WorldWideScience
1

HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future

2

Performance test of the pretreatment unit for Kr-85 recovery system from off-gas in fuel reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a Kr-85 recovery system using cryogenic distillation method for a spent fuel-reprocessing plant, oxygen may cause hazardous explosion in the presence of hydrocarbon such as acetylene. To prevent such hazards, an automatic control system of hydrogen has been proposed to remove oxygen by the reduction reaction of hydrogen over palladium (Pd) catalyst. The objective of this study is to examine some characteristics of the controller for adjusting the concentration of H2 and O2 in the Pd converter. The automatic control system consists of P-I controller which can set two parameters, proportional band (Kp) and integral time (T sub(I)). In the present test, Kp and T sub(I) were selected from 200% to 500% and from 5 min to 15 min, respectively, and the concentrations of O2 and H2 were measured at the inlet and the outlet of the Pd converter, respectively. The effect of Kp on the maximum concentration of H2 and on the recovery time, and the effects of integral time and dilution on the hydrogen and oxygen concentrations are presented by curves. It is concluded that the automatic hydrogen control system employed in the present study can respond rather quickly to the stepwise change of oxygen concentration with small dilution range. (Aoki, K.)

3

In-place testing of off-gas iodine filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, both charcoal and silver zeolite (AgX) filters are used for radioactive iodine off-gas cleanup of reactor systems. These filters are used in facilities which are conducting research in the areas of reactor fuel failure, reactor fuel inspection, and loss of fluids from reactor vessels. Iodine retention efficiency testing of these filters is dictated by prudent safety practices and regulatory guidelines. A procedure for determining iodine off-gas filter efficiency in-place has been developed and tested on both AgX and charcoal filters. The procedure involves establishing sample points upstream and downstream of the filter to be tested. A step-by-step approach for filter efficiency testing is presented

4

Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results

5

Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results.

Wright, G.T.

2001-08-16

6

Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625 (9%), and Hastelloy C-276 (16%), as well as titanium and zirconium, remained free of attack under all conditions tested. When the other materials, notably the austenitic stainless steels, were exposed to gas streams containing even only low concentrations of iodine and water vapors at 25 and 400C, a highly corrosive, brownish-green liquid formed on their surfaces. In the complete absence of water vapor, the iodine-containing liquid did not form and all materials remained unaffected. The liquid that formed had a low pH (usually 2 inhibited attack

7

ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

2009-01-01

8

Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalystn possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination reaction and deactivation by siloxanes. A simple Arrhenius equation was applied for the model and the poisoning behavior was represented using several parameters determined by experiments. We reproduced the experimental poisoning behavior as the outlet hydrogen concentration with the developed model. (author)

9

ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. A simulant of the DWPF SB4 feed was successfully fed and melted in a small pilot-scale CCIM system during two test series. The OGSE tests provide initial results that (a) provide melter operating conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated periodically on-demand. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was operated with a target melt temperature of either 1,250oC or 1,300oC, and with either a partial or complete cold cap of unmelted feed on top of the molten glass. Samples of all input and output streams including the starting glass, the simulant feed, the off-gas particulate matter, product glass, and deposits removed from the crucible and off-gas pipe after the test were collected for analysis.

Nick Soelberg

2009-04-01

10

Test results from the GA technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO2, CO, O2, and SO2. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constitutents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Silver-based iodine adsorbents were found to catalyze the premature conversion of CO to CO2. Subsequent tests showed that iodine removal could not be performed downstream of the CO/HT oxidizer since iodine in the BOG system rapidly deactivated the Pt-coated alumina CO catalyst. Lead-exchanged zeolite (PbX) was found to be an acceptable alternative for removing iodine from BOG without CO conversion. Intermittent and steady-state tests of the pilot-plant SO2 removal unit containing sodium-exchanged zeolite (NaX) demonstrated that decontamination factors greater than or equal to 100 could be maintained for up to 50 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system at GA, iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO3-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

11

Off-gas treatment and characterization for a radioactive in situ vitrification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluents released to the off gas during the in situ vitrification (ISV) of a test site have been characterized. The site consisted of a 19 L waste package of soil containing 600 nCi/g transuranic and 30,000 nCi/g mixed fission products surrounded by uncontaminated soil. Radioactive isotopes present in the package were 241Am, /sup 238/239/Pu, 137Cs, 106Ru, 90Sr, and 60Co. The ISV process melted the waste package and surrounding soil and immobilized the radionuclides in place, producing a durable, 8.6 metric ton glass and crystalline monolith. The test successfully demonstrated that the process provides containment of radioactive material. No release to the environment was detected during processing or cooldown. Due to the high temperatures during processing, some gases were released into the off-gas hood that was placed over the test site. The hood was maintained at a light negative pressure to contain any volatile or entrained material during processing. Gases passed from the hood to an off-gas treatment system where they were treated using a venturi-ejector scrubber, a tandem nozzle gas cleaner scrubber followed by a condenser, heater, and two stages of HEPA filters. The off-gas treatment system is located in the semi-trailer to allow transport of the process to other potential test sites. Retention of all radionuclides by the vitrified zone was greater than 99%. Soil-to-off-gas decontamination factors (DFs) for-off-gas decontamination factors (DFs) for transuranic elements averaged greater than 4000 and for fission products, DFs ranged from 130 for 137Cs to 3100 for 90Sr

12

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

13

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27

14

Test results in the treatment of HTR reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT II-facility (throughput 10 m3/h, STP) for the clean up of the burner off-gas has been tested with synthetic off-gas and with off-gas from cold burner tests. The results are reported. During dissolution of the burner ash in nitric acid an off-gas is formed whose main component is air and which, besides the gaseous fission products, contains NO/sub x/. Before the separation of the gaseous fission products NO/sub x/ and/or O2 are removed by reaction with H2 or NH3. For these reactions catalysts were used. Because of the known disadvantages of catalytic systems, like reduction in efficiency by poisoning or thermal influence, the alternative method of thermal, flameless reduction was tested. The reactions were carried out in a stainless steel and a quartz reactor. Throughput, reaction temperature, O2-, NO/sub x/-, H2-, and NH3-concentrations respectively were varied. The goal of these tests was to remove O2 and NO/sub x/ to below 1 ppM behind the reactor and NH3 to below the detection limit of 50 ppM. It was found that at a reaction temperature of 7500C in the stainless steel reactor these goals can be reached for both H2 and NH3 as reducing agents. In the quartz reactor only the O2-H2-reaction takes place. Obviously stainless steel acts as a catalyst for all other reactionsons

15

Testing and monitoring of off-gas cleanup systems at nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methods currently employed, especially in nuclear power plants, for testing and monitoring the effectiveness of the cleanup systems installed to limit the emission of radioactive particulate aerosols, gases and vapours to the environment. The report does not generally refer to nuclear reprocessing plants and other nuclear facilities, but the cleaning methods employed there and the requirements for testing and monitoring are often similar to those for nuclear power plants. Particular, arbitrary selected examples are used to indicate some of the differences, but details will not usually be given. Chapter 1 describes the various particulate and gaseous emissions and the appropriate cleanup systems. The quantities of particulate aerosols and gaseous effluents released in normal operation are also given. Chapters 2-5 refer to different aspects of cleanup systems, namely particulate filter testing, iodine sorption system testing, noble gas delay system testing, and process control and performance monitoring. References are given to examples of national or operating agency standards. Chapter 6 deals with the criteria by which the performance of cleanup systems is evaluated. It is important that the individual plant criteria or limits should be seen in the context of the ICRP requirements. The general design objectives of nuclear plants aim at fulfilling ICRP recommendations and the ALARA principle. Chapter 7 draws attention to the further developmen draws attention to the further development of the technology of cleanup system testing and monitoring. The cost of designing, building, monitoring and testing a nuclear off-gas cleaning system is not inconsiderable. The impact of this economic pressure on system design and testing methods should not be underestimated. Finally, the report is summarized and a number of conclusions are given, together with recommendations for further international co-operation

16

Development and testing of prototype alpha waste incinerator off-gas systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test program is in progress at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to confirm and develop incinerator design technology for an SRP production Alpha Waste Incinerator (AWI) to be built in the mid-1980's. The Incinerator Components Test Facility (ICTF) is a full-scale (5 kg/h), electrically heated, controlled-air prototype incinerator built to burn nonradioactive solid waste. The incinerator has been operating successfully at SRL since March 1979 and has met or exceeded all design criteria. During the first 1-1/2 years of operation, liquid scrubbers were used to remove particulates and hydrochloric acid from the incinerator exhaust gases. A dry off-gas system is currently being tested to provide data to Savannah River Plant's proposed AWI

17

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

18

Efficient particulate scrubber for glass melter off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operation of joule-heated, continuous slurry fed melters has demonstrated that off-gas aerosols are generated by entrainment of feed slurry and vaporization of volatile species from the melt. Effective off-gas stream decontamination for these aerosols can be obtained by utilizing a suitably designed and operated wet scrubber system. Results are presented for performance tests conducted with an air aspirating-type venturi scrubber processing a simulated melter off-gas aerosol. Mass removal efficiencies ranged from 99.5 to 99.8%. Details of the testing program and applications for melter off-gas system design are discussed

19

LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

2014-09-29

20

Iodine and NO sub x behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX (Iodine Oxidation) systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NO{sub x} in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NO{sub x} is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Birdwell, J.F.

1990-01-01

21

Iodine and NOx behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX [Iodine Oxidation] systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NOx in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NOx is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

22

Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

1997-08-01

23

Testing and monitoring of off-gas cleanup systems at nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methods employed, especially in nuclear power plants, for testing and monitoring the effectiveness of the cleanup systems installed to limit the emission of radioactive particulate aerosols, gases, and vapors to the environment. It describes the various particulate and gaseous emissions and the appropriate cleanup systems. The quantities of particulate aerosols and gaseous effluents released in normal operation also are given. The different aspects of cleanup systems, including particulate filter testing, iodine sorption system testing, noble gas delay system testing, and process control and performance monitoring are covered

24

Experimental engineering section off-gas decontamination facility's fractionator column: installation and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed description of the third column recently installed in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility (EES-ODF) is presented. The EES-ODF is being used to provide engineering-scale experiments (nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively) in the development of the Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2 (KALC) process. A detailed discussion of the column's construction is provided. This discussion includes the peripherals associated with the column, such as refrigeration, heat exchangers, instrumentation, etc. The compressibility of Goodloe packing (the packing in the other columns) and the possible reduced throughput due to this compression have revealed the desirablility of a random (i.e., noncompressible) packing. Toward this end, the third column is packed with a new random packing (PRO-PAK). A preliminary comparison between this packing and the woven wire mesh packing (Goodloe) used in the other two columns has been made. Experiments comparing the throughput capacity indicate that the PRO-PAK packing has approximately 60% the capacity of Goodloe for a CO2 system. When used as a fractionator or stripper with the basic O2-Kr-CO2 KALC system, the PRO-PAK column produced HTU values less than or equal to the GOODLOE columns under similar operating conditions

25

Experimental engineering section off-gas decontamination facility's fractionator column: installation and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed description of the third column recently installed in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility (EES-ODF) is presented. The EES-ODF is being used to provide engineering-scale experiments (nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively) in the development of the Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO/sub 2/ (KALC) process. A detailed discussion of the column's construction is provided. This discussion includes the peripherals associated with the column, such as refrigeration, heat exchangers, instrumentation, etc. The compressibility of Goodloe packing (the packing in the other columns) and the possible reduced throughput due to this compression have revealed the desirablility of a random (i.e., noncompressible) packing. Toward this end, the third column is packed with a new random packing (PRO-PAK). A preliminary comparison between this packing and the woven wire mesh packing (Goodloe) used in the other two columns has been made. Experiments comparing the throughput capacity indicate that the PRO-PAK packing has approximately 60% the capacity of Goodloe for a CO/sub 2/ system. When used as a fractionator or stripper with the basic O/sub 2/-Kr-CO/sub 2/ KALC system, the PRO-PAK column produced HTU values less than or equal to the GOODLOE columns under similar operating conditions.

Gilliam, T. M.; Fowler, V. L.; Inman, D. J.

1978-03-01

26

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined

27

FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increase

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

28

Testing practice and operating experience of off-gas cleaning systems gained during the first years of operation at Finnish PWR nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is a Finnish power company in possession of two 440 MWe PWR nuclear power stations at Loviisa. The reactor primary and auxiliary systems were delivered mainly from the Soviet Union. The off-gas system consists of ambient temperature charcoal beds and iodine filters. Active gases from degasifier and tanks connected with the primary circuit pass before delay through the hydrogen recombiner. Regeneration gases from a desiccant dryer are led through iodine filters. Gases from other active tanks pass through a scrubber and an iodine filter. According to the Finnish regulations, the off-gas iodine filters must have a decontamination factor of minimum 99 percent for methyliodide. The iodine filters are to be tested after 3000 h of operation. Because of unsatisfactory test results, the filtration material of the iodine filters have been changed twice. The problems involved in these cases were moisture or chemical penetration to the filter. (author)

29

Long-Term Performance of Sulfer-Impregnated Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) for Mercury Removal from NWCF Off-Gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive, Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) from past nuclear fuel reprocessing is currently being stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Calcination of the SBW in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF), upgraded with off-gas treatment technology to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules is being considered as a waste treatment option. Mercury is a volatile component of the SBW. Current flow sheets and off-gas monitoring results from past NWCF operations have indicated that future mercury emissions may exceed the proposed (MACT) limit of 45 ug/dscm (micrograms/dry standard cubic meter) normalized to 7% O2 for existing Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWC) if modifications are not made

30

Development of 85Kr separation from the off-gas of the large reprocessing plant: Findings of the prototype test plants ADAMO and KRETA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operation of the KRETA and ADAMO test plants so far has shown that rectification of the ternary system N2-Kr-Xe is possible if certain limiting concentrations of Kr and Xe in the feedwater are kept. At Xe concentrations < 900 ppm, off-gas may be fed in unmodified. At higher concentration, Kr must be fed in additionally in order to increase the Kr/Xe ratio. The Kr recirculation loop planned for the AZUR project was simulated by variation of the feeding gas. (orig.)

31

Recovery of krypton-85 from dissolver off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rare Gas Plant at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Recovers fission product krypton and xenon from dissolver off gas streams. Recently the system was upgraded to allow processing of hydrogen rich dissolver off-gas streams. A trickle bed hydrogen recombiner was installed and tested. The Rare Gas Plant can now safely process gas streams containing up to 80% hydrogen

32

Removal of particulate solids from the off-gas of the WCF and NWCF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the system to remove particulate solids from the off-gas of the NWCF is based on the successful operation of the WCF off-gas system. This report summarizes the WCF operating experience on the removal of particles from the off-gas, the pilot-plant tests, and the literature reviews which have contributed to the design of the NWCF off-gas system

33

Performance tests.  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatig...

Wetherell, A.

1996-01-01

34

Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion of highly radioactive waste liquor into glass by the pot vitrification process has been studied at Harwell using a full-scale inactive pilot plant. A summary of the off-gas behavior and its interpretation is presented. Experimental runs were carried out on 3 representative wastes (MAGNOX - thermal reactor, metal fuel, THORP - thermal oxide fuel and PFR - fast reactor oxide fuel) using 2 methods of feeding the glass-formers (slurry and crizzle). Materials were carried over from the vitrification vessel into the off-gas system by entrainment supplemented by volatilization. The overall behavior of the off-gas was consistent with the presence in it of 5 separate aerosols of particulate matter. Sources of entrainment gave rise to 3 aerosols, and a further 2 aerosols were formed as a result of chemical reaction (Ru) and condensation (Cs) processes involving the volatile species. Entrainment was enhanced when the feed contained free alkali nitrate. The Ru volatility correlated directly with the amount of salt nitrates in the feed. The off-gas equipment consisted of a condenser followed by two packed tower scrubbers. The variation in equipment performance between different sets of experiments could be attributed entirely to changes in the proportion of air present in the off-gas. The entrainment aerosols were the easiest to remove from the off-gas, whilst the Cs aerosol proved to the most difficult. The overall process decontamination factors of the pilot was adecontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x104 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x103 for particulate-Ru, and 5x103-1x104 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 103 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

35

Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

2013-07-01

36

Clinoptilolite filter for the decontamination of radioactive off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small scale burning apparatus and a fluidized bed filter filled with a sand or a clinoptilolite were made and the decontamination properties were tested. It was found that the off-gas cleaning by the passage through a clinoptilolite filter was advantageous than a sand filter and the overall decontamination factor for 32P was 3.6 x 106. The dusts or aerosols in the off-gas accompanying with moisture and radioisotope could be easily caught onto the surface or the cavities of the clinoptilolite. (auth.)

37

Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including 129I2, 85Kr, HTO, and 14CO2. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

38

Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

Daniel, W.E.

2000-05-04

39

FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

2012-08-01

40

Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs

41

Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

Scott, P.A.; Goles, R.W.; Peters, R.D.

1985-05-01

42

Off-gas treatment in HTR fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reprocessing of HTR fuel essentially all of the gaseous fission products are released during the head-end treatment, which includes burning of the graphite matrix and dissolving of the heavy metallic residues in THOREX reagent. Test facilities for off-gas cleaning have been developed. The burner off-gas consists mainly of CO2 and with 0.5 ppm Kr and 10-3 ppm T in the form of tritiated water. After a caralytic burning step to remove the CO, the off-gas is liquified and distilled. The Kr-rich distillate is transferred to gas cylinders for storage. The Kr-free bottom product contains the tritiated water which is absorbed on a molecular sieve before the CO2 is released to the atmosphere. The dissolver off-gas consists mainly of air with 90 ppm Kr, 500 ppm Xe, 5 x 10-2 ppm T as tritiated water and 1,500 ppm NOsub(x). The gas is dried and filtered before oxygen and NOsub(x) are reacted with H2 in the presence of a catalyst to form N2 and H2O. The gas (N2, Ar, Xe, Kr) then enters the cryogenic separation unit where Xe freezes out in cold traps and the remaining gas is liquified and distilled. The Kr-free distillate (N2, Ar) is released to the atmosphere, the Kr-rich bottom product is stored in gas cylinders. The frozen out Xe contains about 1% Kr. To gain pure Xe this mixture is also distilled. The status of the facility development and test results will be reported. (orig.)

43

Characterization Of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Quencher Sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from ?750 C to ?375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomSAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

44

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimsure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

45

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-03-01

46

Off-gas recirculation system for nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes an off-gas system designed to keep the amount of off-gas discharged into the outside air as small as possible. The connecting line with the outside air is provided with a buffer tank to take up the off-gas which penetrates into the ring main only temporarily, depending on the reactor operation. (RW/AK)

47

PURETEX program. Laboratory investigations to minimize the saline load of dissolution off gas scrubbing solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PURETEX program aims to reduce the quantity of wastes generated by reprocessing according PUREX process. Particularly, the objective involves vitrifying the LA-MA effluents of the currently operated facilities, which requires to reduce significantly their saline load. Concerning the dissolution off gas scrubbing, it is necessary to decrease or even to suppress sodium cation and sulfate anion in the reagents solutions. Non saline reactants, hydroxyl-ammonium nitrate (HAN) and hydrogen peroxide, respectively for off gas scrubbing and iodine processing, have been tested on the laboratory scale; the results are positive enough to justify further laboratory tests and a validation in a micro-pilot rig. (author)

48

Evaluation of NO/sub x/ scrubber for dissolver off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x) scrubber made by Croll-Reynolds Company was evaluated for use in removing NO/sub x/ from dissolver off-gas. Six tests of the unit were made by dissolving finely divided U3O8 in 2.5-M nitric acid and analyzing the NO/sub x/ concentration of the gas stream at the scrubber inlet and outlet. Two tests used NO gas flow through the dissolver vessel to simulate dissolver off-gas. Scrubber efficiency ranged from 46% to 89%. 10 figures, 1 table

49

Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

50

Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kumasaka, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikubo, M. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

2001-07-01

51

Adsorptive krypton separation from dissolver off-gas with consideration of trace impurities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process has been developed for separating Kr-85 from dissolving vessel off-gas entirely by means of adsorption. The krypton is adsorbed together with other contaminants onto activated charcoal at very low temperatures. In a subsequent chromatography process, with helium as purge gas, the off-gas contaminants are divided into individual fractions. Laboratory studies with an off-gas throughput of 1 Nm3/h were carried out to investigate operational parameters and the behaviour of trace contaminants in the off-gas purification system. It emerged from the test that if, for purposes of simplification, the dimensions are assumed to increase proportionally, an industrial-scale plant with a throughput of 100 Nm3/h would need a total column volume of at least 200 1 activated charcoal and minimum volume of helium corresponding to 4% of the total off-gas volume. This would result in krypton separation with a decontamination factor of >= 2000 and a purity of >= 98%. The xenon fraction can also be determined individually, but this would mean an increase in costs and the equipment required. Traces of CH4 remain in the Kr fraction and thus do not accumulate in the system. CO2 and N2O can be separated or allowed to remain in the xenon fraction. The radiolysis products O3 and NOsub(x) are not expected to pose any problems. (author)

52

Adsorptive separation of NOsub(x) from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After precleaning the dissolver off-gas contains, besides the noble gases Xe and Kr, about 0.5 vol.% each of NOsub(x) and H2O. For the removal of these NOsub(x) and H2O residues to below 1 ppm, an adsorptive gas cleaning process has been developed and tested on a lab-scale. For the process, an acid resistant molecular sieve was selected and its properties investigated with respect to application; e.g. the dependence of the adsorption capacity on temperature, gas composition and face velocity. By the operation of a lab-scale facility with 400 Nl/h continuous off-gas throughput the suitability of the adsorption process has been demonstrated for off-gas cleaning and recycling of the separated NO2 and H2O to the dissolver. (orig.)

53

Heat exchangers and thermal energy storage concepts for the off-gas heat of steelmaking devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fluctuating thermal emissions of electric arc furnaces require energy storage systems to provide downstream consumers with a continuous amount of thermal energy or electricity. Heat recovery systems based on thermal energy storage are presented. A comparison of different thermal energy storage systems has been performed. For the purpose, suitable heat exchangers for the off-gas heat have been developed. Dynamic process simulations of the heat recovery plants were necessary to check the feasibility of the systems and consider the non-steady-state off-gas emissions of the steelmaking devices. The implementation of a pilot plant into an existing off-gas duct of an electric arc furnace was required to check the real behavior of the heat exchanger and determine suitable materials in view of corrosion issues. The pilot plant is presented in this paper.

54

Continuous plutonium monitor for nuclear facility off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is the final report of the project to develop a continuous, real-line monitor for ICPP plutonium emissions in the presence of naturally occurring radon daughters. The developed monitor collects the plutonium sample on a glass fiber filter followed by in-situ x-ray spectroscopy. The monitor was developed in two phases; laboratory testing and on-line demonstration. The major conclusions were the following: A Low-Energy Photon Spectrometer (LEPS) had sufficient sensitivity and resolution to detect the 40 hour occupational plutonium limit of 2 x 10-6 pCi/cc in 24 hours. There were no detectable biases or inaccuracies due to unattended operation of the monitor. Therefore, the continuous plutonium monitor was deemed to be suitable for ICPP off-gas streams

55

Detection device for off-gas system accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To rapidly isolate the off-gas system by detecting the off-gas system failure accident in a short time. Constitution: Radiation monitors are disposed to ducts connecting an exhaust gas area and an air conditioning system as a portion of a turbine building. The ducts are disposed independently such that they ventilate only the atmosphere in the exhaust gas area and do not mix the atmosphere in the turbine building. Since radioactivity issued upon off-gas accidents to the exhaust gas area is sucked to the duct, it can be detected by radiation detection monitors in a short time after the accident. Further, since the operator judges it as the off-gas system accident, the off-gas system can be isolated in a short time after the accident. (Moriyama, K.)

