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1

Off gas condenser performance modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A suite of three programmes has been developed to model the ruthenium decontamination performance of a vitrification plant off-gas condenser. The stages of the model are: condensation of water vapour, NOx absorption in the condensate, RuO4 absorption in the condensate. Juxtaposition of these stages gives a package that may be run on an IBM-compatible desktop PC. Experimental work indicates that the criterion [HNO2] > 10 [RuO4] used to determine RuO4 destruction in solution is probably realistic under condenser conditions. Vapour pressures of RuO4 over aqueous solutions at 70o-90oC are slightly lower than the values given by extrapolating the ln Kp vs. T-1 relation derived from lower temperature data. (author)

2

HC-21C off-gas test procedure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future. This test procedure will include a series of tests to determine where and why liquid is condensing in the HC-21C furnace off-gas system. The tests will take a sequential, graded approach and may be concluded one the results have satisfactorily resolved the problem.

Cunningham, L.T.

1994-12-14

3

HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future.

Cunningham, L.T.

1995-02-02

4

Performance test of the pretreatment unit for Kr-85 recovery system from off-gas in fuel reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a Kr-85 recovery system using cryogenic distillation method for a spent fuel-reprocessing plant, oxygen may cause hazardous explosion in the presence of hydrocarbon such as acetylene. To prevent such hazards, an automatic control system of hydrogen has been proposed to remove oxygen by the reduction reaction of hydrogen over palladium (Pd) catalyst. The objective of this study is to examine some characteristics of the controller for adjusting the concentration of H2 and O2 in the Pd converter. The automatic control system consists of P-I controller which can set two parameters, proportional band (Kp) and integral time (T sub(I)). In the present test, Kp and T sub(I) were selected from 200% to 500% and from 5 min to 15 min, respectively, and the concentrations of O2 and H2 were measured at the inlet and the outlet of the Pd converter, respectively. The effect of Kp on the maximum concentration of H2 and on the recovery time, and the effects of integral time and dilution on the hydrogen and oxygen concentrations are presented by curves. It is concluded that the automatic hydrogen control system employed in the present study can respond rather quickly to the stepwise change of oxygen concentration with small dilution range. (Aoki, K.)

5

In-place testing of off-gas iodine filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, both charcoal and silver zeolite (AgX) filters are used for radioactive iodine off-gas cleanup of reactor systems. These filters are used in facilities which are conducting research in the areas of reactor fuel failure, reactor fuel inspection, and loss of fluids from reactor vessels. Iodine retention efficiency testing of these filters is dictated by prudent safety practices and regulatory guidelines. A procedure for determining iodine off-gas filter efficiency in-place has been developed and tested on both AgX and charcoal filters. The procedure involves establishing sample points upstream and downstream of the filter to be tested. A step-by-step approach for filter efficiency testing is presented

6

In-place testing of off-gas iodine filters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, both charcoal and silver zeolite (AgX) filters are used for radioactive iodine off-gas cleanup of reactor systems. These filters are used in facilities which are conducting research in the areas of reactor fuel failure, reactor fuel inspection, and loss of fluids from reactor vessels. Iodine retention efficiency testing of these filters is dictated by prudent safety practices and regulatory guidelines. A procedure for determining iodine off-gas filter efficiency in-place has been developed and tested on both AgX and charcoal filters. The procedure involves establishing sample points upstream and downstream of the filter to be tested. A step-by-step approach for filter efficiency testing is presented.

Duce, S. W.; Tkachyk, J. W.; Motes, B. G.

1980-01-01

7

Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results.

Wright, G.T.

2001-08-16

8

Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625 (9%), and Hastelloy C-276 (16%), as well as titanium and zirconium, remained free of attack under all conditions tested. When the other materials, notably the austenitic stainless steels, were exposed to gas streams containing even only low concentrations of iodine and water vapors at 25 and 400C, a highly corrosive, brownish-green liquid formed on their surfaces. In the complete absence of water vapor, the iodine-containing liquid did not form and all materials remained unaffected. The liquid that formed had a low pH (usually 2 inhibited attack

9

ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

2009-01-01

10

Test results from the GA Technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test results are available from the GA Technologies (GA) off-gas treatment facilities using gas streams from both the graphite fuel element burner system and from the spent fuel dissolver. The off-gas system is part of a pilot plant for development of processes for treating spent fuel from high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO2, CO, O2, and SO2. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constituents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Integrated testing of major BOG system components confirmed the performance of units evaluated in individual tests. Design decontamination and conversion factors were maintained for up to 72 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO3-impregnated silica gel (AC-613-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

11

Test results from the GA technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO2, CO, O2, and SO2. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constitutents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Silver-based iodine adsorbents were found to catalyze the premature conversion of CO to CO2. Subsequent tests showed that iodine removal could not be performed downstream of the CO/HT oxidizer since iodine in the BOG system rapidly deactivated the Pt-coated alumina CO catalyst. Lead-exchanged zeolite (PbX) was found to be an acceptable alternative for removing iodine from BOG without CO conversion. Intermittent and steady-state tests of the pilot-plant SO2 removal unit containing sodium-exchanged zeolite (NaX) demonstrated that decontamination factors greater than or equal to 100 could be maintained for up to 50 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system at GA, iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO3-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

12

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27

13

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

14

Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

1992-03-01

15

Filter for the off-gas test flow of a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The filter for the off-gas test flow of a nuclear power plant incorporates two filter inserts, in particular for aerosols and iodine, which are arranged in a filter housing. For ease of replacement of filter inserts, the tube-shaped filter housing is subdivided into several sections, which are interconnected gas-tight by easy-to-open clamping devices. Inside the filterhousing, the filter insert for the first material, i.e. aerosols, is fixed to a fixing wall, whereas the discoid filter inserts for the second material, i.e. radioactive iodine, is pinched between two supporting rings, using sealings in between. For ease of filter replacement into the tubing bearing the off-gas test flow, the filter is provided with a connecting branch which can be inserted gas-tight by means of clamping rings. (orig.)

16

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

17

Efficient particulate scrubber for glass melter off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operation of joule-heated, continuous slurry fed melters has demonstrated that off-gas aerosols are generated by entrainment of feed slurry and vaporization of volatile species from the melt. Effective off-gas stream decontamination for these aerosols can be obtained by utilizing a suitably designed and operated wet scrubber system. Results are presented for performance tests conducted with an air aspirating-type venturi scrubber processing a simulated melter off-gas aerosol. Mass removal efficiencies ranged from 99.5 to 99.8%. Details of the testing program and applications for melter off-gas system design are discussed

18

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

19

Off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent the deterioration of a catalyst in an off-gas system and to enable smooth performance of an oxygen and hydrogen recombination reaction in the catalyst. Constitution: A turbine steam off-gas system is composed of an exhaust gas preheater, an oxygen and hydrogen recombiner, an off-gas condenser, a rare gas holding device, a blower and an exhaust gas stack. A branch tube for supplying air to the system for diluting the hydrogen to the preheater is provided at the outlet side of the blower. Since the air filled in the preheater is thus heated by the compression of the blower, the introduction of low temperature steam and water droplets from the preheater to the recombiner can be prevented, the oxygen and hydrogen recombination reaction in the catalyst can be performed smoothly, and deterioration of the catalyst can be prevented. (Sekiya, K.)

20

LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

2014-09-29

 
 
 
 
21

Iodine and NO sub x behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX (Iodine Oxidation) systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NO{sub x} in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NO{sub x} is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Birdwell, J.F.

1990-01-01

22

Iodine and NOx behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX [Iodine Oxidation] systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NOx in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NOx is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

23

LFCM [liquid-fed eramic melter] emission and off-gas system performance for feed component cesium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Except for volatile off-gas effluents, overall adequacy of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) system depends most upon its effectiveness in dealing with cesium. However, the mechanism responsible for melter cesium losses has proved insensitive to many LFCM operating and processing conditions. As a result, variations in inleakage, plenum temperature, feeding rate and waste loading do not significantly influence melter cesium performance. Feed composition, specifically halogen content, is the only processing variable that has had a significant effect. Due to the submicron nature of LFCM-generated aerosols, melter disengagement design features are not expected to be particularly effective in reducing cesium emission rates. For the same reason, the cesium performance of conventional quench scrubbers is quite low, being dependent only upon the magnitude of melter entrainment losses. Although a deep bed washable filter has been effective in removing submicron aerosols from the process exhaust, high performance has only been achieved under dry operating conditions. The melter's idling state does not appear to place additional demands upon the off-gas treatment system

24

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-21

25

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 (99Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are 129I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 241Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove 90Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for 99Tc, and zeolites for 137Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of 99Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl2 as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alkaline pH, with a DF of 17.9. As anticipated, ammonium ion probab

26

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

2014-01-07

27

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined

28

Dissolver off-gas cleaning in a reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate an advanced dissolver off-gas cleaning system, the PASSAT filter system and the WAESCHE off-gas simulation facility have been developed, constructed under licensing conditions pertinent to industrial scale reprocessing plants, and commissioned for trial operation. Major components of the PASSAT off-gas-cleaning system include the series-connected iodine-adsorption filters, for optimum utilization of the iodine-adsorption material, AC 6120, and also the packed-fiber mist eliminator, which has a flushing capability for initial removal of droplets and particles and which was installed to extend the service life of the HEPA filter. The tests performed so far and the experience accumulated in testing these remotely operated filter components under simulated dissolver off-gas conditions, are described and discussed

29

FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increase

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

30

Design, operation and in-plant testing of off-gas cleaning systems at BWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design maintenance and testing criteria for atmosphere clean-up systems for normal and post-accidental situations in LWR power plants are briefly described. It is indicated that the new assumptions in the activity sources term might require a certain re-evaluation of the currently used regulatory framework. The regulations currently used do not require the testing of either charcoal or charcoal delay lines used in gaseous radwaste processing systems. Therefore the design and operation of a gaseous radwaste processing system for a BWR is described in more detail. A description of both the initial in-situ testing and the periodical testing of the delay line is given. The problems which should be considered by these tests are discussed in connection with the results obtained by an in-situ test of a delay line with Kr85. (author)

31

Dissolution tests of spent fuel in the NUCEF ??-cell including dissolver off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolution tests of 8,000 MWd/t PWR spent fuel were carried out in the ?? cell of NUCEF as the first stage of a series of experimental works using spent fuels. The present dissolution tests included dissolution of 1.5 kg of the spent fuel, iodine treatment using AgS(silver impregnated silica gel), clarification, and preparation of dissolver solution for the extraction tests following the dissolution tests. Capture of carbon-14 was also studied in the dissolution tests. Dissolution behavior was studied by the concentration measurement of U, Pu, gamma species (Cs-134 and Cs-137, Eu-154 and Eu-155, Am-241), and other fission products (Sr, Ba, Zr, Mo, Ru, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pr). Insoluble residue was also analyzed by sampling and filtering the dissolver solution. In addition, amounts of I-129 and C-14 trapped were measured. Change in U concentration of dissolver solution showed that most of the dissolution of U finished at about 100 minutes after the dissolution was started. Dissolution behavior of the gamma species and FPs were shown to be almost the same as the U dissolution behavior. Iodine was removed from the dissolver solution at the iodine stripping tank in two steps. Total amount of iodine-129 trapped in AgS columns during the tests was found to be 2.10 x 105 Bq which corresponded to about 63% of the iodine-129 amount estimated by ORIGEN calculation. Amount of carbon-14 was measured to be about 2 x 106 Bq, which suggested that at least several ppms of nitrogen-14 was initially contained in the fuel as impurity. Analysis of insoluble residue showed that Ru, Mo, Pd, and Zr were major elements contained. The molar ratio between Mo and Zr contained in the residue and the X-ray diffractometry of residue suggested that zirconium molybdate precipitated during the dissolution. The dissolution tests successfully recovered about 94% of U amount contained initially in spent fuel. The U and nitric acid concentrations of the U product, which was used in the extraction tests, were 291.6 gU/L and 3.23 N, respectively. (author)

32

Testing practice and operating experience of off-gas cleaning systems gained during the first years of operation at Finnish PWR nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is a Finnish power company in possession of two 440 MWe PWR nuclear power stations at Loviisa. The reactor primary and auxiliary systems were delivered mainly from the Soviet Union. The off-gas system consists of ambient temperature charcoal beds and iodine filters. Active gases from degasifier and tanks connected with the primary circuit pass before delay through the hydrogen recombiner. Regeneration gases from a desiccant dryer are led through iodine filters. Gases from other active tanks pass through a scrubber and an iodine filter. According to the Finnish regulations, the off-gas iodine filters must have a decontamination factor of minimum 99 percent for methyliodide. The iodine filters are to be tested after 3000 h of operation. Because of unsatisfactory test results, the filtration material of the iodine filters have been changed twice. The problems involved in these cases were moisture or chemical penetration to the filter. (author)

33

Results of cleaning dissolver off-gas in the PASSAT prototype dissolver off-gas filter system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For demonstration of an advanced dissolver off-gas cleaning system the new PASSAT filter system has been developed, set up under licensing conditions pertinent to industrial scale reprocessing facilities and commissioned for trial operation. Major components of the PASSAT off-gas cleaning system are the packed fiber mist eliminator with flushing capability (Brink filter) for initial removal of droplet and solid aerosols, which has been installed to extend the service life of HEPA filters, and the series connected iodine adsorption filters for optimum utilization of the iodine adsorption material, AC 6120. The tests performed so far and the experience accumulated in testing these remotely operated filter components under simulated dissolver off-gas conditions, are described and discussed

34

FY'99 final report for the expedited technology demonstration project: demonstration test results for the MSO/off-gas and salt recycle system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility in which an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MSO vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on operational experience with an engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May 1998. In FY98, we have tested the MSO facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents, tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils and solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchange resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low-level liquid mixed wastes. MSO is shown to be a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems in DOE sites. The results of the demonstration conducted in FY98 has been reported [1]. In FY99 (October 1998 to April 1999) we conducted further testing in the MSO/off-gas system with ion exchange resins, two reas system with ion exchange resins, two real waste specimens, activated carbon, and TNT-loaded activated carbon, both at regular feed rates and higher feed rates up to a superficial gas velocity of 1.75 ft/s. We also drained the salt three times (SR7, SR8, SR9) in FY99 and sent the spent salts to the salt recycle system for further processing. This report presents the results obtained from the demonstration of the MSO/off-gas system and the salt recycle system from October 1998 to April 1999. We then shut down the operation and cleaned the equipment and the facility in May 1999

35

Off-gas systems in nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve off-gas processing performance by directly connecting the inlet of a preheater and the outlet of a recombiner, providing a recycling path having a recycling pump and an air tank so that sufficient preheating for warm up can be obtained before the plant start-up. Constitution: In an off-gas system wherein gases containing hydrogen and oxygen resulted from radiolysis in the reactor coolant are heated in a preheater and then introduced into a recombiner where hydrogen and oxygen are combined stably by way of catalytic action and the resulted gas is processed in a rare gas processor, a recycling path for directly coupling the inlet of the preheater and the outlet of the recombiner is provided and a recycling pump and an air tank are disposed in the recycling path. Upon starting up the nuclear power plant, air is introduced and recycled into a closed recycling path loop to thereby preheat the recombiner and its relevant pipeways. Consequently, an off-gas condensator and a rare gas processor can also be operated throughly to thereby decrease the amount of off-gas discharged externally from an off-gas pipe to the atmosphere. (Seki, T.)

36

LIBS: Application to toxic metal concentration measurements in a plasma torch off-gas emission system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to monitor the metal concentrations of the off-gas system of a 250 kW plasma treatment system during vitrification of a Savannah River surrogate waste. LIBS spectra of different elements in the off-gas emission have been recorded in various spectral regions to select the appropriate spectral lines for the concentration measurements. The LIBS concentration measurement were then performed at different test run conditions. The results of various measurements are presented. These measurements demonstrated LIBS's capability for real-time toxic metal monitoring

37

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Emissions of chlorinated aromatic compounds e.g. polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) have been reported recently from a large number of industrial processes such as waste incineration and metal smelters. Due to the toxicity of PCDD/F, stringent emission limits have been imposed. State of the art for emission control are adsorption processes, which have removal efficiencies, but produced PCDD contaminated wastes. The incineration or disposal of these material is rather costly. Therefore, new technologies are being developed, which do not yield secondary wastes, such as catalysts, hydrogen peroxide injection or electron beam irradiation. Here the results on the electron beam induced decomposition of PCDD/F in incinerator off gas are reported. We used a mobile off gas cleaning plant (AGATE-M), which is equipped with 200 keV electron accelerator (EB). The off gas was sampled in the upstream and downstream of the irradiation zone by a condensation method. Subsequent clean-up and GC-MS analyses were performed using standard analytical methods. The analyses show that very high decompositions for PCDD and PCDF are achieved depending on the experimental parameters and the German emission standards are surpassed. In addition, chlorinated phenols and benzenes are destroyed. A computer model (AGATE-code) was developed to analyse the gas phase chemistry of the process. The experimental and the theoretical results are reported and compared. The energy consumptionorted and compared. The energy consumption of the process is of the order of 3-5 kWh per 100 m3 of treated off gas. The process has a very low pressure difference. The industrial application of the technology will be evaluated in comparison to competing methods with respect to costs and technical aspects

38

Performance tests.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatig...

Wetherell, A.

1996-01-01

39

Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion of highly radioactive waste liquor into glass by the pot vitrification process has been studied at Harwell using a full-scale inactive pilot plant. A summary of the off-gas behavior and its interpretation is presented. Experimental runs were carried out on 3 representative wastes (MAGNOX - thermal reactor, metal fuel, THORP - thermal oxide fuel and PFR - fast reactor oxide fuel) using 2 methods of feeding the glass-formers (slurry and crizzle). Materials were carried over from the vitrification vessel into the off-gas system by entrainment supplemented by volatilization. The overall behavior of the off-gas was consistent with the presence in it of 5 separate aerosols of particulate matter. Sources of entrainment gave rise to 3 aerosols, and a further 2 aerosols were formed as a result of chemical reaction (Ru) and condensation (Cs) processes involving the volatile species. Entrainment was enhanced when the feed contained free alkali nitrate. The Ru volatility correlated directly with the amount of salt nitrates in the feed. The off-gas equipment consisted of a condenser followed by two packed tower scrubbers. The variation in equipment performance between different sets of experiments could be attributed entirely to changes in the proportion of air present in the off-gas. The entrainment aerosols were the easiest to remove from the off-gas, whilst the Cs aerosol proved to the most difficult. The overall process decontamination factors of the pilot was adecontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x104 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x103 for particulate-Ru, and 5x103-1x104 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 103 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

40

Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

2013-08-15

 
 
 
 
41

Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

42

Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including 129I2, 85Kr, HTO, and 14CO2. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

43

Off-gas system development for the melt-dilute treatment of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Melt-Dilute treatment for aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel involves melting of the fuel to form a liquid solution of uranium-aluminum at a temperature of approximately 850 C. The containment and capture of the gaseous and volatile fission products potentially released at these temperatures is one of the key elements of the treatment process. Thermodynamic calculations have been performed to estimate the quantity and type of fission products released from a typical melt-dilute process. Cesium is established to be the primary fission product potentially released at these temperatures. A testing program has been systematically implemented studying off-gas releases with non-radioactive surrogates in bench-scale and small-scale tests. The results showed that zeolite 4A is effective at trapping cesium from off-gas streams. Tests on irradiated fuel were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of an off-gas system in capturing volatized fission products. The results confirm that zeolite 4A adsorber beds are effective at capturing cesium. The evolution of volatized species from melted fuel and the irradiated testing results of laboratory-scale off-gas capture testing are discussed in this paper

44

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

Newell, J.

2011-11-14

45

FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

2012-08-01

46

Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

2008-07-01

47

Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs

48

Behavior of selected contaminants in liquid-fed ceramic melter waste-vitrification off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrifying (immobilizing) high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass is one method being developed for converting the wastes to a stable form for disposal. One promising process approach makes use of the liquid-fed, joule-heated ceramic melter. In this process, simulated high-level liquid wastes are fed directly to the melter, eliminating the calcining step used in previous concepts to dry the wastes before introducing them into the melter. A good understanding of the types, forms and quantities of wastes passing from the process to the off-gas cleanup requirements for this kind of waste vitrification. Tests have been performed during direct liquid-feeding of simulated high-level defense waste to a ceramic melter to characterize and quantify the gases, semivolatiles, and solids in the off-gas stream. The effluent sampling apparatus consisted of a wet scrubbing system, a plating sampler assembly, a gas chromatograph, and a classical scattering aerosol spectrometer. Tracer elements present in the nonradioactive, simulated waste feed were strontium, ruthenium, antimony, tellurium, and cesium. Temperatures in a liquid-fed ceramic melter range as high as 12000C in the molten glass. At these temperatures, the tracer isotopes of primary concern are ruthenium and cesium. Chloride and sodium were the two major volatile species present in the off gas. High chloride levels pose potential corrosion problems for the melter lid and the effluent system. Due tomelter lid and the effluent system. Due to the high chloride and sodium volatility observed, entrainment losses from the melter to the effluent treatment system account for only 10% to 30% of the total losses. Particulate decontamination factors from feed to off gas in the melter system ranged from 5 x 102 to greater than 103 without any filtration or treatment

49

Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including {sup 129}I{sub 2}, {sup 85}Kr, HTO, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

Ladshaw, A.; Sharma, K.; Yiacoumi, S.; Tsouris, C. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0459 (United States); De Paoli, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6181 (United States)

2013-07-01

50

Characterization Of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Quencher Sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from ?750 C to ?375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomSAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

51

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimsure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

52

Off-gas system data summary for the ninth run of the large slurry fed melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ninth melter campaign successfully demonstrated extended operation of both melter and off-gas systems. Two critical problem areas associated with the handling of melter off-gases were resolved leading to firm definition of the DWPF Off-Gas Treatment System. These two concerns, wet scrubber decontamination efficiency and the reduction of solids deposition at the off-gas line entrance, were the primary focus of off-gas system studies during the 63-day run (LSFM-9). The Hydro-Sonic Scrubber was confirmed to be the superior candidate for wet scrubbing by outperforming all other scrubbers tested at the Equipment Test Facility (ETF). The two stage, steam-driven scrubber achieved consistent decontamination factors for cesium exceeding the required DWPF flowsheet DF of 50. As a result, the device was selected as the reference wet scrubber for the DWPF. The Off-Gas Film Cooling device continued to show promising results for reducing three accumulation of solid deposits at the entrance to the off-gas line. In addition, a rotating wire brush cleaning device provided easy and efficient removal of deposits which had accumulated. The combination of the two has adequately resolved the deposit accumulation problem and both devices have been incorporated in the DWPF design

53

Iodine-129 process control monitor for evaporator off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous monitoring of gaseous 129I in evaporator off-gas at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities is desirable from both regulatory and process control viewpoints. Although a continuous 129I monitor for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant off-gas streams has already been developed, it needed to be evaluated under evaporator off-gas conditions. Characteristics of the off-gas that pose problems for 129I monitoring include: (1) high concentrations of nitric acid mist, organics, and radionuclides which may interfere with 129 detection, such as 137Cs; (2) off-gas that is predominantly water vapor; and (3) 129I in the form of liquid aerosols. The development and evaluation of an 129I monitor for evaporator off-gas using a laboratory-scale evaporator model are reported. The work was performed in two phases: 1) a suitable monitor configuration was determined; and 2) a 24 factorial design experiment was performed to determine the monitor's response to HNO3, organics, aerosols, and 137Cs. A filter was used in the monitor configuration to vary aerosol concentrations. The concentrations of HNO3, organics, and 137Cs in the evaporator feed were also varied from low to high levels. In the experimental monitor, an H2O selective permeation device was used to dry the off-gas stream before it passed through a charcoal bed where the iodine was aough a charcoal bed where the iodine was adsorbed. The bed was counted for 125I with a NaI(Tl) detector. Results of this study show that the monitor should be operated with a filter. Based on these observations, the monitor when operated with a filter, was demonstrated to be suitable for use in evaporator off-gas streams

54

Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kumasaka, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikubo, M. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

2001-07-01

55

Dynamic Modelling of an Industrial Smelter Furnace and Converter Off-gas System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In smelters, metal ores or concentrates are smelted to reduce a metal oxide to a metal through a series of reactions and processes. In a smelting process, a large amount of off-gas emissions are often generated, which can cause serious environmental and plant hygiene problems if not properly treated. Off-gas systems extract and treat the off-gas emissions, and ensure that the smelter operation is in accordance with environmental and industrial hygiene regulations. In this paper, the dynamic models for an industrial smelter furnace and converter off-gas system, tackling hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2, are developed using mass continuity, momentum and energy conservation laws. Based on the developed dynamic models, the effects of important variables on the system?s dynamics are studied via simulations. The developed dynamic models provide a necessary basis for high performance control development of smelter off-gas systems because online measurements are limited and additional ones must be justified.

