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1

HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future

2

In-place testing of off-gas iodine filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, both charcoal and silver zeolite (AgX) filters are used for radioactive iodine off-gas cleanup of reactor systems. These filters are used in facilities which are conducting research in the areas of reactor fuel failure, reactor fuel inspection, and loss of fluids from reactor vessels. Iodine retention efficiency testing of these filters is dictated by prudent safety practices and regulatory guidelines. A procedure for determining iodine off-gas filter efficiency in-place has been developed and tested on both AgX and charcoal filters. The procedure involves establishing sample points upstream and downstream of the filter to be tested. A step-by-step approach for filter efficiency testing is presented

3

Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results.

Wright, G.T.

2001-08-16

4

ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ting conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated periodically on-demand. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was operated with a target melt temperature of either 1,250 C or 1,300 C, and with either a partial or complete cold cap of unmelted feed on top of the molten glass. Samples of all input and output streams including the starting glass, the simulant feed, the off-gas particulate matter, product glass, and deposits removed from the crucible and off-gas pipe after the test were collected for analysis

5

Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625 (9%), and Hastelloy C-276 (16%), as well as titanium and zirconium, remained free of attack under all conditions tested. When the other materials, notably the austenitic stainless steels, were exposed to gas streams containing even only low concentrations of iodine and water vapors at 25 and 400C, a highly corrosive, brownish-green liquid formed on their surfaces. In the complete absence of water vapor, the iodine-containing liquid did not form and all materials remained unaffected. The liquid that formed had a low pH (usually 2 inhibited attack

6

ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

7

ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

2009-01-01

8

Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalystn possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination reaction and deactivation by siloxanes. A simple Arrhenius equation was applied for the model and the poisoning behavior was represented using several parameters determined by experiments. We reproduced the experimental poisoning behavior as the outlet hydrogen concentration with the developed model. (author)

9

ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. A simulant of the DWPF SB4 feed was successfully fed and melted in a small pilot-scale CCIM system during two test series. The OGSE tests provide initial results that (a) provide melter operating conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated periodically on-demand. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was operated with a target melt temperature of either 1,250oC or 1,300oC, and with either a partial or complete cold cap of unmelted feed on top of the molten glass. Samples of all input and output streams including the starting glass, the simulant feed, the off-gas particulate matter, product glass, and deposits removed from the crucible and off-gas pipe after the test were collected for analysis.

Nick Soelberg

2009-04-01

10

Test results from the GA technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 2/, and SO/sub 2/. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constitutents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO/sub 2/ adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Silver-based iodine adsorbents were found to catalyze the premature conversion of CO to CO/sub 2/. Subsequent tests showed that iodine removal could not be performed downstream of the CO/HT oxidizer since iodine in the BOG system rapidly deactivated the Pt-coated alumina CO catalyst. Lead-exchanged zeolite (PbX) was found to be an acceptable alternative for removing iodine from BOG without CO conversion. Intermittent and steady-state tests of the pilot-plant SO/sub 2/ removal unit containing sodium-exchanged zeolite (NaX) demonstrated that decontamination factors greater than or equal to 100 could be maintained for up to 50 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system at GA, iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective.

Jensen, D.D.; Olguin, L.J.; Wilbourn, R.G.

1984-06-01

11

Test results in the treatment of HTR reprocessing off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT II-facility (throughput 10 m3/h, STP) for the clean up of the burner off-gas has been tested with synthetic off-gas and with off-gas from cold burner tests. The results are reported. During dissolution of the burner ash in nitric acid an off-gas is formed whose main component is air and which, besides the gaseous fission products, contains NO/sub x/. Before the separation of the gaseous fission products NO/sub x/ and/or O2 are removed by reaction with H2 or NH3. For these reactions catalysts were used. Because of the known disadvantages of catalytic systems, like reduction in efficiency by poisoning or thermal influence, the alternative method of thermal, flameless reduction was tested. The reactions were carried out in a stainless steel and a quartz reactor. Throughput, reaction temperature, O2-, NO/sub x/-, H2-, and NH3-concentrations respectively were varied. The goal of these tests was to remove O2 and NO/sub x/ to below 1 ppM behind the reactor and NH3 to below the detection limit of 50 ppM. It was found that at a reaction temperature of 7500C in the stainless steel reactor these goals can be reached for both H2 and NH3 as reducing agents. In the quartz reactor only the O2-H2-reaction takes place. Obviously stainless steel acts as a catalyst for all other reactions

12

Testing and monitoring of off-gas cleanup systems at nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methods currently employed, especially in nuclear power plants, for testing and monitoring the effectiveness of the cleanup systems installed to limit the emission of radioactive particulate aerosols, gases and vapours to the environment. The report does not generally refer to nuclear reprocessing plants and other nuclear facilities, but the cleaning methods employed there and the requirements for testing and monitoring are often similar to those for nuclear power plants. Particular, arbitrary selected examples are used to indicate some of the differences, but details will not usually be given. Chapter 1 describes the various particulate and gaseous emissions and the appropriate cleanup systems. The quantities of particulate aerosols and gaseous effluents released in normal operation are also given. Chapters 2-5 refer to different aspects of cleanup systems, namely particulate filter testing, iodine sorption system testing, noble gas delay system testing, and process control and performance monitoring. References are given to examples of national or operating agency standards. Chapter 6 deals with the criteria by which the performance of cleanup systems is evaluated. It is important that the individual plant criteria or limits should be seen in the context of the ICRP requirements. The general design objectives of nuclear plants aim at fulfilling ICRP recommendations and the ALARA principle. Chapter 7 draws attention to the further developmen draws attention to the further development of the technology of cleanup system testing and monitoring. The cost of designing, building, monitoring and testing a nuclear off-gas cleaning system is not inconsiderable. The impact of this economic pressure on system design and testing methods should not be underestimated. Finally, the report is summarized and a number of conclusions are given, together with recommendations for further international co-operation

13

Evaluation of the HEPA filter in-place test method in a corrosive off-gas environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to determine if the combined effects of temperature, humidity, and oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) hinder the in-place testing of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used for cleaning the off-gas from a nuclear waste solidification facility. The laboratory system that was designed to simulate the process off-gas contained two HEPA filters in series with sample ports before each filter and after the filter bank. The system also included a reaction bomb for partial conversion of NO to NO2. Instrumentation measured stream flow, humidity, NO/sub x/ concentration, and temperature. Comparison measurements of the DOP concentrations were made by a forward light-scattering photometer and a single particle intra-cavity laser particle spectrometer. Experimental conditions could be varied, but maximum system capabilities were 95% relative humidity, 900C, and 10,000 ppM of NO/sub x/. A 23 factorial experimental design was used for the test program. This design determined the main effects of each factor plus the interactions of the factors in combination. The results indicated that water vapor and NO/sub x/ interfere with the conventional photometer measurements. Suggested modifications that include a unique sample dryer are described to correct the interferences. The laser particle spectrometer appears to be an acceptable instrument for measurements under adverse off-gas conditions

14

Development and testing of prototype alpha waste incinerator off-gas systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test program is in progress at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to confirm and develop incinerator design technology for an SRP production Alpha Waste Incinerator (AWI) to be built in the mid-1980's. The Incinerator Components Test Facility (ICTF) is a full-scale (5 kg/h), electrically heated, controlled-air prototype incinerator built to burn nonradioactive solid waste. The incinerator has been operating successfully at SRL since March 1979 and has met or exceeded all design criteria. During the first 1-1/2 years of operation, liquid scrubbers were used to remove particulates and hydrochloric acid from the incinerator exhaust gases. A dry off-gas system is currently being tested to provide data to Savannah River Plant's proposed AWI

15

Performance of a cyclone in the off-gas path of a pressurised fluidised bed combustor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance characteristics of the primary and secondary cyclones in the off gas path of a coal-fired pressurised fluidised bed combustor (PFBC) have been determined. Both cyclones had the same dimensions and were based on the standard high efficiency Stairmand design. The fractional efficiency curve for the primary cyclones has been determined and shows the collection efficiency for sizes greater than around 3 microns to be greater than expected. The cyclone Stokes number, based on the cut diameter, is shown to decrease with increasing inlet dust loading, i.e. the greater the loading, the higher the collection efficiency. The extent of this effect was shown to be dependent upon dust characteristics. The data from the secondary cyclone were influenced by the effects of particle agglomeration so the fractional efficiency data were unreliable. The pressure drops over both cyclones were measured and found to decrease with increasing dust loading. Relationships are proposed for predicting the pressure drops.

Wheeldon, J.M.; Snow, G.C.; Svarovsky, L.

1985-01-01

16

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development`s Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies.

Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

1993-12-01

17

Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

18

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

19

LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

2014-09-29

20

Iodine and NOx behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX [Iodine Oxidation] systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NOx in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NOx is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

 
 
 
 
21

Iodine and NO sub x behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX (Iodine Oxidation) systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NO{sub x} in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NO{sub x} is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Birdwell, J.F.

1990-01-01

22

Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

1997-08-01

23

LFCM [liquid-fed eramic melter] emission and off-gas system performance for feed component cesium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Except for volatile off-gas effluents, overall adequacy of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) system depends most upon its effectiveness in dealing with cesium. However, the mechanism responsible for melter cesium losses has proved insensitive to many LFCM operating and processing conditions. As a result, variations in inleakage, plenum temperature, feeding rate and waste loading do not significantly influence melter cesium performance. Feed composition, specifically halogen content, is the only processing variable that has had a significant effect. Due to the submicron nature of LFCM-generated aerosols, melter disengagement design features are not expected to be particularly effective in reducing cesium emission rates. For the same reason, the cesium performance of conventional quench scrubbers is quite low, being dependent only upon the magnitude of melter entrainment losses. Although a deep bed washable filter has been effective in removing submicron aerosols from the process exhaust, high performance has only been achieved under dry operating conditions. The melter's idling state does not appear to place additional demands upon the off-gas treatment system

24

Testing and monitoring of off-gas cleanup systems at nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methods employed, especially in nuclear power plants, for testing and monitoring the effectiveness of the cleanup systems installed to limit the emission of radioactive particulate aerosols, gases, and vapors to the environment. It describes the various particulate and gaseous emissions and the appropriate cleanup systems. The quantities of particulate aerosols and gaseous effluents released in normal operation also are given. The different aspects of cleanup systems, including particulate filter testing, iodine sorption system testing, noble gas delay system testing, and process control and performance monitoring are covered

25

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-21

26

Dissolver off-gas cleaning in a reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate an advanced dissolver off-gas cleaning system, the PASSAT filter system and the WAESCHE off-gas simulation facility have been developed, constructed under licensing conditions pertinent to industrial scale reprocessing plants, and commissioned for trial operation. Major components of the PASSAT off-gas-cleaning system include the series-connected iodine-adsorption filters, for optimum utilization of the iodine-adsorption material, AC 6120, and also the packed-fiber mist eliminator, which has a flushing capability for initial removal of droplets and particles and which was installed to extend the service life of the HEPA filter. The tests performed so far and the experience accumulated in testing these remotely operated filter components under simulated dissolver off-gas conditions, are described and discussed

27

Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

Wilson, C.N.

1996-06-28

28

FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increase

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

29

Dissolution tests of spent fuel in the NUCEF ??-cell including dissolver off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolution tests of 8,000 MWd/t PWR spent fuel were carried out in the ?? cell of NUCEF as the first stage of a series of experimental works using spent fuels. The present dissolution tests included dissolution of 1.5 kg of the spent fuel, iodine treatment using AgS(silver impregnated silica gel), clarification, and preparation of dissolver solution for the extraction tests following the dissolution tests. Capture of carbon-14 was also studied in the dissolution tests. Dissolution behavior was studied by the concentration measurement of U, Pu, gamma species (Cs-134 and Cs-137, Eu-154 and Eu-155, Am-241), and other fission products (Sr, Ba, Zr, Mo, Ru, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pr). Insoluble residue was also analyzed by sampling and filtering the dissolver solution. In addition, amounts of I-129 and C-14 trapped were measured. Change in U concentration of dissolver solution showed that most of the dissolution of U finished at about 100 minutes after the dissolution was started. Dissolution behavior of the gamma species and FPs were shown to be almost the same as the U dissolution behavior. Iodine was removed from the dissolver solution at the iodine stripping tank in two steps. Total amount of iodine-129 trapped in AgS columns during the tests was found to be 2.10 x 105 Bq which corresponded to about 63% of the iodine-129 amount estimated by ORIGEN calculation. Amount of carbon-14 was measured to be about 2 x 106 Bq, which suggested that at least several ppms of nitrogen-14 was initially contained in the fuel as impurity. Analysis of insoluble residue showed that Ru, Mo, Pd, and Zr were major elements contained. The molar ratio between Mo and Zr contained in the residue and the X-ray diffractometry of residue suggested that zirconium molybdate precipitated during the dissolution. The dissolution tests successfully recovered about 94% of U amount contained initially in spent fuel. The U and nitric acid concentrations of the U product, which was used in the extraction tests, were 291.6 gU/L and 3.23 N, respectively. (author)

30

Testing practice and operating experience of off-gas cleaning systems gained during the first years of operation at Finnish PWR nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is a Finnish power company in possession of two 440 MWe PWR nuclear power stations at Loviisa. The reactor primary and auxiliary systems were delivered mainly from the Soviet Union. The off-gas system consists of ambient temperature charcoal beds and iodine filters. Active gases from degasifier and tanks connected with the primary circuit pass before delay through the hydrogen recombiner. Regeneration gases from a desiccant dryer are led through iodine filters. Gases from other active tanks pass through a scrubber and an iodine filter. According to the Finnish regulations, the off-gas iodine filters must have a decontamination factor of minimum 99 percent for methyliodide. The iodine filters are to be tested after 3000 h of operation. Because of unsatisfactory test results, the filtration material of the iodine filters have been changed twice. The problems involved in these cases were moisture or chemical penetration to the filter. (author)

31

Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Coupled End-to-End Research,Development and Demonstration Project: Integrated Off-gas Treatment System Design and Initial Performance - 9226  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a complete, coupled end-to-end (CETE) demonstration of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. This small-scale reprocessing operation provides a unique opportunity to test integrated off-gas treatment systems designed to recover the primary volatile fission and activation products (H-3, C-14, Kr-85, and I-139) released from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The CETE project will demonstrate an advanced head-end process, referred to as voloxidation, designed to condition the SNF, separate the SNF from the cladding, and release tritium contained in the fuel matrix. The off-gas from the dry voloxidation process as well as from the more traditional fuel dissolution process will be treated separately and the volatile components recovered. This paper provides descriptions of the off-gas treatment systems for both the voloxidation process and for the fuel dissolution process and provides preliminary results from the initial CETE processing runs. Impacts of processing parameters on the relative quantities of volatile components released and recovery efficiencies are evaluated.