56

Dynamic simulation aids DWPF off-gas and ventilation design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic simulation is an effective engineering tool for the evaluation of dynamic systems during the design phase of a project. The primary objective is to gain understanding about all aspects of the dynamic behavior during upset conditions and to use such knowledge to arrive at a design that satisfies all control and performance criteria. On the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), it was used for the design of the melter off-gas processing system and the vitrification building control system for the air supply and exhaust to ensure a definite air flow pattern during upset conditions. For these applications, the simulation models were prepared using Bechtel's proprietary language, DAP and executed on Bechtel's Dynamic Simulation Facility. 9 figs

57

Integrated DM 1200 Melter Testing Of HLW C-106/AY-102 Composition Using Bubblers VSL-03R3800-1, Rev. 0, 9/15/03  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

58

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

59

Investigation of sulfur-impregnated activated carbon for removal of mercury vapor from a thermal desorption off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulfur-impregnated activated carbon is being studied for use as a final mercury emission control device for a thermal desorption unit. Bench-scale tests are being conducted to demonstrate the performance of the sulfur-impregnated activated carbon for mercury vapor recovery and to determine design parameters needed to implement this control technology in a pilot-scale thermal desorption process. These experiments are designed to analyze break-through time, adsorption capacity, and rate of adsorption. The performance of the sulfur-impregnated activated carbon will be compared with the base-activated carbon. A bench-scale experiment has been constructed to simulate the conditions of a mercury off-gas stream from a thermal desorption unit to collect the required data. Because a high concentration of water vapor is expected in the thermal desorption offgas, the experiments will be conducted both with and without water vapor present in the experimental off-gas to verify the impact of water vapor on performance of the carbon and to determine if preventive measures should be taken in the pilot-scale system

60

Computer simulation of the off gas treatment process for the KEPCO pilot vitrification plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrification technology for treatment of low and intermediate radioactive wastes can remarkably reduce waste volume to about one twentieth of the initial volume as they are collected and converted into a very stable form. Therefore, it can minimize environmental impact when the vitrified waste is disposed of. But an off gas treatment system is necessary to apply this technology because air pollutants and radioisotopes are generated like those of other conventional incinerators during thermal oxidation process at high temperature. KEPCO designed and installed a pilot scale vitrification plant to demonstrate the feasibility of the vitrification process and then to make a conceptual design for a commercial vitrification facility. The purpose of this study was to simulate the off gas treatment system(OGTS) in order optimize the operating conditions. Mass balance and temperature profile in the off gas treatment system were simulated for different combinations of combustible wastes by computer simulation code named OGTS code and removal efficiency of each process was also calculated with change of design parameters. The OGTS code saved efforts,time and capital because scale and configuration of the system could be easily changed. The simulation result of the pilot scale off gas process as well as pilot tests will be of great use in the future for a design of the commercial vitrification facility. (author)

61

Electric furnace off-gas cleaning systems at PT Inco  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation described an off-gas system designed for an electric furnace. The system was designed to lower particulate emissions, prevent sulphuric acid condensation, and provide capacity for planned furnace operation and production levels. The off-gas consisted mainly of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Freeboard gas analyses were conducted to characterize off-gas volume and composition. A full combustion system was selected. Furnaces were operated with a slight negative draft setpoint to allow for fluctuations in gas generation. A combustion chamber was sized to maintain gas velocities in the range of 25 to 35 m/s. A spray chamber was used to cool the fully combusted gas, and furnace draft control was achieved by a louvered draft control damper. A secondary ventilation system was used to cool the primary off-gas to a temperature below 260 degrees C. A baghouse was used to remove particulates from the off-gas. Other equipment included an induced draft fan and dust handling equipment. It was concluded that the off-gas systems are now successfully operating in 4 furnaces. tabs., figs.

Safe, P.; Russell, M.; Engel, G. [WorleyParsons Gas Cleaning, Irving, TX (United States)

2008-07-01

62

Iodine removal from the vessel off gas in Tokai reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the active operation of Tokai reprocessing plant started on Sep. 1977, the measurements of iodine (129I) in the liquid and gaseous streams have been carried out. From the result of measurements, it was confirmed that more than 99% of the calculated amount of 129I in the spent fuels was released into the off gas circuit during the dissolution. Most of the released iodine was desorbed to liquid streams and then transferred to the waste disposal facility, where some amounts of iodine were released into the vessel off gas line. Through the investigation of iodine distribution in the plant, it was understood that the removal of iodine in the vessel off gas led to decreasing the iodine discharged to the atmosphere, so that the charcoal and the silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX) filters were installed in the vessel ventilation systems at the waste disposal facility. Then the removal tests have been carried out through the active operation. The decontamination factor (DF) of the charcoal filter for iodine (129I) achieved about 103 at the beginning but the breakthrough occurred at 1,100 hours loading. On the other hand, DF of AgX filter has been kept in the range of 50 to 102 through 18,000 hours loading (about two years since the start of operation in Nov. 1979). Consequently, it was confirmed that AgX adsorbent was effective for the removal of airborne iodine (129I) in the vessel off gas. At present, by me) in the vessel off gas. At present, by means of the installation of AgX filters on the vessel ventilation systems, the iodine (129I) discharged to the atmosphere has been controlled at low level in the Plant. (author)

63

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NOx removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NOx flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given

64

Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters have been investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The results of these studies have established the identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance. 8 figures, 16 tables

65

Decontamination and decommissioning of RALA off-gas cell and storage tank. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Radioactive Lanthanum-140 (RALA) off-gas cell and storage tank located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co. (WINCO). The ICPP is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The RALA off-gas cell is located near the southeast corner of CPP-601 and the storage tank was located near the southern boundary fence of ICPP. The cell and storage tank were part of a system installed to handle the gases generated during the operation of the RALA process system which was located in L-cell of the process building, CPP-601. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of reducing the potential for personnel to be exposed to or contaminated by the radiation that existed in the inactive facility

66

Degradation of off-gas toluene in continuous pyrite Fenton system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of off-gas toluene from a toluene reservoir and a soil vapor extraction (SVE) process was investigated in a continuous pyrite Fenton system. The removal of off-gas toluene from the toluene reservoir was >95% by 8h in the pyrite Fenton system, while it was ?97 % by 3h in classic Fenton system and then rapidly decreased to initial level by 8h. Continuous consumption of low Fe(II) concentration dissolved from pyrite surface (0.05-0.11 mM) was observed in the pyrite Fenton system, which can lead to the effective and successful removal of the gas-phase toluene due to stable production of OH radical (OH). Inhibitor and spectroscopic test results showed that OH was a dominant radical that degraded gas-phase toluene during the reaction. Off-gas toluene from the SVE process was removed by 96% in the pyrite Fenton system, and remnant toluene from rebounding effect was treated by 99%. Main transformation products from toluene oxidation were benzoic acid (31.4%) and CO2 (38.8%) at 4h, while traces of benzyl alcohol (1.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.7%) were observed. Maximum operation time of continuous pyrite Fenton system was estimated to be 56-61 d and its optimal operation time achieving emission standard was 28.9 d. PMID:25125037

Choi, Kyunghoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

2014-09-15

67

Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

Nick Soelberg

2005-09-01

68

Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO{sub 2} in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2009-06-01

69

Valve performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Valve Performance Test Program addresses current requirements for testing of pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in water reactors. The program is aimed at evaluating the existing leak rate limits for PIVs and the Section XI correlation for extrapolating leak rates between the test and operating conditions. The use of acoustic emission monitoring will be evaluated as an alternative method for assessing the sealing capability of these valves. In addition, motor operator signature testing will be evaluated as a method for assessing gate valve operability. Currently three check valves, ranging in size from a nominal four inch diameter to twelve inch diameter, are being tested. No significant valve deterioration has resulted from a program of life cycling the valves. Future efforts will focus on loosened internals testing of the check valves and life cycle testing of the check valves and life cycle testing of the gate valves

70

Test and Performance Anxiety  

Science.gov (United States)

Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…

Huberty, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

71

A performance test of sintered metal filter in the pilot-scale radioactive waste vitrification plant in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the applicability of a sintered metal filter in a low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste(LILW) vitrification plant, a specific performance test had performed. For the test, stainless steel(AISI 904L) based filter elements were chosen and exposed to off-gas for about 32 hours. The total filtration area was 3.6m2 and the face velocity was about 0.6m/min. To remove dust layer deposited on the filter surface, back flushing was applied to the filter periodically. Back flushing pressure was controlled in the range of 4?5 bars depending on the behavior of the pressure drop. No physical damage and/or problem of filter was observed after the test. SEM-EDS analysis showed sodium(Na) and sulfur(S) presence at the surface deposit. But, the x-ray mapping of the cross section of skin layer showed no evidence of off-gas deposition. Based on the 32 hours test, the performance of sintered metal filter was acceptable for the treatment of hot off-gas from the LILW vitrification plant

72

Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -600C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste

73

Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will elop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

74

Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

2003-01-01

75

Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-07-01

76

Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2012-08-01

77

Aperture Performance Assessment Test  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this test is severalfold, all relating to the use of various observing strategies with different apertures and how they affect the resulting data quality. We will compare LWRS data taken with and without XOFFsets (e.g. dithering). We will attempt observations with the HIRS aperture, concentrating on LiF1, to see if significant gains in resolution can be made. Finally, additional testing of the MDRS-multiple PKUP per orbit strategy will be performed. It is expected that all of these tests will be performed on the same target in sequence, to minimize the variables and maximize information learned about the different techniques. Multiple runs of this test are anticipated with differing strategies for the detailed sequence of activities.

Blair, William

78

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2011-05-01

79

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absorption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitorinssive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

80

Performance testing biometric verifiers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance and availability of the five basic identity verifiers can now meet the requirements of most physical and information security needs. However, with the lack of any evaluation standards, the independent testing of verifiers requires care with due consideration for both parts of the verifier systems; the verifier hardware and software and the user with his biometric features which is the least consistent part of the system. The method of testing and data processing must be done with care and should be reported along with reduced results.

Maxwell, R.

1990-03-01

81

Performance Test Procedure for Fuel Test Loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a test facility which can conduct a fuel irradiation test at HANARO. The FTL simulates commercial NPPs' operating conditions such as their pressure, temperature, flow, water chemistry and neutron flux levels to conduct the irradiation test. The performance test of the FTL has been performing since April, 2007 and expected to be completed in the last half of 2009. In this paper, the performance test procedure for the FTL is introduced

82

Off-gas adsorption model and simulation - OSPREY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and Recovery (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed. (author)

83

Off-gas adsorption model and simulation - OSPREY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and Recovery (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed. (author)

Rutledge, V.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2013-07-01

84

Off-gas Adsorption Model and Simulation - OSPREY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed.

Veronica J Rutledge

2013-10-01

85

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, G.T.

1991-04-08

86

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD resultve to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe2O3 and Fe(Fe2O4)), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO3). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO3- with SO42- being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion

87

Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF.

Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Lee, H. H

2006-09-15

88

Selective absorption pilot plant for decontamination of fuel reprocessing plant off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fluorocarbon-based selective absorption process for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and radon-222 from the off-gas of conventional light water and advanced reactor fuel reprocessing plants is being developed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in conjunction with fuel recycle work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Savannah River Laboratory. The process is characterized by an especially high tolerance for many other reprocessing plant off-gas components. This report presents detailed drawings and descriptions of the second generation development pilot plant as it has evolved after three years of operation. The test facility is designed on the basis of removing 99% of the feed gas krypton and 99.9% of the carbon and radon, and can handle a nominal 15 scfm (425 slm) of contaminated gas at pressures from 100 to 600 psig (7.0 to 42.2 kg/cm/sup 2/) and temperatures from minus 45 to plus 25/sup 0/F (-43 to -4/sup 0/C). Part of the development program is devoted to identifying flowsheet options and simplifications that lead to an even more economical and reliable process. Two of these applicative flowsheets are discussed.

Stephenson, M.J.; Eby, R.S.; Huffstetler, V.C.

1977-10-01

89

Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF

90

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TOA PARTITIONING ON DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar? L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, G.

2013-06-18

91

Experimental determination of the solubilities of dissolver off-gas constituents in a Kr-85 recovery solvent (CCl2F2). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental determination of the solubility of the major off-gas constituent-Nitrogen was performed with a new solubility measurement apparatus. The new apparatus was designed, built and tested; an algorithm for thermodynamic consistency testing of P-T-x-y data for solubility systems was developed, and thermodynamically consistent Nitrogen-R-12 solubility data were taken. The Henry's Law constant for the Nitrogen-R-12 system can be represented by the equation ln H/sub N2-R-12/ (atm) = 0.44 + 1.0708 lnT (0K). The solubility data extend the range of known equilibrium data into a region where process equipment operate and are consistent with both other data at lower temperatures by other researchers and with regular solution theory

92

Off-gas recirculation system for nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the invention, it is suggested to provide a buffer vessel in the ring main of the off-gas recirculation system for off-gases of a nuclear reactor to which all chambers or vessels which may contain radioactively contaminated gases are connected, within the connection line to outside air. This is to prevent the immediate release of an appreciable amount of gas to the outside air due to pressure variations conditioned by the sequence of operations - e.g. on the filling of the coolant storage. After the improvement, the released gas may be reduced to the amount of gas corresponding to the leakage gas flow entering the ring mains system. (TK)

93

Final Report DM1200 Tests With AZ 101 HLW Simulants VSL-03R3800-4, Rev. 0, 2/17/04  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

94

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

95

Analysis of Off Gas From Disintegration Process of Graphite Matrix by Electrochemical Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using electrochemical method with salt solutions as electrolyte, some gaseous substances (off gas) would be generated during the disintegration of graphite from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements. The off gas is determined to be composed of H2, O2, N2, CO2 and NOx by gas chromatography. Only about 1.5% graphite matrix is oxidized to CO2. Compared to the direct burning-graphite method, less off gas,especially CO2, is generated in the disintegration process of graphite by electrochemical method and the treatment of off gas becomes much easier. (authors)

96

Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems

97

CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated

98

The development and design of the off-gas treatment system for the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

British Nuclear Fuels completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated on 17 January 1994. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to As Low as Reasonably Practicable. Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met with respect to aerial discharges. It outlines the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. The resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. The principal species requiring treatment in the THORP off-gas system are iodine-129, carbon-14, nitrogen oxides (NOx), fuel dust particles and aerosols containing plutonium or mixed fission products. The paper describes the combination of abatement equipment used in different parts of the plant, including counter-cut parts of the plant, including counter-current absorption columns, electrostatic precipitators, dehumidifiers and High Efficiency Particulate Air filters. Because a number of separate off-gas streams are combined before discharge, special depression control systems were developed which have already proved successful during plant commissioning. BNFL is confident that the detailed attention given to the development and design phases of the THORP off-gas system will ensure good performance when the plant moves into fully radioactive operation

99

Laboratory experiments on adsorptive retention of Kr-85 from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver in a reprocessing plant based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents is described. The laboratory experiments corroborate the feasibility of the individual process steps. The entire process essentially consists of three interconnected stages: - Retention of NOsub(x) residues and tritiated water on a molecular sieve and recycling both species with part of the waste gas into the dissolver. - Separation of xenon from the off-gas by activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas. - Separation of krypton from the residual off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography and deposition of the pure krypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. Based on the experiments a principle layout for a full scale off-gas cleaning system is described. (author)

100

Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational isfectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

101

Method of stopping an off-gas processing device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent iodine-corrosion of the device and make the extraction of NOx absorption liquids or off gas purging operation unnecessary. Constitution: In the case of stopping the operation of a gas processing device comprising an NOx absorption tower, an iodine removing tower, etc. for processing off-gases mainly composed of H2O, NOx, etc. evolved in the step of dissolving spent nuclear fuels in concentrated nitric acid and recovering materials such as uranium, plutonium, etc. as fuels and volatile nuclear fission products such as iodine released together with the gases, the NOx concentration in the gases in the NOx absorption tower is maintained to 0.5 % or higher. Specifically, when the NO concentration measured by a NO detector at the exit of the NOx absorption tower exceeds 0.45 %, valves disposed to the upper stream and the lower stream of the gas of the NOx absorption tower are closed, by which the NOx concentration in the NOx absorption tower can be maintained to 0.5 % or higher during the operation stopping period. (Sekiya, K.)

102

Processes for decontaminating nuclear process off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a process for decontaminating a nuclear process off-gas stream, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen are removed by catalytic reaction with hydrogen. The feed gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to sequentially remove water, CO2 and Xenon therefrom. The feed gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery process wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column, partially evaporated to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mol% or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. The xenon gas removed from the main feed stream in the xenon adsorber is passed to a freezeout heat exchange device to concentrate xenon to approximately 99% or greater, balance krypton. The minor fraction of krypton may then be removed from such xenon-rich product in a distillation tower with the xenon product being stored in gas cylinders or the like

103

Fundamental experiment of voloxidation off-gas treatment, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reprocessing of FBR spent fuel for the voloxidation process (chopped spent fuel is oxidized and volatile fission products are released), the development of off-gas treatment system is important as well as that of the voloxidizer. Fundamental experiments have been carried out for the removal of tritium and iodine by molecular sieve adsorption; and the removal characteristics were made clear. (1) The molecular sieve adsorption method is effective for HTO collection, even in the existence of iodine. (2) For the micropores of MS-4A, the effect of iodine on H2O adsorption is negligible, and the retention of iodine is extremely small. (3) The iodine retention of MS-13X depends on the breakthrough of H2O. Its decontamination factor for iodine is satisfactory. (4) The simultaneous collection of iodine and HTO by MS-13X is possible. (5) Adsorption temperature and gas flow rate influence H2O adsorption characteristics, but do not affect the adsorption of coexisting iodine. (6) The desorption of iodine from MS-13X is influenced by H2O, although the desorption of H2O from a molecular sieve is not influenced by iodine. (J.P.N.)

104

Adsorption characteristics of Krypton and Xenon as off-gas of nuclear reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adsorption characteristics of Krypton and Xenon, which are constituents of the off-gas from the nuclear reprocessing process, on representative adsorbents (MS 5 A and activated charcoal) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 195 to 323 K using a packed bed column. Experimental results reveal that Xe has higher affinity to the adsorbents. It was also demonstrated that the activated charcoal adsorbents have larger adsorption capacity for both Kr and Xe. The vacancy solution model successfully correlates the adsorption isotherms over wide partial pressure and temperature ranges. The adsorption experiments on the binary component system (Kr-Xe) systems were performed, and the results suggest that the coexistence of Xe greatly inhibits the adsorption of Kr. The experimental results for the adsorption equilibrium of binary component systems were well reproduced by the vacancy solution model. (author)

105

Improvement of melter off-gas design for commercial HALW vitrification facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan commercial reprocessing plant is now under construction, and it will commence the operation in 2005. The High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) generated at the plant is treated into glass product at the vitrification facility using the Liquid Fed Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (LFCM). The characteristic of the LFCM is that the HALW is fed directly onto the molten glass surface with the glass forming material. This process was developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The JNC process was first applied to the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), which is a pilot scale plant having about 1/6 capacity of the commercial facility. The TVF has been in operation since 1995. During the operation, the rapid increase of the differential pressure between the melter plenum and the dust scrubber was observed. This phenomenon is harmful to the long-term continuous operation of TVF. And, it is also anticipated that the same phenomenon will occur in commercial vitrification facility. In order to solve this problem, the countermeasures were studied and developed. Through the study on the deposit growing mechanism, it was probable that the rapid increased differential pressure was attributed to the condensation of meta-boric acid at the outlet of the air-film cooler slits. And, the heating and the humidification of purge air were judged to be effective as the countermeasures to suppress the condensation. On the other hand, the water injection into melter off-gas pipe was found to be very effective to reduce the differential pressure as the results of the various tests. The deposit adhered on the inner surface of the off-gas pipe was almost washed out. And, it was also demonstrated that the system was superior to other systems by virtue of its simplicity and stability. In order to apply the system to the commercial scale plant, the scale-up tests were conducted at JNC mock-up facility using the acrylic model. (author)

106

MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all six melter runs (bubbled and non-bubbled runs for each of the three feeds). The steady state selection was made by limiting the standard deviation of the average vapor space temperature readings from two bare thermocouples (TT-03 and TT-05) to less than 5 C in most cases at a constant feed rate. The steady state data thus selected were mass and heat balanced and the off-gas data were re-baselined to assess the flammability potential of each feed under the DWPF melter operating conditions. Efforts were made to extract as much information out of the data as possible necessary to extend the applicability of the existing baseline cold cap and off-gas combustion models to the glycolic and sugar flowsheet feeds. This report details the outcome of these activities.

Choi, A.

2011-07-08

107

Flame Tests Performed Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable learning experiences. One very popular demonstration is the flame test. The author provides a safe and effective alternative to the traditional flame test without the traditional use of methanol, and provides strategies that allow students to safely gain a better understanding of the atomic structure, the nature of light, and the electromagnetic spectrum.

Deborah Dogancay

2005-09-01

108

Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, W. E.

2013-02-13

109

Cryogenic system for collecting noble gases from boiling water reactor off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In boiling water reactors, noncondensible gases are expelled from the main condenser. This off-gas stream is composed largely of radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen, air in-leakage, and traces of fission product krypton and xenon. In the Air Products' treatment system, the stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen are reacted to form water in a catalytic recombiner. The design of the catalytic recombiner is an extension of industrial gas technology developed for purification of argon and helium. The off-gas after the recombiner is processed by cryogenic air-separation technology. The gas is compressed, passed into a reversing heat exchanger where water vapor and carbon dioxide are frozen out, further cooled, and expanded into a distillation column where refrigeration is provided by addition of liquid nitrogen. More than 99.99 percent of the krypton and essentially 100 percent of the xenon entering the column are accumulated in the column bottoms. Every three to six months, the noble-gas concentrate accumulated in the column bottom is removed as liquid, vaporized, diluted with steam, mixed with hydrogen in slight excess of oxygen content, and fed to a small recombiner where all the oxygen reacts to form water. The resulting gas stream, containing from 20 to 40 percent noble gases, is compressed into small storage cylinders for indefinite retention or for decay of all fission gases except krypton-85, followed by subsequent release under controlled conditions and favorable meteorolotrolled conditions and favorable meteorology. This treatment system is based on proven technology that is practiced throughout the industrial gas industry. Only the presence of radioactive materials in the process stream and the application in a nuclear power plant environment are new. Adaptations to meet these new conditions can be made without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety

110

Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe2O3 spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed

111

Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, 14C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

112

Inspection system performance test procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system

113

Development of off-gas emission kinetics for stored wood pellets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lumped three-reaction kinetic model for off-gas emissions of stored wood pellets in sealed containers has been developed accounting for the formation of CO and CO(2) and the depletion of O(2). Off-gas emission data at different conditions were used to extract kinetic model parameters by numerically fitting the proposed model equations. The fitted kinetic model parameters for different cases showed consistency with one another. With properly estimated model parameters, the current kinetic model can be used to predict off-gas emissions, oxygen depletion, and the buildup of toxic air pollutants in wood pellet storage containers/vessels. PMID:22826538

Fan, Chuigang; Bi, Xiaotao T

2013-01-01

114

Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. ? Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO2 absorbent unit are investigated. ? The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. ? The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density bef 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

115

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08

116

Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

1992-04-15

117

Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

1992-04-15

118

Performance testing With JMeter 29  

CERN Document Server

Performance Testing With JMeter 2.9 is a standard tutorial that will help you polish your fundamentals, guide you through various advanced topics, and along the process help you learn new tools and skills.This book is for developers, quality assurance engineers, testers, and test managers new to Apache JMeter, or those who are looking to get a good grounding in how to effectively use and become proficient with it. No prior testing experience is required.

Erinle, Bayo

2013-01-01

119

Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force and tool life uncertainty is proposed.

Belluco, Walter

2001-01-01

120

Anxiety and memory test performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the relationship of extra-test anxiety to memory test performance among patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (N = 47) and back surgery (N = 24). These patients were chosen because they are often anxious before surgery and thus serve as a model of extra-test anxiety. This examination is important in neuropsychology because anxiety may serve as an extraneous factor compromising the validity of attention and memory scores. Anxiety level, determined from self-report and experimenter ratings, and memory performance, as measured by the Memory Assessment Scales and memory self-report, were assessed 1 to 2 days presurgery and approximately 6 weeks post surgery. The study further examined whether anxiety's influence on test performance is mediated by an impulsive cognitive style, as indicated by the Matching Familiar Figures Test. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed no significant change in state anxiety during the testing interval. MANOVA did reveal significant differences between the two surgery groups on anxiety, and younger patients demonstrated greater anxiety about their upcoming surgery. An examination of the intercorrelations of anxiety and memory scores revealed that they do not share variance and are essentially unrelated. Although the subjects were moderately anxious about the upcoming surgery, this did not apparently influence their performance on memory tests. PMID:23373635

Mutchnick, Murry G; Williams, J Michael

2012-01-01

121

SBAS ionospheric performance evaluation tests  

OpenAIRE

Satellite Based Augmentation systems (SBAS) provide to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) users with an extra set of information, in order to enhance accuracy and integrity levels of GNSS stand alone positioning. In this context, different test methods to analyze the ionospheric corrections performance are presented. The first set of tests involves two of the ionospheric calculations that are applied daily to the Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), computed by the IGS Associate Analysis Ce...

