperature of the cask to more nearly reflect what it would have been in the summer. The maximum recorded temperature in the cask was 241"0C for an evacuated fully loaded insulated cask. Its surface temperature was 95"0C. The maximum surface dose rate on the cask was about 200 mrem/hr at an anomaly on the bottom of cask. Elsewhere the dose rate on the top and bottom of the cask did not exceed about 100 mr/hr. The average dose rate of the side of the cask was about 20 mr/hr with spike reaching 40 mr/hr in areas near the top and bottom of the cask. Prior to conducting the performance tests, dry runs were conducted of the cask handling procedures and the Cooper spent fuel assemblies were characterized by calorimetry and radiation scans. Each fuel assembly was inspected to assure that no failed fuel was put into the cask. Sipping results (pre- and post-test), gas sampling, and visual inspection of the fuel did not identify any degradation of the fuel during the performance tests

1986-04-08

204

In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables

1984-01-01

205

Testing stemming performance, possible or not?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming performance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different stemming products hav...

Boshoff, D.; Webber-youngman, R. C. W.

2011-01-01

206

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

2014-01-01

207

A performance benchmark test for geodynamo simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last ten years, a number of numerical dynamo models have successfully represented basic characteristics of the geomagnetic field. As new models and numerical methods continue to be developed, it is important to update and extend benchmarks for testing these models. The first dynamo benchmark of Christensen et al. (2001) was applied to models based on spherical harmonic expansion methods. However, only a few groups have reported results of the dynamo benchmark using local methods (Harder and Hansen, 2005; Matsui and Okuda, 2005; Chan et al., 2007) because of the difficulty treating magnetic boundary conditions based on the local methods. On the other hand, spherical harmonics expansion methods perform poorly on massively parallel computers because global data communications are required for the spherical harmonics expansions to evaluate nonlinear terms. We perform benchmark tests to asses various numerical methods for the next generation of geodynamo simulations. The purpose of this benchmark test is to assess numerical geodynamo models on a massively parallel computational platform. To compare among many numerical methods as possible, we consider the model with the insulated magnetic boundary by Christensen et al. (2001) and with the pseudo vacuum magnetic boundary, because the pseudo vacuum boundaries are implemented easier by using the local method than the magnetic insulated boundaries. In the present study, we consider two kinds of benchmarks, so-called accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark. In the accuracy benchmark, we compare the dynamo models by using modest Ekman and Rayleigh numbers proposed by Christensen et. al. (2001). We investigate a required spatial resolution for each dynamo code to obtain less than 1% difference from the suggested solution of the benchmark test using the two magnetic boundary conditions. In the performance benchmark, we investigate computational performance under the same computational environment. We perform these dynamo models on XSEDE TACC Stampede, and investigate computational performance. To simplify the problem, we choose the same model and parameter regime as the accuracy benchmark test, but perform the simulations with much finer spatial resolutions to investigate computational capability under the closer condition to the Earth's outer core. We compare the results of the accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark tests by various codes and discuss characteristics of the simulation methods for geodynamo problems.

Matsui, H.; Heien, E. M.

2013-12-01

208

Testing stemming performance, possible or not?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming per [...] formance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different stemming products have differences in terms of their functionality, which can have a major impact on the efficiency of rock breaking. Two test procedures were used, one through the exclusive use of compressed air and the second using a purposebuilt high pressure test rig with small quantities of explosives. Both tests were used to identify and evaluate the ability of various stemming products to resist the escape of explosive gas through the collar of a blasthole. An investigation was done to determine the types of stemming products most commonly used in South African underground hard rock mines, and these products were used during the tests. The first stage of tests using compressed air only did not prove adequate to predict with certainty the pressure behaviour in the borehole of a particular product under high pressure conditions. The purpose-built high pressure test rig also did not prove to be a very effective tool to test stemming products under high pressure conditions. The test rig incorporated only the effect of gas pressure on the stemming product, and excluded the effect of the shock wave. This study therefore proved that to take into account only the gas pressure generated in the blasthole is not sufficient to effectively test stemming product performance.

Boshoff, D.; Webber-Youngman, R.C.W..

209

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described. Normal carbon steel has been used as absorber. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. (orig.)

1986-01-01

210

Performance test of a TMS strip chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of track chamber is presented which uses the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) in an ionization chamber. Performance of the chamber and test results in an electron beam are described. The results demonstrate that this type of chamber is an interesting tracking device particular in an environment of high background radiation. (orig.)

1987-01-01

211

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described. Normal carbon steel has been used as absorber. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. (orig.)

1986-11-15

212

Field performance test; Key to pump savings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is primarily for multistage axially split pumps of over 200 hp, although the principle applies to all pumps. These pumps are frequently used for transfer of oil products (pipeline), floodwater injection systems, feedwater for boilers and in the petroleum/chemical industry. The authors argue that field performance testing of these pumps is necessary as a preventive maintenance measure.

Schull, W.W.; Church, M.L. (Fluid Power Equipment, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1991-01-01

213

A Litmus Test for Performance Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents 10 guidelines for developing performance-based assessment items. Presents a sample activity developed from the guidelines. The activity tests students ability to observe, classify, and infer, using red and blue litmus paper, a pH-range finder, vinegar, ammonia, an unknown solution, distilled water, and paper towels. (PR)

Finson, Kevin D.; Beaver, John B.

1992-01-01

214

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

2006-02-15

215

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34?38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc

2006-01-01

216

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2009-03-25

217

Performance testing rotating gamma camera SPECT systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems

1984-06-05

218

Performance test of a high-performance digital BPM system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We adopted 'Libera' manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies as a signal-processing system in our development of a BPM system. Libera is a digital BPM system, including digital electronics as well as analog parts, and can perform not only a high-accuracy beam position measurement with a submicron level of the position resolution but also a high-speed beam position measurement such as turn-by-turn and single-pass monitoring. We will report results of Libera performance tests about position resolution, linearity, current dependence and frequency dependence. (author)

2006-08-01

219

Thermal-hydraulic aspects of the large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests were performed using four types of concrete (siliceous, serpentine, limestone, and limestone/common sand) and a range of metal oxidation for BWR and PWR core material. Melt temperatures, ablation rates, off-gas composition, and superficial gas velocity as a function of time during each test were processed from the recorded test data. These thermal hydraulic results are described for the ACE MCCI tests. (orig./HP)

1992-11-01

220

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements.

McKillip, S.T.; Rehder, T.E.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements.

McKillip, S.T.; Rehder, T.E.

1992-05-01

222

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements

1992-04-09

223

Test methods for high performance diesel oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of engine tests exist in Europe to evaluate diesel oils, including the MWM-B, Petter AVB, Cat 1-G2, Ford Tornado and Daimler Benz OM 352 A test, and these are actively being used to define a number of different oil quality levels by European engine manufacturers. OEM requirements are being developed both in N.-America and Europe which demand oil quality levels not readily defined in terms of these engine tests. Data are discussed which illustrate the difference in severity level between the established and more recent engine oil tests. Close examination of the engine design and test operating conditions gives some indication of the reasons for the differences in test severity. The Cat 1Y-540 engine is described as well as its use as a screening test for so called 'Super High Performance Diesel' oils. The flexibility of this engine enables it to be run under a number of different operating conditions so that the effect of a change in operating conditions can be seen in the level of piston deposits and bore polishing.

Spiess, G.T.; Dowling, M.; Morris, J.

1986-03-01

224

Krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC): Campaign II in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the second major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm respectively. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass transfer experiments for the CO2--O2--Kr system are described, and a detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis, although not rigorous, is reasonable and indicates values of HTU for krypton on the order of 0.4 ft for decontamination factors from 100 to 10,000. Recent flooding information for the packed columns is combined with previous data and is shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

1976-01-01

225

Krypton absorption in liquid CO_2 (KALC): Campaign III in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the third major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively. Mass transfer experiments for the CO_2--O_2--Kr system are described for the absorption, fractionation, and stripping operations of the KALC process. A detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis indicates nominal HTU values for the absorber, fractionator, and stripper on the order of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7 ft, respectively. Flooding data for the packed columns are combined with previous data and are shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

1977-01-01

226

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.)

1986-01-01

227

Performance testing of large metallic seals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware.

Leisher, W. B.; Trujillo, A. A.

1980-01-01

228

Experimental evaluation of NO/sub x/ and I_2 retention during the scrubbing of dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolution of nuclear fuel in reprocessing operations. Dissolver off-gas contains large quantities of water vapor and nitrogen oxides and much smaller quantities of iodine and other fission product gases. It is desirable to recover the nitrogen oxides by absorption into water, where subsequent reactions produce nitric acid, which may be recycled to dissolution operations. The NO/sub x/ scrubber system was operated in a mode through to be prototypic of a dissolver off-gas NO/sub x/ scrubber system for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, including recycle of the scrubbing liquid. Chemical reactions occurring simultaneously with the absorption of NO/sub x/ into dilute HNO_3 solutions produce liquid HNO_3 and HNO_2. In general, the presence of HNO_3 in dilute concentrations in the scrub solution does not have a significant effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency; however, the presence of HNO_2 in this solution does have a significant deleterious effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency. 8 refs., 3 figs

1986-08-17

229

Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency…

Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

2014-01-01

230

DPM PERFORMANCE TESTING USING RASPBERRY PIS  

CERN Document Server

This is the final report from attending CERN’s Summer Student Programme. The project goal was to do performance testing on the Disk Pool Manager (DPM), a lightweight, reliable, grid-aware storage software used to store and retrieve data produced by CERN’s LHC experiments using the small, low-end ARM powered devices named Raspberry Pis. The idea behind it was to reason if it’s possible to use a cluster of lower-end, under-capable devices to run DPM, and to conclude if it would be more energy efficient than running it on oversized machines, with the same or comparable performance. If this hypothesis was true, the power-hungry machines could be ditched in favour of these small devices, leading to an enormous saving in overall power consumption and hence, overall cost. In this report, I describe what was the initial project goal and intended outcomes, proceeding to explain the underlying technologies used. Afterwards, I’ll explain the setup used, the tests performed, and the conclusions reached. iii

Regala, M

2013-01-01

231

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2010-08-18

232

49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Crash test performance and...TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash test performance and...the completion of the crash test, and be retrievable...test, and the complete data recorded element...

2010-10-01

233

Performance Test of Diagnostic Radiology Instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this feasibility study, a constant potential X-ray irradiation facility was optimized for performance tests of diagnostic radiology instruments. Responses of two different diagnostic instruments were compared in measuring of peak voltage kVp and air kerma rate Kalpha , the results being within the technical characteristics of the producers. In order to use the facility for traceable calibrations in future, the qualities of the required spectra should be refined and air kerma measured in accordance to the international standards.(author)

2008-05-29

234

Contract performance demonstration tests in the OPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will describe the measurements and calculations that were done in the OPAL Reactor to demonstrate compliance against contractual Design Features and Performance Acceptance Criteria. The contract specifies several neutronic aspects to be fulfilled by the core, the irradiation and the beam facilities design, which have to be verified during the commissioning tests. Guaranteed flux values will be taken as being for equilibrium core conditions. The relationship between values measured during commissioning (First Core) and the guaranteed values is largely based on calculations. The calculated values are obtained modelling with full detail the measurement conditions using the INVAP traditional calculation lines: CITVAP and MCNP calculation lines. (author)

2008-11-01

235

Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories  

CERN Multimedia

The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

Marshall, T O

1985-01-01

236

40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...runs comprising the performance test does not exceed...conducting multiple performance tests to establish...recorded during performance tests using the same test methods specified in this...control system fan motor amperes and...

2009-07-01

237

ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Gasification island thermal performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past several years, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have been introduced in a number of competitive markets. Most of the demonstration projects have been subsidized. However, as the technology is further developed, its versatility will lead to its application in a variety of market segments. This leads to the need of the user to evaluate the performance of the gasification process within the IGCC power plant through field testing. This paper deals with an approach to measuring the gasification island thermal performance. A thermal efficiency term based upon an input/output test approach is introduced. Measured parameters and pre-test planning are discussed. Computational procedures for determining the thermal efficiency of the gasification island are described including an uncertainty analysis for the performance test.

Mirolli, M.D.; Doering, E.L.

1998-07-01

238

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REA-2023 (currently marketed by Mitsubishi Heavy Metals of Japan as an MSF IV), Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG and G Idaho, Inc. using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented

1988-01-01

239

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

240

Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Recommended practices for wind turbine testing. 1. Power performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the recommended practices for testing and reporting power performance characteristics of WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System). It provides a standard methodology for comparing the energy production characteristics of WECS available in the market. The following is noted: 1. The methods presented herein are not limited to WECS that produce electricity. 2. These procedures and practices are generally applicable to WECS of all sizes and classifications. 3. Specific procedures are recommended. Alternate procedures may be used if documentation demonstrating their equivalence to the recommended practice is provided. The expert committee will seek to gain approval of the procedures in each member country through the IEA agreements. The recommendations shall be regularly reviewed and areas in need of further investigation shall be identified.