H. Shang

2008-01-01

56

Dynamic simulation aids DWPF off-gas and ventilation design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic simulation is an effective engineering tool for the evaluation of dynamic systems during the design phase of a project. The primary objective is to gain understanding about all aspects of the dynamic behavior during upset conditions and to use such knowledge to arrive at a design that satisfies all control and performance criteria. On the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), it was used for the design of the melter off-gas processing system and the vitrification building control system for the air supply and exhaust to ensure a definite air flow pattern during upset conditions. For these applications, the simulation models were prepared using Bechtel's proprietary language, DAP and executed on Bechtel's Dynamic Simulation Facility. 9 figs

57

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

58

Integrated DM 1200 Melter Testing Of HLW C-106/AY-102 Composition Using Bubblers VSL-03R3800-1, Rev. 0, 9/15/03  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

59

Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An effective process reducing volume of radioactive wastes is incineration of combustible wastes. Appropriate design of the off-gas treatment system is necessary to ensure that any releases of airborne radionuclides into the environment are kept below acceptable limits. In many cases, the off-gas system must be designed to accommodate chemical constituents in the gas stream. The purpose of this publication is to provide the most up-to-date information regarding off-gas treatment as well as an account of some of the developments so as to aid users in the selection of an integrated system for a particular application. The choice of incinerator/off-gas system combination depends on the wastes to be treated, as well as other factors, such as regulatory requirements. Current problems and development needs are discussed. Following comprehensive discussions of the various factors affecting a choice, various incinerator and off-gas treatment systems are recommended for the various types of wastes that may be treated: low PVC content solid, high PVC content solid, organic liquid and resins. The economics or costs of the off-gas system and an evaluation of the overall cost effectiveness of incineration or direct burial is not discussed in detail. This publication is specifically directed toward technical aspects and addresses: incineration types and origin, sources and characteristics of off-gas streams; descriptions of available technologies for off-gas treatment; basic componlogies for off-gas treatment; basic component design requirements and component description; operational experience of plants in active operation and their current practices; legal aspects and safety requirements; remaining problems to be solved and development trends in plant design and component structure. This report seeks to broaden and enhance the understanding of the developed technology and to indicate areas where improvements can be made by further research and development. 110 refs

60

Computer simulation of the off gas treatment process for the KEPCO pilot vitrification plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrification technology for treatment of low and intermediate radioactive wastes can remarkably reduce waste volume to about one twentieth of the initial volume as they are collected and converted into a very stable form. Therefore, it can minimize environmental impact when the vitrified waste is disposed of. But an off gas treatment system is necessary to apply this technology because air pollutants and radioisotopes are generated like those of other conventional incinerators during thermal oxidation process at high temperature. KEPCO designed and installed a pilot scale vitrification plant to demonstrate the feasibility of the vitrification process and then to make a conceptual design for a commercial vitrification facility. The purpose of this study was to simulate the off gas treatment system(OGTS) in order optimize the operating conditions. Mass balance and temperature profile in the off gas treatment system were simulated for different combinations of combustible wastes by computer simulation code named OGTS code and removal efficiency of each process was also calculated with change of design parameters. The OGTS code saved efforts,time and capital because scale and configuration of the system could be easily changed. The simulation result of the pilot scale off gas process as well as pilot tests will be of great use in the future for a design of the commercial vitrification facility. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NOx removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NOx flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given

62

Investigation of air cleaning processes for removing tributyl phosphate vapors from fuel reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as an extractant in combination with the solvent dodecane in the dissolution process in a conventional nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. When recycled acid is used in the process, the dissolver off-gas (DOG) may contain small amounts of TBP and dodecane vapor. The vessel off-gas (VOG) will also contain TBP vapors in even higher fractions. Under some conditions, TBP vapor in these gas streams adversely affects the performance of silver-loaded solid sorbent beds used in the treatment of these streams to remove iodine and organic iodide compounds. An investigation is reported of the use of inorganic solid sorbent beds located upstream of the silver-loaded sorbent beds to remove TBP and extend the useful life of the silver beds. Laboratory scale experiments have been conducted using selected inorganic solid sorbent materials which have specific properties indicating their effectiveness for removing TBP or similar organic compounds. Results indicated 4 inorganic materials would retain greater than 95% of inlet TBP over a 3-hour run time. These four materials are being tested in a small packed glass column arrangement using variations in TBP concentration, face velocity and column temperature. As a part of this work, a sensitive quantitative analysis technique was developed enabling continous real time analysis of TBP vapor concentrations, as low as 1 x 10-7 g/l, so that breakthrough progression can be measuredssion can be measured

63

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. The method involves a sequence of adsorption and desorption steps which are specified. Particular reference is made to the separation of xenon and krypton from the off-gas stream, and to the use of silver-exchanged mordenite as the adsorbent. (U.K.)

64

Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters have been investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The results of these studies have established the identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance. 8 figures, 16 tables

65

Technology survey for real-time monitoring of plutonium in a vitrifier off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We surveyed several promising measurement technologies for the real-time monitoring of plutonium in a vitrifier off-gas system. The vitrifier is being developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Corp. and will be used to demonstrate vitrification of plutonium dissolved in nitric acid for fissile material disposition. The risk of developing a criticality hazard in the off-gas processing equipment can be managed by using available measurement technologies. We identified several potential technologies and methods for detecting plutonium that are sensitive enough to detect the accumulation of a mass sufficient to form a criticality hazard. We recommend gross alpha-monitoring technologies as the most promising option for Westinghouse Savannah River Corp. to consider because that option appears to require the least additional development. We also recommend further consideration for several other technologies because they offer specific advantages and because gross alpha-monitoring could prove unsuitable when tested for this specific application

66

Numerical analysis of off-gas flow in hot area of the vitrification plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate numerical models for the simulation of off-gas flow in hot area of the vitrification plant have been developed in this study. The models have been applied to analyze the effect of design parameters of real plant and numerical analyses have been performed for CCM(Cold Crucible Melter), pipe cooler and HTF(High Temperature Filter). At first, the effect of excess oxygen and the ratio of oxygen distribution on combustion characteristics in the CCM has been studied. Next, solidification behavior of radio nuclide in the pipe cooler has been numerically modeled and scrutinized. Finally, flow pattern in accordance with the location of off-gas entrance of the HTF has been compared

67

High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

68

Remotely replaceable and testable off-gas filter system for the NWCF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process off-gas filter system designed for use in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) requires remote filter removal, replacement and in-place DOP testing. A series of full-scale mockup tests, modifications and retesting at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility (RMDF) resulted in a system in which a commercial High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter can be installed, tested for leaks, operated and removed from a sealed filter housing using remote handling methods. This paper describes the development, testing and results of this effort

69

Degradation of off-gas toluene in continuous pyrite Fenton system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of off-gas toluene from a toluene reservoir and a soil vapor extraction (SVE) process was investigated in a continuous pyrite Fenton system. The removal of off-gas toluene from the toluene reservoir was >95% by 8h in the pyrite Fenton system, while it was ?97 % by 3h in classic Fenton system and then rapidly decreased to initial level by 8h. Continuous consumption of low Fe(II) concentration dissolved from pyrite surface (0.05-0.11 mM) was observed in the pyrite Fenton system, which can lead to the effective and successful removal of the gas-phase toluene due to stable production of OH radical (OH). Inhibitor and spectroscopic test results showed that OH was a dominant radical that degraded gas-phase toluene during the reaction. Off-gas toluene from the SVE process was removed by 96% in the pyrite Fenton system, and remnant toluene from rebounding effect was treated by 99%. Main transformation products from toluene oxidation were benzoic acid (31.4%) and CO2 (38.8%) at 4h, while traces of benzyl alcohol (1.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.7%) were observed. Maximum operation time of continuous pyrite Fenton system was estimated to be 56-61 d and its optimal operation time achieving emission standard was 28.9 d. PMID:25125037

Choi, Kyunghoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

2014-09-15

70

Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

Nick Soelberg

2005-09-01

71

Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO{sub 2} in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2009-06-01

72

Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO2/krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO2 from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO2 concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO2/krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO2 was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO2 and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N2 or air. Gas streams rich in CO2 were diluted with N2 to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO2 concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products

73

Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -600C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste

74

Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

75

FY-2001 Accomplishments in Off-gas Treatment Technology Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the efforts funded by the Tank Focus Area to investigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) destruction (a.k.a. deNOx) technologies and off-gas scrubber system designs. The primary deNOx technologies that were considered are staged combustion (a.k.a. NOx reburning), selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, and steam reformation. After engineering studies and a team evaluation were completed, selective catalytic reduction and staged combustion were considered the most likely candidate technologies to be deployed in a sodium-bearing waste vitrification facility. The outcome of the team evaluation factored heavily in the establishing a baseline configuration for off-gas and secondary waste treatment systems.

Marshall, Douglas William

2001-09-01

76

A performance test of sintered metal filter in the pilot-scale radioactive waste vitrification plant in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the applicability of a sintered metal filter in a low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste(LILW) vitrification plant, a specific performance test had performed. For the test, stainless steel(AISI 904L) based filter elements were chosen and exposed to off-gas for about 32 hours. The total filtration area was 3.6m2 and the face velocity was about 0.6m/min. To remove dust layer deposited on the filter surface, back flushing was applied to the filter periodically. Back flushing pressure was controlled in the range of 4?5 bars depending on the behavior of the pressure drop. No physical damage and/or problem of filter was observed after the test. SEM-EDS analysis showed sodium(Na) and sulfur(S) presence at the surface deposit. But, the x-ray mapping of the cross section of skin layer showed no evidence of off-gas deposition. Based on the 32 hours test, the performance of sintered metal filter was acceptable for the treatment of hot off-gas from the LILW vitrification plant

77

Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

Choi, A.S.

2000-08-23

78

Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2012-08-01

79

R and D for an off-gas treatment system for a slagging pyrolysis radioactive waste incinerator. Final report for Phase III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of engineering-scale tests to obtain sintered metal filter particulate removal performance data with fly ash to simulate the expected incinerator particulate are reported. Efficiencies of greater than 99.9999% were obtained at the conditions of the tests. An evaluation of expected spray dryer performance indicated that a commercial unit should provide the desired removal for HCL and SO2. An off-gas treatment system safety analysis was performed, and no credible postulated accident could be identified that would result in a significant radioactivity exposure to the public. An updated cost estimate for the OGTS is also provided. Several areas were identified in which additional technical data are considered desirable to ensure efficient operation of the proposed OGTS, but nothing was identified that would indicate that the OGTS would not perform satisfactorily as designed

80

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absorption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitorinssive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

 
 
 
 
81

Performance Test Procedure for Fuel Test Loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a test facility which can conduct a fuel irradiation test at HANARO. The FTL simulates commercial NPPs' operating conditions such as their pressure, temperature, flow, water chemistry and neutron flux levels to conduct the irradiation test. The performance test of the FTL has been performing since April, 2007 and expected to be completed in the last half of 2009. In this paper, the performance test procedure for the FTL is introduced

82

Modelling turbulent combustion with finite chemical kinetics, applied to furnace off-gas combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on turbulent chemical reacting flows which are generally very complex, involving interactions of chemical, thermodynamic, and fluid which mechanical processes. A combustion model based on algebraic moment closure has been developed. The model is applicable for reaction rates where the chemical kinetics can vary from slow to fast. The effects of turbulence is taken into accounts by means of modifications to the wellknown k-? modelling procedure. The model is applied to an industrial combustion process. Calculation of furnace off-gas combustion from an aluminum reduction cell has been performed. The theoretical results agree well with experimental values

83

Olefin recovery from FCC off-gas can pay off  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on olefins recovery from refinery FCC offgas streams which offers an attractive cash flow from olefins from a tail-gas stream that has typically been consumed as refinery fuel. Such recovery schemes can be employed in refineries or olefins plants, and can be tailored to fit individual requirements. Mobil Chemical Co. has operated such a dephlegmator-based off-gas recovery unit at its Beaumont, Tex., olefin plant since 1987. It reported that the project was paid out within 11 months of initial start-up

84

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

Science.gov (United States)

An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, George T. (15 Cherry Hills Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1992-01-01

85

Off-gas cleaning of a liquid waste vitrifier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid radio-active aerosols and semi-volatile fission products e.g. Ru, Cs, Sb are generated during high level liquid waste vitrification processes. The behaviour of these semi-volatile products during the vitrification of simulated liquid waste in a liquid fed melter and the off-gas cleaning with a wet purification system has been studied. It was found that the melter releases to the off-gas depended on different melter situations associated with different melt surface temperature. At the melter outlet, the over-all size distribution of the dust is composed of two components. The large component is associated with a gross entrainment mechanism whereas the small diameter component is associated with a volatilization/condensation process. The submicronic fraction of the dust is generally enriched in cesium and ruthenium. Moreover, volatile ruthenium species can still exist at the low outlet temperature of the melter. The wet purification system comprises in series a packed bed dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOsub(x) column. The dust scrubber removes the gross part of the dust and the ejector-venturi has a high removal efficiency for the submicronic aerosol fraction. The global efficiency of the wet purification system ranged from 99.7% for the cesium species to 99.95% for the ruthenium species. (author)

86

Effect of anode off-gas recycling on reforming of natural gas for solid oxide fuel cell systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of anode off-gas recycling (AOGR) on the characteristic performance of a natural gas reformer equipped with a precious metal catalyst is investigated experimentally. The reformer is operated both with synthetic AOGR gas and in steam reforming (SR) conditions. The characteristic performance in SR and AOGR mode are compared with equilibrium, and it is found that equilibrium is more readily achieved in AOGR mode. The reformer is used for extended periods of time (100-1,000 h) in conditions where carbon formation is thermodynamically possible to measure any changes in characteristic performance. No significant change in the performance is observed due to carbon formation or catalyst deactivation. The reformer could be successfully implemented in a 10 kW SOFC system with an anode off-gas recycling loop. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Halinen, M.; Thomann, O.; Kiviaho, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

2012-10-15

87

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) where the glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Experimental glass melters used to develop the vitrification process for immobilization of the waste have experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. Off-gas deposits from the DWPF 1/2 Scale Glass Melter (SGM) and the 1/10th scale Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel, and frit particles. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cement the entrained particulates causing off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggage indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. Scale glass melter operating experience indicates that a velocity of >50 fps is necessary in order to transport the volatile species to the quencher to prevent having condensation occur in the off-gas line. Hotter off-gas line temperatures would retain the alkali compounds as vapors so that they would remain volatile until they reach the quencher. However, hotter off-gas temperatures can only be achieved by using less air/steam flow at the off-gas entrance, e.g. at the off-gas film cooler (OGFC). This would result in lower off-gas velocities. Maintaining a high velocity is, therefore, considered to be a more important criterion for controlling off-gas pluggage than temperature control. 40 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-03-01

88

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TOA PARTITIONING ON DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar? L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, G.

2013-06-18

89

Experimental determination of the solubilities of dissolver off-gas constituents in a Kr-85 recovery solvent (CCl2F2). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental determination of the solubility of the major off-gas constituent-Nitrogen was performed with a new solubility measurement apparatus. The new apparatus was designed, built and tested; an algorithm for thermodynamic consistency testing of P-T-x-y data for solubility systems was developed, and thermodynamically consistent Nitrogen-R-12 solubility data were taken. The Henry's Law constant for the Nitrogen-R-12 system can be represented by the equation ln H/sub N2-R-12/ (atm) = 0.44 + 1.0708 lnT (0K). The solubility data extend the range of known equilibrium data into a region where process equipment operate and are consistent with both other data at lower temperatures by other researchers and with regular solution theory

90

Final Report DM1200 Tests With AZ 101 HLW Simulants VSL-03R3800-4, Rev. 0, 2/17/04  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

91

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

92

Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems

93

Filters for aerosol and iodine seperation from the dissolver off-gas of a future reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a future German reprocessing plant a dissolver off-gas line is developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, for which the separation of suspended matter and iodine is tested in the pilot plant PASSAT. For a pre-separation of droplets and solid aerosols, a remote-handled fibre package separator has been developed which can be backwashed when installed and which has such dimensions that it fits into a waste barrel and can be removed without any problem. The decontamination factors achieved are above 1,000 for droplet and solid aerosols under suitable differential pressures. Iodine separation is carried out by means of chemical sorption on a special filter containing iodine sorption material and in contrast to the wet scrubbing process, produces a solid, storable product in a single step. It has been possible to gain valuable experience and to obtain data for interpreting a head-end off-gas system. (RB)

94

Infiniband Performance Testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A look at the performance of the infiniband interconnect using the Voltaire host stack. This will attempt to compare not only infiniband to other high-performance interconnects, but will also take a look at comparing some of the different hardware choices available at the time of writing (e.g. Opteron, EM64T, pci-express and pci-x).

Minich, M

2005-10-13

95

Computer model for the KALC process studies in the ORGDP Off-Gas Decontamination Pilot Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer model of the KALC process is presented for the equipment configuration in use during HTGR off-gas studies at the ORGDP Off-Gas Decontamination Pilot Plant. The model is tailored to require input routinely available during such experimental studies. A program is included to provide McCabe-Thiele plots as an additional convenience

96

Flame Tests Performed Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable learning experiences. One very popular demonstration is the flame test. The author provides a safe and effective alternative to the traditional flame test without the traditional use of methanol, and provides strategies that allow students to safely gain a better understanding of the atomic structure, the nature of light, and the electromagnetic spectrum.

Deborah Dogancay

2005-09-01

97

Fundamental experiment of voloxidation off-gas treatment, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reprocessing of FBR spent fuel for the voloxidation process (chopped spent fuel is oxidized and volatile fission products are released), the development of off-gas treatment system is important as well as that of the voloxidizer. Fundamental experiments have been carried out for the removal of tritium and iodine by molecular sieve adsorption; and the removal characteristics were made clear. (1) The molecular sieve adsorption method is effective for HTO collection, even in the existence of iodine. (2) For the micropores of MS-4A, the effect of iodine on H2O adsorption is negligible, and the retention of iodine is extremely small. (3) The iodine retention of MS-13X depends on the breakthrough of H2O. Its decontamination factor for iodine is satisfactory. (4) The simultaneous collection of iodine and HTO by MS-13X is possible. (5) Adsorption temperature and gas flow rate influence H2O adsorption characteristics, but do not affect the adsorption of coexisting iodine. (6) The desorption of iodine from MS-13X is influenced by H2O, although the desorption of H2O from a molecular sieve is not influenced by iodine. (J.P.N.)

98

Laboratory experiments on adsorptive retention of Kr-85 from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver in a reprocessing plant based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents is described. The laboratory experiments corroborate the feasibility of the individual process steps. The entire process essentially consists of three interconnected stages: - Retention of NOsub(x) residues and tritiated water on a molecular sieve and recycling both species with part of the waste gas into the dissolver. - Separation of xenon from the off-gas by activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas. - Separation of krypton from the residual off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography and deposition of the pure krypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. Based on the experiments a principle layout for a full scale off-gas cleaning system is described. (author)

99

MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all six melter runs (bubbled and non-bubbled runs for each of the three feeds). The steady state selection was made by limiting the standard deviation of the average vapor space temperature readings from two bare thermocouples (TT-03 and TT-05) to less than 5 C in most cases at a constant feed rate. The steady state data thus selected were mass and heat balanced and the off-gas data were re-baselined to assess the flammability potential of each feed under the DWPF melter operating conditions. Efforts were made to extract as much information out of the data as possible necessary to extend the applicability of the existing baseline cold cap and off-gas combustion models to the glycolic and sugar flowsheet feeds. This report details the outcome of these activities.

Choi, A.

2011-07-08

100

Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, W. E.

2013-02-13

 
 
 
 
101

Cryogenic system for collecting noble gases from boiling water reactor off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In boiling water reactors, noncondensible gases are expelled from the main condenser. This off-gas stream is composed largely of radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen, air in-leakage, and traces of fission product krypton and xenon. In the Air Products' treatment system, the stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen are reacted to form water in a catalytic recombiner. The design of the catalytic recombiner is an extension of industrial gas technology developed for purification of argon and helium. The off-gas after the recombiner is processed by cryogenic air-separation technology. The gas is compressed, passed into a reversing heat exchanger where water vapor and carbon dioxide are frozen out, further cooled, and expanded into a distillation column where refrigeration is provided by addition of liquid nitrogen. More than 99.99 percent of the krypton and essentially 100 percent of the xenon entering the column are accumulated in the column bottoms. Every three to six months, the noble-gas concentrate accumulated in the column bottom is removed as liquid, vaporized, diluted with steam, mixed with hydrogen in slight excess of oxygen content, and fed to a small recombiner where all the oxygen reacts to form water. The resulting gas stream, containing from 20 to 40 percent noble gases, is compressed into small storage cylinders for indefinite retention or for decay of all fission gases except krypton-85, followed by subsequent release under controlled conditions and favorable meteorolotrolled conditions and favorable meteorology. This treatment system is based on proven technology that is practiced throughout the industrial gas industry. Only the presence of radioactive materials in the process stream and the application in a nuclear power plant environment are new. Adaptations to meet these new conditions can be made without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety

102

Inspection system performance test procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system

103

Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe2O3 spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed

104

Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, 14C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

105

Dynamic Modelling of an Industrial Smelter Furnace and Converter Off-gas System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In smelters, metal ores or concentrates are smelted to reduce a metal oxide to a metal through a series of reactions and processes. In a smelting process, a large amount of off-gas emissions are often generated, which can cause serious environmental and plant hygiene problems if not properly treated. Off-gas systems extract and treat the off-gas emissions, and ensure that the smelter operation is in accordance with environmental and industrial hygiene regulations. In this paper, the dynamic m...