Prats Mene?ndez, Xavier; Oru?s Pe?rez, Rau?l; Sanz Subirana, Jaume; Farnworth, Richard; Soley, Santiago

2003-01-01

122

LFK, FORTRAN Application Performance Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LFK, the Livermore FORTRAN Kernels, is a computer performance test that measures a realistic floating-point performance range for FORTRAN applications. Informally known as the Livermore Loops test, the LFK test may be used as a computer performance test, as a test of compiler accuracy (via checksums) and efficiency, or as a hardware endurance test. The LFK test, which focuses on FORTRAN as used in computational physics, measures the joint performance of the computer CPU, the compiler, and the computational structures in units of Mega-flops/sec or Mflops. A C language version of subroutine KERNEL is also included which executes 24 samples of C numerical computation. The 24 kernels are a hydrodynamics code fragment, a fragment from an incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient code, the standard inner product function of linear algebra, a fragment from a banded linear equations routine, a segment of a tridiagonal elimination routine, an example of a general linear recurrence equation, an equation of state fragment, part of an alternating direction implicit integration code, an integrate predictor code, a difference predictor code, a first sum, a first difference, a fragment from a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code, a part of a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code, an example of how casually FORTRAN can be written, a Monte Carlo search loop, an example of an implicit conditional computation, a fragment of a two-dimensional explicin, a fragment of a two-dimensional explicit hydrodynamics code, a general linear recurrence equation, part of a discrete ordinates transport program, a simple matrix calculation, a segment of a Planck distribution procedure, a two-dimensional implicit hydrodynamics fragment, and determination of the location of the first minimum in an array. 2 - Method of solution: CPU performance rates depend strongly on the maturity of FORTRAN compiler machine code optimization. The LFK test-bed executes the set of 24 kernels three times, resetting the DO-loop controls so that short, medium, and long vector performance is sampled and can be compared. Following these three executions, the 72 timings are combined for statistical analysis and printed. The entire LFK test is executed seven times to measure experimental timing errors. An analysis of these timing errors for each kernel is provided to confirm the accuracy of the test. The LFK test also computes a sensitivity analysis of the weighted harmonic mean rate by assigning 49 sets of weights to the kernels. This analysis may be used for risk analysis to understand the variation in net performance that different workloads would cause. The LFK test report concludes with an analysis of the sensitivity of the net FORTRAN rate to optimization using the SISD/SIMD model, a two-component form of the weighted harmonic mean (harmonic Mflops) model. This analysis may be used to gauge the performance of applications from a knowledge of their vectorizability. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Although the LFK test evaluates the performance of a broad sampling of FORTRAN computations, it is not an application program; neither is it a complete benchmark test nor a substitute for one

123

Development of the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process for HTGR off-gas reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel involves burning of the graphite-matrix elements to release the fuel for recovery purposes. The resulting off-gas is primarily CO2 with residual amounts of N2, O2, and CO, together with fission products. Trace quantities of krypton-85 must be recovered in a concentrated form from the gas stream, but processes commonly employed for rare gas removal and concentration are not suitable for use with off-gas from graphite burning. The KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2) process employs liquid CO2 as a volatile solvent for the krypton and is, therefore, uniquely suited to the task. Engineering development of the KALC process is currently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The ORNL system is designed for close study of the individual separation operations involved in the KALC process, while the ORGDP system provides a complete pilot facility for demonstrating combined operations on a somewhat larger scale. Packed column performance and process control procedures have been of prime importance in the initial studies. Computer programs have been prepared to analyze and model operational performance of the KALC studies, and special sampling and in-line monitoring systems have been developed for use in the experimental facilities. (U.S.)

124

Self absorption and geometric correction factors for reactor off-gas samples relative to NBS standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although they can be counted in identical bottles using identical counting systems, real gas samples differ from the NBS solution standards (e.g., mock reactor off-gas) in two respects--geometry and self absorption. Because both detector and source are real and finite, the simple ''narrow beam'' linear attenuation coefficient approximations currently used in the industry are quite inadequate for correction. Accordingly, the well-tested, complete-analog program, BIM 130, was used to compute the fraction of photons, and the photon energy spectra, reaching typical detectors used in the industry. Using this method, it was possible to correct the given NBS standard activity to its effective activity relative to a gas sample in an identical bottle. Factors were much closer to unity than predictions based on ''narrow beam'' linear attenuation coefficient approximations. At 80 keV, for example, such approximations gave 0.76, whereas the factor proved to be 1.03 for a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) crystal and a 3 cm distance. Results are presented for various gamma energies of interest from 80 keV to 1,830 keV, and for the commonly used industrial distances of 3, 10, and 30 cm from the bottom of the sample bottle to the top of the detector container. Complete spectra for photons entering the detectors, as well as factors derived from these for typical NaI(Tl) and Ge(Li) detector resolutions, are given

125

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using silver-exchanged mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by absorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide absorption of silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests has been 34 mg CH3I per g of substrate, approximately five times less than the elemental iodine loadings. Results indicate that a filter operating at a temperature of 1500C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 1000C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen, rather than dry air, at a temperature of 2000C also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. A study of the regeneration characteristics of silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 5000C. 9 figures

126

Present status and problems of conventional off-gas cleaning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas from reprocessing dissolution process contains volatile radioactive nuclides such as H-3, Kr-85, I-129 and C-14. The establishment of the method for removing or fixing them in order to prevent the release into environment is a social concern. The study group investigated the present status of the research and development on the volatile nuclides from the generation to the disposal, and attempted to set up the off-gas cleaning system which is considered to be more rational. It is important that the dissolution off-gas cleaning system is composed of the processes which are highly safe and reliable, economical and simple. It is necessary to pay attention to use the techniques of high reliability, to remove strongly corrosive nuclides such as iodine at the first step, to make the system into a continuous type or close to it to prevent the accumulation of radioactive substances, to avoid high temperature, high pressure operation as far as possible, to avoid the use of toxic and highly explosive chemical substances and to make the process flexible so as to be able to cope with the variation of operational condition. From these viewpoints, the existing off-gas cleaning system was examined, and the plan of its improvement was proposed as a total off-gas cleaning system. (Kako, I.)

127

Parametric studies of off-gas release during in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gases are released from underground sources during the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. Most of these gases will be generated beyond the melt front where advancing high temperatures will cause pyrolysis and vaporization of organic and volatile materials. Some of these gases will enter the bottom of the melt pool and propagate upwards to the surface where they will enter the ISV confinement hood. A computer code called OGRE (Off-Gas RElease) has been written to model bubble-rise physics in the melt pool for given volumetric gas flux rates into the bottom of the pool. The models incorporated into OGRE have previously been reported. The purpose of the present document is to report the results of a series of parametric studies performed with OGRE. The numerical studies involve the variation of seventeen parameters for each of the two different inlet bubble-size models. Results indicate that while predictions appear qualitatively reasonable, additional development of the agglomeration and drift flux models is needed. This development will require experimental data for bubble formation and terminal velocity. 5 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs

128

Parametric studies of off-gas release during in situ vitrification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gases are released from underground sources during the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. Most of these gases will be generated beyond the melt front where advancing high temperatures will cause pyrolysis and vaporization of organic and volatile materials. Some of these gases will enter the bottom of the melt pool and propagate upwards to the surface where they will enter the ISV confinement hood. A computer code called OGRE (Off-Gas RElease) has been written to model bubble-rise physics in the melt pool for given volumetric gas flux rates into the bottom of the pool. The models incorporated into OGRE have previously been reported. The purpose of the present document is to report the results of a series of parametric studies performed with OGRE. The numerical studies involve the variation of seventeen parameters for each of the two different inlet bubble-size models. Results indicate that while predictions appear qualitatively reasonable, additional development of the agglomeration and drift flux models is needed. This development will require experimental data for bubble formation and terminal velocity. 5 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs.

Mousseau, V.A.; Johnson, R.W.; MacKinnon, R.J.

1990-09-01

129

Performance test of dynamic mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to extend reactor cycle lengths and higher fuel discharge burn-ups, it is necessary that both the loading portion of MOX(Mixed OXide) and the addition of PuO2 increase. In general, ball-mill or attrition mill is used to improve the degree of mixing of powders and resulting homogeneous microstructure of pellet in the manufacturing process of MOX nuclear fuel. However, these milling devices showed not only difficulties of handling but also a limited range of amount(2 to be added in the powder mixture. A performance test for the Dynamic Mill(DM) device, which was designed and manufactured by KAERI, has been carried out to improve the above-described limits of the performance. The DM was tested by use of (U,Ce)O2[Ce ; 5?20wt%] powder. The results of the performance test show a superiority in performance. That is, the DM shows excellent degree of ease for handling and the pellet fabricated by this device also shows good homogeneity of microstructure with higher amount of CeO2 increased up to 20wt%

130

Method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method is based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents. The basis for the development of the process concept are laboratory experiments corroborating the feasibility of the individual process steps. Moreover, the different adsorption processes for krypton separation described in the past are taken into account. The entire process essentially consists of three stages which are coupled together: Retention of NOsub(x) residues from the off-gas on molecular sieve and recycling the NOsub(x) with part of the waste gas into the dissolver; deposition of xenon on activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas; deposition of krypton from the remaining off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography with coupled filling of pure crypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. (orig./HP)

131

Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs

132

Studies in the dissolver off-gas system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of possible modifications of the process steps of a dissolver off-gas (DOG) system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant are reported. The following operations are discussed: iodine removal from the fuel solution; behaviour of NOsub(x) and iodine in nitric acid off-gas scrubbers at different temperatures and nitric acid concentrations; iodine desorption from the scrub acid; selective absorption of noble gases in refrigerant-12; cold traps. The combination of suitable procedures to produce a total DOG system is described. (U.K.)

133

Design and operation of a submerged bed scrubber for off-gas scrubbing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operation of a submerged bed scrubber has been characterized well enough to accurately estimate the collection efficiency for aerosols in an off-gas treatment system. The device has the advantages of a high degree of reliability and minimal control requirements. Correlations have been developed that allow direct specification of the design variables that are required to achieve a desire collection efficiency. The decontamination factors achievable through proper design and efficient operation are well within the acceptable range for a primary scrubber in nuclear off-gas treatment systems

134

Special applications RTG performance testing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Special Applications Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) technology program, initiated in September 1983, is being conducted for the DOE. The major objective of the program is to develop and demonstrate thermoelectric technology which provides a significant increase in the current 3-4-percent state-of-the-art system efficiency of low power (2-4 We at 3-5 V), Pu-238 fueled RTGs for operation in all terrestrial environments. A modularized configuration employing 68 couples has been selected to demonstrate the developed module technology. The module provides nominally 3.7 We power output at 5.25 V. Eight modules of this configuration were placed on long-term test and all continue to perform near the performance prediction. To demonstrate module operation in an RTG system environment, electrically-heated generators, designated the Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) and the Ground Demonstration System (GDS) have been designed, fabricated and testing initiated. In air- and in-water testing has been performed on both units and qualification level shock/vibration has been completed on the EDU.

Dick, Paul J.; Brittain, Wayne M.

135

Field demonstration for bioremediation treatment: Technology demonstration of soil vapor extraction off-gas at McClellan Air Force Base. Final report November 1997--April 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) is a National Test Location designated through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), and was selected as the candidate test site for a demonstration of soil vapor extraction (SVE) off-gas treatment technology. A two-stage reactor system was employed for the treatment of the off-gas. The biological treatment was conducted at Operable Unit (OU) D Site S, located approximately 400 ft southwest of Building 1093. The SVE system at this area normally operates at a nominal volumetric flowrate of approximately 500 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm). The contaminated air stream from the SVE system that was fed to the reactor system operated at a flowrate of 5 to 10 scfm. The two-stage reactor system consisted of a fixed-film biofilter followed by a completely mixed (by continuous stirring), suspended-growth biological reactor. This reactor configuration was based on a review of the literature, on characterization of the off-gas from the SVE system being operated at McClellan AFB, and on the results of the laboratory study conducted by Battelle and Envirogen for this study.

Magar, V.S.; Tonga, P.; Webster, T.; Drescher, E.

1999-01-12

136

Off-gas cleanup system considerations for fluidized-bed radioactive waste calcination at the ICPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air fluidization, off-gas recycle, and steam fluidization are evaluated as process alternatives for a waste calcining facility. Emphasis in the study was on the capability of each process to reduce radiochemical and chemical emissions to as low as practicable while minimizing system complexity and potential for calciner downtime

137

Radioactive material packaging performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations

138

Analysis on Storage Off-Gas Emissions from Woody, Herbaceous, and Torrefied Biomass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off?gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas?collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO2, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO2 is highest for switchgrass and CH4 is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2015-03-01

139

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using partially exchanged silver mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide adsorption of partially exchanged silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, filter temperature, and degree of silver exchange. Partially exchanged silver mordenite, in general, achieved significantly higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. Silver utilizations of > 95% were achieved, assuming the formation of AgI. The experimental results indicate that CH3I loadings increase proportionally with silver loading up to 5 wt % silver and then appear to level off. Tests conducted to determine the effect of temperature on the loading showed higher loadings at 2000C than at either 150 or 2500C. The presence of NO, NO2, and H2O vapor showed negligible effects on the loading of CH3I. In contrast to iodine loaded onto fully exchanged silver mordenite, the iodine loaded onto the partially exchanged silver mordenite could not be stripped by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen at temperatures up to 5000C. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates a decreased adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 5000C. The loss of adsorbent capacity was much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing. A cost evaluation for the use of the partially exchanged silver mordenite shows that the cost of the silver mordenite on a once-through basis is < $10/h of operation for a 0.5-t/d reprocessing plant

140

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas systems utilizing silver-exchanged mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, silver loadings and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests was 142 mg CH3I per g of substrate on fully exchanged zeolite, approximately the same as elemental iodine loadings. A filter using fully exchanged silver mordenite operating at 2000C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 1500C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen rather than dry air, at a temperature of 2000C, also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. Partially exchanged silver mordenite achieved higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. The partially exchanged mordenite also achieved higher loadings at 2000C than at 2500C. The iodine loaded onto these beds was not stripped at 5000C by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen; however, the iodine could be removed by air at 5000C, and the bed could be reloaded. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 5000C. The loss of adsorbent capacity is much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing

141

40 CFR 60.8 - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.8 Section 60.8...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.8 Performance tests. (a) Except...

2010-07-01

142

Reprocessing off-gas treatment research in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (S.C.K./C.E.N.) is technologically oriented and aims at the development of industrially applicable techniques for capture of in the perspective of increasingly severe discharge authorizations at the stack of reprocessing plants. Attention was focussed on the I problem particularly, the long lived I129 isotope. Among the many capture techniques, scrubbing by HgNO3-HNO3 solutions, followed by adsorption on silver impregnated zeolites was chosen. Pilot installations with a throughput of 25 m3h-1 have been constructed and operated with simulated gases resulting fram a mock-up dissolver and traced with molecular I131 and CH3 I131 at up to several hundred mCi. The second nuclide of interest to the environment is Kr85 which has to be retained within the limits imposed by the new US regulations. Cryogenic absorption-distillation was chosen as reference technique. A pilot installation of 15 m3h-1 has been installed and operated on a continuous basis. Capture of T gas and tritiated water vapour was studied parametrically in simulated conditions. A new pilot equipment of 15 m3h-1 combining catalytic oxidation and adsorption on molecular sieves has been constructed. All the selected techniques will be integrated into a mock-up gas loop of 25 m3h-1 in order to test the mutual influence of the different unit steps on each other and on the ultimate decontamination factor. Finally a pilot facility for studying head-end processing (HERMES) has been designed in which the most appropriate gas purification techniques will be tested in hot cell conditions. (orig./HP)

143

Development of a hydrogen mordenite sorbent for the capture of krypton from used nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing. (author)

144

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

2014-04-01

145

Cut performance levels and testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

2011-11-01

146

Performance test on polaroid films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests were carried out, taking the opportunity of beginning the sale of an instant film Type 611 from Japan Polaroid Co., Ltd. This new product was developed as the special film for recording video image diagnosis, therefore it was compared with Types 107 and 667 used mostly for recording CRT images so far. As for the experimental method, the characteristic curves for these products were determined by intensity scale method. The test pattern of 15 steps sticking X-ray films with different density, density meters, the image diagnosis apparatus of Toshiba SSL-53H type and a Polaroid camera were used. The characteristic curves obtained were compared, and the examples of applying these films to ultrasonic diagnosis were also compared. As compared with conventional Types 107 and 667, the sensitivity of the new Type 611 was about 1/8, and corresponds to ASA 350. It is easy to use as the coating is unnecessary, and the allowable range of photographing condition is wide. The contrast is considerably low, accordingly the latitude is wide. As the defect, the time required for the development is as long as 45 sec. The possibility to obtain the images suitable to diagnosis has been widened by changing the contrast of CRT images utilizing the wide latitude, therefore it is an excellent film very useful for diagnosis. (Kako, I.)

147

Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

2014-01-01

148

Ultimate froth flotation performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the development of a new reliable method for determining the ultimate flotation response for 0 to 500 {mu}m higher rank coals. The method evolved from continuous development of laboratory flotation tests that were then compared to the 'Standard' methods. By continuous evaluation of results and observation, the method evolved to the 16th and final method. This was found to be robust and to equal or outperform all 'Standard' methods on all coal types tested. The 'Standard' methods were the current Australian Standard froth flotation AS 4156.2.21998, the International Standard for hard coal froth flotation testing ISO 88583 and another new froth flotation method developed in ACARP project C10044. The new C14068 UFT method uses a laboratory sizing at 106 micron to perform a perfect desliming step so that at least the portion of material larger than 106 micron is known to be completely free of slimes. This is analogous to the C10044 method where washwater is used for desliming. The advantage of a sizing step in conjunction with the flotation separation is that it guarantees the removal of slimes from the coarse concentrate material allowing these fractions to now be considered completely free of contamination. An ultimate flotation response, as the name suggests, requires the perfect separation of all components. Washwater is an imperfect desliming step. The C14068 UFT method has tight controls over reagent dose rates and types, apparatus setup, air rates, desliming/sizing procedures and uses a transparent flotation cell. These tight controls and a step by step methodology ensure that the flotation procedure is more likely to be robust and repeatable. Further statistical validation of the method however would be required before it can gain industry wide acceptance and possible documented Australian Standard status.

Michael Campbell; Noel Lambert [ACIRL (Australia)

2008-03-15

149

Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporator of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods

150

Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput ammounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (Author)

151

Monitoring and analysis of process streams in a krypton-85 off-gas decontamination system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods used to monitor, sample, and analyze process streams in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility are described. This facility is designed to study the removal of noble gases, particularly 85Kr, from reactor fuel reprocessing off-gas streams by high pressure scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide or Freon. Krypton-85 concentrations in the most important gas streams are monitored continuously with beta-sensitive radiation detectors using a CaF2(Eu) scintillation disc. These detectors were designed specifically for use with corrosive fluids at high pressures. Representative samples of gas and liquid are withdrawn from 14 process streams via a semiautomatic sampling system. These samples are then analyzed for 85Kr using a beta detector, and for inactive constituents by mass spectrometry. (U.S.)

152

The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

153

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas by the mobile irradiation plant agate-M  

Science.gov (United States)

A mobile irradiation plant (AGATE-M) has been constructed for on-site demonstration of off-gas treatment by electron beam. AGATE-M has been designed for flow rates up to 1000 Nm3/h and is equipped with a pre-filter, a reaction chamber connected to a low energy (200 kV) accelerator, a product filter and measurement systems.

Paur, H.-R.; Albrecht, G.; Baumann, W.; Mätzing, H.; WÄscher, T.; Mehnert, R.; Prager, L.; Sobottka, A.

1995-09-01

154

Respiratory response to formaldehyde and off-gas of urea formaldehyde foam insulation.  

OpenAIRE

In 18 subjects, 9 of whom had previously complained of various nonrespiratory adverse effects from the urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) in their homes, pulmonary function was assessed before and after exposure in a laboratory. On separate occasions formaldehyde, 1 part per million (ppm), and UFFI off-gas yielding a formaldehyde concentration of 1.2 ppm, were delivered to each subject in an environmental chamber for 90 minutes and a fume hood for 30 minutes respectively. None of the me...

Day, J. H.; Lees, R. E.; Clark, R. H.; Pattee, P. L.

1984-01-01

155

Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporation of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this work were to: (1) develop preliminary operating data such as expected concentration endpoints for flow sheet development and evaporator design, and (2) examine the regulatory off-gas emission impacts from the evaporation of relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 Envelope C waste simulant containing 14 volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide organic compounds potentially present in actual Hanford RPP waste

156

Volatile ruthenium removal from calciner off-gas using solid sorbents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory studies were made to find the most effective solid sorbent for removing volatile ruthenium from calciner off-gas. Silica gel is now used for volatile ruthenium removal in the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Silica gel was again selected as the most effective solid sorbent for removing volatile ruthenium, and operating conditions were defined for maximizing silica gel effectiveness. (U.S.)

157

Development of electron beam induced off gas cleaning at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe activities in the field of electron beam use for off gas cleaning has been done. A theoretical as well as application research in the pilot-scale has been conducted. The following main problems have been investigated: improvement of energy efficiency of the electron beam process, optimization of the filter technology, application of the process to other of gas compositions. The results are optimistic. 22 figs, 2 tabs

158

Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse

159

Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse.

Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

2000-05-15

160

Removal of Mercury from SBW Vitrification Off-Gas by Activated Carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive, acidic waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have been previously converted into a dry, granular solid at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). As an alternative to calcination, direct vitrification of the waste, as well as the calcined solids in an Idaho Waste Vitrification Facility (IWVF) is being considered to prepare the waste for final disposal in a federal repository. The remaining waste to be processed is Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Off-gas monitoring during NWCF operations have indicated that future mercury emissions may exceed the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) limit of 130 ug/dscm (micrograms/dry standard cubic meter) (at) 7% O2 for existing Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWC) if modifications are not made. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions may also exceed the MACT limits. Off-gas models have predicted that mercury levels in the off-gas from SBW vitrification will exceed the proposed MACT limit of 45 ug/dscm (at) 7% O2 for new HWCs. NO2/44% H2O

161

Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporation of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate and off-gas streams with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI ESP model is constrained by available literature datavailable literature data

162

Treatment of off-gas evolved from thermal decomposition of sludge waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of a uranium conversion plant. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of sludge waste are nitrate salts and uranium. The sludge waste is denitrated by thermal decomposition. The treatment of off-gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts in the sludge waste is investigated. The nitrate salts in the sludge were decomposed in two steps: the first decomposition is due to the ammonium nitrate, and the second is due to the sodium and calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate. The components of off-gas from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at low temperature are NH3, N2O, NO2, and NO. In addition, the components from the decomposition of sodium and calcium nitrate at high temperature are NO2 and NO. Off-gas from the thermal decomposition is treated by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Ammonia is converted into nitrogen oxides through the oxidation catalyst and all nitrogen oxides are removed by SCR treatment besides nitrous oxide, which is greenhouse gas. An additional process is needed to remove nitrous oxide, and the feeding rate of ammonia in SCR should be controlled properly for evolved nitrogen oxides. (author)des. (author)

163

Limits for the new DWPF melter off-gas jumper I. D  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to minimize solids deposition in the off-gas line between the primary film cooler and the quencher, Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) recommended earlier that a new DWPF melter off-gas jumper be built which would increase the off-gas velocity from less than 40 ft/s under the original design to at least 55 ft/s, excluding the melter air inleakage. Two design changes proposed for the new jumper were: (1) relocation of the entry point for the melter pressure control air from the current position near the quencher to near the film cooler exit, and (2) reduction of the inside diameter of the jumper from 8.33 to 7.156 inches. The objective of this study was to confirm the, optimum inside diameter (I.D.) proposed earlier and determine the upper and lower limits for the optimum, I.D. to initiate the actual design process. Based on more conservative bases for optimization used in this study, it was determined that the design limits for the new jumper I.D. is 7.15 [le] I.D. [le] 7.25 inches.