Frandsen, S.; Trenka, A.R.; Maribo Pedersen, B. (eds.)

1982-01-01

242

CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

1996-01-01

243

Performance testing of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) have been under consideration in the U.S. as a combustible gas control system in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) containments for design basis and severe accidents. PARs do not require a source of power. Instead they use palladium or platinum as a catalyst to recombine hydrogen and oxygen gases into water vapor upon contact with the catalyst. Energy from the recombination of hydrogen with oxygen is released at a relatively slow but continuous rate into the containment which prevents the pressure from becoming too high. The heat produced creates strong buoyancy effects which increases the influx of the surrounding gases to the recombiner. These natural convective flow currents promote mixing of combustible gases in the containment. PARs are self-starting and self-feeding under a very wide range of conditions. The recombination rate of the PAR system needs to be great enough to keep the concentration of hydrogen (or oxygen) below acceptable limits. There are several catalytic recombiner concepts under development worldwide. The USNRC is evaluating a specific design of a PAR which is in an advanced stage of engineering development and has been proposed for ALWR designs. Sandia National laboratories (SNL), under the sponsorship and the direction of the USNRC, is conducting an experimental program to evaluate the performance of PARs. The PAR will be tested at the SURTSEY facility at SNL. The test plan currently includes the following experiments: experiments will be conducted to define the startup characteristics of PARs (i.e., to define what is the lowest hydrogen concentration that the PAR starts recombining the hydrogen with oxygen); experiments will be used to define the hydrogen depletion rate of PARs as a function of hydrogen concentration; and experiments will be used to define the PAR performance in the presence of high concentrations of steam. (author)

1997-03-01

244

Analytical method for assessing the gamma-ray exposure resulting from continuously discharged radioactive off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple model for computing the medium gamma dose rate under the radioactive off-gas plume of a continuously emitting source is described, in which the plume is assumed to be a radioactive slab source with a specific source strength inversely proportional to the distance from the release point but not varying with height above ground level. The model results in dose rates slightly higher than those obtained by means of METEOR II, the programme recommended for such computations in the GDR. However, it has the advantage of requiring only a pocket electronic calculator as calculating device. (author)

1980-01-01

245

Performance tests on helical Savonius rotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional Savonius rotors have high coefficient of static torque at certain rotor angles and a negative coefficient of static torque from 135 to 165 and from 315 to 345 in one cycle of 360 . In order to decrease this variation in static torque from 0 to 360 , a helical Savonius rotor with a twist of 90 is proposed. In this study, tests on helical Savonius rotors are conducted in an open jet wind tunnel. Coefficient of static torque, coefficient of torque and coefficient of power for each helical Savonius rotor are measured. The performance of helical rotor with shaft between the end plates and helical rotor without shaft between the end plates at different overlap ratios namely 0.0, 0.1 and 0.16 is compared. Helical Savonius rotor without shaft is also compared with the performance of the conventional Savonius rotor. The results indicate that all the helical Savonius rotors have positive coefficient of static torque at all the rotor angles. The helical rotors with shaft have lower coefficient of power than the helical rotors without shaft. Helical rotor without shaft at an overlap ratio of 0.0 and an aspect ratio of 0.88 is found to have almost the same coefficient of power when compared with the conventional Savonius rotor. Correlation for coefficient of torque and power is developed for helical Savonius rotor for a range of Reynolds numbers studied. (author)

Kamoji, M.A.; Kedare, S.B. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India); Prabhu, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

2009-03-15

246

Oxygen-induced dynamics of nitrous oxide in water and off-gas during the treatment of digester supernatant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a potent greenhouse gas and of special concern in wastewater treatment. It is formed in biological wastewater treatment under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A major reason for high N(2)O emissions is low oxygen concentration during nitrification. In this full-scale study of N(2)O emissions from a sequencing batch reactor for treating digester supernatant, the oxygen concentration was reduced stepwise to investigate how N(2)O emissions were influenced. N(2)O concentrations were measured online in water and off-gas. A distinct relationship was found between low oxygen concentration and high N(2)O emissions. N(2)O was formed in water during both nitrification and denitrification. Decreased oxygen concentration during nitrification led to increased nitrite concentration, which in turn led to increased N(2)O concentration in the subsequent denitrification phase. When the nitrification resumed, accumulated N(2)O was stripped off to the atmosphere. Very high concentrations of N(2)O, over 56,000 ppmv, were measured in the off-gas. Furthermore, the maximum amount of N(2)O emitted during one cycle corresponded to 107.6% of the total nitrogen load (21.9% of total nitrogen present in the bulk liquid at the beginning of the cycle). This is among the highest emission levels ever measured from a full-scale municipal plant for digester supernatant. PMID:24434972

Stenström, F; Tjus, K; la Cour Jansen, J

2014-01-01

247

Development of the FASTER process for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and other contaminants from the off-gas of fuel reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant has the primary responsibility for the development of the FASTER (Fluorocarbon Absorption System for Treating Effluents from Reprocessors) process for application to LMFBR and LWR fuel reprocessing plants. Krypton-85 removals in excess of 99.9% and carbon-14 as carbon dioxide removals greater than 99.99% have been obtained in a development pilot plant. So far, pilot plant tests show that the presence of other reprocessing plant off-gas components does not appreciably affect the general operability or removal efficiency of the process. Tests also indicate that the one process designed for krypton and carbon removal may be even more effective in removing other fission products and objectionable chemical contaminants such as nitrogen dioxide. Elemental and organic iodine removals in excess of 99.99% and nitrogen dioxide removals over 99% were recently achieved. Higher process decontaminations are possible. Trapping studies show that 13X molecular sieves are very effective in removing the fluorocarbon vapor from the process product stream

1976-08-04

248

Veriflow Campylobacter. Performance tested method 101201.  

Science.gov (United States)

Veriflow Campylobacter is a molecular based assay for the presumptive and qualitative detection of the most common occurring foodborne Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post PCR amplification and requires only 24 h of non-specialized enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow Campylobacter system eliminates the need for microaerobic chambers, gel electrophoresis or fluorophore based detection of target amplification, and does not require complex data analysis. This Performance Tested Method validation study demonstrated the ability of the Veriflow method to detect naturally occurring Campylobacterfrom chicken carcass rinsates. In the reference comparison study, Chi-square and probability of detection analyses of two unpaired studies indicated that there was no significant difference between the Veriflow Campylobacter method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) reference method. There was no indication of false positive or false negative detection in the reference comparison study, and all 50 C. jejuni and C. coli strains were detected, while 35 nonspecific organisms were undetected in the exclusivity/ inclusivity study. The study results show that Veriflow Campylobacter is a sensitive, selective and robust assay for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken carcass rinsates. PMID:25051630

Joelsson, Adam C; Brown, Ashley S; Puri, Amrita; Keough, Martin P; Pascal, Benjamin J; Gaudioso, Zara E

2014-01-01

249

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

1988-04-17

250

Nuclear material control and accountancy planning and performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of performance testing as used at U.S. Department of Energy facilities is provided. Performance tests are performed on specific aspects of the regulations or site policy. The key issues in establishing a performance testing program are: identifying what needs to be tested; determining how to test; establishing criteria to evaluate test results. The program elements of performance testing program consist of: planning; coordination; conduct; evaluation. A performance test may be conducted of personnel or equipment. The DOE orders for nuclear material control and accountancy are divided into three functional areas: program administration, material accounting, and material control. Examples performance tests may be conducted on program administration, accounting, measurement and measurement control, inventory, and containment

1998-11-02

251

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

Baum, Gregory A.

2014-02-01

252

The BRH Test Pattern for Gamma Camera Performance (An Evaluator).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to evaluation of the performance of nuclear medicine imaging systems and, more particularly, to a transmission test pattern which can be utilized to determine the performance parameters of gamma cameras. The test pattern or p...

P. Paras

1981-01-01

253

Robust Performance Hypothesis Testing with the Variance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Applied researchers often test for the difference of the variance of two investment strategies; in particular, when the investment strategies under consideration aim to implement the global minimum variance portfolio. A popular tool to this end is the F-test for the equality of variances. Unfortunately, this test is not valid when the returns are correlated, have tails heavier than the normal distribution, or are of time series nature. Instead, we propose the use of robust inference methods....

Ledoit, Olivier; Wolf, Michael

2010-01-01

254

Containment venting through the off-gas system: a way of upgrading the accident manageability of the plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical feasibility of the OGTS (Off-Gas Treatment System), installed in BWR's, as means to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents has been investigated in the past. The studies are still in progress. In particular are under investigation problems associated with the pressure drop through the off-gas line, the adoption and optimization of a water basin, useful to condense the first part of steam leaving the containment in case of an accident. Also fire problems on the charcoal beds were investigated as consequence of the heating induced on the charcoal by the decay power associated with the fission products collected on it. A short presentation of the main findings up to now is given in this paper for each item. Another point of interest is to quantify the benefits of using the removal capability, associated with the big mass of charcoal contained in the system, after determining the new margins of operability of the off-gas system. As generally understood the effectiveness of a mitigative system against radioactive contamination is ultimately connected with the delay allowed for the release of contamination into the environment. In a situation of continuous flow through the beds the delay can be of the order of ten hours (for the most volatiles components), but this activity get bottled in the charcoal almost indefinitely if it is assumed that the flow is stopped after a certain period. The venting of the containment can then be routed through an hardened stand by gas treatment system, if still necessary. The residual, less volatile, activity still present in the containment is released after removal through the filter trains. Using this procedure a decontamination factor of more than 100 for the most volatiles radionuclides can be attained. In conclusion: The conditions under which the feasibility of a venting through the OGTS could be assured has been evidenced in the report. The demonstration of the benefit of this feature, as part of a containment venting system has been given in terms of further reduction in the noble gases releases (factors of 50 for Kr, 300 for Xe). In addition it is reduced the uncertainty connected with the effectiveness in removing the organic forms of iodine. Those benefits make possible a greater flexibility in the operation of the system, which otherwise should be limited with regard to the time of actuation

1992-04-01

255

Customized design of electronic noses placed on top of air-lift bioreactors for in situ monitoring the off-gas patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

A specially designed electronic nose was coupled to an air-lift bioreactor in order to perform on-line monitoring of released vapors. The sensor array was placed at the top of the bioreactor sensing the headspace in equilibrium with the evolving liquor at any time without the need of aspiration and pumping of gases into a separated sensor chamber. The device was applied to follow the off-gas of a bioreactor with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans grown on beds of elemental sulfur under aerobic conditions. Evolution was monitored by acid titration, pH and optical density measurements. The electronic nose was capable to differentiate each day of reactor evolution since inoculation within periods marked off culture medium replacements using multivariate data analysis. Excellent discrimination was obtained indicating the potentiality for on-line monitoring in non-perturbed bioreactors. The prospects for electronic nose/bioreactor merging are valuable for whatever the bacterial strain or consortium used in terms of scent markers to monitor biochemical processes. PMID:22212349

Rosi, Pablo E; Miscoria, Silvia A; Bernik, Delia L; Martín Negri, R

2012-06-01

256

Performance of Four Multivariate Tests under Variance-Covariance Heteroscedasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type I error rates of four multivariate tests (Pilai-Bartlett trace, Johansen's test, James' first-order test, and James' second-order test) were compared for heterogeneous covariance matrices in 360 simulated experiments. The superior performance of Johansen's test and James' second-order test is discussed. (SLD)

Tang, K. Linda; Algina, James

1993-01-01

257

Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans form a family of more than 200 compounds which are relatively stable in the biosphere and tend to accumulate in the human body. The tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dioxins and furans are considered highly toxic. To facilitate the assessment of the total toxicity of dioxin and furan mixtures, the estimated toxic effects of the individual compounds relative to the 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were introduced as Toxic Equivalent Factors which yield, when multiplied with the respective concentrations, the Toxic Equivalent (TE) of the mixture. Toxic dioxins and furans are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering, in the chemical industry and in household heating. To keep the emissions as low as possible, off-gas clearing systems for the collection of dioxins and furans are increasingly prescribed by the authorities. In addition, it appears desirable to select process conditions that are unfavourable for the formation of these compounds. A simulation of the relevant processes on the basis of thermodynamic data may be helpful in defining such process conditions. To simulate dioxin formation in the sintering process, all major gas-solid reactions taking place in the sinter bed must also be simulated. A sufficiently accurate reproduction of the off-gas compositions along the length of the sinter strand requires detailed assumptions concerning the relative amounts of `active` O{sub 2} as well as the distribution of reacting carbon and water over the strand length. From this basis, an equilibrium calculation for the gas/solid reactions at the sintering temperature of 1150 deg C and an equilibrium calculation restricted to the gas phase at 700 deg C produced values for the concentrations of the major off-gas constituents in very good agreement with the measured values. The further assumption that below 700 deg C all reactions are frozen appears to be reasonable. The latter assumption has consequently been extended to the formation of dioxins from the off-gas. Making use of the calculated data for 700 deg C, it was found that for dioxins to form in the amounts observed in practice, three further assumptions must be made: The formation of solid carbon must be suppressed, the oxygen partial pressure must be set to very low values and the C/H ratio must be >2, which implies that a large part of the hydrogen present does not take part in the reaction. With these assumptions, the calculated dioxin concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the measured values. Furthermore, the different dioxins appear with closely similar partial pressures. This is also in accordance with observation. The calculated TE concentrations increase along the length of the sinter strand in a similar manner to the observed values. Beyond Stage 10, the simulation reads to a further strong increase which is not found in reality. In the calculation, the oxygen and chlorine concentrations as well as the C/H ratio are kept constant along the length of the strand. What varies is the carbon content as given in the sum of CO{sub 2} + CO. It thus appears that the Cl/C ratio, which increases with strand length, strongly enhances the formation of dioxins. General conclusions which may be drawn from the present calculations with regard to restricting possible formation of dioxins are: increase the content of hydrogen-containing species in the system; decrease the chlorine content in the gas phase and if possible, avoid local extremely reducing conditions in the system. (author) 12 refs.

Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

1997-12-31

258

Thermodynamic analysis-based improvement for the boil-off gas reliquefaction process of liquefied ethylene vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new optimization design of the boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction process for liquefied ethylene (LEG) vessels is proposed in order to reduce the reliquefaction process energy cost and improve its cold exergy efficiency. The exergy loss of each component is calculated and the efficiency of the available energy utilization is evaluated on the basis of a detailed thermodynamic analysis. The exergy analysis results indicate that the exergy efficiency of the improved BOG reliquefaction process is about 19.0 % higher than that of the existing process, and the amount of refrigerant used in the improved process is reduced by about 44.9 % per hour. The power consumption could be decreased by 16 %. The circulation volumes of the refrigerant and BOG are both significantly reduced, thus lowering the equipment and operation costs of the BOG reliquefaction process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Li, Y.; Jin, G.; Zhong, Z. [South China University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Lab of Heat Transfer Enhancement and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China)

2012-10-15

259

Small sample performances of two tests for overidentifying restrictions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two new specification tests for overidentifying restrictions proposed by Hahn and Hausman (2002:b) are here tested and compared to the classical Sargan test. Power properties are found to be very similar in overall performance, while Sargan generally has better size than the new tests. Also, size is distorted for one of the new tests, thus a tendency to reject prevails. In addition, sometimes severe bias is found which affects the testsperformances, something that differs from earlier stu...

Tongur, Can

2006-01-01

260

Radiological Reclamation Performance Summary. Vol. I. Performance Test Data Compilation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A great deal of fallout reclamation-performance data was generated over the past decade that is useful to planners of radiological recovery operations. Because it was contained in a variety of reports and documents prepared by different agencies, this mat...

W. L. Owen F. K. Kawahara L. L. Wiltshire

1965-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Report on system test and performance  

CERN Document Server

The main goal of the update of LLRF at FLASH was to assure the system suitability to the constantly developing needs in the terms of performance and many abilities (reliability, availability, operability, maintainability, extensibility, flexibility).

Grecki, M

2013-01-01

262

Comparison of performance test for protective aprons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each one radioprotective apron (lead equivalent, 0.35 mmPb) was commercially available in November 1988 from 7 domestic and 3 foreign companies. According to the JIS standards 4803, these aprons were evaluated for the following items: (1) display of aprons, including packing and the structure; (2) non-breaking test, including appearance, size, lead equivalent, and uniformity; (3) breaking test, including lead equivalent, uniformity, stregth, and structure; (4) feeling of wearing an apron. An overall evaluation revealed that only two aprons were in accordance with the JIS standard. Careful wearing of the protective apron is stressed. (N.K.).

Fukutomi, Yukimi; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kawakami, Toshiaki (Ehime University Hospital (Japan))

1989-12-01

263

Comparison of performance test for protective aprons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each one radioprotective apron (lead equivalent, 0.35 mmPb) was commercially available in November 1988 from 7 domestic and 3 foreign companies. According to the JIS standards 4803, these aprons were evaluated for the following items: 1) display of aprons, including packing and the structure; 2) non-breaking test, including appearance, size, lead equivalent, and uniformity; 3) breaking test, including lead equivalent, uniformity, stregth, and structure; 4) feeling of wearing an apron. An overall evaluation revealed that only two aprons were in accordance with the JIS standard. Careful wearing of the protective apron is stressed. (N.K.)

1989-01-01

264

Performance testing of thermoelectric generators at JPL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several thermoelectric generators, ranging in output power from 170 watts to microwatts, are undergoing testing at JPL. They represent a wide range of technologies using advanced PbTe, SiGe and cascaded PbTe and BiTe thermoelectric materials. Several of these generators are of an advanced concept while others are representative of the Nimbus, Transit, Viking and the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) technology. Of interest is the behavior of generators which have been tested for times in excess of 60,000 hours

1975-08-17

265

Optical performance test & analysis of intraocular lenses  

Science.gov (United States)

Cataract is a condition in the eye that if left untreated, could lead to blindness. One of the effective ways to treat cataract is the removal of the cataractous natural crystalline lens and implantation of an artificial lens called an intraocular lens(IOL). The designs of the IOLs have shown improvements over the years to further imitate natural human vision. A need for an objective testing and analysis tool for the latest IOLs grow with the advancements of the IOLs. In this dissertation, I present a system capable of objective test and analysis of the advanced IOLs. The system consists of (1) Model eye into which an IOL can be inserted to mimic conditions of the human eye. (2) Modulation Transfer Function measurement setup capable of through-focus test for depth of field studies and polychromatic test for study of effects of chromatization. (3) Use of Defocus Transfer Function to simulate depth of field characteristic of rotationally symmetric multifocal designs and extension of the function to polychromatic conditions. (4) Several target imaging experiments for comparison of stray light artifacts and simulation using a non-sequential ray trace package.

Choi, Junoh

266

Performance testing of engineered corium cooling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Experiments tested two engineered corium cooling systems. ? The systems passively inject water into corium from below. ? These systems cool corium much faster than top flooding. - Abstract: The coolability of ex-vessel core debris continues to be an issue of concern in the realm of light water reactor safety. Extensive research into corium/concrete interaction phenomena has been unable to establish the certainty of melt quench and stabilization within the containment boundary for all credible cases of cooling restricted to top flooding. As a result, there has been continuing interest in engineered systems that can augment cooling. This paper describes the testing of two passive cooling concepts that inject water into corium from below via nozzles embedded within the basemat: one with porous concrete nozzles and the other with a type of composite nozzle. The latter supplements water injection with noncondensable gas to stabilize flow and suppress vapor explosions. Each test involved a 136 kg melt composed of 56/23/14 wt% UO2/ZrO2/siliceous concrete at an initial depth of 30 cm. The setup with the porous concrete nozzles successfully injected water into the melt at heads as low as 2.3 m. The composite nozzle test was partially successful, with three nozzles delivering coolant while a fourth was damaged by the melt and failed to inject water. The melts cooled twice as fast as similar ones tested in a top flooding configuration. These experiments confirmed earlier work at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere indicating that cooling via bottom water injection is a particularly effective method for quenching ex-vessel corium melts.

2012-02-01

267

Performance testing of engineered corium cooling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments tested two engineered corium cooling systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The systems passively inject water into corium from below. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These systems cool corium much faster than top flooding. - Abstract: The coolability of ex-vessel core debris continues to be an issue of concern in the realm of light water reactor safety. Extensive research into corium/concrete interaction phenomena has been unable to establish the certainty of melt quench and stabilization within the containment boundary for all credible cases of cooling restricted to top flooding. As a result, there has been continuing interest in engineered systems that can augment cooling. This paper describes the testing of two passive cooling concepts that inject water into corium from below via nozzles embedded within the basemat: one with porous concrete nozzles and the other with a type of composite nozzle. The latter supplements water injection with noncondensable gas to stabilize flow and suppress vapor explosions. Each test involved a 136 kg melt composed of 56/23/14 wt% UO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}/siliceous concrete at an initial depth of 30 cm. The setup with the porous concrete nozzles successfully injected water into the melt at heads as low as 2.3 m. The composite nozzle test was partially successful, with three nozzles delivering coolant while a fourth was damaged by the melt and failed to inject water. The melts cooled twice as fast as similar ones tested in a top flooding configuration. These experiments confirmed earlier work at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere indicating that cooling via bottom water injection is a particularly effective method for quenching ex-vessel corium melts.

Lomperski, S., E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States); Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)

2012-02-15

268

Tests performed with the improved MEGA spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an improved version of the MEGA (for multiechelle grating arrangement) spectrometer of Engman and Lindblom (1984) and the results of testing the improved instrument. The original MEGA instrument was improved by incorporating new gratings, an improved temperature control, and an improved grating clamping system which eliminated the deformation effects caused by the use of the old grating-mounting system. The spectral resolution of the improved system, determined in tests using a He-Ne laser and standard electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs) to obtain scans of Hg 5461 and Hg 4358 lines, was found to be limited by Doppler broadening in the EDL. The improved spectrometer was used for determining the velocity of a supersonic jet by measuring the Doppler shifts of spectral lines emitted by the beam atoms or molecules. Doppler shifts were found to be independent of the initial pressure within the measurement accuracy.

Gustafsson, Ove; Lindblom, Peter

1988-01-01

269

Ceramic breeder nuclear performance and testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: In support of the European development of a Helium Cooled Pebble Bed blanket concept, NRG is executing a comprehensive irradiation test programme. This comprises of testing the in-pile behaviour of various ternary lithium compounds, like MTi and OSi, and beryllium based neutron multiplier materials. The paper will present the recent results from in-pile and post irradiation testing of ceramic breeder materials, with: - Li-6 enrichments up to 70 %; - Temperatures in the range of 350 to 900 deg. C; - Power densities in the range from 15 to 60 W/cm3; - Lithium burn-up (total) in the range up to 11% for OSi and 17% for MTi; - Pebble-bed minimum dimension from 2 to 11 mm thickness; - Various level of constraint, e.g. simulating swelling effects. The results will be presented in terms of tritium release characteristics, pebble integrity and tritium inventory. Initial results from the Pebble-Bed Assembly post-irradiation examinations will be presented. These include mostly cross - sectional; microscopy. Currently three major irradiation tests are ongoing: the HIDOBE-01 and -02 irradiations, targeting at 3000 and 6000 appm He respectively, and HICU, where Li ceramic pebble-stacks are irradiated up to 20 dpa and up to DEMO EOL burnups. The paper will finally focus on the implications of the current programme on further development and qualification work for the HCPB concept. It will address the compilation of materials data for breeding blanket behaviour in ITER and DEMO, and identify key issues for further development. This work is carried out within the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement. It is supported by the European Communities under the contract of Association EURATOM/ FOM, Research Unit NRG, and the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs. (authors)

2007-12-10

270

Collaborative Group Testing Benefits High- and Low-Performing Students  

Science.gov (United States)

We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing…

Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2008-01-01

271

49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash test performance and survivability...EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash test performance and survivability...exist at the completion of the crash test, and be retrievable by the...

2010-10-01

272

49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crash test performance and survivability...EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash test performance and survivability...exist at the completion of the crash test, and be retrievable by the...

2012-10-01

273

Thermoplastic encapsulation treatability study for a mixed waste incinerator off-gas scrubbing solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate thermoplastic encapsulation as a treatment for an aqueous blowdown mixed waste to be generated at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site. Non-radioactive CIF blowdown surrogate, dried in a stirred vacuum dryer, was stabilized at relatively high waste loadings (45--62 wt%) using modified sulfur cement, bitumen, and low-density polyethylene. All samples tested exceeded 3.45 MPa (500 psi) in compressive strength, and water immersion for 90 days did not produce any adverse impacts on waste form integrity. In each case, ignition temperature was well above the process temperature, and the materials self extinguished when cooled below the self ignition temperature. Leachability of toxic metals from simulated waste encapsulated in polyethylene was about 4 times lower than modified sulfur cement or bitumen test samples. Polyethylene waste forms containing up to 35 wt% pretreated waste easily passed EPA land disposal regulation limits

1993-11-01

274

Condenser and feedwater heater computerized performance testing and diagnostic programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate interpretation of performance-test results can lead to improved unit heat-rate and reduced equipment failure or damage when appropriate and timely corrective actions are taken. Aware of the difficulties inherent in performance testing as well as the need for a PC-based tool to support performance engineers in power plant problem diagnosis, NYSEG and ENCOR commenced developing (in 1990) the Computerized Performance Test Program (CPTP). CPTP is designed to ease performance testing, enhance the quality of performance-test results and provide correct diagnostics and recommendations for actions to the performance-test engineer and power-operations management. To accomplish these goals, CPTP utilizes expert algorithms based on the years of experience accumulated by the engineering staffs at NYSEG and ENCOR. Such experience is demonstrated by the extensive guidance provided by CPTP regarding the prioritization of equipment testing and the preparation and execution of the proper test procedures. Equally insightful are the interpretation of the test results and the corrective actions prescribed to solve diagnosed problems. For all these reasons, CPTP is an effective training tool for plant personnel to improve the performance of the condenser and feedwater heaters and plan the maintenance of any power plant. Currently, NYSEG and Portland General Electric (PGE) are using CPTP modules for performance testing, diagnostic and training purposes.