32

FY'99 final report for the expedited technology demonstration project: demonstration test results for the MSO/off-gas and salt recycle system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility in which an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MSO vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on operational experience with an engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May 1998. In FY98, we have tested the MSO facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents, tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils and solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchange resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low-level liquid mixed wastes. MSO is shown to be a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems in DOE sites. The results of the demonstration conducted in FY98 has been reported [1]. In FY99 (October 1998 to April 1999) we conducted further testing in the MSO/off-gas system with ion exchange resins, two real waste specimens, activated carbon, and TNT-loaded activated carbon, both at regular feed rates and higher feed rates up to a superficial gas velocity of 1.75 ft/s. We also drained the salt three times (SR7, SR8, SR9) in FY99 and sent the spent salts to the salt recycle system for further processing. This report presents the results obtained from the demonstration of the MSO/off-gas system and the salt recycle system from October 1998 to April 1999. We then shut down the operation and cleaned the equipment and the facility in May 1999

33

Off-gas control project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program to develop and study off-gas abatement techniques has recently been initiated at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). This report provides information on the properties and expected behaviour of reprocessing plant off-gases, and outlines the experimental program to be undertaken. (author)

34

Electron beam processing of industrial off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Emissions of chlorinated aromatic compounds e.g. polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) have been reported recently from a large number of industrial processes such as waste incineration and metal smelters. Due to the toxicity of PCDD/F, stringent emission limits have been imposed. State of the art for emission control are adsorption processes, which have removal efficiencies, but produced PCDD contaminated wastes. The incineration or disposal of these material is rather costly. Therefore, new technologies are being developed, which do not yield secondary wastes, such as catalysts, hydrogen peroxide injection or electron beam irradiation. Here the results on the electron beam induced decomposition of PCDD/F in incinerator off gas are reported. We used a mobile off gas cleaning plant (AGATE-M), which is equipped with 200 keV electron accelerator (EB). The off gas was sampled in the upstream and downstream of the irradiation zone by a condensation method. Subsequent clean-up and GC-MS analyses were performed using standard analytical methods. The analyses show that very high decompositions for PCDD and PCDF are achieved depending on the experimental parameters and the German emission standards are surpassed. In addition, chlorinated phenols and benzenes are destroyed. A computer model (AGATE-code) was developed to analyse the gas phase chemistry of the process. The experimental and the theoretical results are reported and compared. The energy consumptionorted and compared. The energy consumption of the process is of the order of 3-5 kWh per 100 m3 of treated off gas. The process has a very low pressure difference. The industrial application of the technology will be evaluated in comparison to competing methods with respect to costs and technical aspects

35

Off-gas considerations for a vitrification plant in the republic of Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Republic of Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle low and intermediate-level radioactive waste from her pressurized water reactors (PWRs). KEPRI, in coordination with her partners, will design, construct, and erect a pilot plant using data from the orientation tests. The pilot plant will be the basis for the development of the final objective, the establishment of an industrial scale vitrification installation in the Republic of Korea. Throughout these projects, the major goal is to minimize the harmful effects of the final waste form to the environment. The gaseous effluents emissions from the facility will need to be managed to meet the environmental regulations concerning gaseous releases into the environment of the Republic of Korea. The focus of this paper is on the considerations for the treatment of the off-gas for a low and intermediate-level radioactive waste treatment vitrification installation in the Republic of Korea. Off-gas considerations will span a wide-range of areas such as waste characteristics, thermal treatment systems, off-gas regulations, off-gas characteristics, assessment of air pollution control devices, systems assessments, numerical modelling, economics etc. Off-gas regulations in Korea are becoming tighter and will likely change from year to year. In terms of both off-gas treatment equipment performance and public protection, the amount and nature (e.g. chemical behavior and morphology) of the species are important. The emissions may be classified as toxic metals, radionuclides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and acid gases. Air pollution control technologies are generally classified as wet or dry technologies covering over 40 different air pollution control devices (APCDs) with varying removal efficiencies for the different types of off-gas. In general, the state of the art systems for vitrification technologies incorporate the basic functions such as further oxidation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), particle scrubbing, acid gas scrubbing, particle filtering, and continuous emissions monitoring that would also be utilized for other thermal treatment systems such as incinerators. Although, it is still not possible to use only computer simulation for the design of an off-gas treatment system, numerical modelling may be utilized to help speed design, examine situations difficult to model experimentally, help optimize system processes, etc. These considerations should help provide for an optimal off-gas treatment system for the managing of toxic emissions

36

Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 103 with product concentration factors greater than 104 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

37

Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

2013-08-15

38

Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including 129I2, 85Kr, HTO, and 14CO2. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

39

Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

40

Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

Newell, J.

2011-11-14

42

Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

Daniel, W.E.

2000-05-04

43

FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

2012-08-01

44

Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs

45

Development of HLW vitrification off-gas treatment process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic and bench-scale experiments have been carried out in order to develop the vitrification off-gas process and equipment. Effects of process parameters on the decontamination factors of the melter and off-gas equipment and performance of the down stream adsorbents for Ruthenium and Iodine have been studied with a small scale experimental apparatus using the RI tracer. A full scale plastic model of the submerged bed scrubber has been developed. Its dynamic and decontamination performance of this scrubber have been studied and the results of experiments show the superiority of this scrubber. Water scrubbing of the volatile Ruthenium has been studied with the bench-scale apparatus and a high decontamination factor of the system has been reached. Results of these experiments are used in the construction of the PNC Tokai vitrification plant and the JNFS (Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co. LTD.) Shimokita vitrification plant. (author)

46

Off-gas treatment in HTR fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reprocessing of HTR fuel essentially all of the gaseous fission products are released during the head-end treatment, which includes burning of the graphite matrix and dissolving of the heavy metallic residues in THOREX reagent. Test facilities for off-gas cleaning have been developed. The burner off-gas consists mainly of CO2 and with 0.5 ppm Kr and 10-3 ppm T in the form of tritiated water. After a caralytic burning step to remove the CO, the off-gas is liquified and distilled. The Kr-rich distillate is transferred to gas cylinders for storage. The Kr-free bottom product contains the tritiated water which is absorbed on a molecular sieve before the CO2 is released to the atmosphere. The dissolver off-gas consists mainly of air with 90 ppm Kr, 500 ppm Xe, 5 x 10-2 ppm T as tritiated water and 1,500 ppm NOsub(x). The gas is dried and filtered before oxygen and NOsub(x) are reacted with H2 in the presence of a catalyst to form N2 and H2O. The gas (N2, Ar, Xe, Kr) then enters the cryogenic separation unit where Xe freezes out in cold traps and the remaining gas is liquified and distilled. The Kr-free distillate (N2, Ar) is released to the atmosphere, the Kr-rich bottom product is stored in gas cylinders. The frozen out Xe contains about 1% Kr. To gain pure Xe this mixture is also distilled. The status of the facility development and test results will be reported. (orig.)

47

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-03-01

48

Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

49

The use of a biofilter for reducing off-gas odour from an industrial fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the performance of a lab-scale, closed bed biofilter for the removal of odour in off-gas released from an industrial fermentation facility. This off-gas was emitted from the facility periodically after the sterilization of fermentation medium. The lab scale biofilter was operated for over two months, totalling 30 medium sterilizations. The biofilter was subjected to a shock odour load for each sterilization cycle and to two airflow conditions: the fermentation off-gas and compressed room air, which was cooler and drier than the fermentation off-gas. The biofilter was effective in removing odour under shock loading and variable operating conditions (temperature and relative humidity). An odour reduction rate of 72% was achieved immediately after medium sterilization when odour levels were highest (32 800 OU m(-3)). The filter had an odour removal efficiency of 61% and 67% for 24 h and 50 h after sterilization, respectively. PMID:15747605

Searcy, E M L; Zhang, Q; Cicek, N

2005-01-01

50

Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

51

Evaluation of off-gas characteristics in vitrification process of ion-exchange resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow rate and composition of off-gas generated from the combustion of ion-exchange resin in glass melter were analyzed. For the comparison, theoretical composition and flow rate of the off-gas were calculated from the chemical composition of resin and the operating condition of CCM. Actual flow rate and composition of gases were measured during pilot plant tests using ion-exchange resin. Theoretical calculation showed the flow rate of off-gas generated from the vitrification process of ion-exchange resin with 40kg/h was 67.9Nm3/h, and the off-gas consisted of CO2(41.4%), steam(40.4%), O2(13.3%), NO(3.4%), SO2 (1.6%). Actual flow rate of the off-gas was about 1.6 times higher than the theoretical values, which suggested the in-leakage rate into the CCM to be about 36.3Nm3/h. The composition of toxic gas showed large fluctuation because of continuous change in the combustion environment in side CCM. However, CO concentration, a barometer of incompleteness of combustion, has become settled with the lapse of combustion time, from which the combustion condition in side CCM could be considered to reach equilibrium state

52

Adsorptive separation of NOsub(x) from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After precleaning the dissolver off-gas contains, besides the noble gases Xe and Kr, about 0.5 vol.% each of NOsub(x) and H2O. For the removal of these NOsub(x) and H2O residues to below 1 ppm, an adsorptive gas cleaning process has been developed and tested on a lab-scale. For the process, an acid resistant molecular sieve was selected and its properties investigated with respect to application; e.g. the dependence of the adsorption capacity on temperature, gas composition and face velocity. By the operation of a lab-scale facility with 400 Nl/h continuous off-gas throughput the suitability of the adsorption process has been demonstrated for off-gas cleaning and recycling of the separated NO2 and H2O to the dissolver. (orig.)

53

Dynamic simulation aids DWPF off-gas and ventilation design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic simulation is an effective engineering tool for the evaluation of dynamic systems during the design phase of a project. The primary objective is to gain understanding about all aspects of the dynamic behavior during upset conditions and to use such knowledge to arrive at a design that satisfies all control and performance criteria. On the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), it was used for the design of the melter off-gas processing system and the vitrification building control system for the air supply and exhaust to ensure a definite air flow pattern during upset conditions. For these applications, the simulation models were prepared using Bechtel's proprietary language, DAP and executed on Bechtel's Dynamic Simulation Facility. 9 figs

54

Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters  

Science.gov (United States)

The off gas characteristics of liquid fed joule heated ceramic meters were investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance were established.

Goles, R. W.; Sevigny, G. J.

1982-06-01

55

Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

Choi, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Iverson, D.C.

1996-05-02

56

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

57

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

Flament, T.A.

1998-08-25

58

Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO2 in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack as experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

59

Off-gas recycle for VOC emission control: Conceptual model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capture and recycle of off-gas from a complete-mix activated-sludge reactor was evaluated as an alternative VOC-control strategy to reduce the volume and cost of off-gas treatment. A mathematical model was developed to predict the fraction of individual influent VOC compounds that are biodegraded, stripped, and discharged in the liquid and gaseous effluents of an activated-sludge reactor with off-gas recycle. The model utilizes fundamental physical and biokinetic growth and substrate-removal constants for each VOC. The results indicated that for a biodegradable VOC off-gas recycle increased biodegradation and reduced stripping of the compound. The fate of a VOC depended on the relative magnitude of H[sub c], [mu][sub MAX], and K[sub s] rather than their absolute values. The fate of VOCs having certain combinations of these parameters can be controlled by process and operational parameters of the activated sludge and off-gas recycle system. These benefits are obtained without additional energy utilization.

Argaman, Y. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Musterman, J.L. (Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States))

60

Deoxygenation method of reprocessed radioactive off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To eliminate the generation of iodine compounds and to improve recovery efficiency by terminating the operation prior to inactivation of the catalyst and by processing the heated catalyst with acidic gas. Method: When radioactive rare gas from the nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas is to be recovered by the liquefaction distilling method, in the deoxygenation operation in pre-processing, operation is terminated when the charged catalyst in the oxyhydrogen reaction becomes inert due to the adhesion of iodine compounds and the catalysts is treated with heated acidic gas evaporating and removing the iodine compounds and the deoxygenation processing is resumed. Since this method provides an easy means of recovering the catalyst, if the catalyst recovery processing is performed periodically, efficiency of the oxyhydrogen reaction can be maintained at a high level over prolonged periods. Furthermore, iodine in the gasseous waste generated in the catalysts recovery processing can also be removed thus preventing environmental pollution from the recovered gasseous waste. (Takahashi, M.)

 
 
 
 
61

Investigation of air cleaning processes for removing tributyl phosphate vapors from fuel reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as an extractant in combination with the solvent dodecane in the dissolution process in a conventional nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. When recycled acid is used in the process, the dissolver off-gas (DOG) may contain small amounts of TBP and dodecane vapor. The vessel off-gas (VOG) will also contain TBP vapors in even higher fractions. Under some conditions, TBP vapor in these gas streams adversely affects the performance of silver-loaded solid sorbent beds used in the treatment of these streams to remove iodine and organic iodide compounds. An investigation is reported of the use of inorganic solid sorbent beds located upstream of the silver-loaded sorbent beds to remove TBP and extend the useful life of the silver beds. Laboratory scale experiments have been conducted using selected inorganic solid sorbent materials which have specific properties indicating their effectiveness for removing TBP or similar organic compounds. Results indicated 4 inorganic materials would retain greater than 95% of inlet TBP over a 3-hour run time. These four materials are being tested in a small packed glass column arrangement using variations in TBP concentration, face velocity and column temperature. As a part of this work, a sensitive quantitative analysis technique was developed enabling continous real time analysis of TBP vapor concentrations, as low as 1 x 10-7 g/l, so that breakthrough progression can be measured

62

Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. The method involves a sequence of adsorption and desorption steps which are specified. Particular reference is made to the separation of xenon and krypton from the off-gas stream, and to the use of silver-exchanged mordenite as the adsorbent. (U.K.)

63

Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters have been investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The results of these studies have established the identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance. 8 figures, 16 tables.

Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.

1982-06-01

64

Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters have been investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The results of these studies have established the identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance. 8 figures, 16 tables

65

High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

66

Optimization of Off-gas Trapping Capabilities on Pyroprocessing at KAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to develop the optimization of off-gas trapping capabilities on pyroprocessing at KAERI. Based on KAERI's experimental results and experience on the trapping characteristics in terms of chemical species, vacuum degree, and trapping temperature, INL hot experiments will be performed in off-gas treatment system (OTS) for a voloxidizer. Experiments were performed using KAERI OTS (Off-gas Trapping System) to trap the volatile. A fly ash filter was used as a trapping media for cesium, rubidium, molybdenum, and cadmium. Ca-I and Ca-II filters were used a trapping media for technetium (rhenium), molybdenum, antimony, and tellurium, respectively. As results of trapping experiments, it was found that trapping efficiency of gaseous cesium by fly ash filter at 1100 .deg. C under a vacuum condition was increased by ? 10 times, in comparison with that of 1100 .deg. C. Trapping efficiency by fly ash filter at 1100 .deg C under a vacuum condition was increased by ? 10 times, in comparison with that of 1100 .deg. C. Successful trapping of Mo, Te, and mixed species by using Ca- II filter under a vacuum of 7.6 torr was achieved and rhenium was well trapped under a vacuum of 76 torr. Trapping performance of molybdenum by Ca- II filter was better than that of fly ash filter. This report will be used as a useful means for determining optimization of trapping capabilities for trapping semi-volatile fission products

67

Remotely replaceable and testable off-gas filter system for the NWCF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process off-gas filter system designed for use in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) requires remote filter removal, replacement and in-place DOP testing. A series of full-scale mockup tests, modifications and retesting at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility (RMDF) resulted in a system in which a commercial High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter can be installed, tested for leaks, operated and removed from a sealed filter housing using remote handling methods. This paper describes the development, testing and results of this effort

68

Degradation of off-gas toluene in continuous pyrite Fenton system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of off-gas toluene from a toluene reservoir and a soil vapor extraction (SVE) process was investigated in a continuous pyrite Fenton system. The removal of off-gas toluene from the toluene reservoir was >95% by 8h in the pyrite Fenton system, while it was ?97% by 3h in classic Fenton system and then rapidly decreased to initial level by 8h. Continuous consumption of low Fe(II) concentration dissolved from pyrite surface (0.05-0.11mM) was observed in the pyrite Fenton system, which can lead to the effective and successful removal of the gas-phase toluene due to stable production of OH radical (OH). Inhibitor and spectroscopic test results showed that OH was a dominant radical that degraded gas-phase toluene during the reaction. Off-gas toluene from the SVE process was removed by 96% in the pyrite Fenton system, and remnant toluene from rebounding effect was treated by 99%. Main transformation products from toluene oxidation were benzoic acid (31.4%) and CO2 (38.8%) at 4h, while traces of benzyl alcohol (1.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.7%) were observed. Maximum operation time of continuous pyrite Fenton system was estimated to be 56-61d and its optimal operation time achieving emission standard was 28.9d. PMID:25125037

Choi, Kyunghoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

2014-09-15

69

Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

Nick Soelberg

2005-09-01

70

Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO{sub 2} in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2009-06-01

71

Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

72

Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-07-01

73

Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will elop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

74

Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

decontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x104 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x103 for particulate-Ru, and 5x103-1x104 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 103 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

75

Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO2/krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO2 from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO2 concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO2/krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO2 was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO2 and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N2 or air. Gas streams rich in CO2 were diluted with N2 to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO2 concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products

76

Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

Choi, A.S.