Choi, A.S.

1992-01-22

164

Limits for the new DWPF melter off-gas jumper I.D.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to minimize solids deposition in the off-gas line between the primary film cooler and the quencher, Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) recommended earlier that a new DWPF melter off-gas jumper be built which would increase the off-gas velocity from less than 40 ft/s under the original design to at least 55 ft/s, excluding the melter air inleakage. Two design changes proposed for the new jumper were: (1) relocation of the entry point for the melter pressure control air from the current position near the quencher to near the film cooler exit, and (2) reduction of the inside diameter of the jumper from 8.33 to 7.156 inches. The objective of this study was to confirm the, optimum inside diameter (I.D.) proposed earlier and determine the upper and lower limits for the optimum, I.D. to initiate the actual design process. Based on more conservative bases for optimization used in this study, it was determined that the design limits for the new jumper I.D. is 7.15 {le} I.D. {le} 7.25 inches.

Choi, A.S.

1992-01-22

165

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of {approx}125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

Nenoff, Tina Maria; Chupas, Peter J. (Argonne National Laboratory); Garino, Terry J.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Chapman, Karena W. (Argonne National Laboratory); Sava, Dorina Florentina

2010-11-01

166

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from here elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of ?125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

167

Test Software Functionality, but Test its Performance as Well  

OpenAIRE

Software product testing has great importance in the detection of errors appearing in the course of software development and reflecting directly on software quality enhancement before its implementation in the working environment. Special priority in the software product testing phase is given to testing software performance. In contrast to functional testing, which should show if software is capable of carrying out planned functions without making errors, performance testing should show if t...

Jovica ?urkovi?; Jelica Trnini?; Vuk Vukovi?

2011-01-01

168

Performance testing of sodium valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic information is presented on the production and development testing of sodium fittings, necessary for obtaining approval for use in fast reactor power circuits. Literature data illustrate the high demands on the required test procedures and basic conditions are defined which sodium fittings should meet. The trends of future work in this field are outlined. (author)

169

Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated…

Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

2008-01-01

170

The performance tests used the water scrubber for ruthenium rejection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LEDF (Large Equipment Dismantling Facility) will be constructed for the purpose of decontaminating the high level ? solid waste generated in oarai engineering center of JNC. And, main processing process of LEDF is incineration and melting system. LEDF will be intended to reduce the secondary waste that occurs along with the operation of the off gas processing equipment of incineration and melting system. It assumed that we are able to eliminate the adsorption tower using silica gel, if the decontamination factor to volatile ruthenium is able to expect in the packed scrubber that is established to remove harmful gas. Thereupon, we carried out this tests that eliminates the adsorption tower and reduces the secondary waste. The decontamination factor (DF) to the volatile ruthenium by the water scrubber is confirmed in the established institution which is in Tokai Works. However, decontamination factor differs and depends on the ruthenium concentration, harmful gas concentration, washing method and also washing condition. Also, the DF value to the volatile ruthenium in the off gas that occurs from incineration and melting system is obtained, does not exist under the same condition as LEDF. Therefore, the decontamination factor to the volatile ruthenium of the packed scrubber under the operating condition of LEDF is confirmed by this test. The main result of this study is as follows. (1) In the examination of the test device specification, the packed scrubber design methoication, the packed scrubber design method was investigated. And, the test device the maintained the resemblance nature with a real machine was produced on the basis of this result. (2) In the result of the ruthenium occurrence condition confirmation test, it was confirmed that the test condition such as the kind of the oxidizer, hold temperature of the oxidization reaction container that produce volatile ruthenium continuously. (3) In the result of the occurrence temperature influence confirmation test, it was confirmed that the ruthenium that occurred with the test device is not particle from aerosol and be gas form volatile ruthenium. (4) In the result of the decontamination factor measuring test and small size hot test, it was confirmed that the DF of the packed scrubber is 10?50. (5) On the basis of the result of each test, we summarized the design condition of the packed scrubber of LEDF and clarified the examination subject in LEDF. (author)

171

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form - 12137  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer solidification was attempted to produce stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins. The polymer mixture was directly injected into the mold or drum which was packed with the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins, respectively. The waste form was produced by entirely curing the polymer mixture. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, water immersion test, leach test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test for the polymer waste forms. From the results of the performance tests for the polymer waste forms, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal. At present, performance tests with full scale polymer waste forms are being carried out in order to obtain qualification certificate by the regulatory institute in Korea. Polymer waste forms were prepared with the surrogate of boric acid concentrates and the surrogate of spent ion exchange resins respectively. Waste forms were also made in lab scale and in full scale. Lab. scale waste forms were directly subjected to a series of the performance tests. In the case of full scale waste form, the test specimens for the performance test were taken from a part of waste form by coring. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test was performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. Every polymer waste forms containing the boric acid concentrates and the spent ion exchange resins had exhibited excellent structural integrity of more than 27.58 MPa (4,000 psi) of compressive strength. On thermal stability testing, biodegradation testing and water immersion testing, no degradation was observed in the waste forms. Also, by measuring the compressive strength after these tests, it was confirmed that the structural integrity was still retained. A leach test was performed by using non radioactive cobalt, cesium and strontium. The leaching of cobalt, cesium and strontium from the polymer waste forms was very low. Also, the polymer waste forms were found to possess adequate fire resistance. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal. At present, Performance tests with full scale polymer waste forms are on-going in order to obtain qualification certificate by the regulatory institute in Korea. (authors)

172

Performance Testing: A Rose among Thorns?  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on 21 performance tests, entry level and promotional, motor and verbal, were evaluated for 263 applicants for city government jobs over a 17-month period. In comparison to paper and pencil tests, performance tests were more cost-effective, more face valid, and more acceptable to applicants in this situation. (Author/KC)

Cascio, Wayne F.; Phillips, Niel F.

1979-01-01

173

40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test...

2010-07-01

174

Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

175

Reading Comprehension Test Performance and Hierarchical Classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concludes that performance on selected items of a reading comprehension test can be predicted on the basis of performance on Piagetian classification tasks, even when other factors are controlled by a highly parallel subtest. (HOD)

Gillet, Jean Wallace; Richards, Herbert C.

1979-01-01

176

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG) in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP) and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS) empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 20...

Sheikh Zahidul Islam; Ebenezer Adom; Xianda Ji

2010-01-01

177

AZUR. A plant for purification of dissolver off-gas from WAK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of AZUR means a considerable contribution to the eventual licensing and construction of a corresponding plant for the German reprocessing and waste-disposal center; because, according to the recommendation given by the German Commission on Radiological Protection, not only aerosols and iodine, but also krypton is to be removed on a long-term basis from the dissolver off-gas. During operation of AZUR under the realistic, hot conditions of a reprocessing plant results are expected confirming the possibility of industrial realization as well as demonstrating the operational availability under all safety requirements. (orig.)

178

Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner  

OpenAIRE

A low-emissions power generator comprising a solid oxide fuel cell coupled to a gas turbine has been developed by Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems. As part of the cycle, a fraction of the unreacted fuel (the off-gas) and oxidizer streams is reacted in a burner, which is the main source of pollutant formation. In this thesis a computational model of the burner has been developed which captures the formation of NOx and the oxidation of CO. This model gives accurate predictions at lo...

Collins, William Tristan

2008-01-01

179

Waste management of mercuric nitrate off-gas scrubber solution: a laboratory study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory studies of a process for volume reduction treatment of a waste mercuric nitrate--nitric acid off-gas scrubber solution containing iodine are reported. Volume reduction is accomplished by evaporation at the boiling point. In order to prevent volatilization of iodine, the process involves feeding the iodine-containing scrubber solution, typically 8 to 10 M in nitric acid, into an evaporator initially charged with concentrated (approx. 15.8 M) nitric acid. The iodine is oxidized to nonvolatile iodate under these conditions and precipitates as mercuric iodate. 5 figures, 10 tables

180

Maximum performance tests of speech production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maximum performance tests of speech production are those tests that examine the upper limits of performance for selected speech tasks. Among the most commonly used maximum performance tests are the following: maximum duration of phonation, maximum fricative duration, maximum phonation volume, maximum expiratory pressure, fundamental frequency range, maximum sound pressure level, maximum occluding force of the articulators, and diadochokinetic (maximum repetition) rate. Many clinicians use at least some of these tasks as part of an assessment protocol. These tests are analogous to strength, range, or speed tests in clinical neurology. Given the widespread use of these tests and a rather scattered literature on normative values obtained for them, a survey of the data base seemed in order. This paper summarizes the published normative data, discusses the adequacy of these data for clinical application, and recommends interpretive guidelines to enhance the usefulness of maximum performance tests. PMID:3312817

Kent, R D; Kent, J F; Rosenbek, J C

1987-11-01

181

Performance test on shielding concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cylinder of the shielding concrete is made from common Portland cement and home-made coarse or fine aggregates. Orthogonal design experiment and regression analysis are adopted to study the effects of the water content, sand percentage and water-cement ratio on the property of shielding concrete and the difference between them. The test shows that the tensile strength is in inverse proportion with water-cement ratio, and the influence is quite significant. Another factor is the type of aggregates. The effect of the age on its density is not obvious. Similarly, the concrete shielding ? rays shares the same influencing factors with that shielding neutron rays on density, slump and tensile strength. And both have the same change rules regarding to mechanical property. (authors)

182

Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1990-02-01

183

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boric acid wastewater and spent ion exchange resins are generated as a low- and medium- level radioactive wastes from pressurized light water reactors. In Korea, boric acid wastewater is concentrated and dried in the form of granules, and finally solidified by using paraffin wax. In this study, polymer solidification was attempted to produce the stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. The polymer mixture which consists of epoxy resin, amine compounds and antimony trioxide was used to solidify the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. To evaluate the stability of polymer waste forms, a series of standardized performance tests was conducted. Also, by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea, an additional test was performed to estimate fire resistance and gas generation of the waste forms. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test and an analysis of gas generation were performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal

184

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boric acid wastewater and spent ion exchange resins are generated as a low- and medium- level radioactive wastes from pressurized light water reactors. In Korea, boric acid wastewater is concentrated and dried in the form of granules, and finally solidified by using paraffin wax. In this study, polymer solidification was attempted to produce the stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. The polymer mixture which consists of epoxy resin, amine compounds and antimony trioxide was used to solidify the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. To evaluate the stability of polymer waste forms, a series of standardized performance tests was conducted. Also, by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea, an additional test was performed to estimate fire resistance and gas generation of the waste forms. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test and an analysis of gas generation were performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal.

Lee, Se Yup [Korea Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

185

Radioactive contamination monitoring device for off-gas in ventilation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a conventional method of detecting leakage for primary coolants, radioactive iodine in off-gases was detected while going up the off-gas system. As an event resulting in abnormality to radioactive rare gas level, leakage of water, leakage in cleanup system-recycling system, leakage in main steams and leakage from wastes processing system are considered. An off-gas system to be measured is selectively sampled by a sample changer in order to measure radioactive rare gases in the off-gases, and sample gases are introduced to detect radioactivity. Detection signals are received for analysis and quantitative determination, the result of the analysis is diagnosed and the presence or absence of abnormality in an object to be measured is determined. Subsequently, an abnormality alarm and the result of the analysis are outputted. Since the radioactive rare gases are chemically inactive, they are neither combined with other materials nor deposited to wall surfaces. Abnormality can be easily detected by always monitoring a composition pattern and a radioactivity level. (N.H.)

186

Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation

187

Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

Garn, T.G.; Greenhalgh, M.R.; Law, J.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 1625 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-07-01

188

Experimental assessment of a catalytic hydrogen oxidation system for the off-gas processing of the ITER WDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Setup of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Commissioning of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of a hydrogen dilution tube. • CFD simulation and computation of a Pd reactor. -- Abstract: During normal operation of the ITER Water Detritiation System (WDS) and Isotope Separation System (ISS) large amounts of hydrogen isotopes containing mostly hydrogen and deuterium with some traces of tritium, will be produced and potentially released into the environment. Therefore an investigation has been carried out to handle the off gas safely. The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen is a conventional and reliable method, which has been selected to be tested. Thus, having discarded any hazards related to hydrogen explosion, the exhaust gases could be safely released into the environment. A scaled prototype oxidation reactor has been installed and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to investigate the selected method. This paper will present several simulation approaches for the main components of the oxidation system and compare them with experimental data.

Plusczyk, C., E-mail: christoph.plusczyk@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Michling, R.; Moosmann, H.; Welte, S.

2013-10-15

189

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-10-01

190

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-09-01

191

Characteristics of off-gas production in plasma melting of non-combustible waste by using nitrogen gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to analyze the characteristics of off-gas generated from melting process of non-combustible waste in a plasma torch melter using nitrogen gas as a carrier gas, off-gas concentration was measured. Considerable amounts of NO and particulate were found in the off-gas, but no sulfur oxide or carbon oxide was detected. NO gas concentration in the off-gas was measured controlling the off-gas flow rate from the melter in order to investigate NO gas productive mechanism inside the melter. The results showed that air inleakage rate into the melter had an important role in the production of No gas. NO concentration could be reduced to less than 100ppm by sealing tightly the space between the torch body and the furnace wall of torch guide hole. It is necessary to design the waste feeding system of a commercial plasma torch melter to minimize NO gas production due to thermal mechanism of hot nitrogen gas with oxygen

192

Fluidized-bed calcination of LWR fuel-reprocessing HLLW: requirements and potential for off-gas cleanup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluidized-bed solidification (calcination) was developed on a pilot scale for a variety of simulated LWR high-level liquid-waste (HLLW) and blended high-level and intermediate-level liquid-waste (ILLW) compositions. It has also been demonstrated with ICPP fuel-reprocessing waste since 1963 in the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at gross feed rates of 5 to 12 m3/day. A fluidized-bed calciner produces a relatively large volume of off-gas. A calciner solidifying 6 m3/day of liquid waste would generate about 13 standard m3/min of off-gas containing 10 to 20 g of entrained solids per standard m3 of off-gas. Use of an off-gas system similar to that of the WCF could provide an overall process decontamination factor for particulates of about 2 x 1010. A potential advantage of fluidized-bed calcination over other solidification methods is the ability to control ruthenium volatilization from the calciner at less than 0.01% by calcining at 5000C or above. Use of an off-gas system similar to that of the WCF would provide an overall process decontamination factor for volatile ruthenium of greater than 1.6 x 107

193

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

Elliott, D.

1997-05-01

194

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

195

Canadian national internal dosimetry performance testing programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design and construction of new Performance Testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC) had determined that their licensees, in addition to the existing In Vivo and In Vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results. The program is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the In Vitro and In Vivo. At time of writing, the first round has not been completed and the pass/fail criteria have not been determined. (author)

196

Performance test of JRR-4 LEU core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JRR-4 had been operated using HEU (93% enriched uranium) fuels since 1965. JRR-4 had consumed all HEU fuels and finished operation using them in January 1996. And JRR-4 modification works had started. The modification works, which were about fuel conversion, installation of a medical irradiation facility, repairing of the building and son on, had successfully completed in June 1998. JRR-4 achieved the first criticality using LEU (20% enriched uranium) fuel on July 14th, 1998 and begun performance tests. The result of performance test was fine and able to get a number of data. This paper presents the modification works and outline of performance tests. (author)

197

Improving health physics measurements by performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance testing standards have been written to establish minimum performance requirements for personnel dosimeters, radiation survey instruments, and bioassay laboratory measurements. These standards were subjected to experimental evaluation and to a consensus review to assure that the requirements were practical. Programs have been established using the personnel dosimeters standards to improve and control the performance of dosimeter processors. Similarly, implementation of performance testing of instruments will result in improved reliability of field measurements and initiation of a program based on the bioassay standard will improve the accuracy, precision, and detectability levels for the measurement of radioactivity in occupationally exposed workers. Evaluating the performance of health physics measurement tools will lead to improved accuracy and precision and to an improved knowledge of personnel exposures. Performance testing will become a more widely recognized tool for maintenance of a quality program and the concept will be applied to additional measurements. 32 refs., 3 tabs

198

Effects of reinforcement on standardized test performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of two different motivational conditions upon standardized test performance were explored for two student populations. The first study involving 12 trainable retardates showed a significant increase in score on the Metropolitan Readiness Test given under reinforcement conditions when these results were compared with scores taken under standard testing conditions. In a second study, these same results were obtained with a group of 30 normal fourth-graders. An additional study was conducted to determine the effect of different experiences with token reinforcement procedures on test performance. It was found that a group of children with six weeks' exposure to reinforcement for daily academic performance scored higher under both conditions of test administration (standard and reinforcement) than a control group. However, in a single exposure to token reinforcement for correct performance on the Metropolitan Test, both the experimental group and its match control showed a parallel increase in test performance. These findings offer a procedure that yields a more representative assessment of a student's academic achievement than does testing under standard conditions. PMID:16795371

Ayllon, T; Kelly, K

1972-01-01

199

Integrated Performance Testing for Nonproliferation Support Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with training in testing techniques and methodologies for assessment of the performance of: Physical Protection system elements; Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system elements.

Johns, Russell; Bultz, Garl Alan; Byers, Kenneth R.; Yaegle, William

2013-08-20

200

PNGV Battery Performance Testing and Analyses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s). Tests have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. They include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life. At periodic intervals during life testing, a series of Reference Performance Tests are executed to determine changes in the baseline performance of the batteries. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar- and cycle-life data. PNGV goals, test procedures, analytical methodologies, and representative results are presented.

Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Sutula, Raymond; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Miller, Ted J.; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T. J.

2002-03-01

201

Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant using preparative gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kr-85 can be separated from the pre-purified purge air in the final processing step of the purification phase for dissolver off-gases of a reprocessing plant with the aid of preparative gas chromatography. Activated carbon adsorbers in combination with helium as carrier gas permits maximum gas mixture through-flow. A separation temperature of 300C is considered optimal. An adsorbent volume of 40 dm3 is necessary for processing the residual gas flow of 2.5 Nm3/h; the adsorbent is divided between 2 columns linked in series each of which are 2 m long with an internal diameter of 100 mm. The helium flow required is five times greater than the off-gas flow. The degree of purity for krypton is greater than 90% for a decontamination factor of greater than 1000. (orig./HP)

202

Pilot plant development for adsorptive krypton separation from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of hot cell application a separation process was investigated for the retention of Kr-85 from gaseous effluents. In the flow sheet only adsorption beds are applied. The most efficient process scheme is adsorption of the noble gas on activated charcoal and thereafter separation of the coadsorbed gas species like N2, O2, Xe and CO2 from the krypton by gas chromatography. Adsorption is at normal pressure and low temperatures of up to -1600C, whereas desorption is at elevated temperatures and under helium purge. Influences on the process operation like off-gas composition, adsorption temperatures and adsorbent are experimentally investigated, as well as the behavior of trace impurities in the adsorption columns. On the basis of pilot plant operation the main components for a full scale facility are being designed

203

Fabrication of remote steam atomized scrubbers for DWPF off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The defense waste processing facility (DWPF) is being constructed for the purpose of processing high-level waste from sludge to a vitrified borosilicate glass. In the operation of continuous slurry-fed melters, off-gas aerosols are created by entrainment of feed slurries and the vaporization of volatile species from the molten glass mixture. It is necessary to decontaminate these aerosols in order to minimize discharge of airborne radionuclide particulates. A steam atomized scrubber (SAS) has been developed for DWPF which utilizes a patented hydro- sonic system gas scrubbing method. The Hydro-Sonic System utilizes a steam aspirating-type venturi scrubber that requires very precise fabrication tolerances in order to obtain acceptable decontamination factors. In addition to the process-related tolerances, precision mounting and nozzle tolerances are required for remote service at DWPF

204

Severe fuel-damage scoping test performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. The first test of Phase I of this series has been successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Following the first test, calculations were performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code with actual experimental boundary conditions. This paper discusses the test conduct and performance and presents the calculated and measured test bundle results. The test resulted in a slow heatup to 2000 K over about 4 h, with an accelerated reaction of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1600 K in the lower part or the bundle and 2000 K in the upper portion of the bundle

205

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

Winkler, J.

2012-03-01

206

The environment and ASME performance test codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, federal, state and local governmental agencies have enacted comprehensive legislation on power generation emission limits which affects all aspects of the energy sector. This paper reviews the indirect impact of Performance Test Codes on environmental testing, reviewing past, current, and future practices. Existing codes and three new codes currently under development will be cited along with possible future code development

207

Visual Defects and Performance on Psychological Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of children enrolled in a year-round preschool program for the "culturally disadvantaged" in Tampa, Florida revealed that children with defective vision performed more poorly on both the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Metropolitan Readiness Test. (Author/JM)

Vega, Manuel; Powell, Arnold

1974-01-01

208

Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

209

In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables

210

Performance testing of distributed components architecture  

OpenAIRE

Performance characteristics, such as response time, throughput, and scalability, are key quality attributes of distributed applications. Current practice,however, rarely applies systematic techniques to evaluate performance characteristics. We argue that evaluation of performance is particularly crucial in early development stages, when important architectural choices are made. At first glance, this contradicts the use of testing techniques, which are usually applied toward the end of a proje...

Denaro, Giovanni; Polini, Andrea; Emmerich, Wolfgang

2004-01-01

211

Solar thermophotovoltaic testing and performance estimate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) power systems have attractive attributes for both space and terrestrial applications. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) has been investigating STPV power systems analytically, in laboratory testing, and in on-sun testing for the past five years. This paper presents a conceptual design of a STPV system, discusses its operation, and describes the attributes with respect to terrestrial and space power applications. A description of a STPV testbed is given and a summary of the 500 hrs of on-sun testing is presented. The test data presented includes performance data for TPV cells furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) at temperatures up to 1,220 C. An estimate of the performance of a STPV system is presented which incorporates the results of the testing and analytical models.

Stone, K.W.; Schneider, S.S.; Drubka, R.E.; Kusek, S.M. [McDonnell Douglas, Huntington Beach, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

212

Demonstration Program performance test summary reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains the performance test summary reports generated by the Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed Demonstration Program. These summary reports supplement the performance test results presented in the Demonstration Project Final Technical Report and the Annual Technical Progress Reports. The Phase I test program began in February 1987 and was completed in June 1990. This segment was jointly sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Phase II test program commenced in October 1991 following a DOE extension agreement, and was completed in January 1991 with sole sponsorship by the DOE. The objectives of these programs were to conduct a cost-shared Clean Coal Technology Project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate the economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. These tests established the effects of load, excess air, primary to secondary air ratio, unit operating temperatures, coal and limestone feed configurations, and coal type and size distributions on emissions performance and combustion and boiler efficiencies. Data were also collected from these tests to quantify heat transfer in the combustion chambers, tubular air heater effectiveness, and baghouse collection efficiency. Dynamic response and unit start-up data were collected to determine any CFB technology limitations and to optimize unit performance.

1992-03-01

213

Demonstration Program performance test summary reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains the performance test summary reports generated by the Colorado-Ute Electric Association`s Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed Demonstration Program. These summary reports supplement the performance test results presented in the Demonstration Project Final Technical Report and the Annual Technical Progress Reports. The Phase I test program began in February 1987 and was completed in June 1990. This segment was jointly sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Phase II test program commenced in October 1991 following a DOE extension agreement, and was completed in January 1991 with sole sponsorship by the DOE. The objectives of these programs were to conduct a cost-shared Clean Coal Technology Project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate the economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. These tests established the effects of load, excess air, primary to secondary air ratio, unit operating temperatures, coal and limestone feed configurations, and coal type and size distributions on emissions performance and combustion and boiler efficiencies. Data were also collected from these tests to quantify heat transfer in the combustion chambers, tubular air heater effectiveness, and baghouse collection efficiency. Dynamic response and unit start-up data were collected to determine any CFB technology limitations and to optimize unit performance.