Shang, H.; Dillabough, M.; Nelson, P.; Salt, B.

2008-01-01

106

Development of off-gas emission kinetics for stored wood pellets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lumped three-reaction kinetic model for off-gas emissions of stored wood pellets in sealed containers has been developed accounting for the formation of CO and CO(2) and the depletion of O(2). Off-gas emission data at different conditions were used to extract kinetic model parameters by numerically fitting the proposed model equations. The fitted kinetic model parameters for different cases showed consistency with one another. With properly estimated model parameters, the current kinetic model can be used to predict off-gas emissions, oxygen depletion, and the buildup of toxic air pollutants in wood pellet storage containers/vessels. PMID:22826538

Fan, Chuigang; Bi, Xiaotao T

2013-01-01

107

Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. {yields} Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO{sub 2} absorbent unit are investigated. {yields} The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. {yields} The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO{sub 2} adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO{sub 2} capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

Lee, Tae Seok [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chung, J.N., E-mail: jnchung@ufl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chen, Yen-Cho [Department of Energy and Resource Engineering, National United University, Miaoli City 360, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-15

108

Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. ? Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO2 absorbent unit are investigated. ? The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. ? The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density bef 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

109

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08

110

Performance testing With JMeter 29  

CERN Document Server

Performance Testing With JMeter 2.9 is a standard tutorial that will help you polish your fundamentals, guide you through various advanced topics, and along the process help you learn new tools and skills.This book is for developers, quality assurance engineers, testers, and test managers new to Apache JMeter, or those who are looking to get a good grounding in how to effectively use and become proficient with it. No prior testing experience is required.

Erinle, Bayo

2013-01-01

111

Off gas filtration system in fuel reprocessing plants - engineering design approach based on operating experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A few observations are made based on an overview of the experience over several years of operation of the off gas filtration systems in the Fuel Reprocessing Plants in India. Broad profiles of the nature of problem areas are indicated emphasising the need to accord at design stage due care and consideration to such relatively conventional aspects as filter containers, off gas exhausters, coolers/chillers, demisters, vibration isolators, condensate drainage and logistics of filter cartridge replacement. (author)

112

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe2O3 spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam

113

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-01-01

114

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-12-31

115

Sport performance and agility tests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect agility on sports performance and agility measurement tests. Agility is described as a rapid whole body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus. Good agility requires a combination of speed, balance, power and co-ordination. Agility, which is a motoric ability, can be improved by regular progressive exercise. As an important component, agility is used to be an acceptable method in sports performance test batteries. As a result of the study; agility, which is a required characteristic in most of the sports activities, is a quality that successful athletes should have. While administering the sports performance test batteries to enhance sports performance both the exercise to improve agility and to develop dynamic balance that support agility has importance.

Kür?at Karacabey

2013-06-01

116

Exergetic Optimization of a Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of LNG Boil-Off Gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of liquefaction process for liquefied natural gas boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for gas transport. Onboard boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction is a new technology that liquefies BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. Exergetic efficiency optimization for cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of LNG boil-off gas is performed. Thermodynamic modeling has been performed based on the energy and exergy analyses. Objective problem is developed based on maximization of the plant exergetic efficiency and selected decision variables and constraints. Optimization process is performed using MATLAB genetic algorithm optimization toolbox. The results of exergetic efficiency optimization are compared with the corresponding results of the base case system obtained in the previous study. Finally, effects of some operating parameters on the exergetic efficiency are discussed by sensitivity analysis.

Mojtaba Babaelahi

2010-11-01

117

Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m3/h (15-ft3/min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussedystem performance are also discussed

118

Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

119

Development of the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process for HTGR off-gas reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel involves burning of the graphite-matrix elements to release the fuel for recovery purposes. The resulting off-gas is primarily CO2 with residual amounts of N2, O2, and CO, together with fission products. Trace quantities of krypton-85 must be recovered in a concentrated form from the gas stream, but processes commonly employed for rare gas removal and concentration are not suitable for use with off-gas from graphite burning. The KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2) process employs liquid CO2 as a volatile solvent for the krypton and is, therefore, uniquely suited to the task. Engineering development of the KALC process is currently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The ORNL system is designed for close study of the individual separation operations involved in the KALC process, while the ORGDP system provides a complete pilot facility for demonstrating combined operations on a somewhat larger scale. Packed column performance and process control procedures have been of prime importance in the initial studies. Computer programs have been prepared to analyze and model operational performance of the KALC studies, and special sampling and in-line monitoring systems have been developed for use in the experimental facilities. (U.S.)

120

Process for purification of an oxidation off-gas. Verfahren zur Reinigung eines Oxidationsabgases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a process for the purification of an off-gas by off-gas scrubbing. The off-gas comes from a reaction process operated under pressure and it is burdened with aliphatic and/or aromatic substances. The off-gas to be cleaned comes in particular from an oxidation process operated with oxygen containing gas; e.g. from the air oxidation of para-xylene (p-X) by the so-called Witten-DMT process for production of dimethylterephthalate (DMT). The off-gas is cleaned by absorption purification under pressure. The absorption agent consists mainly of an ester and/or an ester mixture. The ester and/or the ester mixture has a higher boiling point than the substances to be purified. The process comprises the following main steps: Partial condensation of the substances to be purified at about 35-60C; Absorption with para-toluylic acid-methylester (p-TE) or a mixture of p-TE and benzoic acid methylester (BME); Absorption with BME and/or methanol; Absorption with water; Combustion under pressure, where appropriate under supply of oxygen and combustible products.

Korte, H.J.; Modic, R.; Porschen, J.; Schoengen, A.; Schroeder, H.

1992-02-27

 
 
 
 
121

Detailed Design Data Package item 3.9a: Cadmium buildup in off-gas lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste currently stored at the Hanford Reservation in underground double-shell and single-shell tanks is being considered for vitrification and disposal. To achieve this, Hanford is conducting a Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Technology Development Project melter campaign. In this campaign, a requirement was identified to quantify the amount of cadmium depositing in the off-gas line between the liquid-fed ceramic melter and the submerged bed scrubber. This issue of cadmium volatility was raised due to the limited data on cadmium volatility in HLW vitrification. Prior to the start of slurry processing, the off-gas line sections were removed and inspects. Any pre-existing deposits were removed. Following the melter campaign, the lines were again removed and solids deposits were sampled and the quantity of deposits were estimated. The data presented in this package include chemical analysis of feed, glass, line deposits, in-ling off-gas stream, and SBS condensate samples. Process data includes melter feeding and glass production rates, off- gas flow rate, and plenum and off-gas stream temperatures

122

Parametric studies of off-gas release during in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gases are released from underground sources during the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. Most of these gases will be generated beyond the melt front where advancing high temperatures will cause pyrolysis and vaporization of organic and volatile materials. Some of these gases will enter the bottom of the melt pool and propagate upwards to the surface where they will enter the ISV confinement hood. A computer code called OGRE (Off-Gas RElease) has been written to model bubble-rise physics in the melt pool for given volumetric gas flux rates into the bottom of the pool. The models incorporated into OGRE have previously been reported. The purpose of the present document is to report the results of a series of parametric studies performed with OGRE. The numerical studies involve the variation of seventeen parameters for each of the two different inlet bubble-size models. Results indicate that while predictions appear qualitatively reasonable, additional development of the agglomeration and drift flux models is needed. This development will require experimental data for bubble formation and terminal velocity. 5 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs

123

Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 10000C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO2 than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>7500C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evnol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed

124

Performance test of dynamic mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to extend reactor cycle lengths and higher fuel discharge burn-ups, it is necessary that both the loading portion of MOX(Mixed OXide) and the addition of PuO2 increase. In general, ball-mill or attrition mill is used to improve the degree of mixing of powders and resulting homogeneous microstructure of pellet in the manufacturing process of MOX nuclear fuel. However, these milling devices showed not only difficulties of handling but also a limited range of amount(2 to be added in the powder mixture. A performance test for the Dynamic Mill(DM) device, which was designed and manufactured by KAERI, has been carried out to improve the above-described limits of the performance. The DM was tested by use of (U,Ce)O2[Ce ; 5?20wt%] powder. The results of the performance test show a superiority in performance. That is, the DM shows excellent degree of ease for handling and the pellet fabricated by this device also shows good homogeneity of microstructure with higher amount of CeO2 increased up to 20wt%

125

Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

1999-07-01

126

Automated Testing Performed by Developers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The commissioner of the thesis was Digia Plc and the target of the thesis was to research and improve automated testing performed by the software developers. The main topics of the thesis were research, development and training. Various technologies were evaluated in order to find good set of tools to support the teams. Trainings were arranged related to these technologies and tools for the teams. In addition to that, there were two surveys that were used to evaluate how the software develope...

Turto, Tuukka

2013-01-01

127

Reflectors for SAR performance testing.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2008-01-01

128

Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities reflect the normal development by manufacturers of new and improved equipment and the demand for more safety, greater reliability, and higher collection efficiency as an aftermath of the well publicized accident at Three Mile Island. The latter event has to be viewed as a watershed in the history of off-gas treatment requirements for nuclear facilities. It is too soon to predict what these will be with any degree of assurance but it seems reasonable to expect greatly increased interest in containment venting systems for light water and LMFBR nuclear power reactors and more stringent regulatory requirements for auxiliary off-gas cleaning systems. Although chemical and waste handling plants share few characteristics with reactors other than the presence of radioactive materials, often in large amounts, tighter requirements for handling reactor off-gases will surely be transferred to other kinds of nuclear facilities without delay. Currently employed nuclear off-gas cleaning technology was largely developed and applied during the decade of the 1950s. It is regrettable that the most efficient and most economical off-gas treatment systems do not always yield the best waste forms for storage or disposal. It is even more regrettable that waste management has ceased to be solely a technical matter but has been transformed instead into a highly charged political posture of major importance in many western nations. Little reinforcement has been provided by detailed studies of off-gas treatment equipment failures that show that approximately 13% of over 9000 licensee event reports to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission pertained to failures in ventilating and cleaning systems and their monitoring instruments

129

Removal of CO2 in closed loop off-gas treatment systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A closed loop test system has been installed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to demonstrate off-gas treatment, absorption, and purification systems to be used for incineration and vitrification of hazardous and mixed waste. Closed loop systems can virtually eliminate the potential for release of hazardous or toxic materials to the atmosphere during both normal and upset conditions. In initial tests, a 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW thermal) combustor was operated in an open loop to produce a combustion product gas. The CO2 in these tests was removed by reaction with a fluidized bed of time to produce CaCO3. Subsequently, recirculation system was installed to allow closed loop operation with the addition of oxygen to the recycle stream to support combustion. Commercially marketed technologies for removal of CO2 can be adapted for use on closed loop incineration systems. The paper also describes the Absorbent Solution Treatment (AST) process, based on modifications to commercially demonstrated gas purification technologies. In this process, a side loop system is added to the main loop for removing CO2 in scrubbing towers using aqueous-based CO2 absorbents. The remaining gas is returned to the incinerator with oxygen addition. The absorbent is regenerated by driving off the CO2 and water vapor, which are released to the atmosphere. Contaminants are either recycled for further treatment or form precipitates which are removed during the purification and regeneration process. There are no direct releases of gases or particulates to the environment. The CO2 and water vapor go through two changes of state before release, effectively separating these combustion products from contaminants released during incineration. The AST process can accept a wide range of waste streams. The system may be retrofitted to existing Facilities or included in the designs for new installations

130

Removal of Mercury from the Off-Gas from Thermal Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acidic, radioactive wastes with a high nitrate concentration, and containing mercury are currently being stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). In the past, these wastes were converted into a dry, granular solid by a high temperature fluidized-bed calcination process. In the future, the calcined solids may be immobilized by a vitrification process prior to disposal. It has been proposed that a vitrification facility be built to treat the acidic wastes, as well as the calcined solids. As was the case with the calcination process, NOx levels in the vitrification off-gas are expected to be high, and mercury emissions are expected to exceed the Maximum Control Technology (MACT) limits. Mitigation of mercury emissions by wet scrubbing, followed by adsorption onto activated carbon is being investigated. Scoping tests with sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, KCl-impregnated activated carbon and non-impregnated activated carbon were conducted with a test gas containing1% NO2, 28% H2O, 4% O2 and 67% N2. Average removal efficiencies for Hgo and HgCl2 were 100 ± 2.5% and 99 ± 3.6% respectively, for sulfur-impregnated carbon. The KCl-impregnated carbon removed 99 ± 4.6% HgCl2. The removal efficiency of the non-impregnated carbon was 99 ± 3.6% for HgCl2. No short-term detrimental effects due to NO2 and H2O were observed. These results indicate that, placed downstream of a wet scrubber, an activated carbon adsorption bed has the potential of reducing mercury levels sufficiently to enable compliance with the MACT limit. Long-term exposure tests, and bed size optimization studies are planned for the future.

Deldebbio, John Anthony; Olson, Lonnie Gene

2001-05-01

131

Behaviour of selected contaminants in spray calciner/in-can melter waste vitrification off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Product loss from spray calciner/in-can melter vitrification of high-level wastes was evaluated with respect to volatile, gaseous and particulate materials. Investigations of the off-gases in a non-radioactive system are discussed, including gaseous constituents, particulate size distributions and loadings. Monitoring of gases leaving the off-gas system during spray calcination/in-can melting of radioactive waste gave material concentrations and material forms in the gases. The most significant conclusion drawn from these studies was that particulate loss accounts for a significant portion of the fission products in the off-gas system. (author)

132

Removal of carbon dioxide in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel off gas by adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off gas produced by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel includes various radioactivities and these nuclei should be removed. In particular, 14C mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide is one of the most required gaseous radioactivities to be removed because it has long a half-life. One of the methods to remove gaseous nuclei is the use of adsorption technique. The off gas contains water vapor which influences adsorption process of carbon dioxide. In this report, behavior of adsorption of carbon dioxide on various adsorbent and influence on adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide by containing water vapor are discussed. (author)

133

Design and operation of a submerged bed scrubber for off-gas scrubbing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operation of a submerged bed scrubber has been characterized well enough to accurately estimate the collection efficiency for aerosols in an off-gas treatment system. The device has the advantages of a high degree of reliability and minimal control requirements. Correlations have been developed that allow direct specification of the design variables that are required to achieve a desire collection efficiency. The decontamination factors achievable through proper design and efficient operation are well within the acceptable range for a primary scrubber in nuclear off-gas treatment systems

134

Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs

135

July 17, 1977, off-gas system charcoal adsorber bed fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This discussion begins with a brief description of the condenser off-gas system used at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, then covers the fire event of July 17, 1977, and conclusions drawn after a study of the event. It concludes with a discussion of the corrective action intended to prevent recurrence

136

40 CFR 60.8 - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.8 Section 60.8...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.8 Performance tests. (a) Except...

2010-07-01

137

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas systems utilizing silver-exchanged mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, silver loadings and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests was 142 mg CH3I per g of substrate on fully exchanged zeolite, approximately the same as elemental iodine loadings. A filter using fully exchanged silver mordenite operating at 2000C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 1500C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen rather than dry air, at a temperature of 2000C, also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. Partially exchanged silver mordenite achieved higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. The partially exchanged mordenite also achieved higher loadings at 2000C than at 2500C. The iodine loaded onto these beds was not stripped at 5000C by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen; however, the iodine could be removed by air at 5000C, and the bed could be reloaded. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 5000C. The loss of adsorbent capacity is much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing

138

Demonstration of fly-ash filter for trapping volatile radioactive cesium in off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this study is to design and operate the fly ash filter unit for trapping cesium in the vitrification pilot process of radioactive waste in the low and medium level. It is necessary to reuse fly ash, which is a kind of waste from coal fired power plant, in trapping cesium generated from vitrification process and improving safety and removal efficiency of off gas treatment system. According to the XRD analysis on the trapping cesium compounds by the fly ash filter, the thermally stable pollucite phase was formed when the SOx or NOx was used as the carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of volatile cesium by the fly ash filter was decreased with the increase of face velocity, whereas the efficiency was increased with the increase of the reaction temperature. And also, by increasing the reaction time, the efficiency was decreased. The trapping efficiency of volatile cesium by the fly ash filter was higher than 99.5 percent under the air or NOx/air as a carrier gas, however, the efficiency was decreased to 99.0 percent under the NOx/N2 as a carrier gas. By the way, the effect of NOx in the vitrification pilot process might be negligible due to the supply of the significant amount of oxygen. However, because using the SOx as the carrier gas the efficiency was slightly decreased to 93.5 percent, the influence of the SOx on the trapping cesium by the fly ash filter seems to be concerned in that pilot process. The fly ash filter unit was performed in the vitrification pilot process, but the trapping efficiency of cesium by that filter could not measured because analytical instruments can not detect the cesium. However, it is confirmed that the the stainless steel 310 can be used for the material of filter frame and housing and shows the corrosion resistance at high temperature (1000 deg C). (author)

139

Cut performance levels and testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

2011-11-01

140

Development of a hydrogen mordenite sorbent for the capture of krypton from used nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

Negative surface ionization mass spectrometry for real-time monitoring of iodine molecules in process off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negative surface ionization mass spectrometry is being developed for continuous measurement of iodine found in the atmospheric environment as a result of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Studies have been made on a series of low work function surface materials (CaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3, BaCO3-SrCO3, LaB6) with the intent of developing improved methods for iodine analysis, particularly at the environmental level (ppb concentration range). The results demonstrate the feasibility of performing real-time measurements of the trace amount of iodine encountered in process off-gas by use of a CaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-coated rhenium filament emitter. This emitter surface with thermoelectronic work function ? at 2.0 eV gives 37.5 times greater sensitivity than the established LaB6 emitter for iodine analysis. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

142

Analysis of fire and smoke threat to off-gas HEPA filters in a transuranium processing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author performed an analysis of fire risk to the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that provide ventilation containment for a transuranium processing plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A fire-safety survey by an independent fire-protection consulting company had identified the HEPA filters in the facility's off-gas containment ventilation system as being at risk from fire effects. Independently studied were the ventilation networks and flow dynamics, and typical fuel loads were analyzed. It was found that virtually no condition for fire initiation exists and that, even if a fire started, its consequences would be minimal as a result of standard shut-down procedures. Moreover, the installed fire-protection system would limit any fire and thus would further reduce smoke or heat exposure to the ventilation components. 4 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

143

Selective recovery of radioactive carbon dioxide released from nuclear off-gas by adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off gases produced in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel contain various radioactive gases and emission of these gases to the environment must be suppressed as low as possible. 14C with a long half-life, which is mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide, is one of such gaseous radioactive materials. One of the measures to capture radioactive gases from the off-gas is the utilization of adsorption technique. In this work, the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide on various adsorbents was studied. It was found that a MS4A (Molecular Sieve 4A) adsorbent is more suitable for selective recovery of carbon dioxide. Thus, more detailed adsorption characteristics of carbon dioxide were studied for a MS4A adsorbent. Moreover, the authors investigated the influence of coexistent water vapor, which is also contained in the off-gas, on the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide. (author)

144

Removal of carbon dioxide in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel off gas by adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off gases produced in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel contain various radioactive components and emission of these components to the environment must be prevented as low as possible. Carbon-14 with a long half-life, which is mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide, is one of such gaseous radioactive materials. One of the measures to capture radioactive gases from the off-gas is the utilization of adsorption technique. In this work, the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide on synthetic zeolites and natural mordenites was studied at lower partial pressure ranges. Moreover, the authors quantitatively investigated the influence of coexistent water vapor, which is also contained in the off-gas, on the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide. (author)

145

Protection and safety functions of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaseous effluent cleaning installations are designed to protect workmen and environment and must be efficient enough to guarantee that the amounts of gases and dusts emitted by a furnace operating normally or accidentally are at an acceptable level in the atmosphere on the incinerator site. The process equipments necessary to operations and the monitoring devices must be reliable. The main risk in normal operation is occupational exposure close to the radioactive products accumulation points. The accidental risks are mainly related to an outage of the off-gas cleaning or a tightness failure with radioactive products dissemination resulting from either internal perturbation (filter tear, exhauster failure, ...) or external incident (electricity cut-off, furnace disarrangements, fire or explosion inside the incinerator). In view of these risks, it is interesting to examine the safety and protection functions of different components of off-gas treatment systems

146

Monitoring and analysis of process streams in a krypton-85 off-gas decontamination system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods used to monitor, sample, and analyze process streams in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility are described. This facility is designed to study the removal of noble gases, particularly 85Kr, from reactor fuel reprocessing off-gas streams by high pressure scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide or Freon. Krypton-85 concentrations in the most important gas streams are monitored continuously with beta-sensitive radiation detectors using a CaF2(Eu) scintillation disc. These detectors were designed specifically for use with corrosive fluids at high pressures. Representative samples of gas and liquid are withdrawn from 14 process streams via a semiautomatic sampling system. These samples are then analyzed for 85Kr using a beta detector, and for inactive constituents by mass spectrometry. (U.S.)

147

Concrete testing - is performance assured  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quality assurance in relation to manufacturing, curing and testing concrete is discussed. The need for testing in situ as well as laboratory testing in accordance with BSI specifications is considered. The importance of establishing concrete durability as well as strength is emphasized. It is stated that typical examples of the application of quality assurance are the two nuclear power stations at Heysham and Torness.

Elliott, R.L. (Taywood Engineering Ltd., Sothall (UK))

1983-12-01

148

Test Software Functionality, but Test its Performance as Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software product testing has great importance in the detection of errors appearing in the course of software development and reflecting directly on software quality enhancement before its implementation in the working environment. Special priority in the software product testing phase is given to testing software performance. In contrast to functional testing, which should show if software is capable of carrying out planned functions without making errors, performance testing should show if the software will realize planned tasks in accordance with previously defined and expectedperformance. Software performance testing tools are used for simulating conditions under which software will work.In this article, the authors point to the importance of the testing phases in the software product development process and give a review of up-to-date testing techniques. The focus of the article is placed on software performance testing and overview of performance testing tools.

Jovica ?urkovi?

2011-06-01

149

The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

150

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas by the mobile irradiation plant AGATE-M  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mobile irradiation plant (AGATE-M) has been constructed for on-site demonstration of off-gas treatment by electron beam. AGATE-M has been designed for flow rates up to 1000 Nm3/h and is equipped with a pre-filter, a reaction chamber connected to a low energy (200 kV) accelerator, a product filter and measurement systems. (author)

151

The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

Vance, R.F.

1991-12-01

152

Modelling and control of an electric arc furnace off-gas process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section, 00front, of this document Copyright 1998, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Bekker, JG 1998, Modelling and control of an electric arc furnace off-gas process

Bekker, Johannes Gerhardt

2008-01-01

153

Concrete testing - is performance assured  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality assurance in relation to manufacturing, curing and testing concrete is discussed. The need for testing in situ as well as laboratory testing in accordance with BSI specifications is considered. The importance of establishing concrete durability as well as strength is emphasized. It is stated that typical examples of the application of quality assurance are the two nuclear power stations at Heysham and Torness. (U.K.)