2000-08-23

77

Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C

78

Treatment of the off-gas stream from the HTR reprocessing head-end  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT II-facility (nominal throughput 10 m3/h, STP) for the clean-up of the burner off-gas has been operated for 20 cold runs in parallel to the JUPITER reprocessing head-end. Two of these runs were continuous operation tests with a duration of 50 and 80 hours, respectively. The facility met or exceeded all design specifications. In a further test series the distillation column alone was run with pure CO2 and two- and three-component gas mixtures to determine the flooding curves and the stage height (HETP)

79

Off-gas adsorption model and simulation - OSPREY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and Recovery (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed. (author)

80

Off-gas Adsorption Model and Simulation - OSPREY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed.

Veronica J Rutledge

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absorption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitorinssive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

82

Tests of cycling performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance tests are an integral component of assessment for competitive cyclists in practical and research settings. Cycle ergometry is the basis of most of these tests. Most cycle ergometers are stationary devices that measure power while a cyclist pedals against sliding friction (e.g. Monark), electromagnetic braking (e.g. Lode), or air resistance (e.g. Kingcycle). Mobile ergometers (e.g. SRM cranks) allow measurement of power through the drive train of the cyclist's own bike in real or simulated competitions on the road, in a velodrome or in the laboratory. The manufacturers' calibration of all ergometers is questionable; dynamic recalibration with a special rig is therefore desirable for comparison of cyclists tested on different ergometers. For monitoring changes in performance of a cyclist, an ergometer should introduce negligible random error (variation) in its measurements; in this respect, SRM cranks appear to be the best ergometer, but more comparison studies of ergometers are needed. Random error in the cyclist's performance should also be minimised by choice of an appropriate type of test. Tests based on physiological measures (e.g. maximum oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold) and tests requiring self-selection of pace (e.g. constant-duration and constant-distance tests) usually produce random error of at least approximately 2 to 3% in the measure of power output. Random error as low as approximately 1% is possible for measures of power in 'all-out' sprints, incremental tests, constant-power tests to exhaustion and probably also time trials in an indoor velodrome. Measures with such low error might be suitable for tracking the small changes in competitive performance that matter to elite cyclists. PMID:11428686

Paton, C D; Hopkins, W G

2001-01-01

83

Off-gas cleaning of a liquid waste vitrifier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid radio-active aerosols and semi-volatile fission products e.g. Ru, Cs, Sb are generated during high level liquid waste vitrification processes. The behaviour of these semi-volatile products during the vitrification of simulated liquid waste in a liquid fed melter and the off-gas cleaning with a wet purification system has been studied. It was found that the melter releases to the off-gas depended on different melter situations associated with different melt surface temperature. At the melter outlet, the over-all size distribution of the dust is composed of two components. The large component is associated with a gross entrainment mechanism whereas the small diameter component is associated with a volatilization/condensation process. The submicronic fraction of the dust is generally enriched in cesium and ruthenium. Moreover, volatile ruthenium species can still exist at the low outlet temperature of the melter. The wet purification system comprises in series a packed bed dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOsub(x) column. The dust scrubber removes the gross part of the dust and the ejector-venturi has a high removal efficiency for the submicronic aerosol fraction. The global efficiency of the wet purification system ranged from 99.7% for the cesium species to 99.95% for the ruthenium species. (author)

84

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO{sub 3}{sup -} with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion.

Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

2007-06-06

85

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD resultve to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe2O3 and Fe(Fe2O4)), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO3). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO3- with SO42- being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion

86

Performance testing biometric verifiers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance and availability of the five basic identity verifiers can now meet the requirements of most physical and information security needs. However, with the lack of any evaluation standards, the independent testing of verifiers requires care with due consideration for both parts of the verifier systems; the verifier hardware and software and the user with his biometric features which is the least consistent part of the system. The method of testing and data processing must be done with care and should be reported along with reduced results.

Maxwell, R.

1990-03-01

87

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) where the glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Experimental glass melters used to develop the vitrification process for immobilization of the waste have experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. Off-gas deposits from the DWPF 1/2 Scale Glass Melter (SGM) and the 1/10th scale Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel, and frit particles. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cement the entrained particulates causing off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggage indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. Scale glass melter operating experience indicates that a velocity of >50 fps is necessary in order to transport the volatile species to the quencher to prevent having condensation occur in the off-gas line. Hotter off-gas line temperatures would retain the alkali compounds as vapors so that they would remain volatile until they reach the quencher. However, hotter off-gas temperatures can only be achieved by using less air/steam flow at the off-gas entrance, e.g. at the off-gas film cooler (OGFC). This would result in lower off-gas velocities. Maintaining a high velocity is, therefore, considered to be a more important criterion for controlling off-gas pluggage than temperature control. 40 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-03-01

88

Selective absorption pilot plant for decontamination of fuel reprocessing plant off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fluorocarbon-based selective absorption process for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and radon-222 from the off-gas of conventional light water and advanced reactor fuel reprocessing plants is being developed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in conjunction with fuel recycle work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Savannah River Laboratory. The process is characterized by an especially high tolerance for many other reprocessing plant off-gas components. This report presents detailed drawings and descriptions of the second generation development pilot plant as it has evolved after three years of operation. The test facility is designed on the basis of removing 99% of the feed gas krypton and 99.9% of the carbon and radon, and can handle a nominal 15 scfm (425 slm) of contaminated gas at pressures from 100 to 600 psig (7.0 to 42.2 kg/cm/sup 2/) and temperatures from minus 45 to plus 25/sup 0/F (-43 to -4/sup 0/C). Part of the development program is devoted to identifying flowsheet options and simplifications that lead to an even more economical and reliable process. Two of these applicative flowsheets are discussed.

Stephenson, M.J.; Eby, R.S.; Huffstetler, V.C.

1977-10-01

89

Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF

90

Performance Test Procedure for Fuel Test Loop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a test facility which can conduct a fuel irradiation test at HANARO. The FTL simulates commercial NPPs' operating conditions such as their pressure, temperature, flow, water chemistry and neutron flux levels to conduct the irradiation test. The performance test of the FTL has been performing since April, 2007 and expected to be completed in the last half of 2009. In this paper, the performance test procedure for the FTL is introduced.

Ahn, Sung Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Su Ki; Chi, Dae Young; Sim, Bong Sik; Lee, Chung Young; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Kye Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-10-15

91

Performance Test Procedure for Fuel Test Loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a test facility which can conduct a fuel irradiation test at HANARO. The FTL simulates commercial NPPs' operating conditions such as their pressure, temperature, flow, water chemistry and neutron flux levels to conduct the irradiation test. The performance test of the FTL has been performing since April, 2007 and expected to be completed in the last half of 2009. In this paper, the performance test procedure for the FTL is introduced

92

Assessment of the impact of TOA partitioning on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar (TM) L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

93

Experimental determination of the solubilities of dissolver off-gas constituents in a Kr-85 recovery solvent (CCl2F2). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental determination of the solubility of the major off-gas constituent-Nitrogen was performed with a new solubility measurement apparatus. The new apparatus was designed, built and tested; an algorithm for thermodynamic consistency testing of P-T-x-y data for solubility systems was developed, and thermodynamically consistent Nitrogen-R-12 solubility data were taken. The Henry's Law constant for the Nitrogen-R-12 system can be represented by the equation ln H/sub N2-R-12/ (atm) = 0.44 + 1.0708 lnT (0K). The solubility data extend the range of known equilibrium data into a region where process equipment operate and are consistent with both other data at lower temperatures by other researchers and with regular solution theory

94

CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

MAY TH

2008-04-16

95

Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems

96

Fundamental experiment of voloxidation off-gas treatment, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reprocessing of FBR spent fuel for the voloxidation process (chopped spent fuel is oxidized and volatile fission products are released), the development of off-gas treatment system is important as well as that of the voloxidizer. Fundamental experiments have been carried out for the removal of tritium and iodine by molecular sieve adsorption; and the removal characteristics were made clear. (1) The molecular sieve adsorption method is effective for HTO collection, even in the existence of iodine. (2) For the micropores of MS-4A, the effect of iodine on H2O adsorption is negligible, and the retention of iodine is extremely small. (3) The iodine retention of MS-13X depends on the breakthrough of H2O. Its decontamination factor for iodine is satisfactory. (4) The simultaneous collection of iodine and HTO by MS-13X is possible. (5) Adsorption temperature and gas flow rate influence H2O adsorption characteristics, but do not affect the adsorption of coexisting iodine. (6) The desorption of iodine from MS-13X is influenced by H2O, although the desorption of H2O from a molecular sieve is not influenced by iodine. (J.P.N.)

97

Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational isfectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

98

Computer model for the KALC process studies in the ORGDP Off-Gas Decontamination Pilot Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer model of the KALC process is presented for the equipment configuration in use during HTGR off-gas studies at the ORGDP Off-Gas Decontamination Pilot Plant. The model is tailored to require input routinely available during such experimental studies. A program is included to provide McCabe-Thiele plots as an additional convenience

99

Laboratory experiments on adsorptive retention of Kr-85 from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver in a reprocessing plant based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents is described. The laboratory experiments corroborate the feasibility of the individual process steps. The entire process essentially consists of three interconnected stages: - Retention of NOsub(x) residues and tritiated water on a molecular sieve and recycling both species with part of the waste gas into the dissolver. - Separation of xenon from the off-gas by activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas. - Separation of krypton from the residual off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography and deposition of the pure krypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. Based on the experiments a principle layout for a full scale off-gas cleaning system is described. (author)

100

Improvement of melter off-gas design for commercial HALW vitrification facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan commercial reprocessing plant is now under construction, and it will commence the operation in 2005. The High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) generated at the plant is treated into glass product at the vitrification facility using the Liquid Fed Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (LFCM). The characteristic of the LFCM is that the HALW is fed directly onto the molten glass surface with the glass forming material. This process was developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The JNC process was first applied to the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), which is a pilot scale plant having about 1/6 capacity of the commercial facility. The TVF has been in operation since 1995. During the operation, the rapid increase of the differential pressure between the melter plenum and the dust scrubber was observed. This phenomenon is harmful to the long-term continuous operation of TVF. And, it is also anticipated that the same phenomenon will occur in commercial vitrification facility. In order to solve this problem, the countermeasures were studied and developed. Through the study on the deposit growing mechanism, it was probable that the rapid increased differential pressure was attributed to the condensation of meta-boric acid at the outlet of the air-film cooler slits. And, the heating and the humidification of purge air were judged to be effective as the countermeasures to suppress the condensation. On the other hand, the water injection into melter off-gas pipe was found to be very effective to reduce the differential pressure as the results of the various tests. The deposit adhered on the inner surface of the off-gas pipe was almost washed out. And, it was also demonstrated that the system was superior to other systems by virtue of its simplicity and stability. In order to apply the system to the commercial scale plant, the scale-up tests were conducted at JNC mock-up facility using the acrylic model. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all six melter runs (bubbled and non-bubbled runs for each of the three feeds). The steady state selection was made by limiting the standard deviation of the average vapor space temperature readings from two bare thermocouples (TT-03 and TT-05) to less than 5 C in most cases at a constant feed rate. The steady state data thus selected were mass and heat balanced and the off-gas data were re-baselined to assess the flammability potential of each feed under the DWPF melter operating conditions. Efforts were made to extract as much information out of the data as possible necessary to extend the applicability of the existing baseline cold cap and off-gas combustion models to the glycolic and sugar flowsheet feeds. This report details the outcome of these activities.

Choi, A.

2011-07-08

102

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

103

Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar®L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar®L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isoparsign L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. Tffluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion

104

Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, 14C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

105

Development of off-gas emission kinetics for stored wood pellets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lumped three-reaction kinetic model for off-gas emissions of stored wood pellets in sealed containers has been developed accounting for the formation of CO and CO(2) and the depletion of O(2). Off-gas emission data at different conditions were used to extract kinetic model parameters by numerically fitting the proposed model equations. The fitted kinetic model parameters for different cases showed consistency with one another. With properly estimated model parameters, the current kinetic model can be used to predict off-gas emissions, oxygen depletion, and the buildup of toxic air pollutants in wood pellet storage containers/vessels. PMID:22826538

Fan, Chuigang; Bi, Xiaotao T

2013-01-01

106

Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the off-gas analysis of samples collected during the radioactive vitrification experiments. Production and characterization of the Hanford waste-containing LAW and HAW glasses are presented in related reports from this conference

107

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08

108

Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. ? Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO2 absorbent unit are investigated. ? The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. ? The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

109

Test planning and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

easuring points. Data acquisition, recording and storage, should take into account the characteristics of the successive data processing: to much data can be cumbersome to be processed, but to few data can make unusable the experimental results. The parameters for time history acquisition should be chosen taking into account data processing: for Shock Response Spectrum calculation some special requirements should be met: frequency bounded signal, high frequency sampling, shock noise. For stationary random-like excitation, the sample length should be chosen taking into account errors tolerances. Test procedures should be prepared and issued. Management of unexpected behaviours includes: Non linear behaviour; shocks among mechanical parts in presence of clearances; on line control, alarm limits, abort limits, and interlocks

110

Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

1992-04-15

111

Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

1992-04-15

112

Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m3/h (15-ft3/min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussedystem performance are also discussed

113

Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

114

Sport performance and agility tests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect agility on sports performance and agility measurement tests. Agility is described as a rapid whole body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus. Good agility requires a combination of speed, balance, power and co-ordination. Agility, which is a motoric ability, can be improved by regular progressive exercise. As an important component, agility is used to be an acceptable method in sports performance test batter...

Kür?at Karacabey

2013-01-01

115

Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 10000C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO2 than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>7500C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed

116

Parametric studies of off-gas release during in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gases are released from underground sources during the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. Most of these gases will be generated beyond the melt front where advancing high temperatures will cause pyrolysis and vaporization of organic and volatile materials. Some of these gases will enter the bottom of the melt pool and propagate upwards to the surface where they will enter the ISV confinement hood. A computer code called OGRE (Off-Gas RElease) has been written to model bubble-rise physics in the melt pool for given volumetric gas flux rates into the bottom of the pool. The models incorporated into OGRE have previously been reported. The purpose of the present document is to report the results of a series of parametric studies performed with OGRE. The numerical studies involve the variation of seventeen parameters for each of the two different inlet bubble-size models. Results indicate that while predictions appear qualitatively reasonable, additional development of the agglomeration and drift flux models is needed. This development will require experimental data for bubble formation and terminal velocity. 5 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs

117

Development of the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process for HTGR off-gas reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel involves burning of the graphite-matrix elements to release the fuel for recovery purposes. The resulting off-gas is primarily CO2 with residual amounts of N2, O2, and CO, together with fission products. Trace quantities of krypton-85 must be recovered in a concentrated form from the gas stream, but processes commonly employed for rare gas removal and concentration are not suitable for use with off-gas from graphite burning. The KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2) process employs liquid CO2 as a volatile solvent for the krypton and is, therefore, uniquely suited to the task. Engineering development of the KALC process is currently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The ORNL system is designed for close study of the individual separation operations involved in the KALC process, while the ORGDP system provides a complete pilot facility for demonstrating combined operations on a somewhat larger scale. Packed column performance and process control procedures have been of prime importance in the initial studies. Computer programs have been prepared to analyze and model operational performance of the KALC studies, and special sampling and in-line monitoring systems have been developed for use in the experimental facilities. (U.S.)

118

Performance testing With JMeter 29  

CERN Document Server

Performance Testing With JMeter 2.9 is a standard tutorial that will help you polish your fundamentals, guide you through various advanced topics, and along the process help you learn new tools and skills.This book is for developers, quality assurance engineers, testers, and test managers new to Apache JMeter, or those who are looking to get a good grounding in how to effectively use and become proficient with it. No prior testing experience is required.