1992-03-01

214

Preliminary test conditions for KNGR SBLOCA DVI ECCS performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) adopts 4-train Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) configuration and injects the safety injection water directly into the downcomer through the 8.5'' DVI nozzle. Thus, the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as ECCS mixing and bypass are expected to be different from those observed in the cold leg injection. In order to investigate the realistic injection phenomena and modify the analysis code developed in the basis of cold leg injection, thermal hydraulic test with the performance evaluation is required. Preliminarily, the sequence of events and major thermal hydraulic phenomena during the small break LOCA for KNGR are identified from the analysis results calculated by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM. It is shown from the analysis results that the major transient behaviors including the core mixture level are largely affected by the downcomer modeling. Therefore, to investigate the proper thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer with limited budget and time, the separate effects test focusing on this region is considered to be effective and the conceptual test facility based on this recommended. For this test facility the test initial and boundary conditions are developed using the CEFLASH-4AS/REM analysis results that will be used as input for the preliminary test requirements. The final test requirements will be developed through the further discussions with the test performance group. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

Bae, Kyoo Whan; Song, Jin Ho; Chung, Young Jong; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

1999-03-01

215

Preliminary test conditions for KNGR SBLOCA DVI ECCS performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) adopts 4-train Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) configuration and injects the safety injection water directly into the downcomer through the 8.5'' DVI nozzle. Thus, the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as ECCS mixing and bypass are expected to be different from those observed in the cold leg injection. In order to investigate the realistic injection phenomena and modify the analysis code developed in the basis of cold leg injection, thermal hydraulic test with the performance evaluation is required. Preliminarily, the sequence of events and major thermal hydraulic phenomena during the small break LOCA for KNGR are identified from the analysis results calculated by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM. It is shown from the analysis results that the major transient behaviors including the core mixture level are largely affected by the downcomer modeling. Therefore, to investigate the proper thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer with limited budget and time, the separate effects test focusing on this region is considered to be effective and the conceptual test facility based on this recommended. For this test facility the test initial and boundary conditions are developed using the CEFLASH-4AS/REM analysis results that will be used as input for the preliminary test requirements. The final test requirements will be developed through the further discussions with the test performance group. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

216

Blowdown tests performed in the KWU test facility in Karlstein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From June to August 1975 the Kernkraftwerk Union in Karlstein performed blowdown tests relating to the dynamic behaviour of pressure-suppression system of boiling water reactors during loss-of-coolant accidents. Part of the blowdown channels used had the same dimensions as used in the BWR-line 69 (600 mm ID). The Institute of Reactor Development participated in these tests with its own instrumentation for pressure measurement. This report describes the test facility and the test performance and gives a survey of the pressures measured as a function of time. In addition, the report contains preliminary results of three-dimensional attenuation and of propagation rates of pressure pulses in the water pool. (orig.)

217

Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

218

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2014-01-29

219

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI

220

Core support performance test in the component flow test loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the Core Flow Test Loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This is a closed-circuit, out-of-pile loop circulating helium at temperatures and pressures anticipated in gas-cooled reactors. It is operated as part of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor programme to determine the performance of core assemblies. (U.K.)

221

SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied. PMID:25051629

Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

2014-01-01

222

Performance test of a TMS strip chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of track chamber is presented which uses the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) in an ionization chamber. Performance of the chamber and test results in an electron beam are described. The results demonstrate that this type of chamber is an interesting tracking device particular in an environment of high background radiation. (orig.)

223

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described. Normal carbon steel has been used as absorber. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. (orig.)

224

SIMS Prototype System 4: performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results obtained during testing of a self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 4 for field installation.

1978-10-09

225

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

2006-02-15

226

Leaching of the residue from the dry off-gas de-dusting and desulfurization process of an iron ore sinter plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The residue from a second-stage dry sinter plant off-gas cleaning process contains both the fine dust from the sinter plant and the sorbent used. Recycling of the material that is usually handled by landfills to the sinter plant feed is not possible because of its chloride content. Leaching of the chlorides allow the recycling of remaining solids. The saline leachate produced contains some heavy metals and must be treated before it is discharged into the sea. In laboratory experiments, leaching tests with the subsequent treatment of the leachate were conducted. After the process was optimized, all heavy-metal concentrations were below the permissible values. The optimum treatment conditions for heavy-metal precipitation were observed to be the filtration of the suspended solids followed by the dosing of liquid with lime milk (pH 10) and the subsequent precipitation using sodium sulfide.

Lanzerstorfer, Christof; Xu, Qi; Neuhold, Robert

2015-02-01

227

Performance testing rotating gamma camera SPECT systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvementdow. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems

228

Trapping of Tritium in Off-gas during Dry-processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium, a weak beta emitter, is produced in nuclear power reactors during the fission of heavy nuclei and by neutron interaction with coolants, moderators and some light elements, such as lithium, beryllium and boron. And it is necessary to be controlled its production at nuclear facilities owing to its relatively long half-life, high residence time in the environment, high isotopic exchange rate and ease of assimilation into living matter. The amount of tritium produced through neutron reactions in the coolant and moderator is so small that the tritiated effluents from them can be released directly to the environment without additional processing, while the portion of tritium produced in the fuel element is typically ?60%. About 50% of the tritium produced in the fuel element reacts with the zircaloy cladding to form a hydride. The remainder is arrested in the fuel, possibility to be released to environment in the form of HT or T2 during dry processes such as Voloxidation, OREOX (Oxidation and Reduction) process, Pyrochemical processing and DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel fabrication process. In the LWR fuel reprocessing plant, most of the tritium arrested in the fuel and cladding appears in the liquid waste streams in the form of HTO during dissolution in nitric acid, finding 0.5% of them in the dissolver off-gas stream

229

Excess-air incineration with high temperature filtering for efficient off-gas cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When SGN started work on volume reduction of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the early 1960s, in collaboration with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), incineration was relatively undeveloped but its potential efficiency was immediately recognized. The incinerators then available divided more or less into proven designs used in municipal refuse incineration and so-called advanced systems: SGN's initial impression was that systems for municipal refuse incineration could be readily adapted to handle combustible nuclear wastes. These systems mainly employed excess-air fixed-bed combustion, rotary furnaces or fluidized-bed combustion, sometimes with partial or total pyrolysis. The ''advanced'' systems proposed by various inventors were far more sophisticated but, due to a lack of industrial experience, were often designed with inadequate regard to human safety. The result was a number of serious accidents, including some deaths. Nuclear-grade incineration was a rather esoteric subject at the time. Standard incinerators were not designed to handle radioactive wastes. They lacked essential safety features (e.g. leaktightness) and did not provide for repair and maintenance after contamination nor for affordable dismantling at end of life. Off-gas cleaning had neither the efficiency nor safety required in the nuclear industry. Extensive automation of control and monitoring was not envisaged, because unnecessary in traditional applicationsessary in traditional applications

230

Membrane processes in off-gas purification; Membranverfahren in der Abluftreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Membrane processes for separation of organic vapours have gained wider acceptance during the past decade. In fuelling stations, they have achieved a market share of 60 %. In the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries, membrane processes are used for separating solvents in off-gas and process gas purification. They are also used successfully as process-integrated systems in polymer production. Examples are vinyl chloride recovery in PVC production and propylene, ethylene and hexane recovery in polypropylene and polyethylene production. [German] Membranverfahren zur Abtrennung organischer Daempfe haben in den letzten 10 Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Bei den Tanklaegern fuer Otto-Kraftstoffe, die mit Benzindampf-Rueckgewinnungsanlagen ausgeruestet sind, betraegt der Marktanteil der Membrantechnik ca. 60%. Eine weitere Anwendung findet die Membrantechnik in der Emissionsreduzierung auf Tankstellen bei der Fahrzeugbetankung. In Produktionsstaetten der Chemie, Petrochemie und Pharmazie werden Membranverfahren zur Abtrennung von Loesungsmitteln sowohl in der Abgasreinigung als auch in der Prozessgasreinigung eingesetzt. Als prozessintegrierte Systeme werden Membranverfahren bei der Polymerherstellung erfolgreich eingesetzt. Beispiele sind die Vinylchlorid-Rueckgewinnung in der PVC-Produktion und die Propylen-, Ethylen- und Hexan-Rueckgewinnung bei der Polypropylen- und Polyethylenherstellung. (orig.)

Ohlrogge, K.; Wind, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

2002-07-01

231

Measurement of low energy beta emitters in nuclear facility off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is an account of the development of monitoring methods for the semivolatiles 99Tc and 79Se, and for the gaseous radionuclides 3H and 129I. A continuous technetium-99 monitor was developed. The collected technetium-99 was counted by a ruggedized surface barrier detector. The detection limit of 1 x 10-10 ?Ci/cm2 for the integrated system for technetium-99 was sufficient for radiological protection. The selenium-79 continuous monitor was based on distillation from 20% HBr. The counting efficiency of the surface barrier detector was insufficient for the lower energy selenium-79 beta. A time-integrated sampling method that quantitatively collected gaseous technetium-99 and selenium-79 was developed. The procedure developed for chemical separation was compatible with liquid scintillation counting, was free of interferences commonly found in the off-gas of waste solidification facilities, and detected selenium-79 and technetium-99 at the 10-10-10-11 ?Ci/cm3 level in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) stack. A continuous tritium monitor was developed that used a permeation distillation dryer to separate the tritium from 14C and 85Kr. The separated tritium was then measured by an on-line 20-L ionization chamber. An in-plant demonstration proved the monitor's response characteristics, i.e., accuracy, and sensitivity, were sufficient to detect process transients and to determine routine releases, within the range of 1 x 10-9 to 1 x 10-4 ?Ci/cm3

232

Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency…

Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

2014-01-01

233

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2009-03-25

234

Modeling The Impact Of Elevated Mercury In Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter Feed On The Melter Off-Gas System - Preliminary Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl2, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg2Cl2) to HgCl2 witub>Cl2) to HgCl2 with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg2Cl2 and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC cycle. The goal o

235

Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

236

Performance tests during the IBL Stave Integration  

CERN Document Server

In preparation of the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer integration, two detector components, so called staves, were mounted around the Beryllium ATLAS beam pipe and tested using production quality assurance measurements as well as dedicated data taking runs to validate a correct grounding and shielding schema. Each stave consists of 32 FE-I4 readout chips of ~ 2x2cm size which sums up to over 860k pixels per stave. The integration tests include verification that neither the silicon n-in-n nor the silicon 3D sensors were damaged by mechanical stress, and that their readout chips, including their bump bond and wire bond connections, did not suffered from the integration process. Evolution of the IBL performance during its integration will be discussed as well as its final performance before installation.

Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

237

Performance Tests during the IBL Stave Integration  

CERN Document Server

In preparation of the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer integration, detector components, so called staves, were mounted around the Beryllium ATLAS beam pipe and tested using production quality assurance measurements as well as dedicated data taking runs to validate a correct grounding and shielding schema. Each stave consists of 32 FE-I4 readout chips of ~ 2x2cm size which sums up to over 860k pixels per stave. The integration tests include verification that neither the silicon n-in-n nor the silicon 3D sensors were damaged by mechanical stress, and that their readout chips, including their bump bond and wire bond connections, did not suffered from the integration process. Evolution of the IBL performance during its integration will be discussed as well as its final performance before installation.

Backhaus, M; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

238

Performance testing of large metallic seals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware

239

Performance testing of large metallic seals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware.

Leisher, W. B.; Trujillo, A. A.

1980-01-01

240

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.)

241

Performance tests on the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter  

CERN Document Server

Performance tests on the thermoluminescent dosemeter, designed at NRPB for use in the automated personal dosimetry system, are described. An ultra-thin lithium borate dosemeter has been developed for skin absorbed dose measurement. The X-ray, gamma-ray and beta-ray energy response of the dosemeter has been investigated and the angular response for the dosemeter has been examined. The annealing, read-out and stabilisation procedures for the dosemeter are described.

Shaw, K B

1977-01-01

242

HSE performance tests for dosimetry services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United Kingdom a dosimetry service that measures and assesses whole-body or part-body doses arising from external radiation must successfully complete a performance test. Results of the performance tests for routine whole-body, routine extremity/skin and special accident dosimetry, carried out over the past six years by the AEA Technology Calibration Service at Winfrith, and DRaStaC, the AWE Calibration Service at Aldermaston, are presented. The test involves irradiating groups of dosemeters to known doses of gamma radiation and determining the bias and relative standard deviations for each dose group. The results are compared with the pass criteria specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. For routine whole-body dosimetry, both the film badge and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) perform adequately for irradiations between 0.6 and 30 mSv. For higher doses up to 250 mSv, where the slow emulsion of the film is used, the film badge shows poorer performance with a tendency to overestimate the dose. For routine extremity/skin dosimetry there is a wider spread of relative standard deviation results than is seen for routine whole-body dosimetry. This is to be expected since the results will include dosemeters that are based on 'disposable' TLDs and ones based on lithium fluoride powder in sachets. For special accident dosimetry the dosemeters are tested between 0.26 and 6 Gy. For the highest dose group the film badge invariably underestimates the true dose, whnvariably underestimates the true dose, whereas the TLD has a tendency to overestimate it. (author)

243

Flight test of takeoff performance monitoring system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.

Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

1994-01-01

244

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 200,000kl LNG tanks were analyzed using the LKP and BWRS models. The heat leakage of LNG tanks depends on the structure of tanks, and the small tanks lose heatto the environment due to their large surface area to volume ratio. As the operation pressure was dropped to 200mbar, all four of the LNG tanks’ BOG levels reached 0.05vol%/day. In order to satisfy the BOG design requirement, the operating pressure of the four large LNG tanks in the case study was maintained above 200mbar. Thus, the operating pressure impacts BOG on LNG tanks, but this effect is limited under the extreme high operation pressure. An attempt was made to determine the relationship between the compositions of LNGand BOG; one been combustible and the other non-combustible gases. The main component of combustible gas was methane, and nitrogen was of non-combustible gases. The relationship between BOG and methane compositions was that, as the methane fraction increases in the LNG, the BOG volume also increases. In general, results showed a direct correlation between BOG and operating pressure. The study also found that larger LNG tanks have less BOG; however as the operation pressure is increased the differences in the quantity of BOGamong the four tanks decreased.

Sheikh Zahidul Islam

2010-08-01

245

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements

246

Krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC): Campaign II in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the second major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm respectively. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass transfer experiments for the CO2--O2--Kr system are described, and a detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis, although not rigorous, is reasonable and indicates values of HTU for krypton on the order of 0.4 ft for decontamination factors from 100 to 10,000. Recent flooding information for the packed columns is combined with previous data and is shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

247

Software testing using high-performance computers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reliable software testing is a time consuming operation. In addition to the time spent by the tester in identifying, locating, and correcting bugs, a significant time is spent in the execution of the program under test and its instrumented or fault induced variants. When using mutation based testing to achieve high reliability, the number of such variants can be large. Providing a software testing tool that can efficiently exploit the architecture of a parallel machine implies providing more computing power to the software tester and hence an opportunity to improve the reliability of the product being developed. In this thesis, the author considers the problem of utilizing high performance computers to improve the quality of software. He describes three approaches to the parallelization of mutant execution on three architectures: MIMD, Vector, and MIMD with vector processors. He describes the architecture of the P{sup M}othra system designed to provide the tester a transparent interface to parallel machines. A prototype, constructed by interfacing the Mothra system to an Ncube through a scheduler, was used to conduct the experiments reported in this dissertation. Analysis of algorithms developed and experimental results obtained on these three architecture are presented. The results enable the author to conclude that the MIMD machine, as typified by the Ncube, is superior to some other architectures for mutation based software testing.

Choi Byoungju.

1990-01-01

248

OGRE/MOD1: A computer model for predicting off-gas release from In Situ Vitrification melts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OGRE program is designed to compute off-gas release from In Situ Vitrification melt pools. This document describes the theoretical basis and computational algorithms used in the program. An outline of the computer program is described including presentation of an example user input deck. Two model problems are examined to verify the program and an example problem is given to demonstrate program usage.

MacKinnon, R.J.; Mousseau, V.A.

1990-07-01

249

Analysis of the off-gas from dissolution of nuclear oxide- and carbide fuels in nitric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas composition upon dissolution of different types of non-irradiated nuclear fuels (UC, U2C3, UO2, (U,Pu)C and (U,Pu)O2) in HNO3 has been measured and the influence of dissolution parameters such as dissolution temperature, nitric acid molarity, fuel density and composition has been studied. For fast dissolutions less off-gas, especially NO2, is produced than for slow ones. No CO could be measured for the carbide dissolutions and NO is the most important constituent in the off-gas. For oxides and sesquicarbides, the NO2 is the predominant species. Carbides are dissolved much faster than oxides and they don't leave any residue, but the solution stays dark and a slight NO2 and CO2 evolution continues after the dissolution is complete. This can be ascribed to the destruction of the organic compounds (mellitic acid, oxalic acid etc.) formed during dissolution. A nitric acid concentration of 6 M and temperatures of 80-90deg C are optimum conditions to dissolve fuel materials in a reasonable time with a low nitrogen oxide content in the off-gas. The activation energy calculated from the Arrhenius plot was found to be 43.5 kJ/mol for UC. For UO2 two values for activation energy were found, 64,1 kJ/mol if the fuel pellets are pressed from U3O8 powder and 54.8 kJ/mol if the pellets are made from UO2 powder. (orig.)O2 powder. (orig.)

250

Experimental evaluation of NO/sub x/ and I2 retention during the scrubbing of dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, this study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the removal of nitrogen oxides from simulated dissolver off-gas, a gas blended to simulate that arising from the dissolution of nuclear fuel in reprocessing operations. Dissolver off-gas contains large quantities of water vapor and nitrogen oxides and much smaller quantities of iodine and other fission product gases. It is desirable to recover the nitrogen oxides by absorption into water, where subsequent reactions produce nitric acid, which may be recycled to dissolution operations. The NO/sub x/ scrubber system was operated in a mode through to be prototypic of a dissolver off-gas NO/sub x/ scrubber system for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, including recycle of the scrubbing liquid. Chemical reactions occurring simultaneously with the absorption of NO/sub x/ into dilute HNO3 solutions produce liquid HNO3 and HNO2. In general, the presence of HNO3 in dilute concentrations in the scrub solution does not have a significant effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency; however, the presence of HNO2 in this solution does have a significant deleterious effect on NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency. 8 refs., 3 figs

251

Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber. PMID:25646901

Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

2015-04-28

252

Measures for the performance of diagnostic tests  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Systematic reviews have revealed that the methodological quality of studies on diagnostic accuracy is mediocre. In addition, clinicians may experience difficulties in interpreting and using measures describing the accuracy of a test. Using the Ottawa Ankle Rule as an example, we review the measures commonly used to describe the accuracy of diagnostic tests. The performance of tests is often given in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, these measures have no relevance to clinicians unless they can be converted into predictive values. We describe how to calculate the predictive values and how they can be determined using likelihood ratios and Fagan's nomogram. The reader is introduced to the critical appraisal of results based on studies of the accuracy of tests. We describe how both the clinical spectrum and the methodological quality can influence estimates of diagnostic accuracy and stress the inevitable uncertainty involved in extrapolating results from the literature to clinical practice. Methods of calculating the confidence intervals for estimates of accuracy are presented.

Rud, Bo; Matzen, Peter

2005-01-01

253

Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered. This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From 312 single results, 26 fell outside the limits of the trumpet curve and 32 were outside the range 1/1.5 to 1.5. Most outliers resulted from high energy R-F irradiations without electronic equilibrium. These fields are not routinely encountered by many of the participating dosimetry services. If the results for this field are excluded, most participating services satisfied the evaluation criteria.

Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.

2001-01-01

254

Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity 5.4 W-m (2) static wicking height 1.42 cm and (3) overall heat pipe conductance 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W

255

Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories  

CERN Document Server

The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

Marshall, T O

1985-01-01

256

Rate allocation as quality index performance test  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent work,16 the author proposed to study the performance of still image quality indices such as the SSIM by using it as objective function of a rate allocation algorithm. The outcome of that work was not only a multi-scale SSIM optimal JPEG 2000 implementation, but also a first-order approximation of the MS-SSIM that is surprisingly similar to more traditional contrast-sensitivity and visual masking based approaches. It will be seen in this work that the only difference between the latter works and the MS-SSIM index is the choice of the exponent of the masking term, and furthermore, that a slight modification of the SSIM definition that reproduces more traditional exponents is able to improve the correlation with subjective tests and also improves the performance of the SSIM optimized JPEG 2000 code. That is, understanding the duality of quality indices and rate allocation helps to improve both the visual performance and the performance of the index.

Richter, Thomas

2010-08-01

257

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2010-08-18

258

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM--PRELIMINARY REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl2, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg2Cl2) to HgCl2 witub>Cl2) to HgCl2 with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg2Cl2 and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC cycle. The goal o

259

Off-Gas Generation Rate during Chemical Cleaning Operations at the Savannah River Site - 12499  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enhanced chemical cleaning process (ECC) is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove the residual radioactive sludge heel that remains in a liquid waste storage tank. Oxalic acid is the chemical agent utilized for this purpose. However, the acid also corrodes the carbon steel tank wall and cooling coils. If the oxalic acid has little interaction with the sludge, hydrogen gas could conceivably evolve at cathodic areas due to the corrosion of the carbon steel. Scenarios where hydrogen evolution could occur during ECC include the initial filling of the tank prior to agitation and near the end of the process when there is little or no sludge present. The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate for the hydrogen generation rate during the ECC process. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. The tests were performed with polished ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. This steel is representative of the Type I and II waste tanks at SRS. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 deg. C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the maximum instantaneous generation rate at 5 hours was 6.1 x 10-5 m3/m2/minute. After two and five days the upper bound limit decayed to 7.9 x 10-6 and 1.3 x 10-6 m3/m2/minute, respectively. The total volume of hydrogen gas generated during the test was calculated from the model equation. An upper bound on the total gas generated was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the total hydrogen generated during the 163 hour test was 0.101 m3/m2. Corrosion rates were determined from the coupon tests and also calculated from the measured hydrogen generation rates. Excellent agreement was achieved between the time averaged corrosion rate calculated from the hydrogen generation rates and the corrosion rates determined from the coupon tests. The corrosion rates were on the order of 0.45 mmpy. Good agreement was also observed between the maximum instantaneous corrosion rate as calculated from the hydrogen generation rate and the corrosion rate determined by previous electrochemical tests. (authors)

260

40 CFR 60.56c - Compliance and performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hospital/Medical/Infectious...performance tests shall consist of a minimum of three test runs conducted...

2010-07-01

261

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

262

Automated Performance Tests : Challenges and Opportunities: an Industrial Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Automated software testing is often very helpful when performing functionality testing. It makes it possible to have a lot of user actions performed within the application without the need for a human interaction. But would it be possible to extend the behavior of regular functionality testing scripts and use them for performance testing? This way we could have regular application usage testing performed automatically during longer runs as well as investigate how well the application performs...

Hagner, Niklas; Carleberg, Sebastian

2012-01-01

263

Dead-ended anode polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack operation investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, off-gas analysis and thermal imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Dead-ended anode operation, with intermittent purge, is increasingly being used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells as it simplifies the mass flow control of feed and improves fuel efficiency. However, performance is affected through a reduction in voltage during dead-ended operation, particularly at high current density. This study uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), off-gas analysis and high resolution thermal imaging to examine the source of performance decay during dead-ended operation. A novel, ‘reconstructed impedance' technique is applied to acquire complete EIS spectra with a temporal resolution that allows the dynamics of cell processes to be studied. The results provide evidence that upon entering dead-ended operation, there is an initial increase in performance associated with an increase in anode compartment pressure and improved hydration of the membrane electrolyte. Subsequent reduction in performance is associated with an increase in mass transport losses due to a combination of water management issues and build-up of N2 in the anode. The purge process rapidly recovers performance. Understanding of the processes involved in the dead-end/purge cycle provides a rationale for determining the optimum cycle frequency and duration as a function of current density.

Meyer, Quentin; Ashton, Sean; Curnick, Oliver; Reisch, Tobias; Adcock, Paul; Ronaszegi, Krisztian; Robinson, James B.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

2014-05-01

264

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility  

Science.gov (United States)

...should be performed at the Bus Testing Center, and the structural durability test should be performed at the test track. a. Structural Strength and Distortion Tests (1) A shakedown of the bus structure should be conducted by loading...