Diaz-Tous, I.A.; Mateos, M.A. [Encor-America, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

275

CPTP: a computerized performance testing and diagnostic program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate interpretation of performance-test results can lead to improved unit heat-rate and reduced equipment failure or damage when appropriate and timely corrective actions are taken. Aware of the difficulties inherent in performance testing as well as the need for a PC-based tool to support performance engineers in powerplant problem diagnosis, NYSEG and ENCOR commenced developing (in 1990) the Computerized Performance Test Program (CPTP). CPTP is designed to ease performance testing, enhance the quality of performance-test results and provide correct diagnostics and recommendations for actions to the performance-test engineer and power-operations management. To accomplish these goals, CPTP utilizes expert algorithms based on the years of experience accumulated by the engineering staffs at NYSEG and ENCOr. Such experience is demonstrated by the extensive guidance provided by CPTP regarding the prioritization of equipment testing and the preparation and execution of the proper test procedures. Equally insightful is the interpretation of the test results and the prescribed corrective actions to solve inferred problems. For all these reasons, CPTP becomes an effective training tool for plant personnel to improve the performance and plan the maintenance of any power plant. At this writing, NYSEG and Portland General maintenance of any power plant. At this writing, NYSEG and Portland General Electric (PGE) are using CPTP modules for performance testing, diagnostic and training purposes.

Diaz-Tous, I.A.; Mateos, M.A.; Kisacky, R.J. [and others

1995-06-01

276

Performance testing of HTHP electrostic precipitator at NYU PFBC facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss an ongoing research program to test three types of high-pressure, high-temperature filters. The main objectives of the testing program are: to establish the performance capability of the filters under high-pressure and high-collection efficiency. Shakedown tests for a duration of about 50 hours was completed during October 1986. Testing of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is in progress. The first test with ESP was performed during the middle of November 1986. The operating experience with respect to the test facility, and in particular with the particulate sampling systems, is reported in this paper. Additionally, some test results are also discussed.

Radhakrishnan, R.; Gounder, P.K.; Kavidass, S.; Zakkay, V. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Applied Science); Dellefield, R. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA))

1988-01-01

277

A Study on Volatile and Chemical Characteristics of Off-Gas Trapping Filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile behaviors on ceramic spent filters at high temperature were studied using TGA equipment in order to find optimal immobilizing processes. It was found that cesium does not volatilized at over 1000 .deg. C, and rhenium starts to volatilized at near 700 .deg. C. However, volatilized mass could not be found exactly since moisture was absorbed to AgX during the trapping of iodine. The analysis of SEM-EDX and XRD were performed, to confirm that cesium was converted to pollicite, rhenium to calcium rhenium oxide, and iodine to AgI

2010-01-01

278

Collaborative group testing benefits high- and low-performing students  

Science.gov (United States)

We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing the exam as individuals, students answered the same questions in groups of two, and, finally, the same questions were discussed by the instructor and students. We measured two learning outcomes for every student: individual and group test scores. Based on individual test scores, students were categorized as "high performing" (students with higher individual scores) or "low performing" (students with lower individual scores). Finally, student evaluations of the format were collected. Collaborative group testing enhanced student performance. Specifically, group scores were higher than individual scores (P performing students; however, the collaborative testing effect was small for the high-performing students. Finally, student evaluations of this testing format were very positive. In conclusion, collaborative group testing was beneficial for all students; however, collaborative testing was significantly more beneficial for low-performing students.

Maurico J. Giuliodori (Univ Nacional De La Plata Dept Physiology); Heidi L. Lujan (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology); PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology)

2008-12-01

279

Experimental test of liquid droplet radiator performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is evolving rapidly as a lightweight system for heat rejection in space power systems. By using recirculating free streams of submillimeter droplets to radiate waste energy directly to space, the LDR can potentially be an order of magnitude lighter than conventional radiator systems which radiate from solid surfaces. The LDR is also less vulnerable to micrometeoroid damage than are conventional radiators, and it has a low transport volume. Three major development issues of this new heat rejection system are the ability to direct the droplet streams with sufficient precision to avoid fluid loss, radiative performance of the array of droplet streams which comprise the radiating elements of the LDR, and the efficacy of the droplet stream collector, again with respect to fluid loss. This paper reports experimental results bearing on the first two issues - droplet aiming in a multikilowatt-sized system, and radiated power from a large droplet array. Parallel efforts on droplet collection and LDR system design are being pursued by several research groups

1986-01-13

280

Plastic scintillator based 85Kr monitor for coral off gas monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring the release of tritium and 85Kr from the reprocessing operations is carried out in VOG system of CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing of Advanced fuels in Lead cells) with a sampling system designed accordingly to meet the requirements. While tritium is being collected in the system using the well established bubbler method which is analysed off-line and 85Kr is monitored on-line using a GM detector. Existing sampling was modified due to practical difficulties experienced. After the experience of few campaigns of measurements, consequent modifications carried out in sampling setup, the GM based 85Kr monitoring system was replaced with a plastic scintillator based system. This paper highlights the subsequent performance evaluation of the system carried out at CORAL. (author)

2012-12-12

 
 
 
 
281

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

282

Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to continues research to improve existing ratings and develop new ones. NFRC needs to continue the work it has begun in several nations to implement the NFRC rating system that has been introduced. Many nations are eager to accept the expertise NFRC can offer to achieve energy conservation goals. NFRC looks forward to a continues partnership with the US Department of Energy to cooperatively achieve both.

Jim Benney

2009-11-30

283

Catalytic O_2- and NOsub(x)-removal: a process step for an off-gas cleaning system in reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The last step of an off-gas purification system for future reprocessing plants of spent nuclear fuels is the retention of the radioactive krypton. If a cryogenic distillation process is chosen for this step, O_2 and NOsub(x) must be removed prior to the cryogenic part in order to avoid radiolytic formation of ozone and crystallization problems, respectively. Simultaneous catalytic reduction with H_2 was chosen using ruthenium on A1_2O_3 as catalyst. The process step was tested in a semiscale unit with a gas throughput of 50 m"3/h. The feed-gas was diluted by N_2 in a gas loop by a factor of 10, to prevent formation of explosive gas mixtures. Residual O_2- and NOsub(x)-concentrations 1 ppmv were attained routinely in the temperature range of the catalyst between 350"0C and 550"0C and at space velocities (GHVS) between 10000 and 15000 h"-"1. Formation of CH_4 is very low (<= 0.5 ppmv) because of the high temperature of the catalyst and the high moisture content of the gas loop (around 5 Vol.-% H_2O). H_2 feed control is carried out by means of chemical analysis of O_2 and NOsub(x) in the feed gas by calculating the necessary H_2 amount and controlling the main H_2-valve with a microcomputer. An additional small H_2-valve is controlled by analysis of the H_2 excess behind the catalyst bed. Even large concentration transients of O_2 and NOsub(x) can thus be handled by the catalyst without breakthrough. (author)

1986-01-01

284

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility  

Science.gov (United States)

...The performance test will be performed on the proving ground and will measure...gradeability with the test vehicle operated...The gradeability capabilities will be calculated both from the test data and a test...at the proving ground. a....

2009-10-01

285

Evaluation of spacer grid support performance by vibration test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four 5x5 spacer grids for a PWR fuel assembly were manufactured, and performed the spacer's support performance test that is one of the mechanical tests for the spacer grid. Among the specimen, two spacer grids have the traditional spring-to-dimple supporting configuration, and the others the spring-to-spring feature. The supporting performance test as an out-of-pile test is a kind of vibration test because it is the evaluation test for capability in restraining a fuel rod from vibrating. Since the nonlinear characteristic of the vibration behavior of the fuel rod was appreciated, input force from shaker was controlled to use the same force for every test. It was resulted that the maximum displacements were Obtained at the first resonant frequency in most cases while some at third resonance frequency, and the supporting performance of new spacer grids were as good as, or better than that of the reference spacer grid

2001-01-01

286

Evaluation of spacer grid support performance by vibration test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four 5x5 spacer grids for a PWR fuel assembly were manufactured, and performed the spacer's support performance test that is one of the mechanical tests for the spacer grid. Among the specimen, two spacer grids have the traditional spring-to-dimple supporting configuration, and the others the spring-to-spring feature. The supporting performance test as an out-of-pile test is a kind of vibration test because it is the evaluation test for capability in restraining a fuel rod from vibrating. Since the nonlinear characteristic of the vibration behavior of the fuel rod was appreciated, input force from shaker was controlled to use the same force for every test. It was resulted that the maximum displacements were Obtained at the first resonant frequency in most cases while some at third resonance frequency, and the supporting performance of new spacer grids were as good as, or better than that of the reference spacer grid.

Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Lee, Kang Hee

2001-01-01

287

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, in which natural condition soil can be used as testing materials, were carried out to study the migration behavior of radionuclides in a natural barrier. The apparatuses consist of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones, the air control apparatus, the measurement apparatuses of water and radionuclide moving velocities, etc. As performance tests, characteristics tests were done for these apparatuses and overall test of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones was also done under the actual test condition. It was confirmed that the all of apparatuses have achieved the designated performance requirements. This report describes the results of performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, which is categorized into three parts, that is, objective, method and result. (author)

1986-01-01

288

Removal of methyl parathion from artificial off-gas using a bioreactor containing a constructed microbial consortium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl parathion (MP), a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide, was widely used for agriculture crop protection. During the production of MP and the process of MP-containing wastewater treatment, MP can release into the atmosphere and will do great harm to adjacent communities. A consortium comprised of an engineered microorganism and a natural p-nitrophenol (PNP) degrader was assembled for complete mineralization of MP. We genetically engineered Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) enabling the overexpression of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH). In addition, we isolated Ochrobactrum sp. strain LL-1 that utilized PNP, a product of MP hydrolysis, as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. The coculture effectively hydrolyzed 0.2 mM MP and prevented the accumulation of PNP in suspended culture. A laboratory-scale bioreactor containing the dual-species consortium was developed for the treatment of artificial off-gas containing MP. The bioreactor maintained over 98% of average MP removal efficiency over a 75 day period, and PNP produced from hydrolysis of MP was degraded completely, indicating that complete mineralization of MP was achieved. The strategy of linking degrading consortium to a bioreactor may provide an alternative to physicochemical abatement technologies for the treatment of waste-gas streams containing MP as well as other PNP-substituted organophosphates. PMID:18409649

Li, Lin; Yang, Chao; Lan, Wensheng; Xie, Shan; Qiao, Chuanling; Liu, Junxin

2008-03-15

289

NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-08-30

290

Performance demonstration tests for detection of intergranular stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report evaluates detection tests of inservice inspectors (ISI), procedures and equipment that are employed to find intergranular stress corrosion cracks in nuclear power plant piping. Performance is described by two fundamental parameters: false call probability and probability of detection. Acceptable inspection performance and detection tests are therefore defined in terms of these two parameters. 14 refs., 25 figs

1986-01-01

291

Performance of the test control system using Java/CORBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to research the control system for 'Super SOR', we have developed the test bench of the control system and evaluated its performance. We use Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the framework for the control system, and Java as the programming language for the graphical user interface. This paper describes the test bench and its performance. (author)

2005-07-01

292

49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash test performance and survivability...Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash test performance and survivability...49 CFR 571.208, Occupant crash protection, must...

2010-10-01

293

Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests.Methods: Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31 and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31. The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW, FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW. Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test. Results: Significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for all the functional performance tests (FPTs except the single hop test between FAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (P<0.05 than the contra-lateral uninvolved limb of the FAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs.Conclusion: Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance.

Jaspal Singh Sandhu

2011-12-01

294

Performance testing framework for smart grid communication network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smart grid communication network is comprised of different communication mediums and technologies. Performance evaluation is one of the main concerns in smart grid communication system. In any smart grid communication implementation, to determine the performance factor of the network, a testing of an end-to-end process flow is required. Therefore, an effective and coordinated testing procedure plays a crucial role in evaluating the performance of smart grid communications. In this paper, a testing framework is proposed as a guideline to analyze and assess the performance of smart grid communication network.