Erinle, Bayo

2013-01-01

119

Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force and tool life uncertainty is proposed.

Belluco, Walter

2001-01-01

120

Development of submicron particle size classification and collection techniques for nuclear facility off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are an essential part of nuclear facility off-gas cleanup systems. However, HEPA-rated sampling filters are not the most appropriate samplers for the particle penetrating off-gas cleanup systems. Previous work at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) estimated perhaps 5% of the radioactivity that challenged sampling filters penetrated them in the form of submicron particles - typically less than 0.2 microns. Accordingly, to evaluate these penetrating aerosols more fully, a suitable robust monitoring system for size differentiation and measurement of submicron particles was developed. A literature survey revealed that the diffusion battery was the best choice for particle size classification and that the electrofluidized bed was the best method for particle collection in ICPP off-gas streams. This report describes the laboratory study and in-plant demonstration of these two techniques

 
 
 
 
121

Chromatographic separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas by adsorption on solid adsorbers was experimentally investigated. The principle of the developed process consists of adsorption on activated charcoal and separation of the different gas species by purging the charcoal with helium. Different process variations in regard to adsorption pressure and column temperature are compared with each other. For hot cell application a process with gas adsorption at -1500C and nominal pressure seems to be most suitable. In this case and for an off-gas flow rate of 100 m3 STP/h the whole column volume for a continuous operating process is about 300 l charcoal and the helium purge flow rate is 8 m3 STP/h. Among other parameters the influences of the off-gas composition and fluctuations of the noble gas content have been investigated

122

Method for separating radioactive krypton from the off-gas of a dissolver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method is based on the principle of adsorption and desorption on adsorbents. The basis for the development of the process concept are laboratory experiments corroborating the feasibility of the individual process steps. Moreover, the different adsorption processes for krypton separation described in the past are taken into account. The entire process essentially consists of three stages which are coupled together: Retention of NOsub(x) residues from the off-gas on molecular sieve and recycling the NOsub(x) with part of the waste gas into the dissolver; deposition of xenon on activated charcoal with simultaneous concentration of krypton in the off-gas; deposition of krypton from the remaining off-gas by means of preparative gas chromatography with coupled filling of pure crypton into storage cylinders containing activated charcoal. (orig./HP)

123

Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities reflect the normal development by manufacturers of new and improved equipment and the demand for more safety, greater reliability, and higher collection efficiency as an aftermath of the well publicized accident at Three Mile Island. The latter event has to be viewed as a watershed in the history of off-gas treatment requirements for nuclear facilities. It is too soon to predict what these will be with any degree of assurance but it seems reasonable to expect greatly increased interest in containment venting systems for light water and LMFBR nuclear power reactors and more stringent regulatory requirements for auxiliary off-gas cleaning systems. Although chemical and waste handling plants share few characteristics with reactors other than the presence of radioactive materials, often in large amounts, tighter requirements for handling reactor off-gases will surely be transferred to other kinds of nuclear facilities without delay. Currently employed nuclear off-gas cleaning technology was largely developed and applied during the decade of the 1950s. It is regrettable that the most efficient and most economical off-gas treatment systems do not always yield the best waste forms for storage or disposal. It is even more regrettable that waste management has ceased to be solely a technical matter but has been transformed instead into a highly charged political posture of major importance in many western nations. Little reinforcement has been provided by detailed studies of off-gas treatment equipment failures that show that approximately 13% of over 9000 licensee event reports to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission pertained to failures in ventilating and cleaning systems and their monitoring instruments

124

Dissolution off-gases at the marcoule pilot facility: Iodine trapping and off-gas characterization unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Marcoule Pilot Reprocessing Facility (APM) reprocesses spent fuel from light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. A batch dissolution process is used with an annual throughput capacity of 5 metric tons. The off-gas treatment unit is described together with its characterization laboratory in order to highlight the functions and potential of the facilities. The objectives are consistent with the Marcoule site policy regarding diminished iodine release and investigation of the off-gas treatment process. The equipment used to meet these objectives is described from a functional standpoint. The facility implements measurement techniques to allow continuous quantitative measurements of nitrogen oxides, oxygen, iodine and krypton, as well as continuous monitoring of the demister inlet flow by ? spectrometry. Sorbents used for iodine trapping may be tested over a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, flow rate, iodine concentration) with representative dissolution off-gases. An X-ray and ? counting system is used to assess the activity of the adsorbed radionuclides, notably 129I

125

Behaviour of selected contaminants in spray calciner/in-can melter waste vitrification off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Product loss from spray calciner/in-can melter vitrification of high-level wastes was evaluated with respect to volatile, gaseous and particulate materials. Investigations of the off-gases in a non-radioactive system are discussed, including gaseous constituents, particulate size distributions and loadings. Monitoring of gases leaving the off-gas system during spray calcination/in-can melting of radioactive waste gave material concentrations and material forms in the gases. The most significant conclusion drawn from these studies was that particulate loss accounts for a significant portion of the fission products in the off-gas system. (author)

126

Behavior of selected contaminants in liquid-fed ceramic melter waste-vitrification off gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

melter lid and the effluent system. Due to the high chloride and sodium volatility observed, entrainment losses from the melter to the effluent treatment system account for only 10% to 30% of the total losses. Particulate decontamination factors from feed to off gas in the melter system ranged from 5 x 102 to greater than 103 without any filtration or treatment

127

Reprocessing off-gas treatment research in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (S.C.K./C.E.N.) is technologically oriented and aims at the development of industrially applicable techniques for capture of in the perspective of increasingly severe discharge authorizations at the stack of reprocessing plants. Attention was focussed on the I problem particularly, the long lived I129 isotope. Among the many capture techniques, scrubbing by HgNO3-HNO3 solutions, followed by adsorption on silver impregnated zeolites was chosen. Pilot installations with a throughput of 25 m3h-1 have been constructed and operated with simulated gases resulting fram a mock-up dissolver and traced with molecular I131 and CH3 I131 at up to several hundred mCi. The second nuclide of interest to the environment is Kr85 which has to be retained within the limits imposed by the new US regulations. Cryogenic absorption-distillation was chosen as reference technique. A pilot installation of 15 m3h-1 has been installed and operated on a continuous basis. Capture of T gas and tritiated water vapour was studied parametrically in simulated conditions. A new pilot equipment of 15 m3h-1 combining catalytic oxidation and adsorption on molecular sieves has been constructed. All the selected techniques will be integrated into a mock-up gas loop of 25 m3h-1 in order to test the mutual influence of the different unit steps on each other and on the ultimate decontamination factor. Finally a pilot facility for studying head-end processing (HERMES) has been designed in which the most appropriate gas purification techniques will be tested in hot cell conditions. (orig./HP)

128

40 CFR 60.8 - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...conduct performance test(s) and furnish the Administrator a written report of the results of such performance test(s). (1...using the applicable test method. Each run shall...of forced shutdown, failure of an...

2010-07-01

129

Characterization of magnesium phosphate ceramics incorporating off-gas filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) are discharged from the spent fuel as gaseous forms during the head-end process in pyroprocess. These off-gases are safely trapped via porous ceramic filters made of fly ash and calcium based material. Spent filters have to be treated, converted into proper waste forms in order to be disposed safely at a repository. Conventional technology used to make waste forms such as vitrification requires high temperature and complex process. In this study, we report a promising method to stabilize spent filters containing cesium and technetium using magnesium phosphate ceramics. Simulated spent filters were fabricated by vaporizing nonradioactive cesium and rhenium (a surrogate of Tc) through the voloxidizer. The crushed filters were mixed with raw materials of magnesium phosphate ceramics, to be stabilized in the phosphate ceramic matrix. Characterization of the waste forms was made by the compressive strength test, apparent porosity, XRD analysis, and SEM analysis. The sample containing filters showed the excellent mechanical property, with the highest compressive strength of 38.1 MPa in the sample with 30 wt% of Cs-filter. Microstructural analysis suggests that wastes are embedded in the crystalline phase formed by an acid-base reaction. (author)

130

Process selection and investment analysis, methanation facility for Purox pyrolysis system off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sassi Corporation of Indianapolis, Indiana, is investigating the commercial viability of converting refuse (trash and garbage) to synthetic natural gas. This conversion is accomplished by: (A) shredding and preparing the refuse for conversion; (B) producing a gas of low calorific value from the refuse using the Union Carbide Purox Process; and (C) methanating the Purox off-gas to a quality suitable for sale in the existing gas distribution system. The last step of this conversion process, the Purox off-gas methanation, has been studied by The Pritchard Corporation. A process design and an estimate of its capital investment have been developed. The process upgrades low-Btu Purox off-gas, with a heating value of 590 Btu per cubic foot, to Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), which is comprised mostly of methane and which has a heating value of 879 Btu per cubic foot. Upgrading is accomplished by a series of clean up and catalytic conversion steps. The clean-up steps encompass a benzol wash for removal of residual hydrocarbon liquids from the Purox off-gas, sulfur and chloride removal, carbon dioxide removal, and dehydration. The catalytic conversion steps consist of hydrogenation and methanation. Based on the scheme envisioned, a process design has been prepared for a facility which processes 46.87 MMSCFD of Purox off-gas, resulting in 26.4 MMSCFD of SNG. A detailed process description, process flow diagram, and a detailed description of the mechanical aspects of the plant are included in this report. Investment analysis reveals that capital requirements for the facility are approximately $47,320,000, resulting in a payout, not including taxes or interest, of 8.3 years.

1981-09-01

131

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas streams using partially exchanged silver mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The methyl iodide adsorption of partially exchanged silver mordenite was examined for the effects of NO/sub x/, humidity, filter temperature, and degree of silver exchange. Partially exchanged silver mordenite, in general, achieved significantly higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. Silver utilizations of > 95% were achieved, assuming the formation of AgI. The experimental results indicate that CH3I loadings increase proportionally with silver loading up to 5 wt % silver and then appear to level off. Tests conducted to determine the effect of temperature on the loading showed higher loadings at 2000C than at either 150 or 2500C. The presence of NO, NO2, and H2O vapor showed negligible effects on the loading of CH3I. In contrast to iodine loaded onto fully exchanged silver mordenite, the iodine loaded onto the partially exchanged silver mordenite could not be stripped by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen at temperatures up to 5000C. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates a decreased adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 5000C. The loss of adsorbent capacity was much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing. A cost evaluation for the use of the partially exchanged silver mordenite shows that the cost of the silver mordenite on a once-through basis is < $10/h of operation for a 0.5-t/d reprocessing plant

132

Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas systems utilizing silver-exchanged mordenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, silver loadings and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests was 142 mg CH3I per g of substrate on fully exchanged zeolite, approximately the same as elemental iodine loadings. A filter using fully exchanged silver mordenite operating at 2000C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 1500C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen rather than dry air, at a temperature of 2000C, also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. Partially exchanged silver mordenite achieved higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. The partially exchanged mordenite also achieved higher loadings at 2000C than at 2500C. The iodine loaded onto these beds was not stripped at 5000C by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen; however, the iodine could be removed by air at 5000C, and the bed could be reloaded. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 5000C. The loss of adsorbent capacity is much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing

133

Demonstration of fly-ash filter for trapping volatile radioactive cesium in off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this study is to design and operate the fly ash filter unit for trapping cesium in the vitrification pilot process of radioactive waste in the low and medium level. It is necessary to reuse fly ash, which is a kind of waste from coal fired power plant, in trapping cesium generated from vitrification process and improving safety and removal efficiency of off gas treatment system. According to the XRD analysis on the trapping cesium compounds by the fly ash filter, the thermally stable pollucite phase was formed when the SOx or NOx was used as the carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of volatile cesium by the fly ash filter was decreased with the increase of face velocity, whereas the efficiency was increased with the increase of the reaction temperature. And also, by increasing the reaction time, the efficiency was decreased. The trapping efficiency of volatile cesium by the fly ash filter was higher than 99.5 percent under the air or NOx/air as a carrier gas, however, the efficiency was decreased to 99.0 percent under the NOx/N2 as a carrier gas. By the way, the effect of NOx in the vitrification pilot process might be negligible due to the supply of the significant amount of oxygen. However, because using the SOx as the carrier gas the efficiency was slightly decreased to 93.5 percent, the influence of the SOx on the trapping cesium by the fly ash filter seems to be concerned in that pilot process. The fly ash filter unit was performed in the vitrification pilot process, but the trapping efficiency of cesium by that filter could not measured because analytical instruments can not detect the cesium. However, it is confirmed that the the stainless steel 310 can be used for the material of filter frame and housing and shows the corrosion resistance at high temperature (1000 deg C). (author)

134

Reflectors for SAR performance testing.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2008-01-01

135

Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs

136

Development of a hydrogen mordenite sorbent for the capture of krypton from used nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing. (author)

137

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

2014-04-01

138

Negative surface ionization mass spectrometry for real-time monitoring of iodine molecules in process off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negative surface ionization mass spectrometry is being developed for continuous measurement of iodine found in the atmospheric environment as a result of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Studies have been made on a series of low work function surface materials (CaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3, BaCO3-SrCO3, LaB6) with the intent of developing improved methods for iodine analysis, particularly at the environmental level (ppb concentration range). The results demonstrate the feasibility of performing real-time measurements of the trace amount of iodine encountered in process off-gas by use of a CaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-coated rhenium filament emitter. This emitter surface with thermoelectronic work function ? at 2.0 eV gives 37.5 times greater sensitivity than the established LaB6 emitter for iodine analysis. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

139

Analysis of fire and smoke threat to off-gas HEPA filters in a transuranium processing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author performed an analysis of fire risk to the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that provide ventilation containment for a transuranium processing plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A fire-safety survey by an independent fire-protection consulting company had identified the HEPA filters in the facility's off-gas containment ventilation system as being at risk from fire effects. Independently studied were the ventilation networks and flow dynamics, and typical fuel loads were analyzed. It was found that virtually no condition for fire initiation exists and that, even if a fire started, its consequences would be minimal as a result of standard shut-down procedures. Moreover, the installed fire-protection system would limit any fire and thus would further reduce smoke or heat exposure to the ventilation components. 4 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

140

Protection and safety functions of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaseous effluent cleaning installations are designed to protect workmen and environment and must be efficient enough to guarantee that the amounts of gases and dusts emitted by a furnace operating normally or accidentally are at an acceptable level in the atmosphere on the incinerator site. The process equipments necessary to operations and the monitoring devices must be reliable. The main risk in normal operation is occupational exposure close to the radioactive products accumulation points. The accidental risks are mainly related to an outage of the off-gas cleaning or a tightness failure with radioactive products dissemination resulting from either internal perturbation (filter tear, exhauster failure, ...) or external incident (electricity cut-off, furnace disarrangements, fire or explosion inside the incinerator). In view of these risks, it is interesting to examine the safety and protection functions of different components of off-gas treatment systems

 
 
 
 
141

Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxiliary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10,000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts to 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveyed by doserate and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (author)

142

On The Impact of Borescope Camera Air Purge on DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DWPF Engineering personnel requested that a new minimum backup film cooler air flow rate, which will meet the off-gas safety basis limits for both normal and seismic sludge-only operations, be calculated when the air purge to the borescope cameras is isolated from the melter. Specifically, it was requested that the latest calculations which were used to set the off-gas flammability safety bases for the sludge batch 2 and 3 feeds be revised, while maintaining all other process variables affecting off-gas flammability such as total organic carbon (TOC), feed rate, melter air purges, and vapor space temperature at their current respective maximum or minimum limits. Before attempting to calculate the new minimum backup film cooler air flow, some of the key elements of the combustion model were reviewed, and it was determined that the current minimum backup film cooler air flow of 233 lb/hr is adequate to satisfy the off-gas flammability safety bases for both normal and seismic operations in the absence of any borescope camera air purge. It is, therefore, concluded that there is no need to revise the reference E-7 calculations. This conclusion is in essence based on the fact that the current minimum backup film cooler air flow was set to satisfy the minimum combustion air requirement under the worst-case operating scenario involving a design basis earthquake during which all the air purges not only to the borescope cameras but to the seal pot are presumed to be lost due tohe seal pot are presumed to be lost due to pipe ruptures. The minimum combustion air purge is currently set at 150 per cent of the stoichiometric air flow required to combust 3 times the normal flow of flammable gases. The DWPF control strategy has been that 100 per cent of the required minimum combustion air is to be provided by the controlled air purge through the backup film cooler alone