2010-10-01

265

O2- and NOsub(x)-removal from the dissolver off-gas by thermal reduction with H2 or NH3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reference process for the removal of O2 and NOsub(x) from the dissolver off-gas is the catalytic reduction with H2. Because of the known disadvantages of catalysts, like reduction in efficiency by poisoning or thermal influence, the alternative method of thermal, flameless reduction with H2 and NH3 was tested. The reactions were carried out in a stainless steel and a quartz reactor. Both had a length of 850 mm, an inner diameter of 53 mm, and were heated by resistance heaters on the outside. The main component of the test gases was N2. Tested throughputs were 600, 800, and 1000 l/h (STP). Different amounts of O2 (0.5 and 1%), NO (750 and 1500 ppm) and H2 or NH3 (-40 to +100% of stoichiometric supply) were added. The reaction temperatures were varied between 450 and 750 deg. C. The goal of these tests was to remove O2 and NOsub(x) to below 1 ppm behind the reactor and NH3 (which is formed in the NOsub(x)-H2-reaction) to below the detection limit of 50 ppm

266

CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

267

Performance testing of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) have been under consideration in the U.S. as a combustible gas control system in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) containments for design basis and severe accidents. PARs do not require a source of power. Instead they use palladium or platinum as a catalyst to recombine hydrogen and oxygen gases into water vapor upon contact with the catalyst. Energy from the recombination of hydrogen with oxygen is released at a relatively slow but continuous rate into the containment which prevents the pressure from becoming too high. The heat produced creates strong buoyancy effects which increases the influx of the surrounding gases to the recombiner. These natural convective flow currents promote mixing of combustible gases in the containment. PARs are self-starting and self-feeding under a very wide range of conditions. The recombination rate of the PAR system needs to be great enough to keep the concentration of hydrogen (or oxygen) below acceptable limits. There are several catalytic recombiner concepts under development worldwide. The USNRC is evaluating a specific design of a PAR which is in an advanced stage of engineering development and has been proposed for ALWR designs. Sandia National laboratories (SNL), under the sponsorship and the direction of the USNRC, is conducting an experimental program to evaluate the performance of PARs. The PAR will be tested at the SURTSEY facility at SNL. The test plan currently includes the following experiments: experiments will be conducted to define the startup characteristics of PARs (i.e., to define what is the lowest hydrogen concentration that the PAR starts recombining the hydrogen with oxygen); experiments will be used to define the hydrogen depletion rate of PARs as a function of hydrogen concentration; and experiments will be used to define the PAR performance in the presence of high concentrations of steam. (author)

268

Performance tests on helical Savonius rotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional Savonius rotors have high coefficient of static torque at certain rotor angles and a negative coefficient of static torque from 135 to 165 and from 315 to 345 in one cycle of 360 . In order to decrease this variation in static torque from 0 to 360 , a helical Savonius rotor with a twist of 90 is proposed. In this study, tests on helical Savonius rotors are conducted in an open jet wind tunnel. Coefficient of static torque, coefficient of torque and coefficient of power for each helical Savonius rotor are measured. The performance of helical rotor with shaft between the end plates and helical rotor without shaft between the end plates at different overlap ratios namely 0.0, 0.1 and 0.16 is compared. Helical Savonius rotor without shaft is also compared with the performance of the conventional Savonius rotor. The results indicate that all the helical Savonius rotors have positive coefficient of static torque at all the rotor angles. The helical rotors with shaft have lower coefficient of power than the helical rotors without shaft. Helical rotor without shaft at an overlap ratio of 0.0 and an aspect ratio of 0.88 is found to have almost the same coefficient of power when compared with the conventional Savonius rotor. Correlation for coefficient of torque and power is developed for helical Savonius rotor for a range of Reynolds numbers studied. (author)

Kamoji, M.A.; Kedare, S.B. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India); Prabhu, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

2009-03-15

269

Fluorocarbon absorption process for the recovery of krypton from the off-gas of fuel reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent progress in the development of a fluorocarbon adsorption process for the recovery of krypton from the off-gas of fuel reprocessing plants is reported. Three packed columns comprise the main working sections of the process. Each column is designed to exploit certain gas-liquid solubility differences that exist between the solvent and the various gas constituents that might be present. The main separation of noble gas is accomplished in the absorber. The other two columns, each fitted with a reboiler and an overhead condenser, comprise the intermediate and final stripper sections of the plant

270

Technical and economic evaluation of processes for krypton-85 recovery from power fuel-reprocessing plant off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technical and economical analysis has been made of methods for collecting and concentrating krypton from the off-gas from a typical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methods considered were cryogenic distillation, fluorocarbon absorption, mordenite adsorption, and selective permeation. The conclusions reached were: Cryogenic distillation is the only demonstrated route to date. Fluorocarbon absorption may offer economic and technical advantages if fully developed and demonstrated. Mordenite adsorption has been demonstrated only on a bench scale and is estimated to cost more than either cryogenic distillation or fluorocarbon absorption. Selective permeation through a silicone rubber membrane is not sufficiently selective for the route to be cost effective

271

Technical and economic evaluation of processes for krypton-85 recovery from power fuel-reprocessing plant off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technical and economical analysis has been made of methods for collecting and concentrating krypton from the off-gas from a typical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methods considered were cryogenic distillation, fluorocarbon absorption, mordenite adsorption, and selective permeation. The conclusions reached were: Cryogenic distillation is the only demonstrated route to date. Fluorocarbon absorption may offer economic and technical advantages if fully developed and demonstrated. Mordenite adsorption has been demonstrated only on a bench scale and is estimated to cost more than either cryogenic distillation or fluorocarbon absorption. Selective permeation through a silicone rubber membrane is not sufficiently selective for the route to be cost effective.

Waggoner, R.C.

1982-08-01

272

Real-time monitoring of iodine in process off-gas by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste immobilization, iodine monitors are required on-line to ensure that discharged iodine is within regulation limits. Reliable methods are needed that are capable of measuring iodine-129 in real time at or below the maximum permissible concentration of 0.1 part per million (ppm) (v/v) in the off-gas. This paper describes a method for monitoring the gas phase of iodine by ICP emission spectroscopy. The technique uses the spectral lines in the vacuum ultraviolet region with the aid of a vacuum spectrometer. The gas sample containing iodine molecules is fed directly into the plasma

273

Novel synthesis of bismuth-based adsorbents for the removal of 129I in off-gas  

Science.gov (United States)

New adsorbents based on bismuth were investigated for the capture of iodine-129 (129I) in off-gas produced from spent fuel reprocessing. Porous bulky materials were synthesized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial template. Our findings showed that the iodine trapping capacity of as-synthesized samples could reach 1.9-fold that of commercial silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX). The thermodynamic stability of the reaction products explains the high removal efficiency of iodine. We also found that the pore volume of each sample was closely related to the ratio of the reaction products.

Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Man Sung

2015-02-01

274

Analytical method for assessing the gamma-ray exposure resulting from continuously discharged radioactive off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple model for computing the medium gamma dose rate under the radioactive off-gas plume of a continuously emitting source is described, in which the plume is assumed to be a radioactive slab source with a specific source strength inversely proportional to the distance from the release point but not varying with height above ground level. The model results in dose rates slightly higher than those obtained by means of METEOR II, the programme recommended for such computations in the GDR. However, it has the advantage of requiring only a pocket electronic calculator as calculating device. (author)

275

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

Baum, Gregory A.

2014-02-01

276

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

277

Performances tests on the SPHERE-IFS  

CERN Document Server

Until now, just a few extrasolar planets (~30 out of 860) have been found through the direct imaging method. This number should greatly improve when the next generation of High Contrast Instruments like Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) at Gemini South Telescope or SPHERE at VLT will became operative at the end of this year. In particular, the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS), one of the SPHERE subsystems, should allow a first characterization of the spectral type of the found extrasolar planets. Here we present the results of the last performance tests that we have done on the IFS instrument at the Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) in condition as similar as possible to the ones that we will find at the telescope. We have found that we should be able to reach contrast down to 5x10$^{-7}$ and make astrometry at sub-mas level with the instrument in the actual conditions. A number of critical issues have been identified. The resolution of these problems could allow to further improve the ...

Mesa, Dino; Claudi, Riccardo U; Desidera, Silvano; Giro, Enrico; Zurlo, Alice; Costille, Anne; Vigan, Arthur; Moutou, Claire; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Feldt, Markus; Mouillet, David; Sauvage, Jean-Francois; Kasper, Markus

2013-01-01

278

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date

279

40 CFR 60.104a - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.104a Section 60.104a...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for...

2010-07-01

280

Thermal performance test through on-line turbine cycle performance monitoring in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Now under worldwide deregulation environment, the performance features of nuclear power plants (NPPs) become more important. A turbine cycle thermal performance test in an NPP is regarded as an important tool to improve plant economical efficiency. In this study, the feasibility and the technical issues for the turbine cycle thermal performance test through on-line monitoring are described. The performance test based on on-line monitoring is superior to the performance test by ASME Performance Test Code(PTC)s in the dynamic reflection of operating performance indexes. This advantage improves plant availability and saves resource needed in a performance test. However the critical technical issues such as 1) the security of an on-line data acquisition, 2) signal processing, and 3) plant simulation model development to implement useful on-line performance test concept because of the inherent characteristics of NPPs remain. Additionally the development strategy of a prototype on-line performance test system is proposed

281

New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

282

Fittings for liquid sodium (performance testing)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The valve design should comply with detailed requirements; the compliance should be verified by calculations or experimentally. Properties affected by the thermal characteristics of liquid sodium should be tested using special testing equipment filled with sodium; some functional and hydraulic characteristics may be determined using other media, e.g., water or air. Model experiments are described of measuring the loss coefficient for a bellow-type closing valve using water as the working medium, and determining temperature homogenization in a sodium mixer in an air testing channel. The possibility and accuracy are assessed of the quantitative result transfer from the model measurements. (M.S.)

283

Satellite baseband processor test performance summary  

Science.gov (United States)

A satellite baseband processor (BBP) has been developed for the NASA Lewis 30/20 GHz Satellite Communications Program. The BBP design, reported elsewhere, has been implemented in a proof-of-concept (POC) model. The results of the laboratory system tests of the POC are summarized. Bit error rate test results are presented for the FDM/TDMA communication system operating at 27.5, 110, and 550 Mbps over a variety of operating conditions. The results clearly demonstrate the applicability of baseband processing to future high capacity satellite communication system concepts. A brief description of the system concept, its function, and the role of the baseband processor are presented. The test conditions and means of simulation are also described. The methods of test evaluation and their significance in a system context are given.

Shaneyfelt, J. T.; Attwood, S. W.; Carroll, D. R.

284

Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site

285

Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site.

Josten, N.E.

1993-09-01

286

Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans form a family of more than 200 compounds which are relatively stable in the biosphere and tend to accumulate in the human body. The tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dioxins and furans are considered highly toxic. To facilitate the assessment of the total toxicity of dioxin and furan mixtures, the estimated toxic effects of the individual compounds relative to the 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were introduced as Toxic Equivalent Factors which yield, when multiplied with the respective concentrations, the Toxic Equivalent (TE) of the mixture. Toxic dioxins and furans are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering, in the chemical industry and in household heating. To keep the emissions as low as possible, off-gas clearing systems for the collection of dioxins and furans are increasingly prescribed by the authorities. In addition, it appears desirable to select process conditions that are unfavourable for the formation of these compounds. A simulation of the relevant processes on the basis of thermodynamic data may be helpful in defining such process conditions. To simulate dioxin formation in the sintering process, all major gas-solid reactions taking place in the sinter bed must also be simulated. A sufficiently accurate reproduction of the off-gas compositions along the length of the sinter strand requires detailed assumptions concerning the relative amounts of `active` O{sub 2} as well as the distribution of reacting carbon and water over the strand length. From this basis, an equilibrium calculation for the gas/solid reactions at the sintering temperature of 1150 deg C and an equilibrium calculation restricted to the gas phase at 700 deg C produced values for the concentrations of the major off-gas constituents in very good agreement with the measured values. The further assumption that below 700 deg C all reactions are frozen appears to be reasonable. The latter assumption has consequently been extended to the formation of dioxins from the off-gas. Making use of the calculated data for 700 deg C, it was found that for dioxins to form in the amounts observed in practice, three further assumptions must be made: The formation of solid carbon must be suppressed, the oxygen partial pressure must be set to very low values and the C/H ratio must be >2, which implies that a large part of the hydrogen present does not take part in the reaction. With these assumptions, the calculated dioxin concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the measured values. Furthermore, the different dioxins appear with closely similar partial pressures. This is also in accordance with observation. The calculated TE concentrations increase along the length of the sinter strand in a similar manner to the observed values. Beyond Stage 10, the simulation reads to a further strong increase which is not found in reality. In the calculation, the oxygen and chlorine concentrations as well as the C/H ratio are kept constant along the length of the strand. What varies is the carbon content as given in the sum of CO{sub 2} + CO. It thus appears that the Cl/C ratio, which increases with strand length, strongly enhances the formation of dioxins. General conclusions which may be drawn from the present calculations with regard to restricting possible formation of dioxins are: increase the content of hydrogen-containing species in the system; decrease the chlorine content in the gas phase and if possible, avoid local extremely reducing conditions in the system. (author) 12 refs.

Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

1997-12-31

287

TESTING GAME BASED PERFORMANCE IN TEAM-HANDBALL.  

Science.gov (United States)

Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking and screening. To date and to our knowledge, a game based performance test for team-handball does not exist. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test.Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed two game based performance tests separated by seven days between each test, an incremental treadmill-running test, and a team-handball test game (2×20min). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2-peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity and jump height were measured in the game based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated utilizing an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured VO2-peak in the incremental treadmill-running test and BLC, HR and running intensities in the team-handball test game to determine the validity of the game based performance test.For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC>.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC>.90 for the VO2-peak in the game based performance test. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the game based performance test was similar to the team-handball test game.Our results indicated that the game based performance test is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition. PMID:24942169

Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; Petelin von Duvillard, Serge; Müller, Erich

2014-06-17

288

47 CFR 76.601 - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...76.1706. Note 1 to § 76.601: Prior to requiring any additional testing pursuant to § 76.601(c), the local franchising authority shall notify the cable operator who will be allowed thirty days to come into compliance with any perceived...

2010-10-01

289

Differences in Anglo and Hispanic Performance on Standardized Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

One approach to test bias has focused on identifying the potential variables or factors that may be responsible for bias in a particular test for a particular subgroup. This approach was employed in this study to determine variables which may relate to differential test performance by Anglo and Hispanic students. The test materials used in this…

Loyd, Brenda H.

290

Dental air turbine handpiece performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air turbine handpieces are expected to continue to be widely used as the main means of carrying out dental cutting work and scope exists for further design improvements. An understanding of the theoretical principles governing the performance of these devices seems essential for the systematic development of better handpiece designs and methods of specification. Furthermore, for experimental work on cutting behaviour with air turbine equipment, this knowledge is required for appropriate characterization of the performance of the particular handpiece used with respect to actual rates of energy disposition. The literature relating to air turbine handpiece performance is critically reviewed to assess currently available methods of measuring important variables such as speed, torque, and power. In this, consideration is given to the current state of knowledge of the influence on these variables of air pressure, flow and turbine design features. It is apparent that, although various measurement methods have been described and data for individual handpieces published, no attempt has yet been made to explore the functional relationships that exist between the variables. It is concluded that there is a need to identify the factors influencing turbine performance, to develop measurement systems which would provide adequate accuracy and precision and then to investigate the functional relationships between these relevant variables. PMID:8629964

Dyson, J E; Darvell, B W

1995-10-01

291

Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system turbine performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Turbine to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System Test Plan. The test objectives are to characterize turbine performance so that data can be used for turbine configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing

292

40 CFR 60.493 - Performance test and compliance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Performance for the Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.493 Performance test...determine the VOC-content of the coatings from formulation data supplied by the manufacturer of the coating or by an analysis of each...

2010-07-01

293

Comparing the Effects of Test Anxiety on Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) offer textual and/or aural input for test takers on which to base their subsequent oral responses. This path-analytic study modeled the relationship between test anxiety and the performance of such tasks and explored whether test anxiety would differentially affect the performance of independent…

Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

2013-01-01

294

Effect of age on test performance in community dwelling elderly people: 6 minutes walk test and ten steps test  

OpenAIRE

The data available in literature for test performance in elderly people are less and insufficient for use as a basis of comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate age related changes in functional performance tests and to determine criterion values depending on age in older adults who are functioning independently in the community. Aim: To study the effect of age on test performance in 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step test in community dwelling elderly people. Objectives: To assess 6 ...

Mahajan Pallavi Janardhan, Mistry Hetal M.

2014-01-01

295

Word memory test performance in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

One-hundred and thirty-five children between the ages of 7 and 18 years were evaluated clinically. Their diagnoses included Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or Effects, Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder, various neurological diseases, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder, Oppositional-Defiant Disorder and learning disabilities. As part of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, the children were given the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, Allen, & Astner, 1996; Green & Astner, 1995), containing various subtests which measure, respectively, effort and verbal memory. Although age and verbal intelligence are known to affect scores on most ability tests, they were not found to be significant determinants of WMT effort scores. Younger children did not score any lower on the effort subtests than older children. The children scored as well as a group of parents seeking custody of their children and they scored higher than adult patients with mild head injuries. The computerized WMT requires some basic reading skills and some children with lower than a grade 3 reading level scored at a relatively low level on the effort subtests. The current data suggest that most children with at least a grade 3 reading level can pass the WMT using the adult criteria. It is concluded that the WMT is potentially useful in the evaluation of effort during pediatric neuropsychological evaluations. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and to develop child norms for the memory subtests. PMID:13680409

Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

2003-09-01

296

Performance testing of the high altitude observatory PDS microdensitometer  

Science.gov (United States)

High Altitude Observatory HAO microdensitometer undergoes monthly testing to assure its consistent performance. These tests check positional and photometric stability at the 10 micron aperture level. The HAO test procedure is designed to run without operator intervention following initial configuration of the microdensitometer for each subprocedure. Specialized test software is resident in the PDP 8. The operator selects the proper subprocedure by entering commands. Once computer control is established, it is not relinquished until the test is complete.

Poland, A.; Munro, R.; Friend, D.

1984-01-01

297

Off-gas treatment for pressurized water reactors by absorption of xenon and krypton in fluorocarbons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pilot plant tests showed selective absorption of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane produced concentrations as low as 40 ppb and 3 ppb, respectively. Satisfactory operation was demonstrated for a variety of carrier gases including hydrogen, nitrogen, air, helium, and argon. Charcoal absorption, cryogenic absorption, and cryogenic distillation techniques were compared disadvantageously to the fluorocarbon solvent method. (PCS)

298

Performance test of PPAC in different gases  

CERN Document Server

A two-dimension position sensitive parallel-plate avalanche (PPAC) detector has been developed for RIBLL. The detector consists of one anode and two cathodes. In each cathode a resistance chain is used to readout position signals. The detector has been tested in different operating gases with an alpha source. When the detector is at 7 mb flowing rate of isobutane and + 500 V on anode, the position resolution of 0.76 mm is obtained. For 7 mb C sub 3 F sub 8 and +595 V on anode, the position resolution is 0.64 mm. The efficiencies are around 99.1% in the cases of C sub 3 F sub 8 and isobutane

Wang Meng; Zhan Wen Long; Xiao Guo Qing; Xu Hu Shan; Mao Rui Shi; Hu Zheng Guo; Chen Zhi Qiang; Sun Zhi Yu; Li Jia Xing; Wang Wu Sheng; Chen Li Xin; Li Chen; Bai Jie; Zhang Xia; Zhang Jin Xia; Li Cun Fan

2002-01-01

299

OFF-GAS ANALYSIS RESULTS AND FINE PORE RETROFIT INFORMATION FOR GLASTONBURY, CT  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer of 1984, the Glastonbury, Connecticut Water Pollution Control Plant underwent a retrofit from a spiral roll coarse bubble to a spiral roll fine pore aeration system. nly diffuser replacement was performed in the aeration tanks. rom November 1985 through September 19...

300

OFF-GAS ANALYSIS RESULTS AND FINE PORE RETROFIT INFORMATION FOR GLASTONBURY, CONNECTICUT  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer of 1984, the Glastonbury, Connecticut Water Pollution Control Plant underwent a retrofit from a spiral roll coarse bubble to a spiral roll fine pore aeration system. Only diffuser replacement was performed in the aeration tanks. From November 1985 through Septembe...

301

OFF-GAS ANALYSIS RESULTS AND FINE PORE RETROFIT CASE HISTORY FOR HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer of 1982, the Hartford Metropolitan District Commission, Hartford County, Connecticut, Water Pollution Control Facility underwent a retrofit form a spiral roll coarse bubble to a full floor coverage fine pore aeration system. Work performed included all new in-tank ...

302

OFF-GAS ANALYSIS RESULTS AND FINE PORE RETROFIT CASE HISTORY FOR HARTFORD, CT  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer of 1982, the Hartford Metropolitan District Commission, Hartford County, Connecticut, Water Pollution Control Facility underwent a retrofit form a spiral roll coarse bubble to a full floor coverage fine pore aeration system. ork performed included all new in-tank pi...

303

Collaborative group testing benefits high- and low-performing students  

Science.gov (United States)

We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing the exam as individuals, students answered the same questions in groups of two, and, finally, the same questions were discussed by the instructor and students. We measured two learning outcomes for every student: individual and group test scores. Based on individual test scores, students were categorized as "high performing" (students with higher individual scores) or "low performing" (students with lower individual scores). Finally, student evaluations of the format were collected. Collaborative group testing enhanced student performance. Specifically, group scores were higher than individual scores (P small for the high-performing students. Finally, student evaluations of this testing format were very positive. In conclusion, collaborative group testing was beneficial for all students; however, collaborative testing was significantly more beneficial for low-performing students.

Maurico J. Giuliodori (Univ Nacional De La Plata Dept Physiology)

2008-12-01

304

Performance of the test control system using Java/CORBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to research the control system for 'Super SOR', we have developed the test bench of the control system and evaluated its performance. We use Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the framework for the control system, and Java as the programming language for the graphical user interface. This paper describes the test bench and its performance. (author)

305

Performance demonstration tests for detection of intergranular stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report evaluates detection tests of inservice inspectors (ISI), procedures and equipment that are employed to find intergranular stress corrosion cracks in nuclear power plant piping. Performance is described by two fundamental parameters: false call probability and probability of detection. Acceptable inspection performance and detection tests are therefore defined in terms of these two parameters. 14 refs., 25 figs

306

Performance testing of the Galileo attitude control system  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance testing plans, procedures, and initial results for the Galileo Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem are described. The objectives of performance testing include test bed comparisons, examining the interactions between spacecraft dynamics and controllers, and verifying the ability to tune control algorithms in flight to meet specific performance requirements. Two primary test beds are described. One, the Integration Test Laboratory, drives actual flight hardware components and support equipment with a real time computer simulation of spacecraft dynamics. The other, the Functional Simulator, is a nonreal time computer simulation with high fidelity spacecraft dynamics, including flexible appendages, fuel slosh, and simulated hardware components. Initial Functional Simulator results are presented which illustrate spacecraft response to open loop spin-up and turn commands. A closed loop sun acquisition turn is also demonstrated. Future tests for verifying performance of attitude determination, spacecraft control, and scan platform pointing functions are outlined.

Bell, C. E.; Dzwonczyk, D. M.

1984-01-01

307

CISN Testing Center ShakeAlert Performance Summaries  

Science.gov (United States)

SCEC and CISN ShakeAlert researchers have developed an operational testing system for the CISN ShakeAlert system called the CISN Testing Center (CTC). The CTC generates two main types of ShakeAlert performance summaries: (1) Event Summaries (for each significant California event), and (2) Cumulative Summaries (for ShakeAlert system performance over a specific period of time). Event Summaries are generated for each M3.0 and larger ANSS catalog California earthquake. Event Summaries show performance of the individual ShakeAlert algorithms, and the performance of the Decision Module that sends the public communications. Cumulative Summaries show ShakeAlert performance for a given earthquake catalog. In general, CTC Cumulative Summaries compare ShakeAlert forecast parameters, such as location and magnitude, against final observed parameters in the ANSS earthquake catalog. The CTC processing system uses the SCEC CSEP open-source scientific testing framework to automate the test processing. This testing framework provides tools to retrieve catalog data retrieval for ANSS and other catalog sources, software utilities for filtering earthquake catalogs by region and magnitude, and utilities for automating performance summary generation. The CTC system calculates performance summaries for the CISN ShakeAlert system on a daily basis. Each day, twenty-four hours of California earthquakes are retrieved from the ANSS catalog, and the testing center retrieves ShakeAlert logs for each event, and compares the forecasts to the observations. The CTC testing approach is intended to be open, transparent, and well defined so that all testing center results can be reproduced externally. The CTC ShakeAlert testing system provides standardized, and repeatable, testing of the ShakeAlert algorithms and decision modules, along with overall ShakeAlert system performance evaluation, providing robust testing capabilities with low development and operations cost by leveraging the capabilities of the CSEP testing center software.