2013-06-17

295

Performance testing framework for smart grid communication network  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart grid communication network is comprised of different communication mediums and technologies. Performance evaluation is one of the main concerns in smart grid communication system. In any smart grid communication implementation, to determine the performance factor of the network, a testing of an end-to-end process flow is required. Therefore, an effective and coordinated testing procedure plays a crucial role in evaluating the performance of smart grid communications. In this paper, a testing framework is proposed as a guideline to analyze and assess the performance of smart grid communication network.

Quang, D. N.; See, O. H.; Chee, L. L.; Xuen, C. Y.; Karuppiah, S.

2013-06-01

296

Human immunodeficiency virus test evaluation, performance, and use. Proposals to make good tests better.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests are essential for detecting asymptomatic infection and are helpful in confirming the diagnoses of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Nonetheless, many aspects of their use remain controversial, partly because of concerns about test accuracy. This article reviews the scientific basis for the evaluation, performance, and use of the most commonly employed HIV assays. Current test performance could be improved by better standardization of test procedures and institution of mandatory proficiency testing and licensure of clinical laboratories that perform HIV testing. Test utility could be enhanced by sequencing tests more appropriately and by interpreting test results in conjunction with the clinical purpose for which the test is being used and the characteristics of the population under study. Finally, HIV tests should be evaluated in a manner that minimizes spectrum and referral bias and inadequate reference standard confirmation, problems that have affected the evaluation of current tests. PMID:3282084

Schwartz, J S; Dans, P E; Kinosian, B P

1988-05-01

297

CISN Testing Center ShakeAlert Performance Summaries  

Science.gov (United States)

SCEC and CISN ShakeAlert researchers have developed an operational testing system for the CISN ShakeAlert system called the CISN Testing Center (CTC). The CTC generates two main types of ShakeAlert performance summaries: (1) Event Summaries (for each significant California event), and (2) Cumulative Summaries (for ShakeAlert system performance over a specific period of time). Event Summaries are generated for each M3.0 and larger ANSS catalog California earthquake. Event Summaries show performance of the individual ShakeAlert algorithms, and the performance of the Decision Module that sends the public communications. Cumulative Summaries show ShakeAlert performance for a given earthquake catalog. In general, CTC Cumulative Summaries compare ShakeAlert forecast parameters, such as location and magnitude, against final observed parameters in the ANSS earthquake catalog. The CTC processing system uses the SCEC CSEP open-source scientific testing framework to automate the test processing. This testing framework provides tools to retrieve catalog data retrieval for ANSS and other catalog sources, software utilities for filtering earthquake catalogs by region and magnitude, and utilities for automating performance summary generation. The CTC system calculates performance summaries for the CISN ShakeAlert system on a daily basis. Each day, twenty-four hours of California earthquakes are retrieved from the ANSS catalog, and the testing center retrieves ShakeAlert logs for each event, and compares the forecasts to the observations. The CTC testing approach is intended to be open, transparent, and well defined so that all testing center results can be reproduced externally. The CTC ShakeAlert testing system provides standardized, and repeatable, testing of the ShakeAlert algorithms and decision modules, along with overall ShakeAlert system performance evaluation, providing robust testing capabilities with low development and operations cost by leveraging the capabilities of the CSEP testing center software.

Maechling, P. J.; Liukis, M.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

298

A survey on Cattle Performance Testing Centres in Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Performance test is the main selection tool for beef and dual purpose cattle, but it is used also in dairy cattle, despite the different aim of testing in this case. This study has aimed to obtain all available information about organisation and characteristic of performance test in Italy carried out in year 2006 by Italian Cattle Breeders Associations. The results of the survey here reported have the final aim of exploiting actual organization of selection processes carried out in Italy for ...

Fiorella Sbarra; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Roberto Mantovani

2010-01-01

299

Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

2002-01-01

300

NUCLEBRAS installations for performance tests of nuclear power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reasons for NUCLEBRAS' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufacturers, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of the facilities under construction: the Components Test Loop and the Facility for Testing N.P.P. Components under Accident Conditions, and of other already in operation, is given, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results already obtained are also presented. (Author)

1984-10-08

 
 
 
 
301

Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

1994-06-01

302

Performance based testing and maintenance for check valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a methodology for optimizing check valve testing and maintenance activities. Generic Letter 89-04, open-quotes Guidance on Developing Acceptable Inservice Testing Programsclose quotes, and the 1989 Edition of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code specify the current requirements for testing of check valves. Recent advances in technology and the trend toward performance-based approaches to testing and maintenance represent an opportunity to reduce check valve operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes an evaluation methodology that leads to the specification of an optimum set of inservice testing and maintenance activities for a plant check valve population. The process involves analyzing check valve performance based on preestablished performance attributes. Attributes include relative consequence of failure, historical reliability, maintenance frequency, physical degradation, and service fluid. Each check valve is numerically scored based on the valves' performance against the stated attributes. This score is used to justify a reprioritization of check valve work activities such that safety-significant (high-risk), poor performing valves receive a higher degree of maintenance and testing rigor, while good performing check valves receive less. Applying this methodology may allow justifications for alternative testing and maintenance to be developed and substantiated on the basis of valve performance characteristics versus across-the-board implementation of the ASME Code requirements

1994-07-01

303

MC and A performance testing status: an OSE evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past few years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) inspections identified performance testing deficiencies in both contractor nuclear material control and accountability (MC ampersand A) programs and field office nuclear material survey programs. Questions about the usefulness and effectiveness of these DOE performance testing programs prompted this evaluation. Information about MC ampersand A performance testing was solicited from DOE sites and compared with results of OSE inspections of nuclear materials survey programs and contractor MC ampersand A programs. This paper summaries the results of this evaluation and highlights those systems that have received minimal attention as well as those that have been adequately reviewed using performance testing programs. Conclusions are presented and recommendations are made. A catalog of performance tests was generated from this evaluation using input from the field and OSE inspections that will enhance performance testing programs. In addition, a compilation of information generated from OSE inspections is discussed that related these performance tests to the DOE MC ampersand A Standards and Criteria. 4 refs

1991-07-28

304

Expectancy of an open-book test decreases performance on a delayed closed-book test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the influence of practice with, and the expectancy of, open-book tests (students viewed studied material while taking the test) versus closed-book tests (students completed the test without viewing the studied material) on delayed retention and transfer. Using GRE materials specifically designed for open-book testing, participants studied passages and then took initial open- or closed-book tests. Open-book testing led to better initial performance than closed-book testing, but on a delayed criterial (closed-book) test both types of testing produced similar retention after a two-day delay in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 participants were informed in advance about the type of delayed criterial test to expect (open- or closed-book). Expecting an open-book test (relative to a closed-book test) decreased participants' time spent studying and their delayed test performance on closed-book comprehension and transfer tests, demonstrating that test expectancy can influence long-term learning. Expectancy of open-book tests may impair long-term retention and transfer compared to closed-book tests, despite superior initial performance on open-book tests and students' preference for open-book tests. PMID:21995673

Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

2011-11-01

305

Tests of passive autocatalytic recombiner performance for BWR application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes overview of the test program to confirm passive autocatalytic recombiner performance for BWR application, and the first result obtained from the initial part of the test program. The program consists of separate effect test using catalyst test loop to investigate recombiner performance under various atmospheric conditions, and test for startup behavior and recombiner capability in the scaled test vessel. The catalyst test loop is designed so that inlet/exit gas concentration and gas/catalyst temperature can be measured, varying flow rate, gas content or presence of poisoning material. As the first stage, a series of tests was conducted, simulating natural circulation flow rate inside containment, inert (low oxygen concentration) atmosphere, and poisoning material concentration assumed in the conventional licensing evaluation of radiological consequence. The test data suggest that catalytic recombiner has sufficient performance in the BWR specific (inert) condition, and under presence of poisoning material postulated in hypothetical accident condition. The effect of low oxygen concentration or containment spray water on startup behavior and recombiner performance will be investigated in the following vessel test series. (author)

2000-11-01

306

Overview on MOX fuel for LWRs: Design, performance and testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This overview looks at the historical background to the design, performance and testing of LWR MOX fuel over the last 30 to 40 years. It briefly examines the scenarios which encouraged the development of MOX fuel for utilisation in LWRs and looks at the design changes required on moving from UO_2 to MOX fuel. The paper summarises the national irradiation testing programmes, the commercial developments and performance data obtained throughout this period, highlighting those aspects which have had an impact on manufacturing and design choices. The paper thus provides the historical background information for the contributed papers in Session 3 (Fuel Design, Performance and Testing) of the symposium. (author)

1999-05-17

307

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I2 + I I3-NH3OH+ + 2 I2 + H2O ->HNO2 + 4 I- + 5 H+; NH3OH+ + HNO2 -> N2O + 2 H2O + H-+ 2HNO2 + 2 I- + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I2 + H2O). (authors)

1996-06-10

308

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I{sub 2} + I <=> I{sub 3}{sup -}NH{sub 3}OH{sup +} + 2 I{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O ->HNO{sub 2} + 4 I{sup -} + 5 H{sup +}; NH{sub 3}OH{sup +} + HNO{sub 2} -> N{sub 2}O + 2 H{sub 2}O + H-+ 2HNO{sub 2} + 2 I{sup -} + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O). (authors). 12 refs.

Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Devisme, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Chopin, J.; Vargas, S.

1996-12-31

309

Performance Testing of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers  

CERN Document Server

The production, installation, and testing of 468 cathode strip chambers for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment played a critical role in the preparation of the endcap muon system for the final commissioning. Common testing procedures and sets of standard equipment were used at 5 international assembly centers. The chambers were then thoroughly retested after shipment to CERN. Final testing was performed after chamber installation on the steel disks in the CMS detector assembly building. The structure of the detector quality control procedure is presented along with the results of chamber performance validation tests.

Breedon, Richard; Andreev, M. Tripathi V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Lisowsky, B; Matthey, Christina; Rakness, Gregory; Wenman, Daniel

2009-01-01

310

Performance Testing Methodology for Safety-Critical Programmable Logic Controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for use in Nuclear Power Plant safety-related applications is being developed and tested first time in Korea. This safety-related PLC is being developed with requirements of regulatory guideline and industry standards for safety system. To test that the quality of the developed PLC is sufficient to be used in safety critical system, document review and various product testings were performed over the development documents for S/W, H/W, and V/V. This paper provides the performance testing methodology and its effectiveness for PLC platform conducted by KOPEC.

Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ho; Sohn, Se Do [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

311

Performance Testing Methodology for Safety-Critical Programmable Logic Controller  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for use in Nuclear Power Plant safety-related applications is being developed and tested first time in Korea. This safety-related PLC is being developed with requirements of regulatory guideline and industry standards for safety system. To test that the quality of the developed PLC is sufficient to be used in safety critical system, document review and various product testings were performed over the development documents for S/W, H/W, and V/V. This paper provides the performance testing methodology and its effectiveness for PLC platform conducted by KOPEC

2009-05-01

312

The Impact of Test Anxiety on Test Performance among Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an affective factor, test-taking anxiety has been investigated in different contexts in the
past two decades. However, the mixed results of the relationship between test-taking anxiety and
L2 learners’ test performance show that the instrumentation for the assessment of test-taking
anxiety and the factors comprising the construct of test-taking anxiety trait requires more
investigation in order to shed more light on the issue. To this end, a test-taking anxiety
questionnaire (Sarason, 1975 [27] and a general English test were administered to 164 ESP
students of Engineering enrolled in a B.A. program to document (a the degree of their test taking
anxiety, (b the relationship between test-taking anxiety and test performance, and (c the factor
loadings of anxiety based on exploratory factor analysis. The results show that L2 learners’ test
anxiety is rather low, with most of its components having no significant negative correlation with
test performance. The results of exploratory factor analysis reveal the loading of test anxiety trait
on the rather overlapping three factors of specific test anxiety, general test anxiety, and test preparation anxiety. However, out of these factors, general test anxiety, due to its functioning at the higher-order affective level, has a significant negative correlation with test performance. By contrast, test preparation anxiety, in view of facilitating test performance, manifests a positive, albeit non-significant, correlation with test performance. The results have two implications: (a as the correlations and loadings on test anxiety factors proved to be of both negative and positive types, the anxiety questionnaire is not monolithic and hence it is not a proper measure in case the linear relationship between test anxiety and test performance is the focus of the study; and (b test anxiety does not seem to much influence on test performance at the micro- test-specific level.