143

Continuous analysis of HF concentration in UF4 production off gas condensate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electro-conductivity method was applied to determine the concentration of HF in UF4 induction off gas stream. Replacement of Pt wire with ?8 x 1 x 50 silver tubes overcomes the disadvantage of small surface area, non-stable conductivity cell and long delay time of Pt wire electrodes. The improved conductivity cell is characterized by good stability, shorter delay time (within 5 min) and better analysis precision about +- 1%

144

Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO(2) and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH(4) emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets. PMID:19805393

Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T; Melin, Staffan

2009-11-01

145

Treatment of off-gas evolved from thermal decomposition of sludge waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of a uranium conversion plant. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of sludge waste are nitrate salts and uranium. The sludge waste is denitrated by thermal decomposition. The treatment of off-gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts in the sludge waste is investigated. The nitrate salts in the sludge were decomposed in two steps: the first decomposition is due to the ammonium nitrate, and the second is due to the sodium and calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate. The components of off-gas from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at low temperature are NH3, N2O, NO2, and NO. In addition, the components from the decomposition of sodium and calcium nitrate at high temperature are NO2 and NO. Off-gas from the thermal decomposition is treated by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Ammonia is converted into nitrogen oxides through the oxidation catalyst and all nitrogen oxides are removed by SCR treatment besides nitrous oxide, which is greenhouse gas. An additional process is needed to remove nitrous oxide, and the feeding rate of ammonia in SCR should be controlled properly for evolved nitrogen oxides. (author)des. (author)

146

Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in dedusting plants and comparison to off-gas measurements at electric arc furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical simulation tool is presented in order to model enthalpy flow rates of off-gas and heat transfer of cooling systems at dedusting plants in electric steel making sites. The flexibility of the simulation tool is based on a user-defined series of modular units that describe elementary units of industrial dedusting systems, e.g. water-cooled hot gas duct, air injector, drop-out box, mixing chamber, post-combustion chamber, filter, etc. Results of simulation were checked with measurements at industrial electric steel making plants in order to validate the models for turbulence, heat transfer and chemical reaction kinetics. Comparison between computed and measured gas temperature and composition yield excellent agreement. The simulation tool is used to calculate off-gas temperature and volume flow rate, where off-gas measurements are very difficult to apply due to high gas temperatures and high dust load. Heat transfer from the off-gas to the cooling system was calculated in detail for a pressurised hot water EAF cooling system in order to investigate the impact of the cooling system and the dedusting plant operation on the energy sinks of the electric arc furnace. It is shown that optimum efficiency of post-combustion of EAF off-gas in the water-cooled hot gas duct requires continuous off-gas analysis. Common operation parameters of EAF dedusting systems do not consider the non-steady-state of the EAF off-gas emission efficiently

147

Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

2012-11-01

148

Structure-property relationship of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and physisorbed off-gas radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the host-guest interactions between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various profiles and highly polarizable molecules (iodine), with emphasis on identifying preferential sorption sites in these systems. Radioactive iodine 129I, along with other volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, Xe and Kr), represents a relevant component in the off-gas resulted during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to its very long half-life, 15.7 x 106 years, and potential health risks in humans, its efficient capture and long-term storage is of great importance. The leading iodine capture technology to date is based on trapping iodine in silver-exchanged mordenite. Our interests are directed towards improving existent capturing technologies, along with developing novel materials and alternative waste forms. Herein we report the first study that systematically monitors iodine loading onto MOFs, an emerging new class of porous solid-state materials. In this context, MOFs are of particular interest as: (i) they serve as ideal high capacity storage media, (ii) they hold potential for the selective adsorption from complex streams, due to their high versatility and tunability. This work highlights studies on both newly developed in our lab, and known highly porous MOFs that all possess distinct characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and dimension of the window access to the pore). The materials were loaded to saturation, where elemental iodine was introduced from here elemental iodine was introduced from solution, as well as from vapor phase. Uptakes in the range of ?125-150 wt% I2 sorbed were achieved, indicating that these materials outperform all other solid adsorbents to date in terms of overall capacity. Additionally, the loaded materials can be efficiently encapsulated in stable waste forms, including as low temperature sintering glasses. Ongoing studies are focused on gathering qualitative information with respect to localizing the physisorbed iodine molecules within the frameworks: X-ray single-crystal analyses, in conjunction with high pressure differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) studies aimed to identify preferential sites in the pores, and improve MOFs robustness. Furthermore, durability studies on the iodine loaded MOFs and subsequent waste forms include thermal analyses, SEM/EDS elemental mapping, and leach-durability testing. We anticipate for this in-depth analysis to further aid the design of advanced materials, capable to address major hallmarks: safe capture, stability and durability over extended timeframes.

149

Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line

150

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SELECTED SORBENT BOOMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance tests on three commercially available sorbent booms were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) test facility. Test variables included wave condition, tow speed, and quantity of o...

151

Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

2014-01-01

152

A conceptual study on LH2 tank system with no relief of boil-off gas into the atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The greenhouse effect is an important problem facing the global community, and it is caused in part by the use of fossil fuel in transportation. By changing the fossil fuel to hydrogen, a countermeasure was found. A challenge is hydrogen storage. The largest amount of energy per weight and volume is achieved with storing liquid hydrogen. The low temperature of the liquid hydrogen results in the generation of boil-off gas, causing heat inflow into the liquid hydrogen. This boil-off gas is then released into the atmosphere. The authors described a novel design concept for liquid hydrogen with an ultra-low temperature refrigerator installed in the tank in an effort to completely eliminate the release of boil-off gas in the atmosphere. It was concluded that using a commercially available refrigerator system can completely eliminate the boil-off gas. An improvement in the thermal efficiency of the system was noted. 4 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

153

Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO2) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastlyasily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

154

A study of mineral zeolite as a nitrogen oxides adsorbent for dissolver off-gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, dissolver off-gas (DOG) is supposed to include nitrogen oxides (NOX) during the operation. An adsorption process by mineral zeolite has been studied for DOG treatment that follows a dehydration and iodine removal process. According to the results, the characteristics of the mineral zeolite hydrogenated by 1 N HCl are very favorable for this purpose. As for the actual operation, a small fraction of iodine is supposed to penetrate the I/sub 2/ removal process to the NOX adsorption process. No degradation has been observed for the NOX adsorption of mineral zeolite by the presence of I/sub 2/

155

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

Goles, R.W.

1996-03-01

156

Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse.

Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

2000-05-15

157

Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse

158

Concrete testing - is performance assured  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality assurance in relation to manufacturing, curing and testing concrete is discussed. The need for testing in situ as well as laboratory testing in accordance with BSI specifications is considered. The importance of establishing concrete durability as well as strength is emphasized. It is stated that typical examples of the application of quality assurance are the two nuclear power stations at Heysham and Torness. (U.K.)

159

Test Software Functionality, but Test its Performance as Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software product testing has great importance in the detection of errors appearing in the course of software development and reflecting directly on software quality enhancement before its implementation in the working environment. Special priority in the software product testing phase is given to testing software performance. In contrast to functional testing, which should show if software is capable of carrying out planned functions without making errors, performance testing should show if the software will realize planned tasks in accordance with previously defined and expectedperformance. Software performance testing tools are used for simulating conditions under which software will work.In this article, the authors point to the importance of the testing phases in the software product development process and give a review of up-to-date testing techniques. The focus of the article is placed on software performance testing and overview of performance testing tools.

Jovica ?urkovi?

2011-06-01

160

Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated…

Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Performance testing of sodium valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic information is presented on the production and development testing of sodium fittings, necessary for obtaining approval for use in fast reactor power circuits. Literature data illustrate the high demands on the required test procedures and basic conditions are defined which sodium fittings should meet. The trends of future work in this field are outlined. (author)

162

Canadian development program for off-gas management in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian program for the development and evaluation of processes and technology for the separation and containment of radioactive species in off-gases is directed towards the following specific aspects: 1) assessment of available treatment technology and evaluation of future clean-up requirements; 2) development and engineering evaluation, under realistic conditions, of promising new processes that would be inherently simpler and safer; and 3) specification of off-gas emission control systems for future nuclear facilities based on the most favourable technology. The program is being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in collaboration with the electrical utility, Ontario Hydro, and selected Canadian universities. A brief description is presented of methods for removing tritium and carbon-14 from the moderator systems of CANDU power reactors, methods for removing iodine from the off-gases of a molybdenum-99 production facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and procedures for monitoring the off-gas effluent composition in the Thorium Fuel Reprocessing Experiment (TFRE) facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

163

The Effects of Test Anxiety on Listening Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Although decisions or inferences we make based on test scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing situations, little research has been undertaken on the effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., Alderson and Banerjee, 2002). This study focuses on one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely…

In'nami, Yo.

2006-01-01

164

Performance testing of extremity dosimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rformance criterion specified in the draft standard. The results indicate that approximately 60% of both the finger ring and the wrist/ankle dosimeters met the performance criterion. Two-thirds of the dosimeters that did not meet the performance criterion had large biases (ranging from 0.25 to 0.80) but small standard deviations (less than 0.15). 21 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs

165

Off-gas cleanup system designed for HLLW vitrification in a liquid-fed ceramic waste melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Institut fuer Nucleare Entsorgungstechnik (INE), a vitrification process for high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is under development which is primarily based on a continuous liquid-fed ceramic melter. This paper describes the off-gas system specially designed for the process off-gas of such a type of melting unit. Operational experience indicates that process conditions at the glass pool surface have a significant influence on the loading of the off-gas stream with particulate or volatile material. Low off-gas loading can be observed when the molten glass pool is covered as completely as possible with a liquid waste solution. For the off-gas cleanup system, a wet filtration device was chosen. The efficiency of this device for the removal of particulate and volatile material is evaluated and the results are discussed. The vitrification process under inactive development at INE will be radioactively demonstrated in a pilot-scale vitrification plant to be built at the Eurochemic site at Mol, Belgium. (author)

166

Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

167

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-09-01

168

Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2013-10-01

169

Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

Garn, T.G.; Greenhalgh, M.R.; Law, J.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 1625 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-07-01

170

40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...satisfaction that the plant cannot meet a concentration...performance testing while the plant is operated at maximum...excess air that allows production of iron oxide of acceptable quality...concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test...

2010-07-01

171

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

2012-10-01

172

Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant using preparative gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kr-85 can be separated from the pre-purified purge air in the final processing step of the purification phase for dissolver off-gases of a reprocessing plant with the aid of preparative gas chromatography. Activated carbon adsorbers in combination with helium as carrier gas permits maximum gas mixture through-flow. A separation temperature of 300C is considered optimal. An adsorbent volume of 40 dm3 is necessary for processing the residual gas flow of 2.5 Nm3/h; the adsorbent is divided between 2 columns linked in series each of which are 2 m long with an internal diameter of 100 mm. The helium flow required is five times greater than the off-gas flow. The degree of purity for krypton is greater than 90% for a decontamination factor of greater than 1000. (orig./HP)

173

Pilot plant development for adsorptive krypton separation from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of hot cell application a separation process was investigated for the retention of Kr-85 from gaseous effluents. In the flow sheet only adsorption beds are applied. The most efficient process scheme is adsorption of the noble gas on activated charcoal and thereafter separation of the coadsorbed gas species like N2, O2, Xe and CO2 from the krypton by gas chromatography. Adsorption is at normal pressure and low temperatures of up to -1600C, whereas desorption is at elevated temperatures and under helium purge. Influences on the process operation like off-gas composition, adsorption temperatures and adsorbent are experimentally investigated, as well as the behavior of trace impurities in the adsorption columns. On the basis of pilot plant operation the main components for a full scale facility are being designed

174

Engineering scale development of tailend purification steps for the dissolver off-gas in reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Removal steps for Xe, Kr-85 and 14-CO2 from the dissolver off-gas (DOG) downstream from iodine retention have been investigated on the engineering scale. Prepurification steps remove the H20-vapor and NOx to the trace level: The bulk is scrubbed with nitric acid plus H202 at temperatures below 00C; the small remainder is removed with an acid-resistant adsorber. The rare gases and CO2 are then selectively absorbed from the dry gas in CC12F2-solvent at cryogenic temperature and sub-ambient pressure. A first absorption column removes the Xe plus CO2, the second column removes the Kr. The state of development is presented and the technical and safety aspects of the DOG tailend purification steps are discussed

175

Purification of exhaust air and off-gas in nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sources of radioactivity present in nuclear power stations, the significance of the fission products for the environmental impact of nuclear power stations, and the pathway of the airborne radioactivity will be treated briefly. The devices for the removal of radioactivity from the exhaust air and from off-gas are discussed and their function is explained. The HEPA-filters for the removal of aerosols, the sorption filters for the removal of gaseous radioiodine, and the fission gas holdup beds with activated charcoal for decreasing the discharge of radioactive isotopes of the noble gases xenon and krypton will be treated in detail. The degree of penetration of these devices will be given. The factors reducing the removal efficiency will be mentioned. (orig.)

176

Some aspects of the treatment of typical off-gas streams from reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a fluidized sand-bed filter for filtration of particulate activity as applied to the process off-gas systems in fuel reprocessing plants, and an evaluation of its efficiency, is described. A comparative statement of the relative merits of various other filtration systems, such as the deep-bed glass fibre filters and the fixed sand-bed filters for such application, is made and a composite filtration system consisting of a fluidized sand-bed pre-filter and a final glass fibre polishing filter is recommended. Also included are studies carried out on the use of stainless steel sieve plates as de-entrainers, proposing a correlation for efficiency. (author)

177

Decomposition of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial off-gas by electron beams: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam induced decomposition of volatile organic compounds (e.g. aromatic compounds, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins) in industrial off gas has been investigated by several research groups in Germany and Japan. The method was shown to be effective for cleaning the waste gas of a paint factory, the waste air discharged from an automobile tunnel, the off gas cleaning from a groundwater remediation plant and the flue gas of a waste incinerator. The electron beam process achieves high removal efficiencies for volatile organic compounds. Reaction models have been developed, which suggest that the organic compounds are oxidized by hydroxyl radicals. The electron beam process may treat very large off-gas volumes at ambient temperatures and has a low energy consumption. The production of secondary wastes can be avoided or minimized. Compared to conventional methods the investment and operation costs of the process seem to be attractive for selected applications

178

Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

2013-09-01

179

Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

180

JOYO MK-III performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MK-III upgrading project was completed in the experimental fast reactor JOYO to increase irradiation capability for irradiation tests. The performance tests were carried out from June 2003 as the last phase of MK-III modification work. During the performance tests, the reactor power was raised step by step, while confirming the nuclear and thermal characteristics of MK-III core and the heat removal capability of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the dump heat exchanger (DHX). All performance tests were successfully carried out and it was confirmed that the performance of JOYO MK-III plant satisfied the design requirement. A pre-use inspection pass certificate for JOYO MK-III was granted from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 27th November 2003 and the MK-III modification work was completed. This report shows the results of the performance tests of JOYO MK-III. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Performance and qualification tests for safeguards equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance and environmental tests are conducted to determine if the tested item can be stored, transported and operated under various conditions without experiencing physical damage or deterioration in performance. An analysis of transport, storage and operating conditions must take into account the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vibrations, shocks and electromagnetic perturbations. At the Institute for System, Informatics and Safety of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, testing facilities have been set up and have been called the TEMPEST laboratory (Thermal, Electromagnetic and Physical Equipment Stress Testing) in order to define the performance characteristics and to establish performance profiles as well as the fitness for the purpose of C/S devices. Under Task EUR A-S60 of the Support Programme of the European Commission to TAEA Safeguards a test procedure has been developed in order to qualify IAEA safeguards equipment. Various equipment have been tested in the last years as described in this paper. (author)

182

Bridge deck performance engineering testing procedures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research describes the development and use of three test procedures designed for the qualification and acceptance of bridge deck systems and their wear surfaces. The tests were developed to provide a means of assessing a given deck's performance in comparison to other deck types and traditional cast-in-place reinforced concrete deck systems. The proposed performance-based tests attempt to assess the durability of prefabricated bridge deck systems, which has been shown to be the primary c...