154

Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line.

Lee, L.

1992-02-25

155

Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line

156

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from here elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of ?125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

157

Demonstration of fly-ash filter for trapping volatile radioactive cesium in off-gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of this study is to design and operate the fly ash filter unit for trapping cesium in the vitrification pilot process of radioactive waste in the low and medium level. It is necessary to reuse fly ash, which is a kind of waste from coal fired power plant, in trapping cesium generated from vitrification process and improving safety and removal efficiency of off gas treatment system. According to the XRD analysis on the trapping cesium compounds by the fly ash filter, the thermally stable pollucite phase was formed when the SO{sub x} or NO{sub x} was used as the carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of volatile cesium by the fly ash filter was decreased with the increase of face velocity, whereas the efficiency was increased with the increase of the reaction temperature. And also, by increasing the reaction time, the efficiency was decreased. The trapping efficiency of volatile cesium by the fly ash filter was higher than 99.5 percent under the air or NO{sub x}/air as a carrier gas, however, the efficiency was decreased to 99.0 percent under the NO{sub x}/N{sub 2} as a carrier gas. By the way, the effect of NO{sub x} in the vitrification pilot process might be negligible due to the supply of the significant amount of oxygen. However, because using the SO{sub x} as the carrier gas the efficiency was slightly decreased to 93.5 percent, the influence of the SO{sub x} on the trapping cesium by the fly ash filter seems to be concerned in that pilot process. The fly ash filter unit was performed in the vitrification pilot process, but the trapping efficiency of cesium by that filter could not measured because analytical instruments can not detect the cesium. However, it is confirmed that the the stainless steel 310 can be used for the material of filter frame and housing and shows the corrosion resistance at high temperature (1000 deg C). (author)

Chun, K. S.; Park, J. J.; Shon, J. S.; Shin, J. M.; Choi, K. W

2000-02-01

158

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form - 12137  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer solidification was attempted to produce stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins. The polymer mixture was directly injected into the mold or drum which was packed with the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins, respectively. The waste form was produced by entirely curing the polymer mixture. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, water immersion test, leach test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test for the polymer waste forms. From the results of the performance tests for the polymer waste forms, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal. At present, performance tests with full scale polymer waste forms are being carried out in order to obtain qualification certificate by the regulatory institute in Korea. Polymer waste forms were prepared with the surrogate of boric acid concentrates and the surrogate of spent ion exchange resins respectively. Waste forms were also made in lab scale and in full scale. Lab. scale waste forms were directly subjected to a series of the performance tests. In the case of full scale waste form, the test specimens for the performance test were taken from a part of waste form by coring. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test was performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. Every polymer waste forms containing the boric acid concentrates and the spent ion exchange resins had exhibited excellent structural integrity of more than 27.58 MPa (4,000 psi) of compressive strength. On thermal stability testing, biodegradation testing and water immersion testing, no degradation was observed in the waste forms. Also, by measuring the compressive strength after these tests, it was confirmed that the structural integrity was still retained. A leach test was performed by using non radioactive cobalt, cesium and strontium. The leaching of cobalt, cesium and strontium from the polymer waste forms was very low. Also, the polymer waste forms were found to possess adequate fire resistance. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal. At present, Performance tests with full scale polymer waste forms are on-going in order to obtain qualification certificate by the regulatory institute in Korea. (authors)

159

A Performance Yardstick for Test Collections  

Science.gov (United States)

It would be very helpful in retrieval experiments if good retrieval performance for a test collection was known, so that performance for particular devices could be fully evaluated. This paper presents one performance yardstick, based on optimally weighted request terms, and illustrates its application to different test collections. (Author)

Sparck Jones, Karen

1975-01-01

160

Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

 
 
 
 
161

NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NOx abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NOx emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NOx from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr-1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NOx concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NOx concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NOx concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

162

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

2012-10-01

163

Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO2) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastlyasily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

164

Gestión del boil off gas en la planta de regasificación de Cartagena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este proyecto trata sobre la gestión del boil-off gas, o BOG (vapor de gas natural que se produce en las instalaciones de gas natural licuado de las plantas de regasificación), generado en la planta de regasificación de Gas Natural Licuado de Cartagena, tanto en las situaciones en las que se opera por debajo del mínimo técnico, como en las cargas y descargas de buques, en las cuales se ha de gestionar una cantidad del boil-off adicional. Para recuperar el boil-off, las plantas cuentan co...

Mangas Calvo, Rodrigo G.

2013-01-01

165

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

Goles, R.W.

1996-03-01

166

Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A low-emissions power generator comprising a solid oxide fuel cell coupled to a gas turbine has been developed by Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems. As part of the cycle, a fraction of the unreacted fuel (the off-gas) and oxidizer streams is reacted in a burner, which is the main source of pollutant formation. In this thesis a computational model of the burner has been developed which captures the formation of NOx and the oxidation of CO. This model gives accurate predictions at lo...

Collins, William Tristan

2008-01-01

167

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

168

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG) in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP) and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS) empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 20...

Sheikh Zahidul Islam; Ebenezer Adom; Xianda Ji

2010-01-01

169

2009 Ford Mustang Performance Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our goal is to find the time required for a 2009 Ford Mustang to accelerate from rest to 88 feet per second. We begin with three equations involving force, velocity, and force inverse, which is a value derived from Newton's Law, F=ma. The Mustang has three gears with three different gear ratios that must be used as the car accelerates. We found results from 2000 to 6000 RPMs for all three gears. Once the force inverse was found, we plotted the force inverse vs. velocity graph. The area beneath this curve from 0 to 88 feet per second is the time it takes to reach that speed. Using a Riemann sum approximation, we found that the time to be 4.109 seconds. This is a very brief time and is comparable to 5.2 seconds, the time found in a real test by RSPORTSCARS.com.

Daniel Fernandes

2009-01-01

170

Performance test on shielding concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cylinder of the shielding concrete is made from common Portland cement and home-made coarse or fine aggregates. Orthogonal design experiment and regression analysis are adopted to study the effects of the water content, sand percentage and water-cement ratio on the property of shielding concrete and the difference between them. The test shows that the tensile strength is in inverse proportion with water-cement ratio, and the influence is quite significant. Another factor is the type of aggregates. The effect of the age on its density is not obvious. Similarly, the concrete shielding ? rays shares the same influencing factors with that shielding neutron rays on density, slump and tensile strength. And both have the same change rules regarding to mechanical property. (authors)

171

Performance test for a solar water heater  

Science.gov (United States)

Two reports describe procedures and results of performance tests on domestic solar powered hot water system. Performance tests determine amount of energy collected by system, amount of energy delivered to solar source, power required to operate system and maintain proper tank temperature, overall system efficiency, and temperature distribution in tank.

1979-01-01

172

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boric acid wastewater and spent ion exchange resins are generated as a low- and medium- level radioactive wastes from pressurized light water reactors. In Korea, boric acid wastewater is concentrated and dried in the form of granules, and finally solidified by using paraffin wax. In this study, polymer solidification was attempted to produce the stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. The polymer mixture which consists of epoxy resin, amine compounds and antimony trioxide was used to solidify the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. To evaluate the stability of polymer waste forms, a series of standardized performance tests was conducted. Also, by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea, an additional test was performed to estimate fire resistance and gas generation of the waste forms. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test and an analysis of gas generation were performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal

173

Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boric acid wastewater and spent ion exchange resins are generated as a low- and medium- level radioactive wastes from pressurized light water reactors. In Korea, boric acid wastewater is concentrated and dried in the form of granules, and finally solidified by using paraffin wax. In this study, polymer solidification was attempted to produce the stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. The polymer mixture which consists of epoxy resin, amine compounds and antimony trioxide was used to solidify the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent ion exchange resins. To evaluate the stability of polymer waste forms, a series of standardized performance tests was conducted. Also, by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea, an additional test was performed to estimate fire resistance and gas generation of the waste forms. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test and an analysis of gas generation were performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. From the results of the performance tests, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal.

Lee, Se Yup [Korea Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

174

Thermoeconomic optimization of a cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of the LNG boil-off gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the liquefaction process for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for the gas transportation. In this manner, onboard boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system as a cryogenic refrigeration cycle is utilized in order to re-liquefy the BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. In this paper, a thermoeconomic optimization of the LNG-BOG liquefaction system is performed. A thermoeconomic model based on energy and exergy analyses and an economic model according to the total revenue requirement (TRR) are developed. Minimizing of the unit cost of the refrigeration effect as a product of BOG re-liquefaction plant is performed using the genetic algorithm. Results of thermoeconomic optimization are compared with corresponding features of the base case system. Finally, sensitivity of the total cost of the system product with respect to the variation of some operating parameters is studied. (author)

Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaelahi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

2010-09-15

175

Canadian development program for off-gas management in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian program for the development and evaluation of processes and technology for the separation and containment of radioactive species in off-gases is directed towards the following specific aspects: 1) assessment of available treatment technology and evaluation of future clean-up requirements; 2) development and engineering evaluation, under realistic conditions, of promising new processes that would be inherently simpler and safer; and 3) specification of off-gas emission control systems for future nuclear facilities based on the most favourable technology. The program is being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in collaboration with the electrical utility, Ontario Hydro, and selected Canadian universities. A brief description is presented of methods for removing tritium and carbon-14 from the moderator systems of CANDU power reactors, methods for removing iodine from the off-gases of a molybdenum-99 production facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and procedures for monitoring the off-gas effluent composition in the Thorium Fuel Reprocessing Experiment (TFRE) facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

176

Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation

177

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

Elliott, D.

1997-05-01

178

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

179

Canadian national internal dosimetry performance testing programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design and construction of new Performance Testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC) had determined that their licensees, in addition to the existing In Vivo and In Vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results. The program is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the In Vitro and In Vivo. At time of writing, the first round has not been completed and the pass/fail criteria have not been determined. (author)

180

Performance test of JRR-4 LEU core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JRR-4 had been operated using HEU (93% enriched uranium) fuels since 1965. JRR-4 had consumed all HEU fuels and finished operation using them in January 1996. And JRR-4 modification works had started. The modification works, which were about fuel conversion, installation of a medical irradiation facility, repairing of the building and son on, had successfully completed in June 1998. JRR-4 achieved the first criticality using LEU (20% enriched uranium) fuel on July 14th, 1998 and begun performance tests. The result of performance test was fine and able to get a number of data. This paper presents the modification works and outline of performance tests. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1990-02-01

182

Improving health physics measurements by performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance testing standards have been written to establish minimum performance requirements for personnel dosimeters, radiation survey instruments, and bioassay laboratory measurements. These standards were subjected to experimental evaluation and to a consensus review to assure that the requirements were practical. Programs have been established using the personnel dosimeters standards to improve and control the performance of dosimeter processors. Similarly, implementation of performance testing of instruments will result in improved reliability of field measurements and initiation of a program based on the bioassay standard will improve the accuracy, precision, and detectability levels for the measurement of radioactivity in occupationally exposed workers. Evaluating the performance of health physics measurement tools will lead to improved accuracy and precision and to an improved knowledge of personnel exposures. Performance testing will become a more widely recognized tool for maintenance of a quality program and the concept will be applied to additional measurements. 32 refs., 3 tabs

183

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-09-01

184

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-10-01

185

Experimental assessment of a catalytic hydrogen oxidation system for the off-gas processing of the ITER WDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Setup of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Commissioning of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of a hydrogen dilution tube. • CFD simulation and computation of a Pd reactor. -- Abstract: During normal operation of the ITER Water Detritiation System (WDS) and Isotope Separation System (ISS) large amounts of hydrogen isotopes containing mostly hydrogen and deuterium with some traces of tritium, will be produced and potentially released into the environment. Therefore an investigation has been carried out to handle the off gas safely. The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen is a conventional and reliable method, which has been selected to be tested. Thus, having discarded any hazards related to hydrogen explosion, the exhaust gases could be safely released into the environment. A scaled prototype oxidation reactor has been installed and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to investigate the selected method. This paper will present several simulation approaches for the main components of the oxidation system and compare them with experimental data.

Plusczyk, C., E-mail: christoph.plusczyk@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Michling, R.; Moosmann, H.; Welte, S.

2013-10-15

186

Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

187

Experimental assessment of a catalytic hydrogen oxidation system for the off-gas processing of the ITER WDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Setup of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Commissioning of a hydrogen oxidation facility using a Pd reactor. • Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of a hydrogen dilution tube. • CFD simulation and computation of a Pd reactor. -- Abstract: During normal operation of the ITER Water Detritiation System (WDS) and Isotope Separation System (ISS) large amounts of hydrogen isotopes containing mostly hydrogen and deuterium with some traces of tritium, will be produced and potentially released into the environment. Therefore an investigation has been carried out to handle the off gas safely. The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen is a conventional and reliable method, which has been selected to be tested. Thus, having discarded any hazards related to hydrogen explosion, the exhaust gases could be safely released into the environment. A scaled prototype oxidation reactor has been installed and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to investigate the selected method. This paper will present several simulation approaches for the main components of the oxidation system and compare them with experimental data

188

SI PC104 Performance Test Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

Montelongo, S

2005-12-16

189

Process for purification of an oxidation off-gas combined with heat recovery. Verfahren zur Reinigung eines Oxidationsabgases mit Energierueckgewinnung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a process for the purification of an off-gas from a reaction process operated under pressure, in particular an oxidation process operated with oxygen containing gas burdened with aliphatic and/or aromatic substances. The energy contained in the off-gas is recovered partially. The off-gas flow is expanded in an expansion turbine for generation of mechanical or electric energy. The off-gas to be cleaned is produced in particular by air oxidation of para-xylene (p-X) by the so-called Witten-DMT process for production of of dimethylterephthalate (DMT). The invention provides that the off-gas is combusted under pressure; the resulting flue gases are used for the generation of mechanical or electric energy in an expansion turbine. The process comprises the following main steps: (a) partial condensation of the substances to be rinsed, at 35-60C; (b) absorption with para-toluic acid methyl ester (p-TE) or a mixture of p-TE and benzoic acid methyl ester (BME); (c) absorption with BME and/or methanol; (d) absorption with water; (e) combustion under pressure, where appropriate under supply of oxygen and combustible products.

Korte, H.J.; Modic, R.; Porschen, J.; Schoengen, A.; Schroeder, H.

1992-02-27

190

Integrated Performance Testing for Nonproliferation Support Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with training in testing techniques and methodologies for assessment of the performance of: Physical Protection system elements; Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system elements.

Johns, Russell; Bultz, Garl Alan; Byers, Kenneth R.; Yaegle, William

2013-08-20

191

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF FOUR SKIMMING SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance tests were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oil and hazardous simulated environmental test tank (OHMSETT) on four commercial oil spill cleanup devices: the Sapiens Sirene skimming system, the Oil Mop remote skimmer, the Troil/Destroil skimming s...

192

Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

2013-09-01

193

Decomposition of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial off-gas by electron beams: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam induced decomposition of volatile organic compounds (e.g. aromatic compounds, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins) in industrial off gas has been investigated by several research groups in Germany and Japan. The method was shown to be effective for cleaning the waste gas of a paint factory, the waste air discharged from an automobile tunnel, the off gas cleaning from a groundwater remediation plant and the flue gas of a waste incinerator. The electron beam process achieves high removal efficiencies for volatile organic compounds. Reaction models have been developed, which suggest that the organic compounds are oxidized by hydroxyl radicals. The electron beam process may treat very large off-gas volumes at ambient temperatures and has a low energy consumption. The production of secondary wastes can be avoided or minimized. Compared to conventional methods the investment and operation costs of the process seem to be attractive for selected applications

194

Boil-off gas vapors are recovered by reliquefaction in LNG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although great care is taken to prevent heat leaks into cryogenic equipment in LNG terminals, boil-off vapors evolve from LNG stored at thermodynamic equilibrium. The quantities of boil-off vapors may be quite considerable. They account for about 1% of the total gas quantity received and sent out at the monitor-de-bretagne LNG terminal of Gaz de France. A novel process has significantly cut boil-off vapor handling costs. It is free of technical problems which would arise from local utilization of the gas and makes boil-off recovery possible under optimum conditions. In addition, the process shows an excellent degree of reliability. Boil-off vapors have a lower heating value than the stored LNG. However, since they mainly consist of methane, their economic usefulness makes vapor recovery necessary. This boil-off gas, with widely fluctuating quantities and qualities, cannot be readily used locally. The vapors must be sent out into the grid.

Levay, M.; Petit, P.; Paradowski, H.

1986-02-24

195

Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant using preparative gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kr-85 can be separated from the pre-purified purge air in the final processing step of the purification phase for dissolver off-gases of a reprocessing plant with the aid of preparative gas chromatography. Activated carbon adsorbers in combination with helium as carrier gas permits maximum gas mixture through-flow. A separation temperature of 300C is considered optimal. An adsorbent volume of 40 dm3 is necessary for processing the residual gas flow of 2.5 Nm3/h; the adsorbent is divided between 2 columns linked in series each of which are 2 m long with an internal diameter of 100 mm. The helium flow required is five times greater than the off-gas flow. The degree of purity for krypton is greater than 90% for a decontamination factor of greater than 1000. (orig./HP)

196

Some aspects of the treatment of typical off-gas streams from reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a fluidized sand-bed filter for filtration of particulate activity as applied to the process off-gas systems in fuel reprocessing plants, and an evaluation of its efficiency, is described. A comparative statement of the relative merits of various other filtration systems, such as the deep-bed glass fibre filters and the fixed sand-bed filters for such application, is made and a composite filtration system consisting of a fluidized sand-bed pre-filter and a final glass fibre polishing filter is recommended. Also included are studies carried out on the use of stainless steel sieve plates as de-entrainers, proposing a correlation for efficiency. (author)

197

Corrosion in the off-gas system of a radioactive-waste incinerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion in a low-level radioactive-waste incinerator off-gas system at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant is discussed. Severe corrosive attack and failure of an alloy 600 part exposed to high-temperature (>10000C) gases was observed. Rapid attack of carbon steel components, and cracking of austenitic stainless steel parts also occurred at locations where lower gas temperatures and periodic condensate exposure occurred. Investigation showed HCl, SO2, SO3 and phosphorus-oxides were present and contributed to the failures. Mechanisms of high-temperature failure include alloy separation and reactions with phosphorus. Coupons placed in the exhaust stream have provided information for selection of future materials of construction for system components. Several nickel- and iron-base alloys, and a stainless steel with an aluminum-diffusion coating were investigated

198

High-temperature corrosion in the off-gas system of a radioactive waste incinerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion in a low-level radioactive waste incinerator off-gas system at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant is discussed. Severe corrosive attack and failure of an Alloy 600 part exposed to high-temperature (>10000C) gases was observed. Rapid attack of carbon steel components, and cracking of austenitic stainless steel parts also occurred at locations where lower gas temperatures and periodic condensate exposure occurred. Investigation showed HCl, SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/ and phosphorus oxides were present and contributed to the failures. Mechanisms of high-temperature failure include alloy separation and reactions with phosphorus. Coupons placed in the incinerator discharge stream have provided information for selection of future materials of construction for the high-temperature system components. Several nickel- and iron-base alloys and a stainless steel with an aluminum diffusion coating were investigated

199

Finger Tapping Test performance as a measure of performance validity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Finger Tapping Test (FTT) has been presented as an embedded measure of performance validity in most standard neuropsychological evaluations. The present study evaluated the utility of three different scoring systems intended to detect invalid performance based on FTT. The scoring systems were evaluated in neuropsychology cases from clinical and independent practices, in which credible performance was determined based on passing all performance validity measures or failing two or more validity indices. Each FTT scoring method presented with specificity rates at approximately 90% and sensitivity of slightly more than 40%. When suboptimal performance was based on the failure of any of the three scoring methods, specificity was unchanged and sensitivity improved to 50%. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of combining multiple scoring measures for the same test as well as benefits of embedded measures administered over the duration of the evaluation. PMID:24738938

Axelrod, Bradley N; Meyers, John E; Davis, Jeremy J

2014-01-01

200

Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

 
 
 
 
201

NNWSI waste form performance test development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test method has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated NNWSI repository conditions, and to provide information concerning materials interactions that may occur in the repository. Data from 13 weeks of unsaturated testing are discussed and compared to that from a 13-week analog test. The data indicate that the waste form test is capable of producing consistent, reproducible results that will be useful in evaluating the role of the waste in the long-term performance of the repository. 6 references, 3 figures

202

Development of turbopump cavitation performance test facility and the test of inducer performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A performance test facility for turbopump inducer cavitation was developed and the inducer cavitation performance tests were performed. Major components of the performance test facility are driving unit, test section, piping, water tank, and data acquisition and control system. The maximum of testing capability of this facility are as follows: flow rate - 30kg/s; pressure - 13 bar, rotational speed - 10,000rpm. This cavitation test facility is characterized by the booster pump installed at the outlet of the pump that extends the flow rate range, and by the pressure control system that makes the line pressure down to vapor pressure. The vacuum pump is used for removing the dissolved air in the water as well as the line pressure. Performance tests were carried out and preliminary data of test model inducer were obtained. The cavitation performance test and cavitation bubble flow visualization were also made. This facility is originally designed for turbopump inducer performance test and cavitation test. However it can be applied to the pump impeller performance test in the future with little modification

203

Virtual Shaker Testing: Simulation Technology Improves Vibration Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

In the field of vibration testing, the interaction between the structure being tested and the instrumentation hardware used to perform the test is a critical issue. This is particularly true when testing massive structures (e.g. satellites), because due to physical design and manufacturing limits, the dynamics of the testing facility often couples with the test specimen one in the frequency range of interest. A further issue in this field is the standard use of a closed loop real-time vibration control scheme, which could potentially shift poles and change damping of the aforementioned coupled system. Virtual shaker testing is a novel approach to deal with these issues. It means performing a simulation which closely represents the real vibration test on the specific facility by taking into account all parameters which might impact the dynamic behavior of the specimen. In this paper, such a virtual shaker testing approach is developed. It consists of the following components: (1) Either a physical-based or an equation-based coupled electro-mechanical lumped parameter shaker model is created. The model parameters are obtained from manufacturer's specifications or by carrying out some dedicated experiments; (2) Existing real-time vibration control algorithm are ported to the virtual simulation environment; and (3) A structural model of the test object is created and after defining proper interface conditions structural modes are computed by means of the well-established Craig-Bampton CMS technique. At this stage, a virtual shaker test has been run, by coupling the three described models (shaker, control loop, structure) in a co-simulation routine. Numerical results have eventually been correlated with experimental ones in order to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology.