Minoo Alemi

2010-09-01

313

Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

2005-04-29

314

Performance Test of Cooling System for Kepco Hts Power Cable  

Science.gov (United States)

A cooling system for a 3-phase 100-m HTS power cable with 22.9kV/1.25kA was installed and tested at the KEPCO's Gochang power testing center in Korea. The system consists of a liquid nitrogen decompression cooing system with a cooling capacity of 3kW at 66K and a closed circulation system of subcooled liquid nitrogen. Several cooling performance tests of the cable system such as cooling capacity, heat load, AC loss and temperature stability, were performed at operating temperature of 66.4K. Thermal cycle test which is cool-down to liquid nitrogen temperature and warm-up to room temperature, was also performed to investigate thermal cycle influences. This paper describes the installed cooling system, temperature stability and heat load test results.

Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Lee, B. S.; Choi, Y. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Ryoo, H. S.; Hwang, S. D.

2008-03-01

315

Distillation as a means of separating krypton from the off-gas of a reprocessing plant for graphite-coated HTR fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT-II facility is described, which is designed for an off-gas throughput of 10 Nm3/h. The low-pressure section is for primary purification in several steps, whereas in the high-pressure CO2 section (70 bar, 200C) the separation of Kr-85 by means of distillation is achieved. The parameters for the design of the rectifying columns have been determined experimentally. (HP)

1984-01-01

316

Laboratory evaluation of Zeolite molecular sieve 3A for adsorption of tritiated water vapor from HTGR fuel reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zeolite molecular sieve 3A, a commercial adsorbent, was evaluated for removing water vapor from a CO2 gas stream. The technology was developed for tritium oxide recovery from the primary and secondary burner off-gas from High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing. Zeolite 3A was found to be an effective adsorbent in the presence of CO2, and its regenerative property enables water desorption for collection and storage

1978-01-01

317

Validated Intraclass Correlation Statistics to Test Item Performance Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new method, with an application program in Matlab code, is proposed for testing item performance models on empirical databases. This method uses data intraclass correlation statistics as expected correlations to which one compares simple functions of correlations between model predictions and observed item performance. The method rests on a data population model whose validity for the considered data is suitably tested, and has been verified for three behavioural measure d...

Courrieu, Pierre; Brand-d Abrescia, Muriele; Peereman, Ronald; Spieler, Daniel; Rey, Arnaud

2010-01-01

318

Performance Analysis of Hybrid Desiccant Chiller Based on Field Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field tests of hybrid desiccant cooling systems were conducted from July to August 2011. Data were monitored and transferred in real time over the Internet. The monitored variables were analyzed to determine the performance characteristics under outdoor conditions. A series of system simulations has been conducted for outdoor conditions of the field tests. The results agree well with the experimental data in general. The system performance has been shown to deteriorate for wetter conditions, as predicted by the simulation.

Ahn, Joon; Yun, Changho; Kang, Byung Ha [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

319

SILEX final ground testing and in-flight performance assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

SILEX (Semi-Conductor Inter-satellite Link EXperiment) consists of one optical terminal on-board the French LEO observation satellite SPOT 4, and another on-board the European GEO telecommunication satellite ARTEMIS. While the first part of the SILEX verification plan had been oriented towards verification at equipment and subsystem levels, the final stages have mainly been devoted to terminal and system (terminals coupling effects) verification. During this final stage, a thermal vacuum test was conducted in a class 100- cleanliness environment with optical ground support equipment of outstanding performances. The obtained tests results, used to determine software compensations and verify optical and static pointing performances, have been entered into overall system simulation models to finalize flight performances budgets. In addition, systems tests were performed on each terminal with respective partner simulator to validate system simulation models and assess link performances and robustness and to verify communication bit error rate.

Planche, Gilles; Laurent, Bernard; Guillen, Jean-Claude; Chorvalli, V.; Desplats, Eric

1999-04-01

320

Performance of a Large Vacuum Facility for Spacecraft Propulsion Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

A Large Vacuum Test Facility has been developed at AEROSPAZIO Tecnologie with the aim of providing high qualified test services in Electric Propulsion and Space Simulation. The test facility consist of a stainless steel cylinder 3.8 m diameter and 11.5 m overall length. A modular cryopumping system allows 200.000 l/s continuous pumping speed of Xe. Beam diagnostics, including Faraday probes and Retarding Potential Analysers, have been installed. A test campaign aimed at evaluating the EMC characteristics of the test site has been performed.

Scortecci, F.; Bonelli, E.; Michelozzi, B.; Saito, F.; Scaranzin, S.; Turco, A.

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

2005-07-01

322

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C 17510  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of test programs was undertaken on copper beryllium alloy C 17510 for several variations in material process and chemistry. These variations in C 17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C 17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C 17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing (E813, E399) and fatigue crack growth rate tests (E647), as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature

1992-11-16

323

Universal performance-testing facility in modular construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Institute for Automotive Engineering and Piston Engines of the University of the Bundeswehr Hamburg, a performance-testing facility incorporating a number of technical innovations has been put into operation. It was designed as a modular system capable of being rearranged into different test rigs by having a few of its mechanical components recombined to test entire vehicle drivetrains or components thereof such as engines, transmissions, clutches, torque converters or tracks, or to test vehicle's brakes. The facility features a high degree of control accuracy, which becomes particularly evident in simulation of a vehicle's mass inertia when it is used as a brake dynamometer. The new twin brake test rig is capable of providing test data on a brake system as a whole. Anoter version of special interest is the tracked-vehicle test rig in which turning resistance can be stimulated. This version is state of the art in tracked-vehicle test equipment.

Schmid, I.; Weyland, H.W.; Ehlert, W.; Fietz, G.

1984-11-01

324

Human performance in nondestructive inspections and functional tests: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human performance plays a vital role in the inspections and tests conducted to assure the physical integrity of nuclear power plants. Even when technically-sophisticated equipment is employed, the outcome is highly dependent on human control actions, calibrations, observations, analyses, and interpretations. The principal consequences of inadequate performance are missed or falsely-reported defects. However, the cost-avoidance that stems from addressing potential risks promptly, and the increasing costs likely with aging plants, emphasize that timeliness and efficiency are important inspection-performance considerations also. Human performance issues were studied in a sample of inspections and tests regularly conducted in nuclear power plants. These tasks, selected by an industry advisory panel, were: eddy-current inspection of steam-generator tubes; ultrasonic inspection of pipe welds; inservice testing of pumps and valves; and functional testing of shock suppressors. Information was obtained for the study from industry and plant procedural documents; training materials; research reports and related documents; interviews with training specialists, inspectors, supervisory personnel, and equipment designers; and first-hand observations of task performance. Eleven recommendations are developed for improving human performance on nondestructive inspections and functional tests. Two recommendations were for the more-effective application of existing knowledge; nine recommendations were for research projects that should be undertaken to assure continuing improvements in human performance on these tasks. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

1988-01-01

325

Thermal Performance Testing of EMU and OSS Liquid Cooling Garments  

Science.gov (United States)

A test was conducted to evaluate three factors influencing the thermal performance of liquid cooling garments (LCG): (1) the comparable thermal performance of an Oceaneering developed engineering evaluation unit (EEU) prototype LDG, (2) the effect of the thermal comfort undergarment (TCU), and (3) the performance of a torso or upper body only LCG configuration. To evaluate the thermal performance of each configuration a metabolic test was conducted, utilizing suited subjects to generate the metabolic heat. For this study three (3) test subjects of similar health and weight produced a metabolic load on the LDG configuration by either resting (300-600 BTU/hr), walking at a slow pace (1200 BRU/hr), and walking at a brisk pace (2200 BTU/hr), as outlined in Figure 1, the metabolic profile. During the test, oxygen consumption, heart rate, relative humidity, air flow, inlet and outlet air pressure, inlet and outlet air temperature, delta air temperature, water flow (100 lb/hr), inlet water temperature (64 F), delta water temperature, water pressure, core body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat loss data was recorded. Four different test configurations were tested, with one configuration tested twice, as outlined in Table 1. The test was conducted with the suit subjects wearing the Demonstrator Suit, pressurized to vent pressure (approximately 0.5 psig). The demonstrator suit has an integrated ventilation duct system and was used to create a relevant environment with a captured ventilation return, an integrated vent tree, and thermal insulation from the environment.

Rhodes, Richard; Bue, Grant; Hakam, Mary

2012-01-01

326

Performance test codes for gas turbines and measurement uncertainties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different recommendations of performance test codes of the ASME and of the ISO may cause different measurement uncertainties. The paper surveys the relevant differences and their consequences on the test results: power output, efficiency, exhaust mass flow and turbine inlet temperature. Measuring uncertainties of importance are pointed out.

Pfost, H.

1999-07-01

327

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test...

C. E. Hughes R. J. Jeracki R. P. Woodward C. J. Miller

2005-01-01

328

Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m2 high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun

2013-05-01

329

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2013-03-01

330

Validated intraclass correlation statistics to test item performance models.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method, with an application program in Matlab code, is proposed for testing item performance models on empirical databases. This method uses data intraclass correlation statistics as expected correlations to which one compares simple functions of correlations between model predictions and observed item performance. The method rests on a data population model whose validity for the considered data is suitably tested and has been verified for three behavioural measure databases. Contrarily to usual model selection criteria, this method provides an effective way of testing under-fitting and over-fitting, answering the usually neglected question "does this model suitably account for these data?" PMID:21287127

Courrieu, Pierre; Brand-D'abrescia, Muriele; Peereman, Ronald; Spieler, Daniel; Rey, Arnaud

2011-03-01

331

Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report.

McKinnon, M.A.; DeLoach, V.A.

1993-04-01

332

Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report

1993-01-01

333

The Impact of Test Anxiety on Test Performance among Iranian EFL Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As an affective factor, test-taking anxiety has been investigated in different contexts in the
past two decades. However, the mixed results of the relationship between test-taking anxiety and
L2 learners’ test performance show that the instrumentation for the assessment of test-taking
anxiety and the factors comprising the construct of test-taking anxiety trait requires more
investigation in order to shed more light on the issue. To this end, ...

Parviz Birjandi; Minoo Alemi

2010-01-01

334

Testing the abstractions used in total system performance assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multiple levels of complexity and detail are involved in the performance assessment models used in the Yucca Mountain project (YMP). Included are the detailed process-level models, and various higher level abstractions or idealizations of those process models, that may be used in the simpler total system simulators for performance assessments. Abstractions are applied to reduce the complex process models to simpler overall simulators for more direct total system analyses. Although seldom done in the past, the abstractions require appropriate testing to demonstrate that each is an appropriate simpler system representation. To be adequate, such testing must either: (1) Demonstrate that essential processes, conceptual representations, and the parameter variations in the original process-level models are neither lost nor the performance results unduly altered by applying the abstractions, or (2) Show that any significance lost is appropriately bounded by the abstraction assumptions and that subsequent assessments using such bounding assumptions still provide appropriate margins of safety in the overall repository performance. Failure to satisfy one of the above conditions requires changing the abstraction being test until it, in fact, verifies the representation is adequate. Such testing provides the foundation necessary for technically defensible performance assessments using the abstracted total system models. The objective of this paper is to outline an approach for testing any proposed or specific future abstractions of the process-level models used to obtain simpler system simulators for application in total system performance assessments (TSPAs).

Nelson, R.W. [INTERA, Inc./PMO, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1995-12-01

335

Propeller Static Performance Tests for V/STOL Aircraft. Part Ii. Test Data (Appendix III).  

Science.gov (United States)

The report presents the reduced data obtained during an extensive series of propeller static performance tests which were run because of a static performance thrust deficiency encountered during flight tests of the XC-142A V/STOL Cargo Aircraft. Thirteen ...