Hammond, Brian Paschal

2009-01-01

183

Steam Pressurizer test and water level measurement performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reports discuss steam high pressure chamber test and water level measurement system performance test. In the report, the necessity and the methodology of test is described. The test loop and small scale steam chamber are designed. The validation for the design is conducted. Muliti-channel(200 or more) high-speed data acquisition system is required and chosen. The achievement of 1st year and 2nd year plan are presented

184

LWR Fuel Recycle Program. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1976. [Head end processes, off-gas treatment, Purex Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work was begun on the initial task of estimating U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ supply 1 prices. In the spent fuel receipt and storage project, review of existing and planned process equipment and concepts was initiated through discussions with both laboratory and industry personnel and through plant visits. Effort was also initiated to catalog existing fuel designs. Available information was reviewed on the voloxidation process and on various pyrochemical and pyrometallurgical steps for fuel reprocessing application. Further development work was done in the off-gas treatment project using charcoal filters to capture low concentrations of TBP vapor and x-ray fluorescence to analyze for phosphorus. A series of standards was prepared and is being analyzed. Several inorganic sorbent materials have been received and will be used in initial screening tests to determine TBP removal efficiency. Commercially available macroreticular polymeric adsorbents and anion exchange resins for the removal of iodine from dilute nitric acid streams (simulating concentrator overheads condensate) are being tested with encouraging results being obtained. The major portion of the literature search on solvent extraction equipment alternatives was completed, and a bibliographic listing of approximately 1000 items was generated. In the removal and re-entrainment of plutonium and other radionuclides project, a literature search was conducted to provide parameterizations for the draft Environmental Impact Statement for the LWR--Model Fuel Recycle Facilities. Recommended procedures are to ignore deposition and resuspension when calculating direct and inhalation doses; use Gaussian plume models only out to distances where sigma/sub z/ = h/2, then use the mixing height h out to 24-hr travel time, and thereafter use a constant mixing ratio; for calculating the indirect dose use a total (wet plus dry) deposition velocity of 3 cm/sec for reactive gases and all particles, regardless of size. (LK)

Irish, E.R. (comp.); Simmons, J.L. (ed.)

1976-07-01

185

MC and A performance testing status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past few years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) inspections identified performance testing deficiencies in both contractor nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) programs and field office nuclear material survey programs. Questions about the usefulness and effectiveness of these DOE performance testing programs prompted this evaluation. Information about MC and A performance testing was solicited from DOE sites and compared with results of OSE inspections of nuclear materials survey programs and contractor MC and A programs. This paper summarizes the results of this evaluation and highlights those systems that have received minimal attention as well as those that have been adequately reviewed using performance testing programs. Conclusions are presented and recommendations are made. A catalog of performance tests was generated from this evaluation using input from the field and OSE inspections that will enhance performance testing programs. In addition, a compilation of information generated from OSE inspections is discussed that relates these performance tests to the DOE MC and A standards and Criteria

186

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

Elliott, D.

1997-05-01

187

Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

188

Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

189

SI PC104 Performance Test Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

Montelongo, S

2005-12-16

190

Integrated Performance Testing for Nonproliferation Support Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with training in testing techniques and methodologies for assessment of the performance of: Physical Protection system elements; Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system elements.

Johns, Russell; Bultz, Garl Alan; Byers, Kenneth R.; Yaegle, William

2013-08-20

191

PNGV Battery Performance Testing and Analyses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s). Tests have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. They include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life. At periodic intervals during life testing, a series of Reference Performance Tests are executed to determine changes in the baseline performance of the batteries. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar- and cycle-life data. PNGV goals, test procedures, analytical methodologies, and representative results are presented.

Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Sutula, Raymond; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Miller, Ted J.; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T. J.

2002-03-01

192

Excess-air incineration with high temperature filtering for efficient off-gas cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When SGN started work on volume reduction of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the early 1960s, in collaboration with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), incineration was relatively undeveloped but its potential efficiency was immediately recognized. The incinerators then available divided more or less into proven designs used in municipal refuse incineration and so-called advanced systems: SGN's initial impression was that systems for municipal refuse incineration could be readily adapted to handle combustible nuclear wastes. These systems mainly employed excess-air fixed-bed combustion, rotary furnaces or fluidized-bed combustion, sometimes with partial or total pyrolysis. The ''advanced'' systems proposed by various inventors were far more sophisticated but, due to a lack of industrial experience, were often designed with inadequate regard to human safety. The result was a number of serious accidents, including some deaths. Nuclear-grade incineration was a rather esoteric subject at the time. Standard incinerators were not designed to handle radioactive wastes. They lacked essential safety features (e.g. leaktightness) and did not provide for repair and maintenance after contamination nor for affordable dismantling at end of life. Off-gas cleaning had neither the efficiency nor safety required in the nuclear industry. Extensive automation of control and monitoring was not envisaged, because unnecessary in traditional applications

193

Retrofit design of a boil-off gas handling process in liquefied natural gas receiving terminals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generation of Boil-off gas (BOG) in liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals considerably affects operating costs and the safety of the facility. For the above reasons, a proper BOG handling process is a major determinant in the design of a LNG receiving terminal. This study proposes the concept of a retrofit design for a BOG the handling process using a fundamental analysis. A base design was determined for a minimum send-out case in which the BOG handling becomes the most difficult. In the proposed design, the cryogenic energy of the LNG stream is used to cool other streams inside the process. It leads to a reduction in the operating costs of the compressors in the BOG handling process. Design variables of the retrofit design were optimized with non-linear programming to maximize profitability. Optimization results were compared with the base design to show the effect of the proposed design. The proposed design provides a 22.7% energy saving ratio and a 0.176 year payback period. -- Highlights: ? A retrofit design of the BOG handling process was proposed to maximize energy savings. ? The superstructure of the proposed design was developed based on a thermodynamic analysis. ? In the proposed design, the cryogenic energy of the LNG stream was utilized to directly cool down the BOG streams. ? The payback period of the proposed design is sufficiently short for investment in industry.

194

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF FOUR SKIMMING SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance tests were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oil and hazardous simulated environmental test tank (OHMSETT) on four commercial oil spill cleanup devices: the Sapiens Sirene skimming system, the Oil Mop remote skimmer, the Troil/Destroil skimming s...

195

The environment and ASME performance test codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, federal, state and local governmental agencies have enacted comprehensive legislation on power generation emission limits which affects all aspects of the energy sector. This paper reviews the indirect impact of Performance Test Codes on environmental testing, reviewing past, current, and future practices. Existing codes and three new codes currently under development will be cited along with possible future code development

196

Finger Tapping Test performance as a measure of performance validity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Finger Tapping Test (FTT) has been presented as an embedded measure of performance validity in most standard neuropsychological evaluations. The present study evaluated the utility of three different scoring systems intended to detect invalid performance based on FTT. The scoring systems were evaluated in neuropsychology cases from clinical and independent practices, in which credible performance was determined based on passing all performance validity measures or failing two or more validity indices. Each FTT scoring method presented with specificity rates at approximately 90% and sensitivity of slightly more than 40%. When suboptimal performance was based on the failure of any of the three scoring methods, specificity was unchanged and sensitivity improved to 50%. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of combining multiple scoring measures for the same test as well as benefits of embedded measures administered over the duration of the evaluation. PMID:24738938

Axelrod, Bradley N; Meyers, John E; Davis, Jeremy J

2014-01-01

197

Design and performance test of spacecraft test and operation software  

Science.gov (United States)

Main test processor (MTP) software is the key element of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for spacecraft test and operation used in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) for years without innovation. With the increasing demand for a more efficient and agile MTP software, the new MTP software was developed. It adopts layered and plug-in based software architecture, whose core runtime server provides message queue management, share memory management and process management services and forms the framework for a configurable and open architecture system. To investigate the MTP software's performance, the test case of network response time, test sequence management capability and data-processing capability was introduced in detail. Test results show that the MTP software is common and has higher performance than the legacy one.

Wang, Guohua; Cui, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiaofeng

2011-06-01

198

Cognitive test performance and background music.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of background music on test performance. In a repeated-measures design 30 undergraduates completed two cognitive tests, one in silence and the other with background music. Analysis suggested that music facilitated cognitive performance compared with the control condition of no music: more questions were completed and more answers were correct. There was no difference in heart rate under the two conditions. The improved performance under the music condition might be directly related to the type of music used. PMID:9450304

Cockerton, T; Moore, S; Norman, D

1997-12-01

199

In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables

200

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2009-03-25

 
 
 
 
201

Preliminary test conditions for KNGR SBLOCA DVI ECCS performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) adopts 4-train Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) configuration and injects the safety injection water directly into the downcomer through the 8.5'' DVI nozzle. Thus, the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as ECCS mixing and bypass are expected to be different from those observed in the cold leg injection. In order to investigate the realistic injection phenomena and modify the analysis code developed in the basis of cold leg injection, thermal hydraulic test with the performance evaluation is required. Preliminarily, the sequence of events and major thermal hydraulic phenomena during the small break LOCA for KNGR are identified from the analysis results calculated by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM. It is shown from the analysis results that the major transient behaviors including the core mixture level are largely affected by the downcomer modeling. Therefore, to investigate the proper thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer with limited budget and time, the separate effects test focusing on this region is considered to be effective and the conceptual test facility based on this recommended. For this test facility the test initial and boundary conditions are developed using the CEFLASH-4AS/REM analysis results that will be used as input for the preliminary test requirements. The final test requirements will be developed through the further discussions with the test performance group. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

202

Tributyl phosphate removal from reprocessing off-gas streams using a selected sorbent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experiments used small laboratory-scale columns packed with selected sorbent materials to remove tributyl phosphate (TBP) and iodine at conditions approaching those in actual reprocessing off-gas streams. The sorbent materials for TBP removal were placed upstream of iodine sorbent materials to protect the iodine sorbent from the deleterious effects of TBP. Methyl iodide in an airstream containing 30% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and water vapor was metered to two packed columns of sorbents simultaneously (in parallel). One column contained a segment of 8-in. x 14-in. mesh alumina sorbent for TBP removal, the other did not. The measure of the effectiveness of TBP sorbent materials for TBP removal was determined by comparing the iodine retention of the iodine sorbent materials in the two parallel columns. Results from an 18 wt % Ag substituted mordenite iodine sorbent indicated that the iodine retention capacity of the sorbent was reduced 60% by the TBP and that the column containing iodine sorbent material protected by the alumina TBP sorbent retained 30 times more iodine than the column without TBP sorbent. TBP concentration was up to 500 mg/m3. Similar experiments using a 7 wt % Ag impregnated silica gel indicated that the TBP vapor had little effect on the iodine retention of the silica gel material. The stoichiometric maximum amount of iodine was retained by the silica gel material. Further experiments were conducted assessing the effects of NO2 on iodine retention of this 7 wt % Ag sorbent. After the two columns were loaded with iodine in the presence of TBP (in NPH), one column was subjected to 2 vol % NO2 in air. From visual comparison of the two columns, it appeared that the NO2 regenerated the silica gel iodine sorbent and that iodine was washed off the silica gel iodine sorbent leaving the sorbent in the original state

203

Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 200,000kl LNG tanks were analyzed using the LKP and BWRS models. The heat leakage of LNG tanks depends on the structure of tanks, and the small tanks lose heatto the environment due to their large surface area to volume ratio. As the operation pressure was dropped to 200mbar, all four of the LNG tanks’ BOG levels reached 0.05vol%/day. In order to satisfy the BOG design requirement, the operating pressure of the four large LNG tanks in the case study was maintained above 200mbar. Thus, the operating pressure impacts BOG on LNG tanks, but this effect is limited under the extreme high operation pressure. An attempt was made to determine the relationship between the compositions of LNGand BOG; one been combustible and the other non-combustible gases. The main component of combustible gas was methane, and nitrogen was of non-combustible gases. The relationship between BOG and methane compositions was that, as the methane fraction increases in the LNG, the BOG volume also increases. In general, results showed a direct correlation between BOG and operating pressure. The study also found that larger LNG tanks have less BOG; however as the operation pressure is increased the differences in the quantity of BOGamong the four tanks decreased.

Sheikh Zahidul Islam

2010-08-01

204

Modeling of off-gas emissions from wood pellets during marine transportation.  

Science.gov (United States)

After a fatal accident during the discharge of wood pellets at Helsingborg, emissions from pellets during marine transportation became a concern for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets. In this paper, a two-compartment model has been developed for the first time to predict the concentrations of CO, CO?, CH?, and O? inside the cargo ship and the time and rate of forced ventilation required before the safe entry into the stairway adjacent to the storage hatch. The hatch and stairway are treated as two perfectly mixed tanks. The gas exchange rate between these two rooms and the gas exchange rate with the atmosphere are fitted to satisfy a measured tracer final concentration of 33 p.p.m.v. in the stairway and an average final hatch to stairway CO, CO?, and CH? concentration ratio of 1.62 based on measurement from five other hatch and stairway systems. The reaction kinetics obtained from a laboratory unit using a different batch of pellets, however, need to be scaled in order to bring the prediction to close agreement with onboard measured emission data at the end of voyage. Using the adjusted kinetic data, the model was able to predict the general trend of data recorded in the first 12.5 days of the voyage. Further validation, however, requires the data recorded over the whole journey. The model was applied to predict the effect of ocean temperature on the off-gas emissions and the buildup of concentrations in the hatch and stairway. For safe entry to the cargo ship, the current model predicted that a minimal ventilation rate of 4.4 hr?¹ is required for the stairway's CO concentration to lower to a safe concentration of 25 p.p.m.v. At 4.4 hr?¹, 10 min of ventilation time is required for the safe entry into the stairway studied. PMID:20603277

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T

2010-10-01

205

Virtual Shaker Testing: Simulation Technology Improves Vibration Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

In the field of vibration testing, the interaction between the structure being tested and the instrumentation hardware used to perform the test is a critical issue. This is particularly true when testing massive structures (e.g. satellites), because due to physical design and manufacturing limits, the dynamics of the testing facility often couples with the test specimen one in the frequency range of interest. A further issue in this field is the standard use of a closed loop real-time vibration control scheme, which could potentially shift poles and change damping of the aforementioned coupled system. Virtual shaker testing is a novel approach to deal with these issues. It means performing a simulation which closely represents the real vibration test on the specific facility by taking into account all parameters which might impact the dynamic behavior of the specimen. In this paper, such a virtual shaker testing approach is developed. It consists of the following components: (1) Either a physical-based or an equation-based coupled electro-mechanical lumped parameter shaker model is created. The model parameters are obtained from manufacturer's specifications or by carrying out some dedicated experiments; (2) Existing real-time vibration control algorithm are ported to the virtual simulation environment; and (3) A structural model of the test object is created and after defining proper interface conditions structural modes are computed by means of the well-established Craig-Bampton CMS technique. At this stage, a virtual shaker test has been run, by coupling the three described models (shaker, control loop, structure) in a co-simulation routine. Numerical results have eventually been correlated with experimental ones in order to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology.