Ricci, Stefano; Peeters, Bart; Fetter, Rebecca; Boland, Doug; Debille, Jan

2008-01-01

204

Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

2007-01-01

205

Heat exchanger bypass test report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test report documents the results that were obtained while conducting the test procedure which bypassed the heat exchangers in the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. The test was performed on November 15, 1994 using WHC-SD-CP-TC-031, ''Heat Exchanger Bypass Test Procedure.'' The primary objective of the test procedure was to determine if the heat exchangers were contributing to condensation of moisture in the off-gas line. This condensation was observed in the rotameters. Also, a secondary objective was to determine if temperatures at the rotameters would be too high and damage them or make them inaccurate without the heat exchangers in place

206

REA-2023 BWR cask performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A performance test of a REA 2023 spent fuel storage cask sponsored by the Department of Energy was conducted at GE Morris Operation during the winter of 1984/85. The cask was configured for BWR spent fuel storage. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three fill conditions. The first five test runs were conducted with a partially loaded cask so that temperatures and radiation dose rates could be better approximated for the fully loaded cask. The next six test runs were conducted with a fully loaded cask. The final three test runs included insulation of the neutron shield to raise the surface temperature of the cask to more nearly reflect what it would have been in the summer. The maximum recorded temperature in the cask was 2410C for an evacuated fully loaded insulated cask. Its surface temperature was 950C. The maximum surface dose rate on the cask was about 200 mrem/hr at an anomaly on the bottom of cask. Elsewhere the dose rate on the top and bottom of the cask did not exceed about 100 mr/hr. The average dose rate of the side of the cask was about 20 mr/hr with spike reaching 40 mr/hr in areas near the top and bottom of the cask. Prior to conducting the performance tests, dry runs were conducted of the cask handling procedures and the Cooper spent fuel assemblies were characterized by calorimetry and radiation scans. Each fuel assembly was inspected to assure that no failed fuel was put into the cask. Sipping results (pre- and post-test), gas sampling, and visual inspection of the fuel did not identify any degradation of the fuel during the performance tests

207

NIF power balance performance modeling and testing  

Science.gov (United States)

A model for predicting power balance performance on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed. The Power Balance Model (PBM) uses Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM) runs with statistical variations in laser performance beam-to-beam and quad-to-quad. We have used this model to predict power balance performance for full NIF ignition shots. These predictions will be presented and compared with results from a series of single quad laser shots where one beam was diagnosed at 3w with the Precision Diagnostic Station (PDS) [1]. The shot-to-shot power repeatability from these PDS tests is consistent with the predicted power balance performance, and with the performance requirements for the ignition campaigns. [1] C. Haynam, et al, International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, 2007.

Kalantar, D. H.; Dixit, S. N.; Haynam, C. A.; Mehta, N. C.; Shaw, M. J.; Widmayer, C. C.; Williams, W. H.

2007-11-01

208

NRC valve performance test program - check valve testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Valve Performance Test Program addresses the current requirements for testing of pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in light water reactors. Leak rate monitoring is the current method used by operating commercial power plants to survey the condition of their PIVs. ETEC testing of three check valves (4-inch, 6-inch, and 12-inch nominal diameters) indicates that leak rate testing is not a reliable method for detecting impending valve failure. Acoustic emission monitoring of check valves shows promise as a method of detecting loosened internals damage. Future efforts will focus on evaluation of acoustic emission monitoring as a technique for determining check valve condition. Three gate valves also will be tested to evaluate whether the check valve results are applicable to gate type PIVs

209

Testing stemming performance, possible or not?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming performance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different stemming products hav...

Boshoff, D.; Webber-youngman, R. C. W.

2011-01-01

210

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI

211

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2014-01-29

212

Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

213

Testing stemming performance, possible or not?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming per [...] formance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different stemming products have differences in terms of their functionality, which can have a major impact on the efficiency of rock breaking. Two test procedures were used, one through the exclusive use of compressed air and the second using a purposebuilt high pressure test rig with small quantities of explosives. Both tests were used to identify and evaluate the ability of various stemming products to resist the escape of explosive gas through the collar of a blasthole. An investigation was done to determine the types of stemming products most commonly used in South African underground hard rock mines, and these products were used during the tests. The first stage of tests using compressed air only did not prove adequate to predict with certainty the pressure behaviour in the borehole of a particular product under high pressure conditions. The purpose-built high pressure test rig also did not prove to be a very effective tool to test stemming products under high pressure conditions. The test rig incorporated only the effect of gas pressure on the stemming product, and excluded the effect of the shock wave. This study therefore proved that to take into account only the gas pressure generated in the blasthole is not sufficient to effectively test stemming product performance.

D., Boshoff; R.C.W., Webber-Youngman.

2011-12-01

214

SIMS Prototype System 4: performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results obtained during testing of a self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 4 for field installation.

1978-10-09

215

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described. Normal carbon steel has been used as absorber. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. (orig.)

216

Performance test of a TMS strip chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of track chamber is presented which uses the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) in an ionization chamber. Performance of the chamber and test results in an electron beam are described. The results demonstrate that this type of chamber is an interesting tracking device particular in an environment of high background radiation. (orig.)

217

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

2006-02-15

218

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34?38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc

219

Performance testing rotating gamma camera SPECT systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvementdow. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems

220

Ultraviolet through infrared imager performance testing  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of any imaging system is to optimize the amount of pertinent information collected from a scene. Whether it is used for artistic reproduction, scientific research, or camouflage detection, a camera has the same ultimate requirement. In the era of broadband, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, and fused sensor systems, both spectral and spatial data continue to play battling roles in determining which is dominant in how well an imaging system meets its definitive objective. Typically sensor testing requires hardware and software exclusively designed for the spectral region of interest. Thus an imaging system with ultraviolet through infrared imaging capabilities could require three or more separate test benches for sensor characterization. Obviously this not only increases the complexity, and subsequently the cost of testing, but also more importantly tends to produce discontinuous results. This paper will outline the hardware and software developed by the authors that employ identical test methods and shared optics to complete infrared, visible, and ultraviolet sensor performance analysis. Challenges encompassing multiple emitting source switching, splitting, and combining will be addressed along with new single fused type source designs. Decisions related to specifying optics and targets of sufficient quality and construction to provide coverage of the full spectral region will be discussed along with sample performance specifications and data. Test methodology controlled by a single automated software suite will be summarized including modulation transfer function, signal to noise ratio, uniformity, focus, distortion, intrascene dynamic range, and sensitivity. Selected examples of results obtained by this test set will be presented.

Mazzetta, Jason A.; Scopatz, Stephen D.

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

MFTF test coil construction and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solenoid coil, 105 cm inside the 167 cm outside diameter, has been constructed and tested to study the performance of the stabilized Nb--Ti conductor to be used in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) being built at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The insulation system of the test coil is identical to that envisioned for MFTF. Cold-weld joints were made in the conductor at the start and finish of each layer; heaters were fitted to some of these joints and also to the conductor at various locations in the winding. This paper gives details of the construction of the coil and the results of the tests carried out to determine its propagation and recovery characteristics

222

Measurement of low energy beta emitters in nuclear facility off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is an account of the development of monitoring methods for the semivolatiles 99Tc and 79Se, and for the gaseous radionuclides 3H and 129I. A continuous technetium-99 monitor was developed. The collected technetium-99 was counted by a ruggedized surface barrier detector. The detection limit of 1 x 10-10 ?Ci/cm2 for the integrated system for technetium-99 was sufficient for radiological protection. The selenium-79 continuous monitor was based on distillation from 20% HBr. The counting efficiency of the surface barrier detector was insufficient for the lower energy selenium-79 beta. A time-integrated sampling method that quantitatively collected gaseous technetium-99 and selenium-79 was developed. The procedure developed for chemical separation was compatible with liquid scintillation counting, was free of interferences commonly found in the off-gas of waste solidification facilities, and detected selenium-79 and technetium-99 at the 10-10-10-11 ?Ci/cm3 level in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) stack. A continuous tritium monitor was developed that used a permeation distillation dryer to separate the tritium from 14C and 85Kr. The separated tritium was then measured by an on-line 20-L ionization chamber. An in-plant demonstration proved the monitor's response characteristics, i.e., accuracy, and sensitivity, were sufficient to detect process transients and to determine routine releases, within the range of 1 x 10-9 to 1 x 10-4 ?Ci/cm3

223

Retrofit design of a boil-off gas handling process in liquefied natural gas receiving terminals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generation of Boil-off gas (BOG) in liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals considerably affects operating costs and the safety of the facility. For the above reasons, a proper BOG handling process is a major determinant in the design of a LNG receiving terminal. This study proposes the concept of a retrofit design for a BOG the handling process using a fundamental analysis. A base design was determined for a minimum send-out case in which the BOG handling becomes the most difficult. In the proposed design, the cryogenic energy of the LNG stream is used to cool other streams inside the process. It leads to a reduction in the operating costs of the compressors in the BOG handling process. Design variables of the retrofit design were optimized with non-linear programming to maximize profitability. Optimization results were compared with the base design to show the effect of the proposed design. The proposed design provides a 22.7% energy saving ratio and a 0.176 year payback period. -- Highlights: ? A retrofit design of the BOG handling process was proposed to maximize energy savings. ? The superstructure of the proposed design was developed based on a thermodynamic analysis. ? In the proposed design, the cryogenic energy of the LNG stream was utilized to directly cool down the BOG streams. ? The payback period of the proposed design is sufficiently short for investment in industry.

224

The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the open-quotes West Valley Demonstration Project Act, close quotes on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process

225

Modeling The Impact Of Elevated Mercury In Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter Feed On The Melter Off-Gas System - Preliminary Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl2, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg2Cl2) to HgCl2 witub>Cl2) to HgCl2 with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg2Cl2 and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC cycle. The goal o

226

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2009-03-25

227

Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order td vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

228

Performance test of a TMS calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.)

229

Performance tests on the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter  

CERN Document Server

Performance tests on the thermoluminescent dosemeter, designed at NRPB for use in the automated personal dosimetry system, are described. An ultra-thin lithium borate dosemeter has been developed for skin absorbed dose measurement. The X-ray, gamma-ray and beta-ray energy response of the dosemeter has been investigated and the angular response for the dosemeter has been examined. The annealing, read-out and stabilisation procedures for the dosemeter are described.

Shaw, K B

1977-01-01

230

Performance testing of large metallic seals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware.

Leisher, W. B.; Trujillo, A. A.

1980-01-01

231

HSE performance tests for dosimetry services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United Kingdom a dosimetry service that measures and assesses whole-body or part-body doses arising from external radiation must successfully complete a performance test. Results of the performance tests for routine whole-body, routine extremity/skin and special accident dosimetry, carried out over the past six years by the AEA Technology Calibration Service at Winfrith, and DRaStaC, the AWE Calibration Service at Aldermaston, are presented. The test involves irradiating groups of dosemeters to known doses of gamma radiation and determining the bias and relative standard deviations for each dose group. The results are compared with the pass criteria specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. For routine whole-body dosimetry, both the film badge and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) perform adequately for irradiations between 0.6 and 30 mSv. For higher doses up to 250 mSv, where the slow emulsion of the film is used, the film badge shows poorer performance with a tendency to overestimate the dose. For routine extremity/skin dosimetry there is a wider spread of relative standard deviation results than is seen for routine whole-body dosimetry. This is to be expected since the results will include dosemeters that are based on 'disposable' TLDs and ones based on lithium fluoride powder in sachets. For special accident dosimetry the dosemeters are tested between 0.26 and 6 Gy. For the highest dose group the film badge invariably underestimates the true dose, whnvariably underestimates the true dose, whereas the TLD has a tendency to overestimate it. (author)

232

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements

233

Tributyl phosphate removal from reprocessing off-gas streams using a selected sorbent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experiments used small laboratory-scale columns packed with selected sorbent materials to remove tributyl phosphate (TBP) and iodine at conditions approaching those in actual reprocessing off-gas streams. The sorbent materials for TBP removal were placed upstream of iodine sorbent materials to protect the iodine sorbent from the deleterious effects of TBP. Methyl iodide in an airstream containing 30% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and water vapor was metered to two packed columns of sorbents simultaneously (in parallel). One column contained a segment of 8-in. x 14-in. mesh alumina sorbent for TBP removal, the other did not. The measure of the effectiveness of TBP sorbent materials for TBP removal was determined by comparing the iodine retention of the iodine sorbent materials in the two parallel columns. Results from an 18 wt % Ag substituted mordenite iodine sorbent indicated that the iodine retention capacity of the sorbent was reduced 60% by the TBP and that the column containing iodine sorbent material protected by the alumina TBP sorbent retained 30 times more iodine than the column without TBP sorbent. TBP concentration was up to 500 mg/m3. Similar experiments using a 7 wt % Ag impregnated silica gel indicated that the TBP vapor had little effect on the iodine retention of the silica gel material. The stoichiometric maximum amount of iodine was retained by the silica gel material. Further experiments were conducted assessing ther experiments were conducted assessing the effects of NO2 on iodine retention of this 7 wt % Ag sorbent. After the two columns were loaded with iodine in the presence of TBP (in NPH), one column was subjected to 2 vol % NO2 in air. From visual comparison of the two columns, it appeared that the NO2 regenerated the silica gel iodine sorbent and that iodine was washed off the silica gel iodine sorbent leaving the sorbent in the original state

234

Advanced online monitoring of cell culture off-gas using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass spectrometry has been frequently applied to monitor the O? and CO? content in the off-gas of animal cell culture fermentations. In contrast to classical mass spectrometry the proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) provides additional information of volatile organic compounds by application of a soft ionization technology. Hence, the spectra show less fragments and can more accurately assigned to particular compounds. In order to discriminate between compounds of non-metabolic and metabolic origin cell free experiments and fed-batch cultivations with a recombinant CHO cell line were conducted. As a result, in total eight volatiles showing high relevance to individual cultivation or cultivation conditions could be identified. Among the detected compounds methanethiol, with a mass-to-charge ratio of 49, qualifies as a key candidate in process monitoring due to its strong connectivity to lactate formation. Moreover, the versatile and complex data sets acquired by PTR MS provide a valuable resource for statistical modeling to predict non direct measurable parameters. Hence, partial least square regression was applied to the complete spectra of volatiles measured and important cell culture parameters such as viable cell density estimated (R˛ ?=?0.86). As a whole, the results of this study clearly show that PTR-MS provides a powerful tool to improve bioprocess-monitoring for mammalian cell culture. Thus, specific volatiles emitted by cells and measured online by the PTR-MS and complex variables gained through statistical modeling will contribute to a deeper process understanding in the future and open promising perspectives to bioprocess control. PMID:24376199

Schmidberger, Timo; Gutmann, Rene; Bayer, Karl; Kronthaler, Jennifer; Huber, Robert

2014-01-01

235

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 200,000kl LNG tanks were analyzed using the LKP and BWRS models. The heat leakage of LNG tanks depends on the structure of tanks, and the small tanks lose heatto the environment due to their large surface area to volume ratio. As the operation pressure was dropped to 200mbar, all four of the LNG tanks’ BOG levels reached 0.05vol%/day. In order to satisfy the BOG design requirement, the operating pressure of the four large LNG tanks in the case study was maintained above 200mbar. Thus, the operating pressure impacts BOG on LNG tanks, but this effect is limited under the extreme high operation pressure. An attempt was made to determine the relationship between the compositions of LNGand BOG; one been combustible and the other non-combustible gases. The main component of combustible gas was methane, and nitrogen was of non-combustible gases. The relationship between BOG and methane compositions was that, as the methane fraction increases in the LNG, the BOG volume also increases. In general, results showed a direct correlation between BOG and operating pressure. The study also found that larger LNG tanks have less BOG; however as the operation pressure is increased the differences in the quantity of BOGamong the four tanks decreased.

Sheikh Zahidul Islam

2010-08-01

236

Krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC): Campaign III in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the third major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively. Mass transfer experiments for the CO2--O2--Kr system are described for the absorption, fractionation, and stripping operations of the KALC process. A detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis indicates nominal HTU values for the absorber, fractionator, and stripper on the order of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7 ft, respectively. Flooding data for the packed columns are combined with previous data and are shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

237

Krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC): Campaign II in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the second major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm respectively. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass transfer experiments for the CO2--O2--Kr system are described, and a detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis, although not rigorous, is reasonable and indicates values of HTU for krypton on the order of 0.4 ft for decontamination factors from 100 to 10,000. Recent flooding information for the packed columns is combined with previous data and is shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

238

DPM PERFORMANCE TESTING USING RASPBERRY PIS  

CERN Document Server

This is the final report from attending CERN’s Summer Student Programme. The project goal was to do performance testing on the Disk Pool Manager (DPM), a lightweight, reliable, grid-aware storage software used to store and retrieve data produced by CERN’s LHC experiments using the small, low-end ARM powered devices named Raspberry Pis. The idea behind it was to reason if it’s possible to use a cluster of lower-end, under-capable devices to run DPM, and to conclude if it would be more energy efficient than running it on oversized machines, with the same or comparable performance. If this hypothesis was true, the power-hungry machines could be ditched in favour of these small devices, leading to an enormous saving in overall power consumption and hence, overall cost. In this report, I describe what was the initial project goal and intended outcomes, proceeding to explain the underlying technologies used. Afterwards, I’ll explain the setup used, the tests performed, and the conclusions reached. iii

Regala, M

2013-01-01

239

Performance indicators in proficiency test exercises  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normalized performance for individual participating laboratories in a proficiency test exercise for the determination of radionuclides in mushroom reference material were assigned through three quality indicators. Relative bias, z-scores and u-test scores were calculated for the data on /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 40/K submitted by laboratories representing six different countries. Data received for these radionuclides were statistically evaluated to obtain consensus mean values of 4.4 Bq/kg, 2899 Bq/kg and 1136 Bq/kg for /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 40/ K respectively at a confidence intervals (at a significance level of 0.05). The target values for the standard deviation (sigma) calculated for this exercise are 18.9%, 6.9% , 9.9% for /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 40/K, respectively, and have been assigned on the basis of the reproducibility standard deviation. Due to the small data sets for each radionuclide the limiting value for the u-test parameter was taken as 1.95 to determine if a result passes the test. (author)

240

Measures for the performance of diagnostic tests  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Systematic reviews have revealed that the methodological quality of studies on diagnostic accuracy is mediocre. In addition, clinicians may experience difficulties in interpreting and using measures describing the accuracy of a test. Using the Ottawa Ankle Rule as an example, we review the measures commonly used to describe the accuracy of diagnostic tests. The performance of tests is often given in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, these measures have no relevance to clinicians unless they can be converted into predictive values. We describe how to calculate the predictive values and how they can be determined using likelihood ratios and Fagan's nomogram. The reader is introduced to the critical appraisal of results based on studies of the accuracy of tests. We describe how both the clinical spectrum and the methodological quality can influence estimates of diagnostic accuracy and stress the inevitable uncertainty involved in extrapolating results from the literature to clinical practice. Methods of calculating the confidence intervals for estimates of accuracy are presented.

Rud, Bo; Matzen, Peter

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered. This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From 312 single results, 26 fell outside the limits of the trumpet curve and 32 were outside the range 1/1.5 to 1.5. Most outliers resulted from high energy R-F irradiations without electronic equilibrium. These fields are not routinely encountered by many of the participating dosimetry services. If the results for this field are excluded, most participating services satisfied the evaluation criteria.

Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.

2001-01-01

242

Contract performance demonstration tests in the OPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will describe the measurements and calculations that were done in the OPAL Reactor to demonstrate compliance against contractual Design Features and Performance Acceptance Criteria. The contract specifies several neutronic aspects to be fulfilled by the core, the irradiation and the beam facilities design, which have to be verified during the commissioning tests. Guaranteed flux values will be taken as being for equilibrium core conditions. The relationship between values measured during commissioning (First Core) and the guaranteed values is largely based on calculations. The calculated values are obtained modelling with full detail the measurement conditions using the INVAP traditional calculation lines: CITVAP and MCNP calculation lines. (author)

243

Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it are also estimated. (author)

244

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REA-2023 (currently marketed by Mitsubishi Heavy Metals of Japan as an MSF IV), Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG and G Idaho, Inc. using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented

245

Off-Gas Generation Rate during Chemical Cleaning Operations at the Savannah River Site - 12499  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enhanced chemical cleaning process (ECC) is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove the residual radioactive sludge heel that remains in a liquid waste storage tank. Oxalic acid is the chemical agent utilized for this purpose. However, the acid also corrodes the carbon steel tank wall and cooling coils. If the oxalic acid has little interaction with the sludge, hydrogen gas could conceivably evolve at cathodic areas due to the corrosion of the carbon steel. Scenarios where hydrogen evolution could occur during ECC include the initial filling of the tank prior to agitation and near the end of the process when there is little or no sludge present. The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate for the hydrogen generation rate during the ECC process. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. The tests were performed with polished ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. This steel is representative of the Type I and II waste tanks at SRS. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 deg. C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the maximum instantaneous generation rate at 5 hours was 6.1 x 10-5 m3/m2/minute. After two and five days the upper bound limit decayed to 7.9 x 10-6 and 1.3 x 10-6 m3/m2/minute, respectively. The total volume of hydrogen gas generated during the test was calculated from the model equation. An upper bound on the total gas generated was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the total hydrogen generated during the 163 hour test was 0.101 m3/m2. Corrosion rates were determined from the coupon tests and also calculated from the measured hydrogen generation rates. Excellent agreement was achieved between the time averaged corrosion rate calculated from the hydrogen generation rates and the corrosion rates determined from the coupon tests. The corrosion rates were on the order of 0.45 mmpy. Good agreement was also observed between the maximum instantaneous corrosion rate as calculated from the hydrogen generation rate and the corrosion rate determined by previous electrochemical tests. (authors)

246

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

247

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM--PRELIMINARY REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl2, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg2Cl2) to HgCl2 witub>Cl2) to HgCl2 with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg2Cl2 and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC cycle. The goal o

248

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2010-08-18

249

Test performance of the PARSEC laser system  

Science.gov (United States)

The PARSEC laser system is designed for the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility to deliver a high power cw laser beam at 589nm, in order to create an artificial guide star in the mesospheric Sodium layer. The laser consists of a resonant, dye based power amplifier which is injection seeded with 589nm, single frequency radiation from a master oscillator. We report on the performance of the system both during the European Acceptance tests, and that which has been achieved in the laboratory. The maximum power we have obtained amounts to 20W cw laser light in a single mode and a single frequency at 589nm. With a beam quality of M2 of 1.05-1.15 and a long term stability without manual intervention, the laser suits all the demands for operation at the VLT.

Rabien, Sebastian; Davies, Richard I.; Ott, Thomas; Li, Jianlang; Abuter, Roberto; Kellner, Stefan; Neumann, Udo

2004-10-01

250

CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

251

Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

1996-03-01

252

Test operation results of radioactive solid waste incinerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test operation of radioactive solid waste incinerator, which is composed of furnace, high temperature filter and other off-gas treatment equipments, has been performed in Oarai, JAERI, with non-active wastes and chemical tracer such as Co, Sr and Cs. As a result of this test operation, following characteristics on combustion and off-gas cleaning of the incinerator are obtained; (1) Ash accumulation ratio in the furnace is nearly 95%. (2) Dust collecting ratio of the High Temperature Filter is 99%. (3) Heating-up time of the High Temperature Filter are some length. (4) Decontamination factor (DF) of combined furnace and High Temperature Filter is 104 or more for such chemical tracer. (author)

253

Novel synthesis of bismuth-based adsorbents for the removal of 129I in off-gas  

Science.gov (United States)

New adsorbents based on bismuth were investigated for the capture of iodine-129 (129I) in off-gas produced from spent fuel reprocessing. Porous bulky materials were synthesized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial template. Our findings showed that the iodine trapping capacity of as-synthesized samples could reach 1.9-fold that of commercial silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX). The thermodynamic stability of the reaction products explains the high removal efficiency of iodine. We also found that the pore volume of each sample was closely related to the ratio of the reaction products.

Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Man Sung

2015-02-01

254

Technical and economic evaluation of processes for krypton-85 recovery from power fuel-reprocessing plant off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technical and economical analysis has been made of methods for collecting and concentrating krypton from the off-gas from a typical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methods considered were cryogenic distillation, fluorocarbon absorption, mordenite adsorption, and selective permeation. The conclusions reached were: Cryogenic distillation is the only demonstrated route to date. Fluorocarbon absorption may offer economic and technical advantages if fully developed and demonstrated. Mordenite adsorption has been demonstrated only on a bench scale and is estimated to cost more than either cryogenic distillation or fluorocarbon absorption. Selective permeation through a silicone rubber membrane is not sufficiently selective for the route to be cost effective

255

Performances tests on the SPHERE-IFS  

CERN Document Server

Until now, just a few extrasolar planets (~30 out of 860) have been found through the direct imaging method. This number should greatly improve when the next generation of High Contrast Instruments like Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) at Gemini South Telescope or SPHERE at VLT will became operative at the end of this year. In particular, the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS), one of the SPHERE subsystems, should allow a first characterization of the spectral type of the found extrasolar planets. Here we present the results of the last performance tests that we have done on the IFS instrument at the Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) in condition as similar as possible to the ones that we will find at the telescope. We have found that we should be able to reach contrast down to 5x10$^{-7}$ and make astrometry at sub-mas level with the instrument in the actual conditions. A number of critical issues have been identified. The resolution of these problems could allow to further improve the ...

Mesa, Dino; Claudi, Riccardo U; Desidera, Silvano; Giro, Enrico; Zurlo, Alice; Costille, Anne; Vigan, Arthur; Moutou, Claire; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Feldt, Markus; Mouillet, David; Sauvage, Jean-Francois; Kasper, Markus

2013-01-01

256

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.

1988-10-01

257

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

258

Technical development of the filter system for dissolver off gas cleanup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PASSAT System: All operating data necessary for implementation of the experiments were set with the PASSAT system. The test cycles, which ran continuously over a period of four weeks, proceeded without any incidents. The performance data measured corresponded to the design data, except for the electric output of the trace heating. The overall pressure losses of the system at design data were lower than the differential pressure generated by the blower, which is in accordance with the design. Iodine Filter and Remote Operating Systems: The filters and remote operating systems were mechanically ready for use throughout the experiment. The filter exchanges performed and bagging-out of the spent filter elements together with the attachment of the screw lid of the waste drum (approx. 20 times) proceeded according to expectations and corroborated the correctness of the concept chosen. The required tightness of the iodine filter, which is to be -3 Torr 1/s (external leak and tightness between the filter drum with the filter housing, i.e., on the polluted and clean air sides), was always checked after filter exchanges and during operation. It always corresponded to the level referred to above. (orig./RW)

259

49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Crash test performance and survivability. 563.10 Section 563...Crash test performance and survivability. (a) Each vehicle subject to the requirements...CFR 571.208. (b) Each vehicle subject to the...

2010-10-01

260

40 CFR 63.563 - Compliance and performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Compliance and performance testing. 63.563 Section...Compliance and performance testing. (a) The following...1)(i), each valve in the terminal's...except for those valves used for pressure/vacuum relief, analyzers,...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

Baum, Gregory A.

2014-02-01

262

Performance of Rapid Streptococcal Antigen Testing Varies by Personnel?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapid carbohydrate antigen tests are frequently used to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Despite evidence of modest sensitivity in medical settings, rapid antigen tests are available to the public for self-testing. We sought to determine if the personnel performing a rapid streptococcal antigen test influence the test's performance characteristics. Throat swabs of pediatric patients performed for GAS pharyngitis in a tertiary-care children's hospital network were included dur...

Fox, James W.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Marcon, Mario J.; Cotton, William H.; Bonsu, Bema K.

2006-01-01

263

40 CFR 63.827 - Performance test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Performance test methods. 63.827...Publishing Industry § 63.827 Performance test methods. (a...required to conduct an initial performance test to demonstrate compliance...0.1 weight percent for Occupational Safety and Health...

2010-07-01

264

40 CFR 63.7 - Performance testing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...notification of delay in conducting the performance test...test plan. Before conducting a required performance...objectives, and both an internal and external quality...precision; an example of internal QA is the sampling and...test method performance audit (PA) during the...

2010-07-01

265

MK-III performance tests in JOYO. Transient response tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual shutdown tests and loss of external electric power supply tests were carried out as the transient response test on anomaly condition at 70 MWt and 140 MWt operation. The decay heat removal tests by main cooling system were carried out after each transient response tests. The major results of the transient response tests are shown as follows; (1) Manual shutdown tests and loss of external electric power supply tests. 1) The plant protection system operates properly and the reactor can be shut down safely. The thermal transients are less severe than the design conditions. 2) The validity of the interlock of MK-III plant components was confirmed. The interlock includes the introduction of the primary pump controlled coast down (Runback Control) that can substantially mitigate the thermal transient in comparison with MK-II plant. 3) It was confirmed that the validity of the modification of the interlock and the control values of the reactor coolant temperature control system. (2) Decay heat removal tests by main cooling system. 1) By manual operation of DHX vane and dampers, the reactor removes the decay heat after shout down without excess of the maximum allowable cool down rate of -50degC/h. 2) It took about three hours for the coolant temperature to reach about 250degC on each tests were by cool down rate of -35degC/h. (author)

266

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date

267

40 CFR 60.104a - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.104a Section 60.104a...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 60.108 - Performance test and compliance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.108 Performance test and compliance provisions. (a) Section 60.8(d) shall apply to...

2010-07-01

269

New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

270

I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and NO/sub x/ removal from spent fuel dissolver off-gas at atmospheric pressure and at reduced off-gas flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dissolver off-gas (DOG) system suitable for a LWR, FBR or HTR spent fuel reprocessing plant is described, incorporating the following features: (1) the DOG flow is reduced to a reasonably small volume, using fumeless dissolution conditions, by maintaining high concentrations, the retention procedures are simplified and accompanied by an economic reduction of the equipment size; (2) all process operations are conducted at atmospheric or subatmospheric pressure, including noble gas removal by selective absorption, without using high temperature processes; (3) all processes, except HEPA filtering, are continuous and do not accumulate large amounts of waste nuclides, the DOG process sequence is mutually compatible with itself and with processing in the headend, showing on-line redundancy for the removal of the most radiotoxic nuclides; and (4) the DOG system only deviates slightly from proven technology. The stage of development and relevant results are given both for a lab. scale and a pilot plant scale

271

Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site.

Josten, N.E.

1993-09-01

272

Report on system test and performance  

CERN Document Server

The main goal of the update of LLRF at FLASH was to assure the system suitability to the constantly developing needs in the terms of performance and many abilities (reliability, availability, operability, maintainability, extensibility, flexibility).

Grecki, M

2013-01-01

273

Performance testing of thermoelectric generators at JPL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several thermoelectric generators, ranging in output power from 170 watts to microwatts, are undergoing testing at JPL. They represent a wide range of technologies using advanced PbTe, SiGe and cascaded PbTe and BiTe thermoelectric materials. Several of these generators are of an advanced concept while others are representative of the Nimbus, Transit, Viking and the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) technology. Of interest is the behavior of generators which have been tested for times in excess of 60,000 hours

274

Comparison of performance test for protective aprons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each one radioprotective apron (lead equivalent, 0.35 mmPb) was commercially available in November 1988 from 7 domestic and 3 foreign companies. According to the JIS standards 4803, these aprons were evaluated for the following items: 1) display of aprons, including packing and the structure; 2) non-breaking test, including appearance, size, lead equivalent, and uniformity; 3) breaking test, including lead equivalent, uniformity, stregth, and structure; 4) feeling of wearing an apron. An overall evaluation revealed that only two aprons were in accordance with the JIS standard. Careful wearing of the protective apron is stressed. (N.K.)

275

Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

2008-10-01

276

Final Report Integrated DM1200 Melter Testing Using AZ-102 And C-106/AY-102 HLW Simulants: HLW Simulant Verification VSL-05R5800-1, Rev. 0, 6/27/05  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

277

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

278

Collaborative group testing benefits high- and low-performing students  

Science.gov (United States)

We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing the exam as individuals, students answered the same questions in groups of two, and, finally, the same questions were discussed by the instructor and students. We measured two learning outcomes for every student: individual and group test scores. Based on individual test scores, students were categorized as "high performing" (students with higher individual scores) or "low performing" (students with lower individual scores). Finally, student evaluations of the format were collected. Collaborative group testing enhanced student performance. Specifically, group scores were higher than individual scores (P collaborative testing effect was large for the population and for the low-performing students; however, the collaborative testing effect was small for the high-performing students. Finally, student evaluations of this testing format were very positive. In conclusion, collaborative group testing was beneficial for all students; however, collaborative testing was significantly more beneficial for low-performing students.

Maurico J. Giuliodori (Univ Nacional De La Plata Dept Physiology); Heidi L. Lujan (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology); PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology)

2008-12-01

279

Apathy and Cognitive Test Performance in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Psychiatric comorbidity is common in patients with cardiovascular disease, with the literature indicating that this population may be at risk for apathy. The current study examined the prevalence of apathy in patients with cardiovascular disease and its relation to aspects of cognitive function. Methods. 123 participants from an outpatient cardiology clinic completed a brief neuropsychological battery, a cardiac stress test, and demographic information, medical history, and depres...

Lynn Reese Kakos; Alosco, Michael L.; Mary Beth Spitznagel; Joel Hughes; Jim Rosneck; John Gunstad

2013-01-01

280

Performance testing of engineered corium cooling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments tested two engineered corium cooling systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The systems passively inject water into corium from below. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These systems cool corium much faster than top flooding. - Abstract: The coolability of ex-vessel core debris continues to be an issue of concern in the realm of light water reactor safety. Extensive research into corium/concrete interaction phenomena has been unable to establish the certainty of melt quench and stabilization within the containment boundary for all credible cases of cooling restricted to top flooding. As a result, there has been continuing interest in engineered systems that can augment cooling. This paper describes the testing of two passive cooling concepts that inject water into corium from below via nozzles embedded within the basemat: one with porous concrete nozzles and the other with a type of composite nozzle. The latter supplements water injection with noncondensable gas to stabilize flow and suppress vapor explosions. Each test involved a 136 kg melt composed of 56/23/14 wt% UO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}/siliceous concrete at an initial depth of 30 cm. The setup with the porous concrete nozzles successfully injected water into the melt at heads as low as 2.3 m. The composite nozzle test was partially successful, with three nozzles delivering coolant while a fourth was damaged by the melt and failed to inject water. The melts cooled twice as fast as similar ones tested in a top flooding configuration. These experiments confirmed earlier work at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere indicating that cooling via bottom water injection is a particularly effective method for quenching ex-vessel corium melts.

Lomperski, S., E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States); Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)

2012-02-15

 
 
 
 
281

Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans form a family of more than 200 compounds which are relatively stable in the biosphere and tend to accumulate in the human body. The tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dioxins and furans are considered highly toxic. To facilitate the assessment of the total toxicity of dioxin and furan mixtures, the estimated toxic effects of the individual compounds relative to the 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were introduced as Toxic Equivalent Factors which yield, when multiplied with the respective concentrations, the Toxic Equivalent (TE) of the mixture. Toxic dioxins and furans are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering, in the chemical industry and in household heating. To keep the emissions as low as possible, off-gas clearing systems for the collection of dioxins and furans are increasingly prescribed by the authorities. In addition, it appears desirable to select process conditions that are unfavourable for the formation of these compounds. A simulation of the relevant processes on the basis of thermodynamic data may be helpful in defining such process conditions. To simulate dioxin formation in the sintering process, all major gas-solid reactions taking place in the sinter bed must also be simulated. A sufficiently accurate reproduction of the off-gas compositions along the length of the sinter strand requires detailed assumptions concerning the relative amounts of `active` O{sub 2} as well as the distribution of reacting carbon and water over the strand length. From this basis, an equilibrium calculation for the gas/solid reactions at the sintering temperature of 1150 deg C and an equilibrium calculation restricted to the gas phase at 700 deg C produced values for the concentrations of the major off-gas constituents in very good agreement with the measured values. The further assumption that below 700 deg C all reactions are frozen appears to be reasonable. The latter assumption has consequently been extended to the formation of dioxins from the off-gas. Making use of the calculated data for 700 deg C, it was found that for dioxins to form in the amounts observed in practice, three further assumptions must be made: The formation of solid carbon must be suppressed, the oxygen partial pressure must be set to very low values and the C/H ratio must be >2, which implies that a large part of the hydrogen present does not take part in the reaction. With these assumptions, the calculated dioxin concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the measured values. Furthermore, the different dioxins appear with closely similar partial pressures. This is also in accordance with observation. The calculated TE concentrations increase along the length of the sinter strand in a similar manner to the observed values. Beyond Stage 10, the simulation reads to a further strong increase which is not found in reality. In the calculation, the oxygen and chlorine concentrations as well as the C/H ratio are kept constant along the length of the strand. What varies is the carbon content as given in the sum of CO{sub 2} + CO. It thus appears that the Cl/C ratio, which increases with strand length, strongly enhances the formation of dioxins. General conclusions which may be drawn from the present calculations with regard to restricting possible formation of dioxins are: increase the content of hydrogen-containing species in the system; decrease the chlorine content in the gas phase and if possible, avoid local extremely reducing conditions in the system. (author) 12 refs.

Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

1997-12-31

282

TESTING GAME BASED PERFORMANCE IN TEAM-HANDBALL.  

Science.gov (United States)

Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking and screening. To date and to our knowledge, a game based performance test for team-handball does not exist. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test.Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed two game based performance tests separated by seven days between each test, an incremental treadmill-running test, and a team-handball test game (2×20min). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2-peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity and jump height were measured in the game based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated utilizing an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured VO2-peak in the incremental treadmill-running test and BLC, HR and running intensities in the team-handball test game to determine the validity of the game based performance test.For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC>.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC>.90 for the VO2-peak in the game based performance test. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the game based performance test was similar to the team-handball test game.Our results indicated that the game based performance test is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition. PMID:24942169

Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; Petelin von Duvillard, Serge; Müller, Erich

2014-06-17

283

Qualification Plus: Performance and Durability Tests Beyond IEC 61215 (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Qualification Plus is an accelerated test protocol and quality management system that gives higher confidence in field performance of PV modules compared with conventional qualification testing. The test sequences are being developed as consensus standards, but the early publication of these tests enables the community to begin benefiting from them sooner.

Kurtz, S.; Jordan, J.; Kempe, M.; Miller, D.; Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Hacke, P.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

2014-03-01

284

Fatigue Effects on Intelligence Test Performance in the Elderly  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose was to investigate effects of fatigue on intelligence test performance in the elderly. Fatigue effects were investigated by varying number of previous tests, by introducing breaks, and by using a pre-test fatigue-producing condition. The elderly are not as susceptible to test fatigue as previous results suggested. (Author)

Cunningham, Walter R.; And Others

1978-01-01

285

Feasibility Investigation for Performing Fireball Temperature Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested by the Launch Abort Subpanel and the Power Systems Subpanel of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel to investigate the feasibility of using spectroscopic techniques to measure propellant fireball gas temperatures. This report outlines the modeling and experimental approaches and results of this investigation. Descriptions of the theoretical particle temperature and mass effusion models are presented along with the results of the survivability of small plutonium dioxide (less than or equal to 1000 microns diameter) particles entrained in various propellant fireball scenarios. The experimental test systems used to measure the hydroxide radical, water, and particle graybody spectral emissions and absorptions are discussed. Spectral results along with temperatures extracted by analyzing the spectral features are presented for the flames investigated in the laboratory environment. Methods of implementing spectroscopic measurements for future testing using the WSTF Large-scale Hydrogen/Oxygen Explosion Facility are discussed, and the accuracy expected for these measurements is estimated from laboratory measurements.

Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kurtz, Joe

1997-01-01

286

Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system turbine performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Turbine to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System Test Plan. The test objectives are to characterize turbine performance so that data can be used for turbine configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing.

1979-04-01

287

Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system turbine performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Turbine to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System Test Plan. The test objectives are to characterize turbine performance so that data can be used for turbine configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing

288

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility  

Science.gov (United States)

...should be performed by test facility staff, although manufacturers...during the testing. Test facility staff may require a manufacturer to provide vehicle servicing or repair, under the supervision of the facility staff. Because the...

2010-10-01

289

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, in which natural condition soil can be used as testing materials, were carried out to study the migration behavior of radionuclides in a natural barrier. The apparatuses consist of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones, the air control apparatus, the measurement apparatuses of water and radionuclide moving velocities, etc. As performance tests, characteristics tests were done for these apparatuses and overall test of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones was also done under the actual test condition. It was confirmed that the all of apparatuses have achieved the designated performance requirements. This report describes the results of performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, which is categorized into three parts, that is, objective, method and result. (author)

290

Performance test of PPAC in different gases  

CERN Document Server

A two-dimension position sensitive parallel-plate avalanche (PPAC) detector has been developed for RIBLL. The detector consists of one anode and two cathodes. In each cathode a resistance chain is used to readout position signals. The detector has been tested in different operating gases with an alpha source. When the detector is at 7 mb flowing rate of isobutane and + 500 V on anode, the position resolution of 0.76 mm is obtained. For 7 mb C sub 3 F sub 8 and +595 V on anode, the position resolution is 0.64 mm. The efficiencies are around 99.1% in the cases of C sub 3 F sub 8 and isobutane

Wang Meng; Zhan Wen Long; Xiao Guo Qing; Xu Hu Shan; Mao Rui Shi; Hu Zheng Guo; Chen Zhi Qiang; Sun Zhi Yu; Li Jia Xing; Wang Wu Sheng; Chen Li Xin; Li Chen; Bai Jie; Zhang Xia; Zhang Jin Xia; Li Cun Fan

2002-01-01

291

Effect of age on test performance in community dwelling elderly people: 6 minutes walk test and ten steps test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The data available in literature for test performance in elderly people are less and insufficient for use as a basis of comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate age related changes in functional performance tests and to determine criterion values depending on age in older adults who are functioning independently in the community. Aim: To study the effect of age on test performance in 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step test in community dwelling elderly people. Objectives: To assess 6 ...

Mahajan Pallavi Janardhan, Mistry Hetal M.

2014-01-01

292

Performance of the test control system using Java/CORBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to research the control system for 'Super SOR', we have developed the test bench of the control system and evaluated its performance. We use Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the framework for the control system, and Java as the programming language for the graphical user interface. This paper describes the test bench and its performance. (author)

293

Experimental test of liquid droplet radiator performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is evolving rapidly as a lightweight system for heat rejection in space power systems. By using recirculating free streams of submillimeter droplets to radiate waste energy directly to space, the LDR can potentially be an order of magnitude lighter than conventional radiator systems which radiate from solid surfaces. The LDR is also less vulnerable to micrometeoroid damage than are conventional radiators, and it has a low transport volume. Three major development issues of this new heat rejection system are the ability to direct the droplet streams with sufficient precision to avoid fluid loss, radiative performance of the array of droplet streams which comprise the radiating elements of the LDR, and the efficacy of the droplet stream collector, again with respect to fluid loss. This paper reports experimental results bearing on the first two issues - droplet aiming in a multikilowatt-sized system, and radiated power from a large droplet array. Parallel efforts on droplet collection and LDR system design are being pursued by several research groups

294

Factors influencing performance on a computerised neuropsychological test battery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To date variables such as acculturation, language and ethnicity within the neuropsychological test literature have been underreported. South Africa presents with a dynamically acculturative society and there is a need to bring into focus these issues within the field of neuropsychological testing. This study investigates the association between acculturation, computerised neuropsychological test performance and personality variables (the temperament and character dimensions). Results from ...

Le Grange, Sezanne Marle

2010-01-01

295

Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to continues research to improve existing ratings and develop new ones. NFRC needs to continue the work it has begun in several nations to implement the NFRC rating system that has been introduced. Many nations are eager to accept the expertise NFRC can offer to achieve energy conservation goals. NFRC looks forward to a continues partnership with the US Department of Energy to cooperatively achieve both.

Jim Benney

2009-11-30

296

DOE mixed waste metals partition in a rotary kiln wet off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. Test burns were conducted using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The partition of metals between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and stack gas was measured as a function of kiln temperature, waste chloride content, and waste form (liquid or solid). Three waste simulants were used in these tests, a high and low chloride solid waste mix (paper, plastic, latex, PVC), and a liquid waste mix (benzene and chlorobenzene). An aqueous solution containing: antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium was added to the waste to determine metals fate under various combustion conditions. Test results were used to divide the metals into three general groups, volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile metals. Mercury was the only volatile metal. No mercury remained in the kiln bottom ash under any incineration condition. Lead, cadmium, thallium, and silver exhibited semi-volatile behavior. The partition between the kiln ash, blowdown, and stack gas depended on incineration conditions. Chromium, nickel, barium, antimony, and arsenic exhibited nonvolatile behavior, with greater than 90 wt % of the metal remaining in the kiln bottom ash. Incineration temperature had a significant effect on the partition of volatile and semi-volatile metals, and no effect on nonvolatile metal partition. As incineration temperatures were increased, the fraction of metal leaving the kiln increased. Three metals, lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a relationship between chloride concentration in the waste and metals partition. Increasing the concentration of chlorides in the waste or burning liquid waste versus solid waste resulted in a larger fraction of metal exiting the kiln

297

Process-development and improvement of off gas filters for reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PASSAT facility was commissioned without major technical problems. The equipment for droplet generation and measurement could be calibrated. First investigations of the removal by prototype fiber package units, using droplets of about 1-10 ?m diameter, yielded high retention factors for water droplets. At nitrogen monoxide concentrations up to 1 vol.% in pure nitrogen as the carrier gas and with 24 h of expourse at test bed temperatures of 1300C and 1500C noticeable effects have not been found on the loading capacity and iodine removal of the AC 6120-12% Ag iodine sorption material. (orig./RW)

298

Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

299

Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

300

Performance Analysis of Saturated Induction Motors by Virtual Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

Many undergraduate-level electrical machines textbooks give detailed treatments of the performance of induction motors. Students can deepen this understanding of motor performance by performing the appropriate practical work in laboratories or in simulation using proper software packages. This paper considers various common and less-common tests

Ojaghi, M.; Faiz, J.; Kazemi, M.; Rezaei, M.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Mechanical/structural performance test method of a spacer grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. In order to develop the spacer grid with the high mechanical performance, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, the mechanical/structural test methods, i.e. the characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple, static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid and dynamic impact test of them are described. The characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple is accomplished with universal tensile test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied compressive load. The characteristic test data is saved at loading and unloading event. The static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid is executed with the same universal tensile testing machine, a specimen is fixed between cross-heads and then applied the compressive load. The buckling strength is decided the maximum strength at load vs. displacement curve. The dynamic impact test of a partial or full size spacer grid is performed with pendulum type impact machine and free fall shock test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied the impact load by impact hammer. Specially, the pendulum type impact test machine is also possible under the operating temperature because a furnace is separately attached with test machine.