Maechling, P. J.; Liukis, M.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

308

DOE mixed waste metals partition in a rotary kiln wet off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. Test burns were conducted using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The partition of metals between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and stack gas was measured as a function of kiln temperature, waste chloride content, and waste form (liquid or solid). Three waste simulants were used in these tests, a high and low chloride solid waste mix (paper, plastic, latex, PVC), and a liquid waste mix (benzene and chlorobenzene). An aqueous solution containing: antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium was added to the waste to determine metals fate under various combustion conditions. Test results were used to divide the metals into three general groups, volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile metals. Mercury was the only volatile metal. No mercury remained in the kiln bottom ash under any incineration condition. Lead, cadmium, thallium, and silver exhibited semi-volatile behavior. The partition between the kiln ash, blowdown, and stack gas depended on incineration conditions. Chromium, nickel, barium, antimony, and arsenic exhibited nonvolatile behavior, with greater than 90 wt % of the metal remaining in the kiln bottom ash. Incineration temperature had a significant effect on the partition of volatile and semi-volatile metals, and no effect on nonvolatile metal partition. As incineration temperatures were increased, the fraction of metal leaving the kiln increased. Three metals, lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a relationship between chloride concentration in the waste and metals partition. Increasing the concentration of chlorides in the waste or burning liquid waste versus solid waste resulted in a larger fraction of metal exiting the kiln

309

Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to continues research to improve existing ratings and develop new ones. NFRC needs to continue the work it has begun in several nations to implement the NFRC rating system that has been introduced. Many nations are eager to accept the expertise NFRC can offer to achieve energy conservation goals. NFRC looks forward to a continues partnership with the US Department of Energy to cooperatively achieve both.

Jim Benney

2009-11-30

310

Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

311

Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

312

Nuclebras' installations for performance tests of nuclear power plants components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reasons for Nuclebras' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufactures, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of facilities under construction: the components Test Loop and Facility for Testing N.P.P. components under Accident conditions, and other already in operation, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results had already obtained are also presented. (Author)

313

NUCLEBRAS installations for performance tests of nuclear power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reasons for NUCLEBRAS' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufacturers, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of the facilities under construction: the Components Test Loop and the Facility for Testing N.P.P. Components under Accident Conditions, and of other already in operation, is given, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results already obtained are also presented. (Author)

314

Plastic scintillator based 85Kr monitor for coral off gas monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring the release of tritium and 85Kr from the reprocessing operations is carried out in VOG system of CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing of Advanced fuels in Lead cells) with a sampling system designed accordingly to meet the requirements. While tritium is being collected in the system using the well established bubbler method which is analysed off-line and 85Kr is monitored on-line using a GM detector. Existing sampling was modified due to practical difficulties experienced. After the experience of few campaigns of measurements, consequent modifications carried out in sampling setup, the GM based 85Kr monitoring system was replaced with a plastic scintillator based system. This paper highlights the subsequent performance evaluation of the system carried out at CORAL. (author)

315

Tests of passive autocatalytic recombiner performance for BWR application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes overview of the test program to confirm passive autocatalytic recombiner performance for BWR application, and the first result obtained from the initial part of the test program. The program consists of separate effect test using catalyst test loop to investigate recombiner performance under various atmospheric conditions, and test for startup behavior and recombiner capability in the scaled test vessel. The catalyst test loop is designed so that inlet/exit gas concentration and gas/catalyst temperature can be measured, varying flow rate, gas content or presence of poisoning material. As the first stage, a series of tests was conducted, simulating natural circulation flow rate inside containment, inert (low oxygen concentration) atmosphere, and poisoning material concentration assumed in the conventional licensing evaluation of radiological consequence. The test data suggest that catalytic recombiner has sufficient performance in the BWR specific (inert) condition, and under presence of poisoning material postulated in hypothetical accident condition. The effect of low oxygen concentration or containment spray water on startup behavior and recombiner performance will be investigated in the following vessel test series. (author)

316

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11. Now in it's fourth edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). One of the goals of this current revision was the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to U.S. personal dosemeter performance testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI/HPS N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. In this paper, the history of performance testing in the U.S. is briefly reviewed. Also described is the revision that produced the fourth edition of this standard, which has taken place over the last three years (2005-2008) by a working group representing national standards laboratories, government laboratories, the military, dosimetry vendors, universities and the nuclear power industry. (author)

317

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11. Now in its fourth edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). One of the goals of this current revision was the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to U.S. personal dosemeter performance testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI/HPS N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. In this paper, the history of performance testing in the U.S. is briefly reviewed. Also described is the revision that produced the fourth edition of this standard, which has taken place over the last three years (2005-2008) by a working group representing national standards laboratories, government laboratories, the military, dosimetry vendors, universities and the nuclear power industry. (author)

318

Off gas processing device for degreasing furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A low melting ingredient capturing-cooling trap connected to a degreasing sintering furnace by way of sealed pipelines, a burning/decomposing device for decomposing high melting ingredient gases discharged from the cooling trap by burning them and a gas sucking means for forming the flow of off gases are contained in a glovebox, the inside pressure of which is kept negative. Since the degreasing sintering furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels is disposed outside of the glovebox, operation can be performed safely without greatly increasing the scale of the device, and the back flow of gases is prevented easily by keeping the pressure in the inside of the glovebox negative. Further, a heater is disposed at the midway of the sealed pipelines from the degreasing sintering furnace to the cooling trap, the temperature is kept high to prevent deposition of low melting ingredients to prevent clogging of the sealed pipelines. Further, a portion of the pipelines is made extensible in the axial direction to eliminate thermal stresses caused by temperature change thereby enabling to extend the life of the sealed pipelines. (N.H.)

319

40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...during performance tests using the same test methods specified...opacity or visible emission observations...control system fan motor amperes and...action would be a violation of the general duty to ensure...for minimizing emissions per §...

2010-07-01

320

Continuous nitrous oxide abatement in a novel denitrifying off-gas bioscrubber.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of a bioscrubber composed of a packed bed absorption column coupled to a stirred tank denitrification bioreactor (STR) was assessed for 95 days for the continuous abatement of a diluted air emission of N2O at different liquid recycling velocities. N2O removal efficiencies of up to 40?±?1 % were achieved at the highest recirculation velocity (8 m h(-1)) at an empty bed residence time of 3 min using a synthetic air emission containing N2O at 104?±?12 ppmv. N2O was absorbed in the packed bed column and further reduced in the STR at efficiencies >80 % using methanol as electron donor. The long-term operation of the bioscrubber suggested that the specialized N2O degrading community established was not able to use N2O as nitrogen source. Additional nitrification assays showed that the activated sludge used as inoculum was not capable of aerobically oxidizing N2O to nitrate or nitrite, regardless of the inorganic carbon concentration tested. Denitrification assays confirmed the ability of non-acclimated activated sludge to readily denitrify N2O at a specific rate of 3.9 mg N2O g VSS h(-1) using methanol as electron donor. This study constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic assessment of the continuous abatement of N2O in air emission. A characterization of the structure of the microbial population in the absorption column by DGGE-sequencing revealed a high microbial diversity and the presence of heterotrophic denitrifying methylotrophs. PMID:25547842

Frutos, Osvaldo D; Arvelo, Ilan A; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

2015-04-01

321

Performance test report of improved 'HEPA filter unit'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of JAERI-Type Filter Housing Model-ISE was tested for the purpose of finding out posibility to reduce the construction cost and to minimize the installation space of filter housings in exhaust machinary room which occupy the large amount of space in the nuclear power facilities, etc. And also, Model-ISE filter housing, featured different internal construction from that of conventional type, was expected to be proved by the test to have improved performance compared to the conventional type filter housings. The performance test was executed to compare performance of prototype of Model-ISE filter to that of the conventional one on the following items, resulting that Model-ISE filter was proved to have no inferior performance to the performance of conventional type filter. 1) Resistance to Air Flow. 2) Air Velocity Test. 3) Air Flow Distribution Test. 4) Efficiency for Submicron Particles. 5) Synthetic Dust Clogging. By the above test, Model-ISE filter was proved to have many advantage c.f. less installation space (approx. 10 ? 30 % less), and lower filter height (approx. 10 ? 15 % lower) than those of conventional type without performance reduction. (author)

322

Index Tests Performed on a Francis Turbine from HPP Ruieni  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Index test are a set of measurements performed on hydro units in order to determine the relative flow and the relative efficiency. This method is usually used on refurbished hydro units, before and after rehabilitation.

Adrian Cuzmo?

2008-10-01

323

CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: QA TESTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Confocal Microscopy System Performance: QA tests, Quantitation and Spectroscopy. Robert M. Zucker 1 and Jeremy M. Lerner 2, 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research Development, U.S. Environmen...

324

40 CFR 63.1349 - Performance testing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...source subject to limitations on emissions of THC shall demonstrate initial compliance with the THC limit by operating a continuous emission monitor...performance test shall be three hours, and the average THC concentration (as calculated from the...

2010-07-01

325

Television computer games: a 'new look' in performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Work at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory aims at developing a battery of performance evaluation tests for environmental research (PETER). Because repeated-measures designs are virtually universal in environmental studies, the paradigm focuses on stabilisation with practice; thus far, over 50 tasks have been studied. The present report describes how five computerized video games fare as performance tests. The tasks were performed for 3 weeks each, in the same order, by the same subjects. The results show that four out of the five games meet all criteria satisfactorily and one does not, a favorable showing for the video games in comparison with conventional tests of either the paper-and-pencil or apparatus types. In terms of availability, equipment reliability, expense, and other practical considerations, the video games have many advantages. It is concluded that video games have considerable promise for performance testing and other applied contexts. PMID:7055490

Kennedy, R S; Bittner, A C; Harbeson, M; Jones, M B

1982-01-01

326

Performance Analysis of Hybrid Desiccant Chiller Based on Field Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field tests of hybrid desiccant cooling systems were conducted from July to August 2011. Data were monitored and transferred in real time over the Internet. The monitored variables were analyzed to determine the performance characteristics under outdoor conditions. A series of system simulations has been conducted for outdoor conditions of the field tests. The results agree well with the experimental data in general. The system performance has been shown to deteriorate for wetter conditions, as predicted by the simulation

327

Performance Analysis of Hybrid Desiccant Chiller Based on Field Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field tests of hybrid desiccant cooling systems were conducted from July to August 2011. Data were monitored and transferred in real time over the Internet. The monitored variables were analyzed to determine the performance characteristics under outdoor conditions. A series of system simulations has been conducted for outdoor conditions of the field tests. The results agree well with the experimental data in general. The system performance has been shown to deteriorate for wetter conditions, as predicted by the simulation.

Ahn, Joon; Yun, Changho; Kang, Byung Ha [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

328

Performance of a Large Vacuum Facility for Spacecraft Propulsion Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

A Large Vacuum Test Facility has been developed at AEROSPAZIO Tecnologie with the aim of providing high qualified test services in Electric Propulsion and Space Simulation. The test facility consist of a stainless steel cylinder 3.8 m diameter and 11.5 m overall length. A modular cryopumping system allows 200.000 l/s continuous pumping speed of Xe. Beam diagnostics, including Faraday probes and Retarding Potential Analysers, have been installed. A test campaign aimed at evaluating the EMC characteristics of the test site has been performed.

Scortecci, F.; Bonelli, E.; Michelozzi, B.; Saito, F.; Scaranzin, S.; Turco, A.

2004-10-01

329

Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m2 high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun

330

Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

331

Verification Test of Hydraulic Performance for Reactor Coolant Pump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to this project, basic design for prototype pump and model pump of reactor coolant pump and test facilities has been completed. Basic design for prototype pump to establish structure, dimension and hydraulic performance has been completed and through primary flow analysis by computational fluid dynamics(CFD), flow characteristics and hydraulic performance have been established. This pump was designed with mixed flow pump having the following design requirements; specific velocity(Ns); 1080.9(rpm·m3/m·m), capacity; 3115m3/h, total head ; 26.3m, pump speed; 1710rpm, pump efficiency; 77.0%, Impeller out-diameter; 349mm, motor output; 360kw, design pressure; 17MPaG. The features of the pump are leakage free due to no mechanical seal on the pump shaft which insures reactor's safety and law noise level and low vibration due to no cooling fan on the motor which makes eco-friendly product. Model pump size was reduced to 44% of prototype pump for the verification test for hydraulic performance of reactor coolant pump and was designed with mixed flow pump and canned motor having the following design requirements; specific speed(NS); 1060.9(rpm·m3/m·m), capacity; 539.4m3/h, total head; 21.0m, pump speed; 3476rpm, pump efficiency; 72.9%, Impeller out-diameter; 154mm, motor output; 55kw, design pressure; 1.0MPaG. The test facilities were designed for verification test of hydraulic performance suitable for pump performance test, homologous test, NPSH test(cavitation), cost down test and pressure pulsation test of inlet and outlet ports. Test tank was designed with testing capacity enabling up to 2000m3/h and design pressure 1.0MPaG. Auxiliary pump was designed with centrifugal pump having capacity; 1100m3/h, total head; 42.0m, motor output; 190kw

332

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C 17510  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of test programs was undertaken on copper beryllium alloy C 17510 for several variations in material process and chemistry. These variations in C 17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C 17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C 17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing (E813, E399) and fatigue crack growth rate tests (E647), as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature

333

New personnel dosimeter performance test programs in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new, government-initiated personnel radiation dosimeter performance test programs are underway in the United States. The National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) is out of the pilot state and, since January of 1984, has been involved in testing and evaluation leading to the certification of dosimeter processors. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) entered the pilot program stage in February of 1985. The technical basis for and description of the NVLAP are found in ANSI N13.11 (1983), Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimeter Performance. For DOELAP, similar information is found in PNL-4515 (1984), Guidelines for the Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters. Information relating to the development of the programs, radiation test categories, details associated with the irradiations, NVLAP test results to date, DOELAP testing status, and future prospects for both programs are presented and discussed. (author)

334

Thermal Performance Testing of EMU and OSS Liquid Cooling Garments  

Science.gov (United States)

A test was conducted to evaluate three factors influencing the thermal performance of liquid cooling garments (LCG): (1) the comparable thermal performance of an Oceaneering developed engineering evaluation unit (EEU) prototype LDG, (2) the effect of the thermal comfort undergarment (TCU), and (3) the performance of a torso or upper body only LCG configuration. To evaluate the thermal performance of each configuration a metabolic test was conducted, utilizing suited subjects to generate the metabolic heat. For this study three (3) test subjects of similar health and weight produced a metabolic load on the LDG configuration by either resting (300-600 BTU/hr), walking at a slow pace (1200 BRU/hr), and walking at a brisk pace (2200 BTU/hr), as outlined in Figure 1, the metabolic profile. During the test, oxygen consumption, heart rate, relative humidity, air flow, inlet and outlet air pressure, inlet and outlet air temperature, delta air temperature, water flow (100 lb/hr), inlet water temperature (64 F), delta water temperature, water pressure, core body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat loss data was recorded. Four different test configurations were tested, with one configuration tested twice, as outlined in Table 1. The test was conducted with the suit subjects wearing the Demonstrator Suit, pressurized to vent pressure (approximately 0.5 psig). The demonstrator suit has an integrated ventilation duct system and was used to create a relevant environment with a captured ventilation return, an integrated vent tree, and thermal insulation from the environment.

Rhodes, Richard; Bue, Grant; Hakam, Mary

2012-01-01

335

40 CFR 63.7 - Performance testing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...notify the Administrator in writing of his or her intention to conduct a performance test...unforeseeable circumstances beyond his or her control, the owner or operator must...i) Notifies the Administrator of his or her intention to use an alternative test...

2010-07-01

336

Motivation and performance in physical education: an experimental test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls), aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance. Key pointsThe incremental group showed more situational intrinsic motivation.The entity group showed higher performance in the first test attempt, but significant differences disappeared in the second attempt.It seems that this incremental belief and greater intrinsic motivation made the students trust they would improve their performance in the second attempt at the lateral movement test. PMID:24149389

Moreno, Juan A; González-Cutre, David; Martín-Albo, José; Cervelló, Eduardo

2010-01-01

337

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2013-03-01

338

Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report

339

Report on long range alpha detector (LRAD) performance tests  

CERN Document Server

At present, alpha contamination measurement on objects is conducted with ZnS scintillation survey meter (direct method) and smear test (indirect method). But it is difficult to measure large and complicated objects by direct method. Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) was produced as a solution for this problem. We carried out performance tests of this LRAD. As a result of the performance tests, we confirmed the linear relation between the measurement values of LRAD and alpha-radioactivity on the surface of objects.

Kobayashi, H; Ishikawa, H; Unno, M; Yoshida, T

2002-01-01

340

Unit Testing and Performance Using Entity Framework 4.0  

OpenAIRE

POANGEN is a web application for rent management. The core of the application is a module that performs rent calculations. In the past the application relied heavily on business logic in stored procedures that made the program hard to test and maintain. The purpose of this thesis was tofind a new method for combining unit testing and data access. A new implementation of the rent calculation had to be created that was easier to test, maintain and have good performance. This thesis shows how to...

Ho?rnlund, Tommy

2013-01-01

341

Play for Performance: Using Computer Games to Improve Motivation and Test-Taking Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of testing, especially certification and high-stakes testing, has increased substantially over the past decade. Building on the "serious gaming" literature and the psychology "priming" literature, we developed a computer game designed to improve test-taking performance using psychological priming. The game primed…

Dennis, Alan R.; Bhagwatwar, Akshay; Minas, Randall K.

2013-01-01

342

Performance testing of dosimetry services and its regulatory aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An essential part of a quality assurance programme is performance testing of the dosimetry service. i.e. the verification of the procedures applied by the dosimetry service, by introducing control samples into the routine. This paper concentrates on performance testing based on so-called trumpet curves derived from recommendations of ICRP Publication 35. But, as experience shows, the state-of-the-art in dosimetry must also be taken into account. Photon radiation above 20 keV is relatively easy to measure and these trumpet curves may be used for this. For neutron radiation, for example, additional wider trumpet curves are recommended. The dosimetry service should not be aware of the tests, i.e. 'blind'-performance testing should be carried out. This leads to some difficulties in practice, and as an alternative, performance testing 'by surprise' is described. Results of performance testing from Germany, Russia and the USA are presented and indicate that the proposed concept is feasible. (Author)

343

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

344

Double-shell tank integrity assessments ultrasonic test equipment performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A double-shell tank (DST) inspection (DSTI) system was performance tested over three months until August 1995 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, completing a contract initiated in February 1993 to design, fabricate, and test an ultrasonic inspection system intended to provide ultrasonic test (UT) and visual data to determine the integrity of 28 DSTs at Hanford. The DSTs are approximately one-million-gallon underground radioactive-waste storage tanks. The test was performed in accordance with a procedure (Jensen 1995) that included requirements described in the contract specification (Pfluger 1995). This report documents the results of tests conducted to evaluate the performance of the DSTI system against the requirements of the contract specification. The test of the DSTI system also reflects the performance of qualified personnel and operating procedures.

Pfluger, D.C.

1996-09-26

345

Methodologies for the performance demonstration of nondestructive testing systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of nondestructive testings have been well recognized through a number of big accidents such as the collapses of buildings and bridges in recent years. A nondestructive test to be performed should be fitted to its purpose. In order to assess the nondestructive testing systems whether they are capable of attaining their objectives, performance demonstration is carried out in addition to the existing personnel qualification and certification scheme. However, there are a lot of different ways how the performance demonstration is implemented depending not only on the safety relevance of the component but also on the significance of the defects. At present time, there are two distinct methodologies. One is the American approach and the other is the European approach. In this paper, typical methodologies on the performance demonstration of NDT systems are reviewed and compared. Hence, when a PD system is to be established, a better way can be employed.

346

High-precision performance testing of the LHC power converters  

CERN Document Server

The magnet power converters for LHC were procured in three parts, power part, current transducers and control electronics, to enable a maximum of industrial participation in the manufacturing and still guarantee the very high precision (a few parts in 10-6) required by LHC. One consequence of this approach was several stages of system tests: factory reception tests, CERN reception tests, integration tests , short-circuit tests and commissioning on the final load in the LHC tunnel. The majority of the power converters for LHC have now been delivered, integrated into complete converter and high-precision performance testing is well advanced. This paper presents the techniques used for high-precision testing and the results obtained.

Bastos, M; Dreesen, P; Fernqvist, G; Fournier, O; Hudson, G

2007-01-01

347

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I2 + I I3-NH3OH+ + 2 I2 + H2O ->HNO2 + 4 I- + 5 H+; NH3OH+ + HNO2 -> N2O + 2 H2O + H-+ 2HNO2 + 2 I- + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I2 + H2O). (authors)

348

AKUT: a process for the separation of aerosols, krypton, and tritium from burner off-gas in HTR-fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT process consists of the following process steps: (1) aerosol retention by an electrostatic separator followed by HEPA filters, (2) oxidation of CO with O2 or reaction of excess O2 with CO, respectively, (3) compression, (4) scrubbing and/or liquefaction, (5) separation of krypton by distillation, and (6) separation of tritiated water and iodine by adsorption or chemical reaction. Liquefied off-gas with low permanent gas content resulting from graphite burning with oxygen may be distilled at ambient temperature. Off-gas with higher permanent gas content from burning with oxygen enriched air must be processed at lower temperature. The ambient temperature flow sheet is preferable from an economic as well as safety point of view. (U.S.)

349

Krypton absorption in liquid CO/sub 2/ (KALC): Campaign III in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented for the third major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively. Mass transfer experiments for the CO/sub 2/--O/sub 2/--Kr system are described for the absorption, fractionation, and stripping operations of the KALC process. A detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis indicates nominal HTU values for the absorber, fractionator, and stripper on the order of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7 ft, respectively. Flooding data for the packed columns are combined with previous data and are shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation.

Gilliam, T.M.; Fowler, V.L.; Inman, D.J.

1977-09-01

350

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predictedpredicted

351

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. copyright 1997 American Institupredicted. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

352

WIPP waste package performance program and in situ testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This program deals with studying canisters and canister materials for high level and transuranic wastes and with the geochemistry of potential backfill materials. Laboratory testing is primarily on titanium metals, although there also is some testing of steel. In the area of canister studies, laboratory and modeling tests, current in-situ tests, and data reduction and analysis have been performed. Data will be evaluated to obtain design information. The intent of the program is to provide information that could be used in operating the WIPP facility in whatever waste configuration is selected by the Federal Government. (WIPP is not currently licensed or scheduled to be a defense high-level waste repository.)