Ricci, Stefano; Peeters, Bart; Fetter, Rebecca; Boland, Doug; Debille, Jan

2008-01-01

206

Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

2007-01-01

207

Performance, requirements and testing in individual monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For implementation of the ICRP requirements in practical routine monitoring, a specification is needed with respect to specific performance criteria of the dosimetry system. This includes the dosemeters, and procedures for initial and on-going testing of the dosimetry systems to ensure that the specified criteria are continuously met. Methods are here specified for establishing performance criteria, and satisfying the ICRP overall accuracy requirements for individual monitoring. Furthermore, procedures are given for obtaining numerical values of the uncertainties connected with individual monitoring, and in particular of those related to the energy and angular dependences of the dosemeters. These data are important for the testing of the dosimetry systems. Finally testing programmes in individual monitoring are discussed and four categories of testing are proposed. (author)

208

REA-2023 BWR cask performance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A performance test of a REA 2023 spent fuel storage cask sponsored by the Department of Energy was conducted at GE Morris Operation during the winter of 1984/85. The cask was configured for BWR spent fuel storage. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three fill conditions. The first five test runs were conducted with a partially loaded cask so that temperatures and radiation dose rates could be better approximated for the fully loaded cask. The next six test runs were conducted with a fully loaded cask. The final three test runs included insulation of the neutron shield to raise the surface temperature of the cask to more nearly reflect what it would have been in the summer. The maximum recorded temperature in the cask was 2410C for an evacuated fully loaded insulated cask. Its surface temperature was 950C. The maximum surface dose rate on the cask was about 200 mrem/hr at an anomaly on the bottom of cask. Elsewhere the dose rate on the top and bottom of the cask did not exceed about 100 mr/hr. The average dose rate of the side of the cask was about 20 mr/hr with spike reaching 40 mr/hr in areas near the top and bottom of the cask. Prior to conducting the performance tests, dry runs were conducted of the cask handling procedures and the Cooper spent fuel assemblies were characterized by calorimetry and radiation scans. Each fuel assembly was inspected to assure that no failed fuel was put into the cask. Sipping results (pre- and post-test), gas sampling, and visual inspection of the fuel did not identify any degradation of the fuel during the performance tests

209

Performance test of wave endless recorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some accelerator facilities construct the post-mortem system for investigating of beam loss. So we developed the wave form digitizer by such system development in J-PARC. We called this wave form digitizer Wave Endless Recorder. This Wave Endless Recorder was 10 MS/s, it is unsuitable for a measurement of a short pulse beam. Therefore we developed the fast-response Wave Endless Recorder, 200 MS/s, that can measure a short pulse beam. And this time, we doing performance test of 200 MHz version Wave Endless Recorder. This report shows performance test of the new type Wave Endless Recorder. (author)

210

Krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC): Campaign II in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the second major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm respectively. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass transfer experiments for the CO2--O2--Kr system are described, and a detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis, although not rigorous, is reasonable and indicates values of HTU for krypton on the order of 0.4 ft for decontamination factors from 100 to 10,000. Recent flooding information for the packed columns is combined with previous data and is shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

211

Krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC): Campaign III in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the third major campaign for quantifying krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively. Mass transfer experiments for the CO2--O2--Kr system are described for the absorption, fractionation, and stripping operations of the KALC process. A detailed discussion of the data analysis is included. The analysis indicates nominal HTU values for the absorber, fractionator, and stripper on the order of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7 ft, respectively. Flooding data for the packed columns are combined with previous data and are shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

212

A laser-based sensor for measurement of off-gas composition and temperature in basic oxygen steelmaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are developing an optical sensor for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. The sensor measures gas temperature and relative CO/CO2 concentration ratios in the furnace off-gas by transmitting the laser probe beam directly above the furnace lip and below the exhaust hood during oxygen blowing. Dynamic off-gas information is being evaluated for optimizing variables such as lance height, oxygen flow, post-combustion control, and prediction of final melt-carbon content. The non-invasive nature of the optical sensor renders it robust and relatively maintenance-free. Additional potential applications of the method are process control for electric arc furnace and bottom-blown oxygen steelmaking processes. (author)

213

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2014-01-29

214

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI

215

Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

2014-01-01

216

40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations? 63...I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations? ...conduct each performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in...

2010-07-01

217

A performance benchmark test for geodynamo simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last ten years, a number of numerical dynamo models have successfully represented basic characteristics of the geomagnetic field. As new models and numerical methods continue to be developed, it is important to update and extend benchmarks for testing these models. The first dynamo benchmark of Christensen et al. (2001) was applied to models based on spherical harmonic expansion methods. However, only a few groups have reported results of the dynamo benchmark using local methods (Harder and Hansen, 2005; Matsui and Okuda, 2005; Chan et al., 2007) because of the difficulty treating magnetic boundary conditions based on the local methods. On the other hand, spherical harmonics expansion methods perform poorly on massively parallel computers because global data communications are required for the spherical harmonics expansions to evaluate nonlinear terms. We perform benchmark tests to asses various numerical methods for the next generation of geodynamo simulations. The purpose of this benchmark test is to assess numerical geodynamo models on a massively parallel computational platform. To compare among many numerical methods as possible, we consider the model with the insulated magnetic boundary by Christensen et al. (2001) and with the pseudo vacuum magnetic boundary, because the pseudo vacuum boundaries are implemented easier by using the local method than the magnetic insulated boundaries. In the present study, we consider two kinds of benchmarks, so-called accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark. In the accuracy benchmark, we compare the dynamo models by using modest Ekman and Rayleigh numbers proposed by Christensen et. al. (2001). We investigate a required spatial resolution for each dynamo code to obtain less than 1% difference from the suggested solution of the benchmark test using the two magnetic boundary conditions. In the performance benchmark, we investigate computational performance under the same computational environment. We perform these dynamo models on XSEDE TACC Stampede, and investigate computational performance. To simplify the problem, we choose the same model and parameter regime as the accuracy benchmark test, but perform the simulations with much finer spatial resolutions to investigate computational capability under the closer condition to the Earth's outer core. We compare the results of the accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark tests by various codes and discuss characteristics of the simulation methods for geodynamo problems.

Matsui, H.; Heien, E. M.

2013-12-01

218

Testing stemming performance, possible or not?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming per [...] formance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different stemming products have differences in terms of their functionality, which can have a major impact on the efficiency of rock breaking. Two test procedures were used, one through the exclusive use of compressed air and the second using a purposebuilt high pressure test rig with small quantities of explosives. Both tests were used to identify and evaluate the ability of various stemming products to resist the escape of explosive gas through the collar of a blasthole. An investigation was done to determine the types of stemming products most commonly used in South African underground hard rock mines, and these products were used during the tests. The first stage of tests using compressed air only did not prove adequate to predict with certainty the pressure behaviour in the borehole of a particular product under high pressure conditions. The purpose-built high pressure test rig also did not prove to be a very effective tool to test stemming products under high pressure conditions. The test rig incorporated only the effect of gas pressure on the stemming product, and excluded the effect of the shock wave. This study therefore proved that to take into account only the gas pressure generated in the blasthole is not sufficient to effectively test stemming product performance.

D., Boshoff; R.C.W., Webber-Youngman.

2011-12-01

219

SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied. PMID:25051629

Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

2014-01-01

220

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34?38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc

 
 
 
 
221

Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

2006-02-15

222

Performance testing rotating gamma camera SPECT systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems

223

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

2010-08-18

224

42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1421 ...Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing...

2010-10-01

225

42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1487 ...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing...

2010-10-01

226

Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency…

Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

2014-01-01

227

Performance tests during the IBL Stave Integration  

CERN Document Server

In preparation of the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer integration, two detector components, so called staves, were mounted around the Beryllium ATLAS beam pipe and tested using production quality assurance measurements as well as dedicated data taking runs to validate a correct grounding and shielding schema. Each stave consists of 32 FE-I4 readout chips of ~ 2x2cm size which sums up to over 860k pixels per stave. The integration tests include verification that neither the silicon n-in-n nor the silicon 3D sensors were damaged by mechanical stress, and that their readout chips, including their bump bond and wire bond connections, did not suffered from the integration process. Evolution of the IBL performance during its integration will be discussed as well as its final performance before installation.

Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

228

Performance Tests during the IBL Stave Integration  

CERN Document Server

In preparation of the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer integration, detector components, so called staves, were mounted around the Beryllium ATLAS beam pipe and tested using production quality assurance measurements as well as dedicated data taking runs to validate a correct grounding and shielding schema. Each stave consists of 32 FE-I4 readout chips of ~ 2x2cm size which sums up to over 860k pixels per stave. The integration tests include verification that neither the silicon n-in-n nor the silicon 3D sensors were damaged by mechanical stress, and that their readout chips, including their bump bond and wire bond connections, did not suffered from the integration process. Evolution of the IBL performance during its integration will be discussed as well as its final performance before installation.

Backhaus, M; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

229

Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

230

Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

231

HSE performance tests for dosimetry services.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United Kingdom a dosimetry service that measures and assesses whole-body or part-body doses arising from external radiation must successfully complete a performance test. Results of the performance tests for routine whole-body, routine extremity/skin and special accident dosimetry, carried out over the past six years by the AEA Technology Calibration Service at Winfrith, and DRaStaC, the AWE Calibration Service at Aldermaston, are presented. The test involves irradiating groups of dosemeters to known doses of gamma radiation and determining the bias and relative standard deviations for each dose group. The results are compared with the pass criteria specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. For routine whole-body dosimetry, both the film badge and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) perform adequately for irradiations between 0.6 and 30 mSv. For higher doses up to 250 mSv, where the slow emulsion of the film is used, the film badge shows poorer performance with a tendency to overestimate the dose. For routine extremity/skin dosimetry there is a wider spread of relative standard deviation results than is seen for routine whole-body dosimetry. This is to be expected since the results will include dosemeters that are based on 'disposable' TLDs and ones based on lithium fluoride powder in sachets. For special accident dosimetry the dosemeters are tested between 0.26 and 6 Gy. For the highest dose group the film badge invariably underestimates the true dose, whereas the TLD has a tendency to overestimate it. PMID:11140715

Birch, R; Simpson, J A; Hedley, R P; Wardle, J

2000-12-01

232

Performance testing of large metallic seals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware

233

40 CFR 63.563 - Compliance and performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Compliance and performance testing. 63... Compliance and performance testing. ...a lock-and-key type configuration...equipped with a flow indicator, except for...which the initial performance test is...

2010-07-01

234

Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

1996-03-01

235

O2- and NOsub(x)-removal from the dissolver off-gas by thermal reduction with H2 or NH3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reference process for the removal of O2 and NOsub(x) from the dissolver off-gas is the catalytic reduction with H2. Because of the known disadvantages of catalysts, like reduction in efficiency by poisoning or thermal influence, the alternative method of thermal, flameless reduction with H2 and NH3 was tested. The reactions were carried out in a stainless steel and a quartz reactor. Both had a length of 850 mm, an inner diameter of 53 mm, and were heated by resistance heaters on the outside. The main component of the test gases was N2. Tested throughputs were 600, 800, and 1000 l/h (STP). Different amounts of O2 (0.5 and 1%), NO (750 and 1500 ppm) and H2 or NH3 (-40 to +100% of stoichiometric supply) were added. The reaction temperatures were varied between 450 and 750 deg. C. The goal of these tests was to remove O2 and NOsub(x) to below 1 ppm behind the reactor and NH3 (which is formed in the NOsub(x)-H2-reaction) to below the detection limit of 50 ppm

236

Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories  

CERN Document Server

The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

Marshall, T O

1985-01-01

237

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

238

CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

239

PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work is to improve continuous working hours,reducing preparation time, reducing losses in melting, reducing slag formation and to increase the combustion efficiency of coke and overall productivity and to improve the quality and Mechanical properties of steel using Cupola.

PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL

2013-05-01

240

40 CFR 60.108 - Performance test and compliance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Performance test and compliance provisions. 60.108 Section 60.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.108 Performance test and compliance provisions....

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Performance tests on helical Savonius rotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional Savonius rotors have high coefficient of static torque at certain rotor angles and a negative coefficient of static torque from 135 to 165 and from 315 to 345 in one cycle of 360 . In order to decrease this variation in static torque from 0 to 360 , a helical Savonius rotor with a twist of 90 is proposed. In this study, tests on helical Savonius rotors are conducted in an open jet wind tunnel. Coefficient of static torque, coefficient of torque and coefficient of power for each helical Savonius rotor are measured. The performance of helical rotor with shaft between the end plates and helical rotor without shaft between the end plates at different overlap ratios namely 0.0, 0.1 and 0.16 is compared. Helical Savonius rotor without shaft is also compared with the performance of the conventional Savonius rotor. The results indicate that all the helical Savonius rotors have positive coefficient of static torque at all the rotor angles. The helical rotors with shaft have lower coefficient of power than the helical rotors without shaft. Helical rotor without shaft at an overlap ratio of 0.0 and an aspect ratio of 0.88 is found to have almost the same coefficient of power when compared with the conventional Savonius rotor. Correlation for coefficient of torque and power is developed for helical Savonius rotor for a range of Reynolds numbers studied. (author)

Kamoji, M.A.; Kedare, S.B. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India); Prabhu, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

2009-03-15

242

Performance tests on the SPHERE-IFS  

Science.gov (United States)

Until now, just a few extrasolar planets (30 out of 860) have been found through the direct imaging method. This number should greatly improve when the next generation of High Contrast Instruments like Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) at Gemini South Telescope or SPHERE at VLT will became operative at the end of this year. In particular, the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS), one of the SPHERE subsystems, should allow a first characterization of the spectral type of the found extrasolar planets. Here we present the results of the last performance tests that we have done on the IFS instrument at the Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) in condition as similar as possible to the ones that we will find at the telescope. We have found that we should be able to reach contrast down to 5 × 10-7 and make astrometry at sub-mas level with the instrument in the actual conditions. A number of critical issues have been identified. The resolution of these problems could allow to further improve the performance of the instrument.

Mesa, Dino; Gratton, Raffaele; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Desidera, Silvano; Giro, Enrico; Zurlo, Alice; Costille, Anne; Vigan, Arthur; Moutou, Claire; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Feldt, Markus; Mouillet, David; Sauvage, Jean-Francois; Kasper, Markus; Antichi, Jacopo

2014-01-01

243

Test operation results of radioactive solid waste incinerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test operation of radioactive solid waste incinerator, which is composed of furnace, high temperature filter and other off-gas treatment equipments, has been performed in Oarai, JAERI, with non-active wastes and chemical tracer such as Co, Sr and Cs. As a result of this test operation, following characteristics on combustion and off-gas cleaning of the incinerator are obtained; (1) Ash accumulation ratio in the furnace is nearly 95%. (2) Dust collecting ratio of the High Temperature Filter is 99%. (3) Heating-up time of the High Temperature Filter are some length. (4) Decontamination factor (DF) of combined furnace and High Temperature Filter is 104 or more for such chemical tracer. (author)

244

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE DIPERNA SWEEPER  

Science.gov (United States)

The DiPerna Sweeper, a partial-vacuum oil skimmer, was tested in a two-week test program conducted at the U.S. Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) in Leonardo, New Jersey. Forty-three oil recovery tests were run. The object of the program was to establish a range of best performanc...