M. H. Chopin

1970-01-01

336

Performance demonstration experience for reactor pressure vessel shell ultrasonic testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most ultrasonic testing techniques used by many vendors for pressurized water reactor (PWR) examinations were based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers 'Boiler and Pressurized Vessel Code' (ASME B and PV Code) Sections XI and V. The Addenda of ASME B and PV Code Section XI, Edition 1989 introduced Appendix VIII - 'Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems'. In an effort to increase confidence in performance of ultrasonic testing of the operating nuclear power plants in United States, the ultrasonic testing performance demonstration examination of reactor vessel welds is performed in accordance with Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) program which is based on ASME Code Section XI, Appendix VIII requirements. This article provides information regarding extensive qualification preparation works performed prior EPRI guided performance demonstration exam of reactor vessel shell welds accomplished in January 1997 for the scope of Appendix VIII, Supplements IV and VI. Additionally, an overview of the procedures based on requirements of ASME Code Section XI and V in comparison to procedure prepared for Appendix VIII examination is given and discussed. The samples of ultrasonic signals obtained from artificial flaws implanted in vessel material are presented and results of ultrasonic testing are compared to actual flaw sizes. (author)

1998-06-22

337

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

1997-01-01

338

Performance of the IFSMTF helium refrigerator in Partial Array Tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) helium refrigerator in Partial Array Tests with three coils is described. The refrigerator was able to cool the coils and facility structure to 4.2 K in 20 days, with maximum temperature differentials of less than 50 K. Boiloff measurements were made for several components; only the lead dewars showed losses substantially higher than expected. Forced-flow cooling tests were also conducted. The coils and facility were warmed to room temperature in 30 days. Several repairs and improvements were carried out. Results of another recent test on the refrigerator alone are reported

1986-01-01

339

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C17510  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a literature search and discussion with manufacturers revealed that there was virtually no existing data related to the fracture properties and behavior of copper beryllium alloy C17510, a series of test programs was undertaken to ascertain this information for several variations in material processing and chemistry. These variations in C17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing and fatigue crack growth rate tests, as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature. In order to confirm the test results, duplicate and independent test programs were awarded to separate facilities with appropriate test experience, whenever possible. The primary goal of the test program, to determine and bound the fracture toughness and Paris constants for C17510,was accomplished. In addition, a wealth of information was accumulated pertaining to crack growth characteristics, effects of directionality and potential testing pitfalls. The paper discusses the test program and its findings in detail

1994-01-01

340

Effect of age on test performance in community dwelling elderly people: 6 minutes walk test and ten steps test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data available in literature for test performance in elderly people are less and insufficient for use as a basis of comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate age related changes in functional performance tests and to determine criterion values depending on age in older adults who are functioning independently in the community. Aim: To study the effect of age on test performance in 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step test in community dwelling elderly people. Objectives: To assess 6 minute walk distance, time taken to perform ten step test and to report data within age cohorts. Method: Total 90 subjects were included and divided into 3 groups according to age group, A-(61-65, B-(66-70, and C-(71-75 in each 30 subjects. 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step Test were performed on them. The data obtained was analyzed using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. Result: The mean 6 MWD in group A was 317.13 ± 35.44 mts, in group B was 297.10 ± 47.14 mts and in group C was 262.83 ± 42.14 mts. The 10 Step Test time was found to be 11.36 ± 2.06 sec in group A, 13.24 ± 3.49 sec in group B and 14.74 ± 3.16 sec in group C. The results showed that there is a progressive decrease in the 6 MWD and progressive increase in the time taken to complete TST with increasing age. Conclusion: From the results it can be concluded that there is a progressive decrease in the test performance (6MWT & 10 Step test with age in community dwelling elderly people. The results of this study can be used as reference values while performing performance tests for elderly people in the community.

Mahajan Pallavi Janardhan, Mistry Hetal M

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

Haas, W.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); French, N.B. [Sky+, Inc. (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Burns, D.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V. [National Risk Management Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Priebe, S.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Waterland, L.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp. (United States)

1997-11-17

342

Light water reactor pressure isolation valve performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light Water Reactor Valve Performance Testing Program was initiated by the NRC to evaluate leakage as an indication of valve condition, provide input to Section XI of the ASME Code, evaluate emission monitoring for condition and degradation and in-service inspection techniques. Six typical check and gate valves were purchased for testing at typical plant conditions (550F at 2250 psig) for an assumed number of cycles for a 40-year plant lifetime. Tests revealed that there were variances between the test results and the present statement of the Code; however, the testing was not conclusive. The life cycle tests showed that high tech acoustic emission can be utilized to trend small leaks, that specific motor signature measurement on gate valves can trend and indicate potential failure, and that in-service inspection techniques for check valves was shown to be both feasible and an excellent preventive maintenance indicator. Life cycle testing performed here did not cause large valve leakage typical of some plant operation. Other testing is required to fully understand the implication of these results and the required program to fully implement them. (author)

1990-01-01

343

Clock Face Drawing Test Performance in Children with ADHD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 Introduction: The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls.   Material & methods: 95 children with ADHD and 191 school children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the fol...

Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Salar Safavi; Michael Berk

2013-01-01

344

Performance tests of crowbar circuit for klystron protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A crowbar circuit to protect high power klystron for the rf acceleration of the PF storage ring has been constructed for the experimental purposes. Brief description of the test circuit and results of the performance tests are presented. The circuit is designed for 50 kV operation and works sufficiently well for our purpose: electrical energy of 9 kJ switched within 5 ?s and thus only 3 J fed to the load. (author)

1979-01-01

345

Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.; Goles, R.W.; Swinth, K.L.; Tinker, M.R.; Hickey, E.E.

1994-05-01

346

Gas-lift valve performance testing and data correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a method of analyzing data from gas lift valve performance tests is presented. This method relies on the ability to determine the true dynamic stem position of the valve during flowing conditions. The types of tests required to obtain the data needed by the analysis technique are explained. The data analysis method is applicable to any pressure operated gas lift valve and yields predictions within 10% of actual flow rate

1991-10-06

347

Large scale and performance tests of the ATLAS online software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the sub-systems of the Trigger/DAQ system of the future ATLAS experiment is the Online Software system. It encompasses the functionality needed to configure, control and monitor the DAQ. Its architecture is based on a component structure described in the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ technical proposal. Regular integration tests ensure its smooth operation in test beam setups during its evolutionary development towards the final ATLAS online system. Feedback is received and returned into the development process. Studies of the system behavior have been performed on a set of up to 111 PCs on a configuration which is getting closer to the final size. Large scale and performance test of the integrated system were performed on this setup with emphasis on investigating the aspects of the inter-dependence of the components and the performance of the communication software. Of particular interest were the run control state transitions in various configurations of the run control hierarchy. For the purpose of the tests, the software from other Trigger/DAQ sub-systems has been emulated. The author presents a brief overview of the online system structure, its components and the large scale integration tests and their results

2001-09-03

348

Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

2012-12-01

349

TRAC analyses and GIRAFFE tests for PCCS performance prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) would remove decay heat by steam condensation without any electric power supply or operator's action if an accident should occur in nuclear reactors. There is, however, concern that non-condensable gas might influence the PCCS performance in the event of an accident. This paper summarizes Toshiba's activities respecting PCCS development, in particular those activities relating to TRAC qualification for PCCS performance prediction and the GIRAFFE tests. TRAC is a best estimate thermal hydraulic analysis code. GIRAFFE is a full-height test facility simulating the SBWR containment with the PCCS, at Toshiba's Ukishima site. (author)

2000-05-01

350

Indicators of Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity test performance and sensitivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Carolina Division of Environmental Management has begun evaluation of the sensitivity of test results used for measuring chronic whole effluent toxicity in North Carolina wastewater discharges. Approximately 67% of 565 facilities required to monitor toxicity by an NPDES permit perform a Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic, single effluent concentration (pass/fail) analysis. Data from valid Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic pass/fail tests performed by approximately 20 certified biological laboratories and submitted by North Carolina NPDES permittees were recorded beginning January 1992. Control and treatment reproduction data from over 2,500 tests submitted since 1992 were analyzed to determine the minimum significant difference (MSD) at a 99% confidence level for each test and the percent reduction from the control mean that the MSD represents (%MSD) for each certified laboratory. Initial results for the 20 laboratories indicate that the average intralaboratory percent MSD ranges 12.72% (n = 367) to 34.91% (n = 7) with an average of 23.08%. Additionally, over 3,800 tests were analyzed to determine the coefficient of variation (CV) for control reproduction for each test and the average for each certified biological laboratory. Preliminary review indicates that average interlaboratory control reproduction CV values range from 10.59% (n = 367) to 31.08% (n = 572) with a mean of 20.35%. The statistics investigated are indicators of intra/interlaboratory performance and sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia chronic toxicity analyses.

Rosebrock, M.M.; Bedwell, N.J.; Ausley, L.W. [North Carolina Division of Environmental Management, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

351

Effects of Delayed Visual Feedback on Grooved Pegboard Test Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of visual feedback delays from 120 to 2120?ms in 16 steps. Performance sharply decreased until about 490?ms, then more gradually until 2120?ms, suggesting that two mechanisms were operating under ...

2012-01-01

352

Predictive testing of performance of metals in HTR service environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Status of the material testing in simulated HTGR environment is reviewed with special attention focused on the methodology of the prediction of performance in long time. Importance of controlling effective chemical potentials relations in the material-environmental interface is stressed in regard of the complex inter-dependent kinetic relation between oxidation and carbon transport. Based on the recent experimental observations, proposals are made to establish some procedures for conservative prediction of the metal performance

1982-06-02

353

VCR: Virtual Capture and Replay for performance testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a novel approach to performance testing, called Virtual Capture and Replay (VCR), that couples a capture-and-replay technique with the checkpointing capabilities provided by the latest virtualization technologies. VCR enables software performance testers to automatically take a snapshot of a running system when certain critical conditions are verified, and to replay the scenario that led to those conditions. Several separate in-depth analyses can be carried out in the labo...

Bertolino, Antonia; Angelis, Guglielmo; Sabetta, Antonino

2008-01-01

354

Performance map of a cluster detection test using extended power.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Conventional power studies possess limited ability to assess the performance of cluster detection tests. In particular, they cannot evaluate the accuracy of the cluster location, which is essential in such assessments. Furthermore, they usually estimate power for one or a few particular alternative hypotheses and thus cannot assess performance over an entire region. Takahashi and Tango developed the concept of extended power that indicates both the rate of null hypothesis rejectio...

Guttmann, Aline; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Li, Xinran; Perthus, Isabelle; Gaudart, Jean; Demongeot, Jacques; Boire, Jean-yves

2013-01-01

355

Verification Test of Hydraulic Performance for Reactor Coolant Pump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to this project, basic design for prototype pump and model pump of reactor coolant pump and test facilities has been completed. Basic design for prototype pump to establish structure, dimension and hydraulic performance has been completed and through primary flow analysis by computational fluid dynamics(CFD), flow characteristics and hydraulic performance have been established. This pump was designed with mixed flow pump having the following design requirements; specific velocity(Ns); 1080.9(rpm{center_dot}m{sup 3}/m{center_dot}m), capacity; 3115m{sup 3}/h, total head ; 26.3m, pump speed; 1710rpm, pump efficiency; 77.0%, Impeller out-diameter; 349mm, motor output; 360kw, design pressure; 17MPaG. The features of the pump are leakage free due to no mechanical seal on the pump shaft which insures reactor's safety and law noise level and low vibration due to no cooling fan on the motor which makes eco-friendly product. Model pump size was reduced to 44% of prototype pump for the verification test for hydraulic performance of reactor coolant pump and was designed with mixed flow pump and canned motor having the following design requirements; specific speed(NS); 1060.9(rpm{center_dot}m{sup 3}/m{center_dot}m), capacity; 539.4m{sup 3}/h, total head; 21.0m, pump speed; 3476rpm, pump efficiency; 72.9%, Impeller out-diameter; 154mm, motor output; 55kw, design pressure; 1.0MPaG. The test facilities were designed for verification test of hydraulic performance suitable for pump performance test, homologous test, NPSH test(cavitation), cost down test and pressure pulsation test of inlet and outlet ports. Test tank was designed with testing capacity enabling up to 2000m{sup 3}/h and design pressure 1.0MPaG. Auxiliary pump was designed with centrifugal pump having capacity; 1100m{sup 3}/h, total head; 42.0m, motor output; 190kw

Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Jae Shin; Ryu, In Wan; Ko, Bok Seong; Song, Keun Myung [Samjin Ind. Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-15

356

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – the gold standard in physical performance assesment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX is a modern procedure that allows us to evaluate the global performanceof a subject. Because CPX devices are expensive and less popular due to a less amount of specialists in this field, many oflaboratories uses the more common ECG stress tests for physical performance assessment. Aim: to demonstrate theimportance and accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing comparing with traditional maximal electrocardiographic (ECGstress test without gas exchange analysis. Methods: 18th elite soccer players (age 22.7±6 years, body mass 74.6±9.5 kg,height 175.4±9.8 cm participated in the study. The subjects accomplished two treadmill effort tests with and without gasanalyses, in 2 consecutive days interval. Results: At the end of the study we noticed a highly significant statistical difference(p<0.0001 between the investigated testing methods. In gas exchange testing method we found a decreased level of all theparameters evaluated comparing to stress ECG: VO2 peak (ml*kg-1*min-1 = 55.4±5.2 vs. 67.8±5.7; AT (ml*kg-1*min-1 =41.2±7.6 vs. 47.4±6.9; VO2/HR (ml = 23.8±2.5 vs. 23.8±2.5. Conclusions: Asessment of exercise performance based solelyon a maximal stress ECG without gas analyzing is inaccurate. Furthermore, estimation of peak exercise responses based uponcalculation of VO2 peak from peak work rate are inappropriate in sportsman. The study demonstrate once again that CPXremain the most accurate and reliable test for detection of AT and for a comprehensive physical performance assessment andcannot be replace by other surrogate laboratory exercise tests like stress ECG.