353

Distillation as a means of separating krypton from the off-gas of a reprocessing plant for graphite-coated HTR fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT-II facility is described, which is designed for an off-gas throughput of 10 Nm3/h. The low-pressure section is for primary purification in several steps, whereas in the high-pressure CO2 section (70 bar, 200C) the separation of Kr-85 by means of distillation is achieved. The parameters for the design of the rectifying columns have been determined experimentally. (HP)

354

The Effect of Content Familiarity & Test Format on Iranian EFL Test Takers’ Performance on Test of Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of content familiarity and test format on Iranian English learners. The participants of this were advanced students studying at different language institutes in Isfahan, Iran. To sample the subjects of this study, the latest version of Oxford Placement Test was administered to 428 students studying at advanced level in 6 different language institutes. Based on the results of the OPT test and for the sake of homogeneity 70 students were considered as the target participants of the study. Each participant was given a test of reading comprehension with familiar content and unfamiliar content. Each test contained multiple choice, true/false, and fill in the blanks test items. Factorial design results indicated that test takers had a significantly better performance on content familiar tests and sub tests. It also became clear that their performance on multiple choice section either in content familiar and content unfamiliar test was superior to that of true/false and fill in the blanks. It will be of endless help to test makers and language teachers to be aware of the role test format and content of the test can play on test takers’ performance.Key words: reading comprehension, schema theory, content familiarity, test format

Omid Rezaei

2012-09-01

355

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2002). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to US personal dosimeter processing testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. This unique philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (author)

356

History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Dept. of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Dept. of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (authors)

357

History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. PMID:17287202

Soares, C G

2007-01-01

358

Core performance tests for the JOYO MK-III upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many changes were made in the recent upgrade of the experimental fast reactor JOYO to the MK-III design. The core changes which were made to achieve a four-fold increase in irradiation capacity includes the introduction of a second enrichment zone, an increase in core radius and a decrease in core height. Performance tests done at low power, during the rise to power, and at full power, which focus on the neutronics characteristics, are presented. These tests include the nuclear instrumentation system response, the approach to criticality and excess reactivity evaluation, control rod worth calibrations, isothermal temperature coefficient evaluation, the calibration of the nuclear instrumentation system with reactor thermal power, and the burn-up reactivity coefficient. The measurements and comparisons with calculated predictions are shown. The design predictions are consistent with the performance test results, and all technical safety specifications are satisfied. The JOYO MK-III core will provide enhanced irradiation testing capability, as well as serve as a test bed for improving fast reactor operation, performance, and safety. Through the performance test evaluation, the core characteristics of a small size sodium cooled fast reactor with a hard neutron spectrum are clarified

359

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

360

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

1990-02-01

361

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C17510  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a literature search and discussion with manufacturers revealed that there was virtually no existing data related to the fracture properties and behavior of copper beryllium alloy C17510, a series of test programs was undertaken to ascertain this information for several variations in material processing and chemistry. These variations in C17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing and fatigue crack growth rate tests, as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature. In order to confirm the test results, duplicate and independent test programs were awarded to separate facilities with appropriate test experience, whenever possible. The primary goal of the test program, to determine and bound the fracture toughness and Paris constants for C17510,was accomplished. In addition, a wealth of information was accumulated pertaining to crack growth characteristics, effects of directionality and potential testing pitfalls. The paper discusses the test program and its findings in detail

362

Gamma-ray shielding design and performance test of WASTEF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was planned in 1978 to test the safety performance of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long term storage and disposal, and completed in August 1981. The designed feature of the facility is to treat the vitrified forms contain actual high-level wastes of 5 x 104 Ci in maximum with 5 units of concrete shilded hot cells (3 units : Bate-Gamma cells, 2 units : Alpha-Gamma cells) and one units of Alpha-Gamma lead shielded cell, and to store radioactivity of 106 Ci in maximum. The safety performance of this facility is fundamentally maintained with confinement of radioactivity and shielding of the radiation. This report describes the method of gamma-ray shielding design, evaluation of the shielding test performed by using sealded gamma-ray sources(Co-60). (author)

363

Do precursor tests influence the performance of Oral Hygiene students in subsequent semester tests?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Precursor tests may be useful educational tools In dentistry to enhance learning among Oral Hygiene students, but their application and possible effect on the subsequent performance of these students have not been studied AIM: To determine whether precursor tests, used as dental educat [...] ional and formative assessment tools, influence the performance of undergraduate Oral Hygiene students in ensuing formal semester tests in the discipline of Basic Restorative Dentistry METHODS: This descriptive cross sectional study involved seventeen consenting Oral Hygiene students. An electronic Odontology Theory Test (OTT) and an electronic Objective Structured Practical Test (OSPT), were prepared and introduced as precursor tests prior to scheduled semester tests in the Division of Restorative Dentistry (Department of Odontology). Eleven (65%) of the seventeen students completed the precursor OTT, as well as the precursor OSPT, fourteen days prior to their scheduled semester OTT and semester OSPT and sixty two days prior to their final examinations. The results of the precursor and the semester tests were entered into a Microsoft Excel® database for comparative analysis, using a Student's t-test RESULTS: For both OTT and OSPT tests there were significant differences between the means of the scores of the students for precursor and semester tests (OTT: p = 0.0009; OSPT: p = 0.0180) DISCUSSION: The students performed significantly better in their precursor OTT, whilst their performance in the OSPT was significantly better in the semester test. : In the context of this investigation, the precursor OTT did not enhance the performance of the students in their semester OTT, whilst the precursor OSPT was associated with an enhanced performance of the students in their semester OSPT

V, Bookhan; V, Warren; Hs, schoeman.

2014-11-01

364

Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

Haas, W.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); French, N.B. [Sky+, Inc. (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Burns, D.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V. [National Risk Management Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Priebe, S.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Waterland, L.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp. (United States)

1997-11-17

365

Light water reactor pressure isolation valve performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light Water Reactor Valve Performance Testing Program was initiated by the NRC to evaluate leakage as an indication of valve condition, provide input to Section XI of the ASME Code, evaluate emission monitoring for condition and degradation and in-service inspection techniques. Six typical check and gate valves were purchased for testing at typical plant conditions (550F at 2250 psig) for an assumed number of cycles for a 40-year plant lifetime. Tests revealed that there were variances between the test results and the present statement of the Code; however, the testing was not conclusive. The life cycle tests showed that high tech acoustic emission can be utilized to trend small leaks, that specific motor signature measurement on gate valves can trend and indicate potential failure, and that in-service inspection techniques for check valves was shown to be both feasible and an excellent preventive maintenance indicator. Life cycle testing performed here did not cause large valve leakage typical of some plant operation. Other testing is required to fully understand the implication of these results and the required program to fully implement them. (author)

366

Testing of Tactical Performance in Youth Elite Soccer  

OpenAIRE

This is a twofold study with the goals of evaluating tactical oriented game test situations for 12-13-year old highly-talented soccer players and to analyze dynamic, intra-individual developments of the players. A cross-sectional design was carried in study 1, using game test situations to measure specific tactics and creative performance for 195 expert players. The results from five evaluation criteria show that both diagnostic instruments can be used for recording football-specific creativi...

Daniel Memmert

2010-01-01

367

Pre-test analysis for the KNGR DVI performance test facility using FLUENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pre-test analysis using a FLUENT code has been performed for the KGNR(Korean Next Generation Reactor) DVI(Direct Vessel Injection) performance test facility which is a full height and 1/24.3 volume scaled separate effect test facility. The ideal gas discharge condition is considered to simulation a steam discharge condition. The scale effects on the flow pattern, pressure distribution, and similarity for scaled model are numerically tested. From the various results for the scale effects, it was found that the similarity of hydraulics is founded

368

Performance tests of haemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the results of quality control tests performed in hemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography, which have fundamental importance to the image quality guaranty and to control the doses ministered to patients and staff. These tests are based on national and international standards and they can evaluate the performance of these systems. The results showed that the equipment do not present problems in their digital subtraction systems. Nevertheless, one of the equipment presented patient entrance skin air kerma rates above the limit prescribed by the national standard. (author)

369

Delay model and performance testing for FPGA carry chain TDC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Time-of-flight (TOF) information would improve the performance of PET (position emission tomography). TDC design is a key technique. It proposed Carry Chain TDC Delay model. Through changing the significant delay parameter of model, paper compared the difference of TDC performance, and finally realized Time-to-Digital Convertor (TDC) based on Carry Chain Method using FPGA EP2C20Q240C8N with 69 ps LSB, max error below 2 LSB. Such result could meet the TOF demand. It also proposed a Coaxial Cable Measuring method for TDC testing, without High-precision test equipment. (authors)

370

Performance of Bayesian outlier diagnostic in testing mean vector  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnostic measure kd which is used to measure the effect of a single observation d on model choice was applied to a variety of univariate model. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of this diagnostic measure when applying to multivariate structure for testing the specified mean vector. We illustrate the method using data generated from multivariate normal distribution. If X a p-variate normal random variable of size n with the mean vector ? and a known covariance matrix, we consider the null hypothesis that the mean vector ? is zero. From this simulation we test the performance of kd for several n and p values.

Mohammad, Rofizah; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

2014-09-01

371

TRAC analyses and GIRAFFE tests for PCCS performance prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) would remove decay heat by steam condensation without any electric power supply or operator's action if an accident should occur in nuclear reactors. There is, however, concern that non-condensable gas might influence the PCCS performance in the event of an accident. This paper summarizes Toshiba's activities respecting PCCS development, in particular those activities relating to TRAC qualification for PCCS performance prediction and the GIRAFFE tests. TRAC is a best estimate thermal hydraulic analysis code. GIRAFFE is a full-height test facility simulating the SBWR containment with the PCCS, at Toshiba's Ukishima site. (author)

372

Predictive testing of performance of metals in HTR service environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Status of the material testing in simulated HTGR environment is reviewed with special attention focused on the methodology of the prediction of performance in long time. Importance of controlling effective chemical potentials relations in the material-environmental interface is stressed in regard of the complex inter-dependent kinetic relation between oxidation and carbon transport. Based on the recent experimental observations, proposals are made to establish some procedures for conservative prediction of the metal performance

373

?-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background ?-alanine supplementation has been shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance and capacity. However, the effects on intermittent exercise are less clear, with no effect shown on repeated sprint activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ?-alanine supplementation on YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YoYo IR2) performance. Methods Seventeen amateur footballers were allocated to either a placebo (PLA; N = 8) or ?-alanine (BA; N = 9) ...

Saunders Bryan; Sunderland Caroline; Harris Roger C; Sale Craig

2012-01-01

374

Testing of reinforced high performance fibre concrete members in tension  

OpenAIRE

Ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFC) is a high performance construction material, coupling strength, ductility and compacity. Up to the present time, its mechanical properties have been widely studied, but design approaches and structural applications in which it can be efficiently applied are needed. To improve this knowledge, a study on the behaviour of real-scale UHPFC ties with additional ordinary steel bars constitues an important step. The results of a test series pr...

Redaelli, Dario

2006-01-01

375

Performance test of database server based on MySQL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MySQL is preliminarily chosen as the archive toolkit of CSNS experimental control system. A performance test of a database server based on MySQL is introduced. Main characters including the relationship between query rate, insertion rate and the number of connection threads are carried out with the consideration of data size. The hardware setup, software environment, ways and means of the test, and the results analysis are introduced in detail. The test results will help a lot to the database system design of the CSNS experiment control system. (authors)

376

Numerical analysis on letdown system performance test for YGN 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrated performance test of Chemical and Volume control System was successfully performed in 1994. However, an extensive effort to correct hardware and software problems in the letdown line was required mainly due to the lack of adequate simulation code to predict the test accurately. Although the LTC computer code was used during the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design process, the code can not satisfactorily predict the test due to its insufficient letdown line modeling. This study developed a numerical model to simulate the letdown test by modifying the current LTC code, and then verified the model by comparing with the test data. The comparison shows that the modified LTC computer code can predict the transient behavior of letdown system tests very well. Especially, the model was verified to be able to predict the instantaneous fluctuations in the letdown backpressure and flowrate which are caused by the 'Stiction (composition of stick and friction)' of valve. Therefore, it is concluded that the modified LTC computer code with the ability of calculating the 'Stiction' phenomena will be very useful for future plant design and test predictions. 1 tab., 11 figs., 7 refs. (Author)

377

Numerical analysis on letdown system performance test for YGN 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrated performance test of Chemical and Volume control System was successfully performed in 1994. However, an extensive effort to correct hardware and software problems in the letdown line was required mainly due to the lack of adequate simulation code to predict the test accurately. Although the LTC computer code was used during the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design process, the code can not satisfactorily predict the test due to its insufficient letdown line modeling. This study developed a numerical model to simulate the letdown test by modifying the current LTC code, and then verified the model by comparing with the test data. The comparison shows that the modified LTC computer code can predict the transient behavior of letdown system tests very well. Especially, the model was verified to be able to predict the instantaneous fluctuations in the letdown backpressure and flowrate which are caused by the `Stiction (composition of stick and friction)` of valve. Therefore, it is concluded that the modified LTC computer code with the ability of calculating the `Stiction` phenomena will be very useful for future plant design and test predictions. 1 tab., 11 figs., 7 refs. (Author).

Seo, Ho Taek; Sohn, Seok Hoon; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-09-01

378

Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs

379

Testing performance of Standards-based protocols in DPM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the interests of the promotion of the increased use of non-proprietary protocols in grid storage systems, we perform tests on the performance of WebDAV and pNFS transport with the DPM storage solution. We find that the standards-based protocols behave similarly to the proprietary standards currently in use, despite encountering some issues with the state of the implementation itself. We thus conclude that there is no performance-based reason to avoid using such protocols for data management in future.

380

Performance test on testing apparatus for radionuclide migration on ground surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Testing apparatus for radionuclide migration on ground surface was constructed to study the radionuclide migration on ground surface which is one of radionuclide migration paths in a natural barrier. The apparatus is composed of inflow section of solution, testing section of soil sample, outflow section of effluent solution, measurement section of water velocity, measurement section of water content et al., which can test the soil sample taken from natural field undestructively. As performance tests, four tests were carried out for each section and over all test was also carried out to confirm the linking of each section on the operation of the apparatus under actual test condition. From the performance test, it is confirmed that each section accomplishes the prescribed performance of the apparatus. As to water velocity on ground surface and water content in soil, which are important parameters to analyze the behavior of radionuclide migration, it is confirmed that sufficient information can be obtained about the distribution of surface water velocity and the infiltration of surface water, from the measurement test of each section and the overall test. (author)

381

Post-test analysis for the APR1400 LBLOCA DVI performance test using MARS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Post-test analyses using a multi-dimensional best-estimate analysis code, MARS, are performed for the APR1400 LBLOCA DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) performance tests. This report describes the code evaluation results for the test data of various void height tests and direct bypass tests that have been performed at MIDAS test facility. MIDAS is a scaled test facility of APR1400 with the objective of identifying multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the downcomer during the reflood conditions of a large break LOCA. A modified linear scale ratio was applied in its construction and test conditions. The major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as ECC bypass fraction, steam condensation fraction, and temperature distributions in downcomer are compared and evaluated. The evaluation results of MARS code for the various test cases show that: (a) MARS code has an advanced modeling capability of well predicting major multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer, (b) MARS code under-predicts the steam condensation rates, which in turn causes to over-predict the ECC bypass rates. However, the trend of decrease in steam condensation rate and increase in ECC bypass rate in accordance with the increase in steam flow rate, and the calculation results of the ECC bypass rates under the EM analysis conditions generally agree with the test data

382

Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang,…

Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

383

GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM core satellite carries an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission will help to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improve forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extend current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society. The avionics module on the core satellite contains a number of electronics boxes which are cooled by a network of aluminum/ammonia heat pipes and a honeycomb radiator which contains thirteen embedded aluminum/ammonia heat pipes. All heat pipes were individually tested by the vendor (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.) prior to delivery. Following delivery to NASA, the flight avionics radiator and the flight spare transport heat pipes were mounted to flight-like test structure and a system level thermal vacuum test was performed. This test, which used simulators in place of all electronics boxes, was done to verify the operation of the thermal control system as a whole. This presentation will discuss the design of the avionics module heat pipes, and then discuss performance tests results for the individual heat pipes prior to delivery and for the system level thermal vacuum test. All heat pipes met their performance requirements. However, it was found that the power was too low in some instances to start all of the smaller radiator spreader heat pipes when they were tested in a reflux configuration (which is the nominal test configuration). Although this lowered the efficiency of the radiator somewhat, it did not impact the operating temperatures of the electronics boxes.

Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

2011-01-01

384

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

385

Thermal Performance Testing of Order Dependancy of Aerogels Multilayered Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Robust multilayer insulation systems have long been a goal of many research projects. Such insulation systems must provide some degree of structural support and also mechanical integrity during loss of vacuum scenarios while continuing to provide insulative value to the vessel. Aerogel composite blankets can be the best insulation materials in ambient pressure environments; in high vacuum, the thermal performance of aerogel improves by about one order of magnitude. Standard multilayer insulation (MU) is typically 50% worse at ambient pressure and at soft vacuum, but as much as two or three orders of magnitude better at high vacuum. Different combinations of aerogel and multilayer insulation systems have been tested at Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Analysis performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed an importance to the relative location of the MU and aerogel blankets. Apparent thermal conductivity testing under cryogenic-vacuum conditions was performed to verify the analytical conclusion. Tests results are shown to be in agreement with the analysis which indicated that the best performance is obtained with aerogel layers located in the middle of the blanket insulation system.

Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, James E.; Demko, J. A.

2009-01-01

386

Developing and Testing the Guitar Songleading Performance Scale (GSPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Guitar songleading is a critical component in music education and music therapy training curricula. However, at present, there is no standardized instrument to evaluate guitar songleading performance that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this article is to describe the construction, development, and testing of a guitar songleading…

Silverman, Michael J.

2011-01-01

387

Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

2014-01-01

388

Effectiveness of group interaction on conceptual standardized test performance  

OpenAIRE

We analyze the effectiveness of working in pairs on the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The group performance shows large normalized gain and evidence for co-construction. We discuss the effect of pairing students with different individual achievements.

Singh, Chandralekha

2002-01-01

389

Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

2011-01-01

390

The Performance of Multileaf Collimators Evaluated by the Stripe Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of 3 multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (Varian Medical Systems, Elekta, and Siemens Medical Solutions) mounted on 7 different radiotherapy linear accelerators was investigated by a stripe test. The stripe test consisted of 8 adjacent multileaf segments of 2.5 x 40 cm2, enclosed by all leaf pairs. With 6-MV photons, the segments were used to irradiate Agfa CR films. The optical density profile of the irradiated film in the travel direction of the MLC was used to estimate the short- and long-term leaf positioning reproducibility. The short-term reproducibility was found by analyzing 6 consecutive stripe tests. The long-term reproducibility was obtained by performing 3 to 5 stripe tests over 2 months. The short-term reproducibility was mainly within 0.3 mm for all systems. For the long-term reproducibility, the Varian and Elekta MLCs were within 0.4 to 0.5 mm, while the Siemens MLC showed a wider distribution, with values up to 1 mm for some leaf pairs. The inferior long-term reproducibility of the Siemens MLCs was mainly due to a decrease of the segment size with time. In conclusion, the stripe test is a useful method for evaluating MLC performance. Furthermore, the long-term reproducibility varied among the MLC systems investigated.

391

WhalePower tubercle blade power performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toronto-based WhalePower Corporation has developed turbine blades that are modeled after humpback whale flippers. The blades, which incorporate tubercles along the leading edge of the blade, have been fitted to a Wenvor 25 kW turbine installed in North Cape, Prince Edward Island at a test site for the Wind Energy Institute of Canada (WEICan). A test was conducted to characterize the power performance of the prototype wind turbine. This report described the wind turbine configuration with particular reference to turbine information, power rating, blade information, tower information, control systems and grid connections. The test site was also described along with test equipment and measurement procedures. Information regarding power output as a function of wind speed was included along with power curves, power coefficient and annual energy production. The results for the power curve and annual energy production contain a level of uncertainty. While measurements for this test were collected and analyzed in accordance with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines (IEC 61400-12-1), the comparative performance data between the prototype WhalePower wind turbine blade and the Wenvor standard blade was not gathered to IEC data standards. Deviations from IEC-61400-12-1 procedures were listed. 6 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2008-07-15

392

DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

Kurtz, D. W.

1981-12-01

393

Leak and burst tests performed on pulled tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plugging criteria for tubes used in France for PWR plant steam generator tubes allow the presence of through wall cracks during operation. Calculations and tests show the cracks remain stable under accidental conditions and feedback shows that they do not generally result in large leaks. Tests performed on pulled tubes confirm the safety margins provided by the plugging criteria selected with respect to the risks of leakage and sudden propagation of corrosion cracks under accidental conditions. This paper proposes a method for roughly estimating the leakage rate under accidental conditions for a steam generator with corrosion at the top of the tubesheet or at the tube support plate elevation, which is based on tests performed exclusively on pulled tubes and the results of on-site inspections. (authors). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

394

Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test  

Science.gov (United States)

Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

2014-11-01

395

Performance of the CANFLEX fuel bundle under mechanical flow testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANFLEX is a 43-element fuel bundle consisting of two element sizes, to reduce element ratings, while maintaining the same bundle power, and an uranium content very close to the uranium content of a standard 37-element bundle. The overall dimensions of the bundle are designed to be the same as the overall dimensions of the standard 37-element fuel bundle. Several out-reactor tests were performed, under in-reactor operating conditions of flow, pressure and temperature, to demonstrate the hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design. The hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design were verified through various out-reactor tests conducted at the laboratories of KAERI and AECL to show that the CANFLEX bundle design meets the design requirements of the CANDU 6 reactor fuel [1] and that it is also compatible with the CANDU 6 fuelling machine. (author)

396

Gamma camera performance assessment using an orthohole test pattern (OHTP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The orthohole test pattern (OHTP) has been useful for weekly comparative tests of spatial distortion differential non-uniformity, spatial resolution and image pixel size and its use has minimised the camera time needed for quality control. By analysing the images obtained, it has been possible to provide quantitative information for comparing weekly performances and for the intercomparison of two systems. It should be stressed though that the measurements described are non-standard and hence the OHTP should be used only for observing general trends in performance which may indicate that the camera needs adjusting. When standard measurements are required, for example when checking camera performance with the manufacturer's specifications, NEMA phantoms should be used. (author)

397

Heat of detonation, the cylinder test, and performance munitions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heats of detonation of CHNO explosives correlate well with copper cylinder test expansion data. The detonation products/calorimetry data can be used to estimate performance in the cylinder test, in munitions, and for new molecules or mixtures of explosives before these are made. Confidence in the accuracy of the performance estimates is presently limited by large deviations of a few materials from the regression predictions; but these same deviations, as in the insensitive explosive DINGU and the low carbon systems, appear to be sources of information useful for detonation and explosives research. The performance correlations are functions more of the detonation products and thermochemical energy than they are of the familiar parameters of detonation pressure and velocity, and the predictions are closer to a regression line on average than are those provided by CJ calculations. The prediction computations are simple but the measurements (detonation calorimetry/products and cylinder experiments) are not. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

Akst, I.B.

1989-01-01

398

Performance tests of a cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing for turbopumps  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were performed on a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing designed for cryogenic applications such as turbopumps. This bearing is considerably smaller and lighter than conventional magnetic bearings and is more efficient because it uses a permanent magnet to provide a bias flux. The tests were performed in a test rig that used liquid nitrogen to simulate cryogenic turbopump temperatures. The bearing was tested at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature (-320 F). The maximum speed for the test rig was 14000 rpm. For a magnetic bearing stiffness of 20000 lb/in, the flexible rotor had two critical speeds. A static (nonrotating) bearing stiffness of 85000 lb/in was achieved. Magnetic bearing stiffness, permanent magnet stiffness, actuator gain, and actuator force interaction between two axes were evaluated, and controller/power amplifier characteristics were determined. The tests revealed that it is feasible to use this bearing in the cryogenic environment and to control the rotor dynamics of flexible rotors when passing through bending critical speeds. The tests also revealed that more effort should be placed on enhancing the controller to achieve higher bearing stiffness and on developing displacement sensors that reduce drift caused by temperature and reduce sensor electrical noise.

Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

1992-01-01

399

Performance testing of HEPA filters under hot dynamic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test facility has been designed and built to enable the performance of air filters under conditions of hot air flow to be evaluated. The facility is designed to provide up to 3400 standard m3/h of air heated to temperatures not exceeding 5000C to the filter and housing under test. Differential pressures up to 400mm water gauge across the test filter can be accommodated. Provision has been made for the measurement of the efficiency of filters at temperatures up to 5000C using thermally generated sodium chloride aerosols and standard photometry techniques. Preliminary tests have shown that the combination of differential pressure across the filter and hot gas flow significantly reduces the strength of the filter compared with results obtained from the currently specified test procedures of static oven test followed by dust loading to a stated differential pressure across the filter. Tests have also been carried out to study the temperature gradients generated across the filter and housing associated with the flow of hot air through the test assembly. These show that the temperatures of housing and associated ductwork should not give cause for concern for air temperatures up to 5000C. The effect of temperature on filtration efficiency is not significant below 3000C, but temperatures in excess of 3000C cause a reduction in the filtration efficiency of glass fibre mediamedia

400

MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls, aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance

Juan A. Moreno

2010-03-01