Yoon, Kyung Ho

2000-06-01

302

NUCLEBRAS installations for performance tests of nuclear power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reasons for NUCLEBRAS' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufacturers, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of the facilities under construction: the Components Test Loop and the Facility for Testing N.P.P. Components under Accident Conditions, and of other already in operation, is given, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results already obtained are also presented. (Author)

303

Spacecraft Quasi-Static Test Performed on a Shaker  

Science.gov (United States)

The TECSAR S/C, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology demonstration satellite is being developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). The Structural Model (SM) has successfully completed its qualification program at the IAI-MBT testing center. The TECSAR Structural Model (SM) Quasi-Static (QS) test was performed as part of the structural qualification program that is comprised of sinusoidal vibration, acoustic and pyro-shock tests. The QS test was performed on a shaker by a controlled sinusoidal sweep vibration. This method was selected because of its simplicity and cost and time savings considerations. It also enabled using the same specimen for all tests, QS as well as sine vibration, acoustic and pyro-shock tests, with only slight modifications. Thus all the test objectives were fully achieved in a most cost- effective way. This paper discusses the rationale and advantages of quasi-static testing on a shaker. It provides detailed information about actual QS implementation and a summary of the QS test that was performed on TECSAR S/C. Following a brief description of the TECSAR S/C and a definition of the quasi-static qualification loads, the test objectives and the optional testing methods are detailed with a discussion of the considerations and decision to select the way to perform this test on a shaker. Test specimen descriptions including the TECSAR SM installation and test instrumentation (load cells, accelerometers, strain gages) are summarized. Photogrammetry technique was used to establish residual dimensional deviations. The quasi-static test is then described with test results validation, evaluation and comparison to FEM results. Finally, the main conclusions are given.

Sadkin, Y.

2004-08-01

304

Nuclebras' installations for performance tests of nuclear power plants components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reasons for Nuclebras' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufactures, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of facilities under construction: the components Test Loop and Facility for Testing N.P.P. components under Accident conditions, and other already in operation, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results had already obtained are also presented. (Author)

305

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11. Now in it's fourth edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). One of the goals of this current revision was the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to U.S. personal dosemeter performance testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI/HPS N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. In this paper, the history of performance testing in the U.S. is briefly reviewed. Also described is the revision that produced the fourth edition of this standard, which has taken place over the last three years (2005-2008) by a working group representing national standards laboratories, government laboratories, the military, dosimetry vendors, universities and the nuclear power industry. (author)

306

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11. Now in its fourth edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). One of the goals of this current revision was the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to U.S. personal dosemeter performance testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI/HPS N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. In this paper, the history of performance testing in the U.S. is briefly reviewed. Also described is the revision that produced the fourth edition of this standard, which has taken place over the last three years (2005-2008) by a working group representing national standards laboratories, government laboratories, the military, dosimetry vendors, universities and the nuclear power industry. (author)

307

Off gas processing device for degreasing furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A low melting ingredient capturing-cooling trap connected to a degreasing sintering furnace by way of sealed pipelines, a burning/decomposing device for decomposing high melting ingredient gases discharged from the cooling trap by burning them and a gas sucking means for forming the flow of off gases are contained in a glovebox, the inside pressure of which is kept negative. Since the degreasing sintering furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels is disposed outside of the glovebox, operation can be performed safely without greatly increasing the scale of the device, and the back flow of gases is prevented easily by keeping the pressure in the inside of the glovebox negative. Further, a heater is disposed at the midway of the sealed pipelines from the degreasing sintering furnace to the cooling trap, the temperature is kept high to prevent deposition of low melting ingredients to prevent clogging of the sealed pipelines. Further, a portion of the pipelines is made extensible in the axial direction to eliminate thermal stresses caused by temperature change thereby enabling to extend the life of the sealed pipelines. (N.H.)

308

Laboratory Test System Design for Star Sensor Performance Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel laboratory test system is designed to evaluate the performance of star sensors. Two evaluation methods are presented, the star images simulation test and the zenith observation experiments method. In star image simulation, the nebula and moon lights enter into the CCD field of view (FOV is considered. A new algorithm for fast access star catalog is also designed to enhance the speed of star image simulation. Zenith observation provides a new method to test accuracy of star sensor without telescope. The results demonstrate that the test system is effectively to evaluate the star pattern recognition rates and relatively accuracy performance of star sensors.

JUN YANG

2012-04-01

309

First end-end performance testing and results for KMOS  

Science.gov (United States)

KMOS is a modular design consisting of three identical parallel segments which in turn contain eight integral field channels. The assembly and integration plan is to build up the instrument step by step and test performance at each stage. The first end to end chain was complete at the end of 2009 and testing commenced. This paper describes the philosophy and management of the test programme, the testing procedures used to study the instrument performance as the light path was built and the results obtained.

Rees, Philip; Cirasuolo, Michele; Lewis, Ian J.; Todd, Stephen P.

2010-07-01

310

Cr(VI) Generation During Flaring of CO-Rich Off-Gas from Closed Ferrochromium Submerged Arc Furnaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferrochromium (FeCr) is the only source of new Cr units used in stainless steel production, which is a vital modern day alloy, making FeCr equally important. Small amounts of Cr(VI) are unintentionally formed during several FeCr production steps. One such production step is the flaring of CO-rich off-gas from closed submerged arc furnaces (SAF), for which Cr(VI) formation is currently not quantified. In this study, the influence of flaring temperature, size of the particles passing through the flare, and retention time within the flame were investigated by simulating the process on laboratory scale with a vertical tube furnace. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted on the overall dataset obtained, which indicated that retention time had the greatest impact on pct Cr(VI) conversion, followed by particle size and temperature. The MLR analysis also yielded an optimum mathematical solution, which could be used to determine the overall impact of these parameters on pct Cr(VI) conversion. This equation was used to determine realistic and unrealistic worst-case scenario pct Cr(VI) conversions for actual FeCr SAFs, which yielded 2.7 × 10-2 and 3.5 × 10-1 pct, respectively. These values are significantly lower than the current unsubstantiated pct Cr(VI) conversion used in environmental impact assessments for FeCr smelters, i.e., 0.8 to 1 pct.

du Preez, S. P.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.

2014-11-01

311

Analysis of inorganic anions in the off-gas effluent from high-level radioactive waste vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single column combined with indirect UV detection on the HPLC instrumentation has been found to give a separation system of high efficiency and a good selectivity for inorganic anion NO-2, NO-3 and NO2-4. This method needs no suppression column and special ion chromatography instrument, and permits fast separation with convenience and sensitivity as well as reliability. It can be also used to detect other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br- and HPO2-4. Separation was carried out in the phase system consisting of Vydac 302 IC support as the stationary phase and 7 mmol/l potassium hydrogen phthalate/4 mmol/l phthalic acid(80/20, V/V, pH = 3.9) as the mobile phase. Anion of the off-gas effluent from high-level radioactive waste vitrification can be analyzed in 12 minutes using a UV monitor at 300 nm with a precision of 0.2-1.0% at the 10-7-10-8 g level

312

Performance test report of improved 'HEPA filter unit'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of JAERI-Type Filter Housing Model-ISE was tested for the purpose of finding out posibility to reduce the construction cost and to minimize the installation space of filter housings in exhaust machinary room which occupy the large amount of space in the nuclear power facilities, etc. And also, Model-ISE filter housing, featured different internal construction from that of conventional type, was expected to be proved by the test to have improved performance compared to the conventional type filter housings. The performance test was executed to compare performance of prototype of Model-ISE filter to that of the conventional one on the following items, resulting that Model-ISE filter was proved to have no inferior performance to the performance of conventional type filter. 1) Resistance to Air Flow. 2) Air Velocity Test. 3) Air Flow Distribution Test. 4) Efficiency for Submicron Particles. 5) Synthetic Dust Clogging. By the above test, Model-ISE filter was proved to have many advantage c.f. less installation space (approx. 10 ? 30 % less), and lower filter height (approx. 10 ? 15 % lower) than those of conventional type without performance reduction. (author)

313

Index Tests Performed on a Francis Turbine from HPP Ruieni  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Index test are a set of measurements performed on hydro units in order to determine the relative flow and the relative efficiency. This method is usually used on refurbished hydro units, before and after rehabilitation.

Adrian Cuzmo?; Cosmin Dumbrav?; Constantin Viorel Câmpian; Dorian Nedelcu

2008-01-01

314

Index Tests Performed on a Francis Turbine from HPP Ruieni  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Index test are a set of measurements performed on hydro units in order to determine the relative flow and the relative efficiency. This method is usually used on refurbished hydro units, before and after rehabilitation.

Adrian Cuzmo?

2008-10-01

315

40 CFR 63.7 - Performance testing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...samples. (iii) The external QA program shall include...method performance audit (PA) during the...PA's consist of blind audit samples provided by...test data bias. The external QA program may also include systems audits that include...

2010-07-01

316

Performance of a Large Vacuum Facility for Spacecraft Propulsion Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

A Large Vacuum Test Facility has been developed at AEROSPAZIO Tecnologie with the aim of providing high qualified test services in Electric Propulsion and Space Simulation. The test facility consist of a stainless steel cylinder 3.8 m diameter and 11.5 m overall length. A modular cryopumping system allows 200.000 l/s continuous pumping speed of Xe. Beam diagnostics, including Faraday probes and Retarding Potential Analysers, have been installed. A test campaign aimed at evaluating the EMC characteristics of the test site has been performed.

Scortecci, F.; Bonelli, E.; Michelozzi, B.; Saito, F.; Scaranzin, S.; Turco, A.

2004-10-01

317

SILEX final ground testing and in-flight performance assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

SILEX (Semi-Conductor Inter-satellite Link EXperiment) consists of one optical terminal on-board the French LEO observation satellite SPOT 4, and another on-board the European GEO telecommunication satellite ARTEMIS. While the first part of the SILEX verification plan had been oriented towards verification at equipment and subsystem levels, the final stages have mainly been devoted to terminal and system (terminals coupling effects) verification. During this final stage, a thermal vacuum test was conducted in a class 100- cleanliness environment with optical ground support equipment of outstanding performances. The obtained tests results, used to determine software compensations and verify optical and static pointing performances, have been entered into overall system simulation models to finalize flight performances budgets. In addition, systems tests were performed on each terminal with respective partner simulator to validate system simulation models and assess link performances and robustness and to verify communication bit error rate.

Planche, Gilles; Laurent, Bernard; Guillen, Jean-Claude; Chorvalli, V.; Desplats, Eric

1999-04-01

318

Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

319

Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

2005-07-01

320

40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...performance test, there is a delay (due to operational problems...as soon as possible of any delay in the original test date...mass product standard by using Equation 49 of this subpart. When determining...reduction requirement using Equation 50 of this subpart....

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

40 CFR 60.104a - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the performance test, the volumetric...regenerator or fluid coking burner before...determined from the unit's control room...or fluid coking unit, as determined from the unit's control room...regenerator or fluid coking burner exhaust...duration of each test run must be no...

2010-07-01

322

Performing Identities in Speaking Tests: Co-Construction Revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

Poststructuralist perspectives on the discursive construction of identity and critical approaches to linguistics, discourse analysis, and language testing have contributed to a growing awareness of the complex social nature of performance in speaking tests. In this article, I explore how the concept of co-construction is useful to understand how…

Norton, Julie

2013-01-01

323

Motivation and performance in physical education: an experimental test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls), aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance. Key pointsThe incremental group showed more situational intrinsic motivation.The entity group showed higher performance in the first test attempt, but significant differences disappeared in the second attempt.It seems that this incremental belief and greater intrinsic motivation made the students trust they would improve their performance in the second attempt at the lateral movement test. PMID:24149389

Moreno, Juan A; González-Cutre, David; Martín-Albo, José; Cervelló, Eduardo

2010-01-01

324

OHMSETT 'HIGH SEAS' PERFORMANCE TESTING: MARCO CLASS V OIL SKIMMER  

Science.gov (United States)

A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at various collection speeds. Skim...

325

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2013-03-01

326

Report on long range alpha detector (LRAD) performance tests  

CERN Document Server

At present, alpha contamination measurement on objects is conducted with ZnS scintillation survey meter (direct method) and smear test (indirect method). But it is difficult to measure large and complicated objects by direct method. Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) was produced as a solution for this problem. We carried out performance tests of this LRAD. As a result of the performance tests, we confirmed the linear relation between the measurement values of LRAD and alpha-radioactivity on the surface of objects.

Kobayashi, H; Ishikawa, H; Unno, M; Yoshida, T

2002-01-01

327

Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report

328

Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report.

McKinnon, M.A.; DeLoach, V.A.

1993-04-01

329

Performance testing of dosimetry services and its regulatory aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An essential part of a quality assurance programme is performance testing of the dosimetry service. i.e. the verification of the procedures applied by the dosimetry service, by introducing control samples into the routine. This paper concentrates on performance testing based on so-called trumpet curves derived from recommendations of ICRP Publication 35. But, as experience shows, the state-of-the-art in dosimetry must also be taken into account. Photon radiation above 20 keV is relatively easy to measure and these trumpet curves may be used for this. For neutron radiation, for example, additional wider trumpet curves are recommended. The dosimetry service should not be aware of the tests, i.e. 'blind'-performance testing should be carried out. This leads to some difficulties in practice, and as an alternative, performance testing 'by surprise' is described. Results of performance testing from Germany, Russia and the USA are presented and indicate that the proposed concept is feasible. (Author)

330

A survey on Cattle Performance Testing Centres in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance test is the main selection tool for beef and dual purpose cattle, but it is used also in dairy cattle, despite the different aim of testing in this case. This study has aimed to obtain all available information about organisation and characteristic of performance test in Italy carried out in year 2006 by Italian Cattle Breeders Associations. The results of the survey here reported have the final aim of exploiting actual organization of selection processes carried out in Italy for beef, dual purpose and dairy cattle breeds through performance test. The survey has indicated different intensity of selection among Italian breeds, ranging from 2.45 to 3.13.

Roberto Mantovani

2010-01-01

331

Double-shell tank integrity assessments ultrasonic test equipment performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A double-shell tank (DST) inspection (DSTI) system was performance tested over three months until August 1995 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, completing a contract initiated in February 1993 to design, fabricate, and test an ultrasonic inspection system intended to provide ultrasonic test (UT) and visual data to determine the integrity of 28 DSTs at Hanford. The DSTs are approximately one-million-gallon underground radioactive-waste storage tanks. The test was performed in accordance with a procedure (Jensen 1995) that included requirements described in the contract specification (Pfluger 1995). This report documents the results of tests conducted to evaluate the performance of the DSTI system against the requirements of the contract specification. The test of the DSTI system also reflects the performance of qualified personnel and operating procedures.

Pfluger, D.C.

1996-09-26

332

Methodologies for the performance demonstration of nondestructive testing systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of nondestructive testings have been well recognized through a number of big accidents such as the collapses of buildings and bridges in recent years. A nondestructive test to be performed should be fitted to its purpose. In order to assess the nondestructive testing systems whether they are capable of attaining their objectives, performance demonstration is carried out in addition to the existing personnel qualification and certification scheme. However, there are a lot of different ways how the performance demonstration is implemented depending not only on the safety relevance of the component but also on the significance of the defects. At present time, there are two distinct methodologies. One is the American approach and the other is the European approach. In this paper, typical methodologies on the performance demonstration of NDT systems are reviewed and compared. Hence, when a PD system is to be established, a better way can be employed.

333

Automatic test stand for compressor performance; Automatischer Verdichterleistungspruefstand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new test stand for measuring the performance of refrigerant compressors according to the harmonised Norm EN 13771-1 has been set-up and tested at the Institute for Air and Refrigeration Technology. The refrigerating capacity range reaches from approx. 12 to 120 kW for the refrigerants R134a, R404A, R407C and R410A. The parameters of the compressor are measured automatically and a test report is prepared accordingly. The test stand was especially designed for higher operating pressures of the refrigerant R410A. After a test phase with comparative measurements of other test stands, further measurements are planned in the frame of compressor certification of the ASERCOM. The new norm EN 13771-1 puts higher demands on the measure and control exactness. Therefore single components of the test stand will also be checked regarding their application suitability for future projects. (orig.)

Hempel, O.; Tzscheutschler, A.; Kinne, L.; Wobst, E. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

2005-07-01

334

Performance demonstration experience for reactor pressure vessel shell ultrasonic testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most ultrasonic testing techniques used by many vendors for pressurized water reactor (PWR) examinations were based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers 'Boiler and Pressurized Vessel Code' (ASME B and PV Code) Sections XI and V. The Addenda of ASME B and PV Code Section XI, Edition 1989 introduced Appendix VIII - 'Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems'. In an effort to increase confidence in performance of ultrasonic testing of the operating nuclear power plants in United States, the ultrasonic testing performance demonstration examination of reactor vessel welds is performed in accordance with Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) program which is based on ASME Code Section XI, Appendix VIII requirements. This article provides information regarding extensive qualification preparation works performed prior EPRI guided performance demonstration exam of reactor vessel shell welds accomplished in January 1997 for the scope of Appendix VIII, Supplements IV and VI. Additionally, an overview of the procedures based on requirements of ASME Code Section XI and V in comparison to procedure prepared for Appendix VIII examination is given and discussed. The samples of ultrasonic signals obtained from artificial flaws implanted in vessel material are presented and results of ultrasonic testing are compared to actual flaw sizes. (author)

335

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

Science.gov (United States)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted.

Kelly, C. Edward; Klee, Paul M.

1997-01-01

336

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predictedpredicted

337

Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

338

A Study of the Relationships Between Test Order, Physiological Arousal, and Intelligence and Achievement Test Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative predictive abilities of two indices of test anxiety were investigated. The galvanic skin response (GSR) and the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) were used as predictor variables for IQ and achievement test performance. The results of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that neither the TASC nor the GSR, combined over…

Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.

339

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I2 + I I3-NH3OH+ + 2 I2 + H2O ->HNO2 + 4 I- + 5 H+; NH3OH+ + HNO2 -> N2O + 2 H2O + H-+ 2HNO2 + 2 I- + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I2 + H2O). (authors)

340

History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Dept. of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Dept. of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (authors)

 
 
 
 
341

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2002). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to US personal dosimeter processing testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. This unique philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (author)

342

History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. PMID:17287202

Soares, C G

2007-01-01

343

Performance testing and dose verification for extremity ring dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the testing performed on an extremity dosimetry system to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07) in photon and beta reference fields. This research refers to the American National Standard Institute to organize the performance testing for the INER's TLD-100H extremity ring dosimeters. The results show that tolerance level (L), absolute of bias (|B|) and standard deviation (S) for all categories of performance testing meet the ANSI N13.32 performance testing criteria. The performance testing results were suggested to be an important step of an accreditation procedure for the extremity ring dosimetry system in Taiwan. Besides, the dose evaluation of extremity ring dosimeters to measure Hp(0.07) in realistic fields of nuclear medicine is also verified. The reference values of Hp(0.07) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method normalized by the measured activity of the radioactive solution. For nuclear medicine irradiations the relative response to 201Tl and 99mTc radionuclides produced by INER are also satisfactory.

344

Effect of age on test performance in community dwelling elderly people: 6 minutes walk test and ten steps test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data available in literature for test performance in elderly people are less and insufficient for use as a basis of comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate age related changes in functional performance tests and to determine criterion values depending on age in older adults who are functioning independently in the community. Aim: To study the effect of age on test performance in 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step test in community dwelling elderly people. Objectives: To assess 6 minute walk distance, time taken to perform ten step test and to report data within age cohorts. Method: Total 90 subjects were included and divided into 3 groups according to age group, A-(61-65, B-(66-70, and C-(71-75 in each 30 subjects. 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step Test were performed on them. The data obtained was analyzed using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. Result: The mean 6 MWD in group A was 317.13 ± 35.44 mts, in group B was 297.10 ± 47.14 mts and in group C was 262.83 ± 42.14 mts. The 10 Step Test time was found to be 11.36 ± 2.06 sec in group A, 13.24 ± 3.49 sec in group B and 14.74 ± 3.16 sec in group C. The results showed that there is a progressive decrease in the 6 MWD and progressive increase in the time taken to complete TST with increasing age. Conclusion: From the results it can be concluded that there is a progressive decrease in the test performance (6MWT & 10 Step test with age in community dwelling elderly people. The results of this study can be used as reference values while performing performance tests for elderly people in the community.

Mahajan Pallavi Janardhan, Mistry Hetal M

2014-04-01

345

Laboratory evaluation of Zeolite molecular sieve 3A for adsorption of tritiated water vapor from HTGR fuel reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zeolite molecular sieve 3A, a commercial adsorbent, was evaluated for removing water vapor from a CO2 gas stream. The technology was developed for tritium oxide recovery from the primary and secondary burner off-gas from High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing. Zeolite 3A was found to be an effective adsorbent in the presence of CO2, and its regenerative property enables water desorption for collection and storage

346

Distillation as a means of separating krypton from the off-gas of a reprocessing plant for graphite-coated HTR fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT-II facility is described, which is designed for an off-gas throughput of 10 Nm3/h. The low-pressure section is for primary purification in several steps, whereas in the high-pressure CO2 section (70 bar, 200C) the separation of Kr-85 by means of distillation is achieved. The parameters for the design of the rectifying columns have been determined experimentally. (HP)

347

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

1990-02-01

348

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

349

Gamma-ray shielding design and performance test of WASTEF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was planned in 1978 to test the safety performance of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long term storage and disposal, and completed in August 1981. The designed feature of the facility is to treat the vitrified forms contain actual high-level wastes of 5 x 104 Ci in maximum with 5 units of concrete shilded hot cells (3 units : Bate-Gamma cells, 2 units : Alpha-Gamma cells) and one units of Alpha-Gamma lead shielded cell, and to store radioactivity of 106 Ci in maximum. The safety performance of this facility is fundamentally maintained with confinement of radioactivity and shielding of the radiation. This report describes the method of gamma-ray shielding design, evaluation of the shielding test performed by using sealded gamma-ray sources(Co-60). (author)

350

Performance testing open source products for the TMT event service  

Science.gov (United States)

The software system for TMT is a distributed system with many components on many computers. Each component integrates with the overall system using a set of software services. The Event Service is a publish-subscribe message system that allows the distribution of demands and other events. The performance requirements for the Event Service are demanding with a goal of over 60 thousand events/second. This service is critical to the success of the TMT software architecture; therefore, a project was started to survey the open source and commercial market for viable software products. A trade study led to the selection of five products for thorough testing using a specially constructed computer/network configuration and test suite. The best performing product was chosen as the basis of a prototype Event Service implementation. This paper describes the process and performance tests conducted by Persistent Systems that led to the selection of the product for the prototype Event Service.