Claudiu Avram

2008-12-01

357

ASME PTC 46 -- Acceptance test code for overall plant performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ASME published PTC 46 in 1996 after five years of development. PTC 46 is the first industry standard providing explicit procedures for conducting acceptance tests to determine the overall thermal performance and output of power generating units. It is applicable to any heat cycle power generating unit. This survey paper provides an overview of PTC 46 and discusses how PTC 46 can be used for acceptance testing of new combined cycle and fossil steam power generating units. Several technical papers have been previously presented that provide more detailed information and discussion on the use of PTC 46 in acceptance testing.

Friedman, J.R. [Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Yost, J.G. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

1999-11-01

358

Heat transfer performance test of the KN-12 transport cask  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two heat transfer tests were performed as a fabrication performance test to demonstrate the heat transfer capability of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport cask. The tests were conducted under normal conditions of transport with a total heat load of 12.6kW to simulate the design heat load of the cask. The heat load was best represented by twelve electrical dummy heaters, which were designed to simulate actual configurations and conditions of twelve PWR spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The test determined steady state temperatures on the outer surfaces of the cask and impact limiters and within the fuel basket. The steady state temperatures were compared to the calculated temperatures to determine the accuracy of the design calculations. The intention of this paper is to evaluate test results which were measured during the heat transfer test for the KN-12 cask. The evaluation was done using maximum values for different cask components which were calculated for the Safety Analysis Report of the KN-12 transport cask. The test temperatures were described very well by the calculated maximum component temperatures and the calculated component temperatures were higher and therefore conservative

2002-10-01

359

Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang,…

Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

360

Performance Evaluation Test of the Nemesis M3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this performance evaluation test was to determine if the Nemesis, an off-the-shelf, self-propelled area-preparation system, and its attachments can be operated under absolute control, at distances up to 400 m, through the use of a radio con...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Performance on the Pharmacy College Admission Test: An Exploratory Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Median polishing, an exploratory data statistical analysis technique, was used to study achievement patterns for men and women on the Pharmacy College Admission Test over a six-year period. In general, a declining trend in scores was found, and males performed better than females, with the largest differences found in chemistry and biology.…

Kawahara, Nancy E.; Ethington, Corinna

1994-01-01

362

Developing and Testing the Guitar Songleading Performance Scale (GSPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Guitar songleading is a critical component in music education and music therapy training curricula. However, at present, there is no standardized instrument to evaluate guitar songleading performance that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this article is to describe the construction, development, and testing of a guitar songleading…

Silverman, Michael J.

2011-01-01

363

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

364

Condenser performance test and replacement tubing material evaluation: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the experiences of a utility in evaluating condenser performance and in performing testing to identify and correct performance deficiencies and related problems. A comprehensive evaluation of the steam surface condenser performance at Kewaunee Nuclear Plant (KNP) was undertaken by Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC) in the first half of 1984. This evaluation was prompted by the projected need to retube the steam surface condenser. Stainless steel alloys were considered the only acceptable replacement candidates because of the contribution of copper to nuclear plant steam generator corrosion. All of the stainless steel alloys have lower heat transfer coefficients than the Admiralty brass tubing originally installed in the condenser. The potential impact on the unit heat rate coupled with apparent condenser performance deficiences led to this extensive analysis.

Bell, R.J.; Hardy, C.D.

1988-04-01

365

WhalePower tubercle blade power performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toronto-based WhalePower Corporation has developed turbine blades that are modeled after humpback whale flippers. The blades, which incorporate tubercles along the leading edge of the blade, have been fitted to a Wenvor 25 kW turbine installed in North Cape, Prince Edward Island at a test site for the Wind Energy Institute of Canada (WEICan). A test was conducted to characterize the power performance of the prototype wind turbine. This report described the wind turbine configuration with particular reference to turbine information, power rating, blade information, tower information, control systems and grid connections. The test site was also described along with test equipment and measurement procedures. Information regarding power output as a function of wind speed was included along with power curves, power coefficient and annual energy production. The results for the power curve and annual energy production contain a level of uncertainty. While measurements for this test were collected and analyzed in accordance with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines (IEC 61400-12-1), the comparative performance data between the prototype WhalePower wind turbine blade and the Wenvor standard blade was not gathered to IEC data standards. Deviations from IEC-61400-12-1 procedures were listed. 6 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2008-07-15

366

The performance of multileaf collimators evaluated by the stripe test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of 3 multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (Varian Medical Systems, Elekta, and Siemens Medical Solutions) mounted on 7 different radiotherapy linear accelerators was investigated by a stripe test. The stripe test consisted of 8 adjacent multileaf segments of 2.5 x 40 cm(2), enclosed by all leaf pairs. With 6-MV photons, the segments were used to irradiate Agfa CR films. The optical density profile of the irradiated film in the travel direction of the MLC was used to estimate the short- and long-term leaf positioning reproducibility. The short-term reproducibility was found by analyzing 6 consecutive stripe tests. The long-term reproducibility was obtained by performing 3 to 5 stripe tests over 2 months. The short-term reproducibility was mainly within 0.3 mm for all systems. For the long-term reproducibility, the Varian and Elekta MLCs were within 0.4 to 0.5 mm, while the Siemens MLC showed a wider distribution, with values up to 1 mm for some leaf pairs. The inferior long-term reproducibility of the Siemens MLCs was mainly due to a decrease of the segment size with time. In conclusion, the stripe test is a useful method for evaluating MLC performance. Furthermore, the long-term reproducibility varied among the MLC systems investigated. PMID:19647629

Sastre-Padro, Maria; Lervåg, Christoffer; Eilertsen, Karsten; Malinen, Eirik

2009-01-01

367

Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs

1987-01-01

368

Shield evaluation and performance testing at the USMB`s Strategic Structures Testing Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, shield performance testing is conducted by the support manufacturers at European facilities. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has conducted extensive research in shield Mechanics and is now opening its Strategic Structures Testing (SST) Laboratory to the mining industry for shield performance testing. The SST Laboratory provides unique shield testing capabilities using the Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) load frame. The MRS provides realistic and cost-effective shield evaluation by combining both vertical and horizontal loading into a single load cycle; whereas, several load cycles would be required to obtain this loading in a static frame. In addition to these advantages, the USBM acts as an independent research organization to provide an unbiased assessment of shield performance. This paper describes the USBM`s shield testing program that is designed specifically to simulate in-service mining conditions using the unique the capabilities of the SST Laboratory.

Barczak, T.M.; Gearhart, D.F.

1996-12-31

369

SP-100 fuel pin performance: Results from irradiation testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pin are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

Makenas, B.J.; Paxton, D.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Vaidyanathan, S. [Martin Marietta, San Jose, CA (United States); Hoth, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-09-01

370

LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The tests and evaluation were performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a ''Dump-type'' because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

1978-11-01

371

Fayetteville TIP{sup 2} capacity performance test results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion turbine inlet air cooling using thermal energy storage has proven to be a technically feasible method of combustion turbine capacity enhancement, based on numerous studies, technical papers and successful installations. The Burns and McDonnell TIP{sup 2} (Turbine Ice Peaking Power) Capacity facility at Lincoln Electric System was the first application of this technology. The second application was for a combined-cycle plant owned by the Public Works Commission (PWC) of Fayetteville, North Carolina. This thermal energy storage facility is currently the largest in the world. The project was completed in early summer of 1993 and has successfully operated during the summers of 1993 and 1994. Performance tests were conducted at the PWC Butler Warner Generation Station in the summer of 1994. This paper presents a case history of the PWC project, the performance test methodology, data, test results and conclusions.

Ebeling, J.A. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (United States); Beaty, L.H. [Bearden-Beaty and Associates, Atlanta, GA (United States); Garrett, P.A. [Public Works Commission, Fayetteville, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

372

Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

2010-01-01

373

Performance of the CANFLEX fuel bundle under mechanical flow testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANFLEX is a 43-element fuel bundle consisting of two element sizes, to reduce element ratings, while maintaining the same bundle power, and an uranium content very close to the uranium content of a standard 37-element bundle. The overall dimensions of the bundle are designed to be the same as the overall dimensions of the standard 37-element fuel bundle. Several out-reactor tests were performed, under in-reactor operating conditions of flow, pressure and temperature, to demonstrate the hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design. The hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design were verified through various out-reactor tests conducted at the laboratories of KAERI and AECL to show that the CANFLEX bundle design meets the design requirements of the CANDU 6 reactor fuel [1] and that it is also compatible with the CANDU 6 fuelling machine. (author)

1997-09-21

374

Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method mostly brings best performance parameters for cameras but it has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particular in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. Therefore it is important to have test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices, that will approach as best as practicable the measuring conditions in clinical applications. It is therefore a good news that the International Electrochemical Commission IEC has prepared a draft 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' which is now submitted to the national committees for formal approval under the Six Months' Rule. Some essential points of this document are discussed in the paper. (orig.)

1980-01-01

375

Gamma camera performance assessment using an orthohole test pattern (OHTP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The orthohole test pattern (OHTP) has been useful for weekly comparative tests of spatial distortion differential non-uniformity, spatial resolution and image pixel size and its use has minimised the camera time needed for quality control. By analysing the images obtained, it has been possible to provide quantitative information for comparing weekly performances and for the intercomparison of two systems. It should be stressed though that the measurements described are non-standard and hence the OHTP should be used only for observing general trends in performance which may indicate that the camera needs adjusting. When standard measurements are required, for example when checking camera performance with the manufacturer's specifications, NEMA phantoms should be used. (author)

1987-01-01

376

Supine cycling in pediatric exercise testing: disparity in performance measures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supine cycling may be an important alternative modality for exercise testing. Subtle differences in supine and upright exercise physiology have been suggested but not fully explored in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare peak and submaximal metabolic data in the upright and supine exercise positions. Healthy children (N = 100) performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests using supine and upright cycle ergometry. Recruitment was governed by grant funding and not based on sample size calculations. Subjects exercised to exhaustion. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare upright and supine data; simple linear regression analyses examined correlations between the two modalities. Peak heart rate was similar in both testing positions. Although peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (VO2@AT), VO2 when the respiratory exchange ratio is consistently at or above 1.0 (VO2@RER1.0), and the oxygen uptake efficiency slope were significantly higher in the upright position, no difference was considered of practical significance when applying Cohen's effect size criteria. Therefore, it may be reasonable for pediatric exercise laboratories to use established normative data and predictions for upright cycling position and apply them to metabolic measures obtained in supine exercise testing. Supine cycling with submaximal parameters may allow objective assessment of exercise capacity in children who undergo exercise echocardiography or cannot perform upright exercise testing. PMID:24253612

May, Lindsay J; Punn, Rajesh; Olson, Inger; Kazmucha, Jeffrey A; Liu, Michael Y; Chin, Clifford

2014-04-01

377

Linear Magnetic Break of Special Test Requirements with Dynamic Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research running at the Department ofElectrical and Electronic Engineering of theUniversity of Miskolc aims to develop a linearmagnetic break suitable for simulating real loadingenvironment for machines making linear movementwith fast direction changes. The linear break will beused in product development department, whereconstructors should have accurate, reliable anddetailed test results on the machine’s performance.Practical test of certain electrical household equipmentis performed by unskilled laborers when testcircumstances cannot be accurately registered, e.g.during a jigsaw or drill test force applied by the workercan change in time. Therefore, intelligent testequipment is required where test phases andparameters can be set exactly and results arereproducible. Practical tests at product developmentphase include special time schedules with run and haltoperation phases, as well as different loads are appliedin run phases. Loading test of the electrical equipmentsoperating with fast (approx. 50Hz alternatingmovement has serious theoretical and practicaldifficulties. The linear magnetic break presented inthis paper is suitable for applying force to a jigsaw’sblade in range of -500N and +500N. The forceaffecting the blade has special characteristics, itdepends not only on the direction of the instantaneousmovement but also on the instantaneous position of theblade. Therefore, control of the loading force, namelycontrol of the linear magnetic break, is a complex task,requiring the development of a sophisticated intelligentsystem based on deep analysis of magnetic fields,weight compensation and reaction times.

VÁRADINÉ SZARKA Angéla

2010-10-01

378

DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

Kurtz, D. W.

1981-12-01

379

Continuous integrated iodine-129, carbon-14, antimony-125, tritium, and krypton-85 off-gas monitor for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reported is the development of a new integrated off-gas monitor for measurement of radionuclide releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The monitor is designed for simultaneous separation, collection and/or analysis of selected effluents on a continuous basis. Included are capabilities for real-time measurements of 85Kr and 3H and time-integrated collection of 125Sb, 129I, and 14C. While techniques are available for the measurement of the various individual radionuclides, no integrated capability is available for the simultaneous monitoring of all five radionuclides. This is accomplished by the use of a unique three train sampling system

1987-05-01

380

Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ''GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report'' (WHC-SD-VI-027)

 
 
 
 
381

Integrated chemical effects test program for PWR sump performance assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Products attributable to chemical interactions between the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) containment spray water and exposed materials (such as metal surfaces, paint chips, and fiberglass insulation debris) could impede the performance of ECCS recirculation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) at a pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Five