Gillies, K.; Bhate, Yogesh

2014-07-01

351

Light water reactor pressure isolation valve performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light Water Reactor Valve Performance Testing Program was initiated by the NRC to evaluate leakage as an indication of valve condition, provide input to Section XI of the ASME Code, evaluate emission monitoring for condition and degradation and in-service inspection techniques. Six typical check and gate valves were purchased for testing at typical plant conditions (550F at 2250 psig) for an assumed number of cycles for a 40-year plant lifetime. Tests revealed that there were variances between the test results and the present statement of the Code; however, the testing was not conclusive. The life cycle tests showed that high tech acoustic emission can be utilized to trend small leaks, that specific motor signature measurement on gate valves can trend and indicate potential failure, and that in-service inspection techniques for check valves was shown to be both feasible and an excellent preventive maintenance indicator. Life cycle testing performed here did not cause large valve leakage typical of some plant operation. Other testing is required to fully understand the implication of these results and the required program to fully implement them. (author)

352

Performance of rapid influenza testing in hospitalized children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza infection is associated with high hospitalization rates among young children. Rapid diagnosis of influenza infection is particularly useful in order to prevent nosocomial infection and allows for the timely initiation of antiviral treatment. We evaluated the performance of a rapid influenza test in hospitalized children during the influenza season. All children (aged 6 months to 14 years) hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, admitted during the 2005 influenza season, participated in the study. A multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), able to identify IFV-A H1N1, H3N2, and IFV-B subtypes, was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates. The nasal swab was tested with a lateral-flow immunoassay (QuickVue Influenza Test). The performance of the rapid test was compared with the results of PCR. Influenza infection was diagnosed by PCR in 41/217 (19%) patients. Infection with influenza A virus (H3N2) was diagnosed in all cases. The performance of the QuickVue Influenza Test was estimated as follows: sensitivity 67.5%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 79%, and negative predictive value 93%. The sensitivity of the test was higher in infants aged 6-12 months, in those with short duration of symptoms, and in the peak phase of the epidemic. The QuickVue Influenza Test is useful and reasonably accurate to detect influenza infection in hospitalized children during the influenza season. Infection with influenza virus is unlikely if the test is negative. A positive result suggests that infection is probable if influenza virus circulates in the community. PMID:20349200

Stripeli, F; Sakkou, Z; Papadopoulos, N; Georgiou, V; Gratsia, P; Christodoulou, I; Tsolia, M

2010-06-01

353

Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.; Goles, R.W.; Swinth, K.L.; Tinker, M.R.; Hickey, E.E.

1994-05-01

354

Large scale and performance tests of the ATLAS online software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the sub-systems of the Trigger/DAQ system of the future ATLAS experiment is the Online Software system. It encompasses the functionality needed to configure, control and monitor the DAQ. Its architecture is based on a component structure described in the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ technical proposal. Regular integration tests ensure its smooth operation in test beam setups during its evolutionary development towards the final ATLAS online system. Feedback is received and returned into the development process. Studies of the system behavior have been performed on a set of up to 111 PCs on a configuration which is getting closer to the final size. Large scale and performance test of the integrated system were performed on this setup with emphasis on investigating the aspects of the inter-dependence of the components and the performance of the communication software. Of particular interest were the run control state transitions in various configurations of the run control hierarchy. For the purpose of the tests, the software from other Trigger/DAQ sub-systems has been emulated. The author presents a brief overview of the online system structure, its components and the large scale integration tests and their results

355

Performance tests of haemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the results of quality control tests performed in hemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography, which have fundamental importance to the image quality guaranty and to control the doses ministered to patients and staff. These tests are based on national and international standards and they can evaluate the performance of these systems. The results showed that the equipment do not present problems in their digital subtraction systems. Nevertheless, one of the equipment presented patient entrance skin air kerma rates above the limit prescribed by the national standard. (author)

356

A Laboratory Test for the Examination of Alactic Running Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subject...

Armin Kibele; David Behm

2005-01-01

357

A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subject...

Armin Kibele; David Behm

2005-01-01

358

A laboratory test for the examination of alactic running performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg) participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s(-1). The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2), an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml), the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W), and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N). The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01). The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for any other running discipline. Key PointsNew testing procedure for the evaluation of alactic running performance.10s treadmill sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity similar to a bob sleigh start.Treadmill motor is used with inverted polarity to establish mechanical resistance rather than acceleration.Highly significant correlations found between test criteria and alactic performance measures. PMID:24501570

Kibele, Armin; Behm, David

2005-12-01

359

40 CFR 63.9321 - What are the general requirements for performance tests?  

Science.gov (United States)

...general requirements for performance tests? (a) You must conduct each performance test required by...section unless you obtain a waiver of the performance test according to the...1) Representative engine testing...

2010-07-01

360

Photovoltaic module and system performance testing at NREL  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents performance data on the long-term outdoor testing of amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium diselenide (CIS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules undergoing performance testing at the Outdoor Test Facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) over the past several years. Outdoor tests are an important consideration in evaluating and assessing the performance and reliability of these advanced, potentially low-cost thin-film technologies. The paper describes improvements in module efficiencies and performance over the past several years for these thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The paper also presents data on a 1.8-kWpa-Si PV system installed in December 1992 at NREL. The system is designed with the array mounted at the local latitude angle and feeding power output to an inverter connected to the local utility grid as an independent power production source. The data acquisition system provides both array and inverter performance data. Information on three additional planned small systems for validating emerging PV technologies is also briefly described.

Mrig, L.; Caiyem, Y.; Rummel, S.; Hansen, R.; Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pre-test analysis for the KNGR DVI performance test facility using FLUENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pre-test analysis using a FLUENT code has been performed for the KGNR(Korean Next Generation Reactor) DVI(Direct Vessel Injection) performance test facility which is a full height and 1/24.3 volume scaled separate effect test facility. The ideal gas discharge condition is considered to simulation a steam discharge condition. The scale effects on the flow pattern, pressure distribution, and similarity for scaled model are numerically tested. From the various results for the scale effects, it was found that the similarity of hydraulics is founded

362

Performance verification test for APR1400 fluidic device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the full scale test facility called 'VAPER', five sets of repeatability tests have been carried out to verify the performance of the Fluidic Device which is adopted in the standard design of APR1400. Quality assurance program for the APR1400 Fluidic Device verification test has been developed and applied to each set of repeatability test procedure, and precise calibration for major measuring instruments has been performed. Thus, the highest reliability and integrity of the test results was ensured. Throughout the present tests, the repeatability of the major parameter related with APR1400 Fluidic Device performance has been sufficiently confirmed. Total K factor in the actual plant system would be about 16 at high flow condition and about 105 at low flow condition, which is similar to the design goal (about 17 at high flow condition and about 100 at low flow condition) The results of the present research contributes to the smooth construction of Sin-Kori units 3 and 4, and to the promotion of domestic analytic capability for the LOCA of advanced LWR

363

Performance test results for a cold helium compressor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents performance test data for a generic pump/compressor designed for circulation of cryogenic fluids. The unit is designed to operate over a wide range of flow rate and pressure rise and can be used for the pumping of liquid and the compression of vapor at temperatures down to 4 K. Topics considered in this paper include cryogenic fluids, helium, pumps, data analysis, pumping, vapors, operation, cryogenics, compressors, performance, liquid flow, compression, and design

364

Predictive testing of performance of metals in HTR service environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Status of the material testing in simulated HTGR environment is reviewed with special attention focused on the methodology of the prediction of performance in long time. Importance of controlling effective chemical potentials relations in the material-environmental interface is stressed in regard of the complex inter-dependent kinetic relation between oxidation and carbon transport. Based on the recent experimental observations, proposals are made to establish some procedures for conservative prediction of the metal performance

365

40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test...and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this part...chromium electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and...

2010-07-01

366

Testing performance of Standards-based protocols in DPM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the interests of the promotion of the increased use of non-proprietary protocols in grid storage systems, we perform tests on the performance of WebDAV and pNFS transport with the DPM storage solution. We find that the standards-based protocols behave similarly to the proprietary standards currently in use, despite encountering some issues with the state of the implementation itself. We thus conclude that there is no performance-based reason to avoid using such protocols for data management in future.

367

Testing performance of Standards-based protocols in DPM  

Science.gov (United States)

In the interests of the promotion of the increased use of non-proprietary protocols in grid storage systems, we perform tests on the performance of WebDAV and pNFS transport with the DPM storage solution. We find that the standards-based protocols behave similarly to the proprietary standards currently in use, despite encountering some issues with the state of the implementation itself. We thus conclude that there is no performance-based reason to avoid using such protocols for data management in future.

Skipsey, Samuel; Bhimji, Wahid; Rocha, Ricardo

2012-12-01

368

Testing performance of Standards-based protocols in DPM  

CERN Document Server

In the interests of the promotion of the increased use of non-proprietary protocols in grid storage systems, we perform tests on the performance of WebDAV and pNFS transport with the DPM storage solution. We find that the standards-based protocols behave similarly to the proprietary standards currently in use, despite encountering some issues with the state of the implementation itself. We thus conclude that there is no performance-based reason to avoid using such protocols for data management in future.

Skipsey, Samuel; Rocha, Ricardo

2012-01-01

369

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

370

Thermal Performance Testing of Order Dependancy of Aerogels Multilayered Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Robust multilayer insulation systems have long been a goal of many research projects. Such insulation systems must provide some degree of structural support and also mechanical integrity during loss of vacuum scenarios while continuing to provide insulative value to the vessel. Aerogel composite blankets can be the best insulation materials in ambient pressure environments; in high vacuum, the thermal performance of aerogel improves by about one order of magnitude. Standard multilayer insulation (MU) is typically 50% worse at ambient pressure and at soft vacuum, but as much as two or three orders of magnitude better at high vacuum. Different combinations of aerogel and multilayer insulation systems have been tested at Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Analysis performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed an importance to the relative location of the MU and aerogel blankets. Apparent thermal conductivity testing under cryogenic-vacuum conditions was performed to verify the analytical conclusion. Tests results are shown to be in agreement with the analysis which indicated that the best performance is obtained with aerogel layers located in the middle of the blanket insulation system.

Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, James E.; Demko, J. A.

2009-01-01

371

10 CFR 26.168 - Blind performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...concentration equal to or greater than 500 mcg/mL, equal to or greater than 50 mcg/mL chromium (VI)-equivalents, or a halogen concentration equal to or greater than the LOD. Blind performance test samples for other adulterants must have...

2010-01-01

372

Social housing improves dairy calves' performance in two cognitive tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n?=?8) or kept in pairs using a double pen (n?=?10). Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white) until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa). Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves. PMID:24587281

Gaillard, Charlotte; Meagher, Rebecca K; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M

2014-01-01

373

Developing and Testing the Guitar Songleading Performance Scale (GSPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Guitar songleading is a critical component in music education and music therapy training curricula. However, at present, there is no standardized instrument to evaluate guitar songleading performance that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this article is to describe the construction, development, and testing of a guitar songleading…

Silverman, Michael J.

2011-01-01

374

Innovative role of statistics in acid rain performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 mandated that affected electric utilities reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, the primary precursors of acidic deposition, and included an innovative market-based SO{sub 2} regulatory program. A central element of the Acid Rain Program is the requirement that affected utility units install CEMS. This paper describes how the Acid Rain Regulations incorporated statistical procedures in the performance tests for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) and how statistical analysis was used to assess the appropriateness, stringency, and potential impact of various performance tests and standards that were considered for inclusion in the Acid Rain Regulations. Described here is the statistical analysis that was used to set a relative accuracy standard, establish the calculation procedures for filling in missing data when a monitor malfunctions, and evaluate the performance tests applied to petitions for alternative monitoring systems. The paper concludes that the statistical evaluations of proposed provisions of the Acid Rain Regulations resulted in the adoption of performance tests and standards that were scientifically substantiated, workable, and effective.

Warren-Hicks, W.; Etchison, T. [Cadmus Group, Durham, NC (United States); Lieberman, E.R. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States). Acid Rain Div.

1995-12-31

375

The performance of multileaf collimators evaluated by the stripe test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of 3 multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (Varian Medical Systems, Elekta, and Siemens Medical Solutions) mounted on 7 different radiotherapy linear accelerators was investigated by a stripe test. The stripe test consisted of 8 adjacent multileaf segments of 2.5 x 40 cm(2), enclosed by all leaf pairs. With 6-MV photons, the segments were used to irradiate Agfa CR films. The optical density profile of the irradiated film in the travel direction of the MLC was used to estimate the short- and long-term leaf positioning reproducibility. The short-term reproducibility was found by analyzing 6 consecutive stripe tests. The long-term reproducibility was obtained by performing 3 to 5 stripe tests over 2 months. The short-term reproducibility was mainly within 0.3 mm for all systems. For the long-term reproducibility, the Varian and Elekta MLCs were within 0.4 to 0.5 mm, while the Siemens MLC showed a wider distribution, with values up to 1 mm for some leaf pairs. The inferior long-term reproducibility of the Siemens MLCs was mainly due to a decrease of the segment size with time. In conclusion, the stripe test is a useful method for evaluating MLC performance. Furthermore, the long-term reproducibility varied among the MLC systems investigated. PMID:19647629

Sastre-Padro, Maria; Lervĺg, Christoffer; Eilertsen, Karsten; Malinen, Eirik

2009-01-01

376

The Performance of Multileaf Collimators Evaluated by the Stripe Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of 3 multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (Varian Medical Systems, Elekta, and Siemens Medical Solutions) mounted on 7 different radiotherapy linear accelerators was investigated by a stripe test. The stripe test consisted of 8 adjacent multileaf segments of 2.5 x 40 cm2, enclosed by all leaf pairs. With 6-MV photons, the segments were used to irradiate Agfa CR films. The optical density profile of the irradiated film in the travel direction of the MLC was used to estimate the short- and long-term leaf positioning reproducibility. The short-term reproducibility was found by analyzing 6 consecutive stripe tests. The long-term reproducibility was obtained by performing 3 to 5 stripe tests over 2 months. The short-term reproducibility was mainly within 0.3 mm for all systems. For the long-term reproducibility, the Varian and Elekta MLCs were within 0.4 to 0.5 mm, while the Siemens MLC showed a wider distribution, with values up to 1 mm for some leaf pairs. The inferior long-term reproducibility of the Siemens MLCs was mainly due to a decrease of the segment size with time. In conclusion, the stripe test is a useful method for evaluating MLC performance. Furthermore, the long-term reproducibility varied among the MLC systems investigated.

377

Nuclear performance analyses for HCPB test blanket modules in ITER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutronic, shielding and activation analyses have been performed for recent design variants of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) test blanket module (TBM) in ITER on the basis of 3D Monte Carlo calculations. The main objective has been to assess and optimise the nuclear performance of the HCPB test blanket modules in terms of the tritium generation, the nuclear heating and the radiation shielding and provide, among others, the data required for the engineering design of the test modules. The shielding efficiency of the TBM system was shown to be sufficient to allow access of work personnel to the port extension after a waiting time of 10 days after shut down as required by ITER. The activation analyses provided the afterheat and activation data for quality assured safety analyses assuming a representative irradiation scenario

378

Leak and burst tests performed on pulled tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plugging criteria for tubes used in France for PWR plant steam generator tubes allow the presence of through wall cracks during operation. Calculations and tests show the cracks remain stable under accidental conditions and feedback shows that they do not generally result in large leaks. Tests performed on pulled tubes confirm the safety margins provided by the plugging criteria selected with respect to the risks of leakage and sudden propagation of corrosion cracks under accidental conditions. This paper proposes a method for roughly estimating the leakage rate under accidental conditions for a steam generator with corrosion at the top of the tubesheet or at the tube support plate elevation, which is based on tests performed exclusively on pulled tubes and the results of on-site inspections. (authors). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

379

LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The tests and evaluation were performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a ''Dump-type'' because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

1978-11-01

380

Gamma camera performance assessment using an orthohole test pattern (OHTP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The orthohole test pattern (OHTP) has been useful for weekly comparative tests of spatial distortion differential non-uniformity, spatial resolution and image pixel size and its use has minimised the camera time needed for quality control. By analysing the images obtained, it has been possible to provide quantitative information for comparing weekly performances and for the intercomparison of two systems. It should be stressed though that the measurements described are non-standard and hence the OHTP should be used only for observing general trends in performance which may indicate that the camera needs adjusting. When standard measurements are required, for example when checking camera performance with the manufacturer's specifications, NEMA phantoms should be used. (author)

 
 
 
 
381

Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method mostly brings best performance parameters for cameras but it has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particular in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. Therefore it is important to have test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices, that will approach as best as practicable the measuring conditions in clinical applications. It is therefore a good news that the International Electrochemical Commission IEC has prepared a draft 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' which is now submitted to the national committees for formal approval under the Six Months' Rule. Some essential points of this document are discussed in the paper. (orig.)

382

MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls, aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance

Juan A. Moreno

2010-03-01

383

Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

Eaton, W.C.

1995-11-01

384

Test objects for evaluating the performance of radiological imaging systems. Leeds radiological test objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A range of test objects has been developed to assess the imaging performance of conventional and digital radiological imaging systems. These test objects have arisen as a result of involvement in both the laboratory evaluation of radiological imaging systems and the routine maintenance of such equipment in a large diagnostic radiology department. The philosophy behind the design and application of the test objects is briefly described. Particular attention is paid to the advantages of using the threshold-contrast detail-detectability technique to assess overall imaging performance. The great importance of ensuring optimum imaging performance prior to clinical acceptance is stressed. A strategy for implementing the test objects in a clinical department is present. The diagnostic information content of the clinical images which result measures the success of the quality control procedure adopted. (author)

385

Performance of battery charge controllers: First year test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the first year of an evaluation of charge controllers for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems are presented. The objectives of the test program are to positively influence the development of battery charge controllers for stand-alone PV applications and to develop design and application criteria that will improve PV system reliability and battery performance. Future goals are to expand the evaluation program to include various battery technologies and controller algorithms. Also, the information is being communicated to manufacturers to aid in the design of more effective and reliable charge controllers for PV systems. Eight different models of small (nominal 10 amp) charge controllers are being subjected to a comprehensive evaluation. These evaluations include operational tests in identical stand-alone PV systems and environmental and electrical cycling tests. Selected custom tests are also performed on the controllers to determine the response to transients, installation requirements and system design compatibilities. Data presented in this paper include measured electrical characteristics of the controllers, temperature effects on set points, and operational performance in PV systems both in the lab and in the field. A comparison is presented for four different charge controller algorithms which include array-shunt, series-interrupting, series-linear constant-voltage and series-linear-multistep constant-current. 9 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dunlop, J. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)); Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Harrington, S. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

386

Hover performance tests of full scale variable geometry rotors  

Science.gov (United States)

Full scale whirl tests were conducted to determine the effects of interblade spatial relationships and pitch variations on the hover performance and acoustic signature of a 6-blade main rotor system. The variable geometry rotor (VGR) variations from the conventional baseline were accomplished by: (1) shifting the axial position of alternate blades by one chord-length to form two tip path planes; and (2) varying the relative azimuthal spacing from the upper rotor to the lagging hover rotor in four increments from 25.2 degrees to 62.1 degrees. For each of these four configurations, the differential collective pitch between upper and lower rotors was set at + or - 1 deg, 0 deg and -1 deg. Hover performance data for all configurations were acquired at blade tip Mach numbers of 0.523 and 0.45. Acoustic data were recorded at all test conditions, but analyzed only at 0 deg differential pitch at the higher rotor speed. The VGR configurations tested demonstrated improvements in thrust at constant power as high as 6 percent. Reductions of 3 PNdb in perceived noise level and of 4 db in blade passage frequency noise level were achieved at the higher thrust levels. Consistent correlation exists between performance and acoustic improvements. For any given azimuth spacing, performance was consistently better for the differential pitch condition of + or - 1 degree, i.e. with the upper rotor pitch one degree higher than the lower rotor.

Rorke, J. B.

1976-01-01

387

Multiphase pumping: indoor performance test and oilfield application  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid and gas mixture to be transported over a long distances without prior separation. A reduction, consolidation, or elimination of the production infrastructure, such as separation equipments and offshore platforms can be developed more economically. Also it successfully lowed the backpressure of wells, revived dead wells and improved the production and efficiency of oilfield. This paper reviews the issues related to indoor performance test and an oilfield application of the helico-axial multiphase pump designed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing). Pump specification and its hydraulic design are given. Results of performance testing under different condition, such as operational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) etc are presented. Experimental studies on combination of theoretical analysis showed the multiphase pump satisfies the similitude rule, which can be used in the development of new MPP design and performance prediction. Test results showed that rising the rotation speed and suction pressure could better its performance, pressure boost improved, high efficiency zone expanding and the flow rate related to the optimum working condition increased. The pump worked unstable as GVF increased to a certain extent and slip occurred between two phases in the pump, creating surging and gas lock at a high GVF. A case of application in Nanyang oilfield is also studied.

Kong, Xiangling; Zhu, Hongwu; Zhang, Shousen; Li, Jifeng

2010-03-01

388

Small-scale chamber test for internal blast performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The viability of using gram-scale amounts of explosives in a small test chamber to assess internal blast performance and predict effects at larger scales is investigated. Peak quasi-static pressures from five explosive formulations were measured, and energy released per gram was calculated. The smaller test used 12-g charges loaded in a steel holder, while data selected from the larger test was from bare charges between 2.7 and 21 kg. The energies for a given explosive were comparable for each size charge tested in the larger chamber. In the smaller chamber the energies were less, most likely due to heat losses to the holder. Explosives with the highest concentration of explosive ingredients incurred the highest energy losses in the small chamber. The current design of the smaller test provides a reasonable ranking of explosives with similar concentrations of explosive ingredients, thereby validating the use of the test for the newer explosives being assessed. However, it may be possible to obtain consistent rankings for all explosives given a change to the holder design in the smaller test.

Lee, Richard J.; Felts, Joshua E.; Watry, Craig; Gonzales, Andrea

2014-05-01

389

1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

Sky +, Inc.

1998-09-01

390

1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 g/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues

391

Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM, 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA, and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects.

Steinfeld Matthew

2008-11-01

392

Network Performance Testing for the BaBar Event Builder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an overview of the design of event building in the BABAR Online, based upon TCP/IP and commodity networking technology. BABAR is a high-rate experiment to study CP violation in asymmetric e+e- collisions. In order to validate the event-builder design, an extensive program was undertaken to test the TCP performance delivered by various machine types with both ATM OC-3 and Fast Ethernet networks. The buffering characteristics of several candidate switches were examined and found to be generally adequate for our purposes. We highlight the results of this testing and present some of the more significant findings

393

Performance of CREAM Calorimeter: Results of Beam Tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

Ahn, H.S. [Inst. for Phys. Sci. and Tech., University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bagliesi, M.G. [Dept. of Physics, University of Siena and INFN, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Beatty, J.J. [Dept. of Physics, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)] (and others)

2006-01-15

394

Performance of CREAM Calorimeter: Results of Beam Tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported

395

A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for any other running discipline.

Armin Kibele

2005-12-01

396

The performance testing of timing measurement of BES III MDC electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines the testing methods and the tested results for the performance of the timing measurement system in BESIII MDC electronics. The testing mainly includes the time resolution testing, time differential nonlinearity testing and time integral nonlinearity testing. (authors)

397

Initial operation and performance test results of the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) cryogenic system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PSI has supplied three equal capacity helium cryogenic plants (dubbed ASST, MTL, and N15B). The first two plants will provide the helium refrigeration and liquefaction required for magnet testing in the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) facility and the Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL). The t