245

Stimulus Features and Sex Differences in Mental Rotation Test Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex differences in spatial ability were examined in 410 Israeli college students using standard tests of mental rotation. On related abilities tests, males performed better than females on a numerical skills test, and females performed better on an associative memory test. No significant sex differences were found on other ability tests. (SLD)

Birenbaum, Menucha; And Others

1994-01-01

246

Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

247

Thermodynamic analysis-based improvement for the boil-off gas reliquefaction process of liquefied ethylene vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new optimization design of the boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction process for liquefied ethylene (LEG) vessels is proposed in order to reduce the reliquefaction process energy cost and improve its cold exergy efficiency. The exergy loss of each component is calculated and the efficiency of the available energy utilization is evaluated on the basis of a detailed thermodynamic analysis. The exergy analysis results indicate that the exergy efficiency of the improved BOG reliquefaction process is about 19.0 % higher than that of the existing process, and the amount of refrigerant used in the improved process is reduced by about 44.9 % per hour. The power consumption could be decreased by 16 %. The circulation volumes of the refrigerant and BOG are both significantly reduced, thus lowering the equipment and operation costs of the BOG reliquefaction process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Li, Y.; Jin, G.; Zhong, Z. [South China University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Lab of Heat Transfer Enhancement and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China)

2012-10-15

248

Nuclear material control and accountancy planning and performance testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of performance testing as used at U.S. Department of Energy facilities is provided. Performance tests are performed on specific aspects of the regulations or site policy. The key issues in establishing a performance testing program are: identifying what needs to be tested; determining how to test; establishing criteria to evaluate test results. The program elements of performance testing program consist of: planning; coordination; conduct; evaluation. A performance test may be conducted of personnel or equipment. The DOE orders for nuclear material control and accountancy are divided into three functional areas: program administration, material accounting, and material control. Examples performance tests may be conducted on program administration, accounting, measurement and measurement control, inventory, and containment

249

40 CFR 63.827 - Performance test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Performance test methods. 63.827 Section 63.827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry § 63.827 Performance test methods. (a) An owner...

2010-07-01

250

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

Baum, Gregory A.

2014-02-01

251

40 CFR 63.563 - Compliance and performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Compliance and performance testing. 63.563 Section 63... Compliance and performance testing. (a) The following procedures...affected source, shall provide a copy of the vapor-tightness pressure...until repairs are effected. A copy of this documentation...

2010-07-01

252

40 CFR 60.393 - Performance test and compliance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Performance test and compliance provisions. 60.393 Section 60.393 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.393 Performance test and compliance provisions....

2010-07-01

253

40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?  

Science.gov (United States)

...tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354...tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1...of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

2010-07-01

254

40 CFR 63.7 - Performance testing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Performance testing requirements. 63.7 Section...sample is accidentally lost after the testing team leaves the site; or (ii) Conditions...Administrator's authority to require testing under section 114 of the Act....

2010-07-01

255

McClellan AFB SVE Off-Gas Characterization, Literature Review, and Technology Selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in Sacramento, California, is part of the National Environmental Technology Test Site (NETTS) program. NETTS is a joint Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) program for the evaluati...

1996-01-01

256

40 CFR 60.58a - Compliance and performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste...58a Compliance and performance testing. (a...MSW solely to provide thermal protection of grate...

2010-07-01

257

40 CFR 60.104a - Performance tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification...performance test, the volumetric flow rate of exhaust gas from catalyst regenerator (Qr ) before any emission control or...

2010-07-01

258

40 CFR 60.108 - Performance test and compliance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.108 Performance test and compliance...the owner or operator of a fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator subject to § 60.104(b) shall...

2010-07-01

259

Flash Lidar Performance Testing: Configuration and Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Lidar-based hazard detection and avoidance will enable safe landing in scientifically interesting terrain with higher hazard abundance. ASC GoldenEye flash lidar was tested at JPL as part of EDL technology development for Mars 2018

Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Johnson, Andrew; Chang, Daniel; Ek, Eric; Natzic, David; Spiers, Gary; Penniman, Steve; Short, Brad

2012-01-01

260

Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

 
 
 
 
261

DOE mixed waste metals partition in a rotary kiln wet off-gas system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. Test burns were conducted using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The partition of metals between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and stack gas was measured as a function of kiln temperature, waste chloride content, and waste form (liquid or solid). Three waste simulants were used in these tests, a high and low chloride solid waste mix (paper, plastic, latex, PVC), and a liquid waste mix (benzene and chlorobenzene). An aqueous solution containing: antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium was added to the waste to determine metals fate under various combustion conditions. Test results were used to divide the metals into three general groups, volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile metals. Mercury was the only volatile metal. No mercury remained in the kiln bottom ash under any incineration condition. Lead, cadmium, thallium, and silver exhibited semi-volatile behavior. The partition between the kiln ash, blowdown, and stack gas depended on incineration conditions. Chromium, nickel, barium, antimony, and arsenic exhibited nonvolatile behavior, with greater than 90 wt % of the metal remaining in the kiln bottom ash. Incineration temperature had a significant effect on the partition of volatile and semi-volatile metals, and no effect on nonvolatile metal partition. As incineration temperatures were increased, the fraction of metal leaving the kiln increased. Three metals, lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a relationship between chloride concentration in the waste and metals partition. Increasing the concentration of chlorides in the waste or burning liquid waste versus solid waste resulted in a larger fraction of metal exiting the kiln

262

How to Perform a Powder in Flexible Die Test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The “Powder in Flexible Die”-test, or PFD-test for short, proposes a new way of testing plastic properties of granular materials. The principal idea for the test originates from Dr. J.I Bech. The test has since been developed further and refined at IPL-DTU. The present work describes the equipment used for the test and gives a detailed description of the practical steps necessary to perform the test.

Hancock, Mike; Nielsen, Morten Storgaard

2003-01-01

263

Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

2008-10-01

264

New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

265

Cryogenic separation of krypton and xenon from dissolver off-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the release of fission product noble gas krypton-85 has not posed a health problem to date, a process is being developed for the removal and storage of fission product noble gases from the dissolution process stream of fuel reprocessing. The separation process described for noble gas in air being tested on a semi-technical scale includes cryogenic distillation and consists of the following steps: (i) removal of iodine-129 plus iodine-131 on silver-coated silica gel; (ii) deposition of particulate materials by HEPA-filters; (iii) elimination of O2 and NOsub(x) by catalytic conversion with H2 to N2 and H2O; (iv) drying of the gas stream with molecular sieve; (v) deposition of xenon in solid form at about 80K, while the remaining gas components are liquefied; (vi) enrichment of krypton by low-temperature distillation of liquid-gas mixture; (vii) withdrawal of the highly enriched krypton fraction at the bottom of the still to be bottled in pressurized steel cylinders for final disposal; (viii) purification of krypton-85 contaminated xenon for further industrial re-use by batch distillation. (author)

266

Off gas processing device for degreasing furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A low melting ingredient capturing-cooling trap connected to a degreasing sintering furnace by way of sealed pipelines, a burning/decomposing device for decomposing high melting ingredient gases discharged from the cooling trap by burning them and a gas sucking means for forming the flow of off gases are contained in a glovebox, the inside pressure of which is kept negative. Since the degreasing sintering furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels is disposed outside of the glovebox, operation can be performed safely without greatly increasing the scale of the device, and the back flow of gases is prevented easily by keeping the pressure in the inside of the glovebox negative. Further, a heater is disposed at the midway of the sealed pipelines from the degreasing sintering furnace to the cooling trap, the temperature is kept high to prevent deposition of low melting ingredients to prevent clogging of the sealed pipelines. Further, a portion of the pipelines is made extensible in the axial direction to eliminate thermal stresses caused by temperature change thereby enabling to extend the life of the sealed pipelines. (N.H.)

267

Step-feed biofiltration: a low cost alternative configuration for off-gas treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clogging due to biomass accumulation and the loss of structural stability of the packing media are common operational drawbacks of standard gas biofiltration inherent to the traditional biofilter design, which result in prohibitive pressure drop buildups and media channeling. In this work, an innovative step-feed biofilter configuration, with the air emission supplied in either two or three locations along the biofilter height, was tested and compared with a standard biofilter using toluene as a model pollutant and two packing materials: compost and perlite. When using compost, the step-feed biofilter supported similar elimination capacities (EC ? 80 g m(-3) h(-1)) and CO2 production rates (200 g m(-3) h(-1)) to those achieved in the standard biofilter. However, while the pressure drop in the step-feed system remained below 300 Pa m bed(-1) for 61 days, the standard biofilter reached this value in only 14 days and 4000 Pa m bed(-1) by day 30, consuming 75% more compression energy throughout the entire operational period. Operation with perlite supported lower ECs compared to compost in both the step-feed and standard biofilters (? 30 g m(-3) h(-1)), probably due to the high indigenous microbial diversity present in this organic packing material. The step-feed biofilter exhibited 65% lower compression energy requirements than the standard biofilter during operation with perlite, while supporting similar ECs. In brief, step-feed biofiltration constitutes a promising operational strategy capable of drastically reducing the operating costs of biofiltration due to a reduced energy consumption and an increased packing material lifespan. PMID:23764582

Estrada, José M; Quijano, Guillermo; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

2013-09-01

268

40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Wwww of... - Basic Requirements for Performance Tests, Performance Evaluations, and Design Evaluations for New...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Requirements for Performance Tests, Performance Evaluations, and Design Evaluations for...Requirements for Performance Tests, Performance Evaluations, and Design Evaluations for...must conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluation...

2010-07-01

269

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29

270

Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. The following four tests were proposed as necessary to provide complete evaluation of TECP suit performance: 1. Quantitative leak test (ASTM draft), 2. Worst-case chemical exposure test (conceptual), 3. Pressure leak-rate test (complete, ASTM F1057-87), and 4. Chemical leak-rate test (ASTM draft). This paper reports on these tests which should be applied to measuring TECP suit performance in two stages: design qualification tests and field use tests. Test 1, 2, and 3 are used as design qualification tests, and tests 3 and 4 are used as field use tests

271

Collaborative group testing benefits high- and low-performing students  

Science.gov (United States)

We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing the exam as individuals, students answered the same questions in groups of two, and, finally, the same questions were discussed by the instructor and students. We measured two learning outcomes for every student: individual and group test scores. Based on individual test scores, students were categorized as "high performing" (students with higher individual scores) or "low performing" (students with lower individual scores). Finally, student evaluations of the format were collected. Collaborative group testing enhanced student performance. Specifically, group scores were higher than individual scores (P < 0.001). Importantly, the size of the collaborative testing effect was large for the population and for the low-performing students; however, the collaborative testing effect was small for the high-performing students. Finally, student evaluations of this testing format were very positive. In conclusion, collaborative group testing was beneficial for all students; however, collaborative testing was significantly more beneficial for low-performing students.

Maurico J. Giuliodori (Univ Nacional De La Plata Dept Physiology); Heidi L. Lujan (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology); PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology)

2008-12-01

272

Qualification Plus: Performance and Durability Tests Beyond IEC 61215 (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Qualification Plus is an accelerated test protocol and quality management system that gives higher confidence in field performance of PV modules compared with conventional qualification testing. The test sequences are being developed as consensus standards, but the early publication of these tests enables the community to begin benefiting from them sooner.

Kurtz, S.; Jordan, J.; Kempe, M.; Miller, D.; Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Hacke, P.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

2014-03-01

273

15 CFR 996.21 - Performance of compliance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...submit the applicant's hydrographic product to the testing body for performance of the compliance tests. That body shall determine compliance or non-compliance of the hydrographic product with the NOAA-adopted standard, and shall provide...

2010-01-01

274

Performance test of PPAC in different gases  

CERN Document Server

A two-dimension position sensitive parallel-plate avalanche (PPAC) detector has been developed for RIBLL. The detector consists of one anode and two cathodes. In each cathode a resistance chain is used to readout position signals. The detector has been tested in different operating gases with an alpha source. When the detector is at 7 mb flowing rate of isobutane and + 500 V on anode, the position resolution of 0.76 mm is obtained. For 7 mb C sub 3 F sub 8 and +595 V on anode, the position resolution is 0.64 mm. The efficiencies are around 99.1% in the cases of C sub 3 F sub 8 and isobutane

Wang Meng; Zhan Wen Long; Xiao Guo Qing; Xu Hu Shan; Mao Rui Shi; Hu Zheng Guo; Chen Zhi Qiang; Sun Zhi Yu; Li Jia Xing; Wang Wu Sheng; Chen Li Xin; Li Chen; Bai Jie; Zhang Xia; Zhang Jin Xia; Li Cun Fan

2002-01-01

275

Motivational and Cognitive Test-Taking Strategies and Their Influence on Test Performance in Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

A structural equation model of relationships among testing-related motivation variables (test value, effort, self-efficacy, and test anxiety), test-taking strategies (test tactics and metacognitive strategies), gender, and math test performance were examined with a sample of 10th graders (N = 438; 182 males and 256 females). In general, motivation…

Peng, Yun; Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa

2014-01-01

276

Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system turbine performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Turbine to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System Test Plan. The test objectives are to characterize turbine performance so that data can be used for turbine configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing

277

40 CFR 60.543 - Performance test and compliance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.543 Performance test...cementing operation and each green tire spraying operation using only...cementing operation and each green tire spraying operation shall...

2010-07-01

278

Evaluation of spacer grid support performance by vibration test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four 5x5 spacer grids for a PWR fuel assembly were manufactured, and performed the spacer's support performance test that is one of the mechanical tests for the spacer grid. Among the specimen, two spacer grids have the traditional spring-to-dimple supporting configuration, and the others the spring-to-spring feature. The supporting performance test as an out-of-pile test is a kind of vibration test because it is the evaluation test for capability in restraining a fuel rod from vibrating. Since the nonlinear characteristic of the vibration behavior of the fuel rod was appreciated, input force from shaker was controlled to use the same force for every test. It was resulted that the maximum displacements were Obtained at the first resonant frequency in most cases while some at third resonance frequency, and the supporting performance of new spacer grids were as good as, or better than that of the reference spacer grid

279

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, in which natural condition soil can be used as testing materials, were carried out to study the migration behavior of radionuclides in a natural barrier. The apparatuses consist of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones, the air control apparatus, the measurement apparatuses of water and radionuclide moving velocities, etc. As performance tests, characteristics tests were done for these apparatuses and overall test of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones was also done under the actual test condition. It was confirmed that the all of apparatuses have achieved the designated performance requirements. This report describes the results of performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, which is categorized into three parts, that is, objective, method and result. (author)

280

Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to continues research to improve existing ratings and develop new ones. NFRC needs to continue the work it has begun in several nations to implement the NFRC rating system that has been introduced. Many nations are eager to accept the expertise NFRC can offer to achieve energy conservation goals. NFRC looks forward to a continues partnership with the US Department of Energy to cooperatively achieve both.

Jim Benney

2009-11-30

 
 
 
 
281

Verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator was implemented. The test items include performance determination for the system when solid wastes (include resins) or spent oil were incinerating and off gas was cleaning, tracer test for determining decontamination factor and 72 h continuos running test. 500 h tests verify the reliability and feasibility of designs of technological process, main structure, instrument control and system safety. The incineration system ran smoothly, devices and instruments worked stably. The specifications such as capacity, volume reduction factor, carbon remainder in ash and decontamination factor all meet the design requirements

282

Performance demonstration tests for detection of intergranular stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report evaluates detection tests of inservice inspectors (ISI), procedures and equipment that are employed to find intergranular stress corrosion cracks in nuclear power plant piping. Performance is described by two fundamental parameters: false call probability and probability of detection. Acceptable inspection performance and detection tests are therefore defined in terms of these two parameters. 14 refs., 25 figs

283

Performance of the test control system using Java/CORBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to research the control system for 'Super SOR', we have developed the test bench of the control system and evaluated its performance. We use Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the framework for the control system, and Java as the programming language for the graphical user interface. This paper describes the test bench and its performance. (author)

284

Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests.Methods: Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31 and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31. The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW, FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW. Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test. Results: Significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for all the functional performance tests (FPTs except the single hop test between FAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (P<0.05 than the contra-lateral uninvolved limb of the FAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs.Conclusion: Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance.

Jaspal Singh Sandhu

2011-12-01

285

Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I2 + I I3-NH3OH+ + 2 I2 + H2O ->HNO2 + 4 I- + 5 H+; NH3OH+ + HNO2 -> N2O + 2 H2O + H-+ 2HNO2 + 2 I- + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I2 + H2O). (authors)

286

Performance testing framework for smart grid communication network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smart grid communication network is comprised of different communication mediums and technologies. Performance evaluation is one of the main concerns in smart grid communication system. In any smart grid communication implementation, to determine the performance factor of the network, a testing of an end-to-end process flow is required. Therefore, an effective and coordinated testing procedure plays a crucial role in evaluating the performance of smart grid communications. In this paper, a testing framework is proposed as a guideline to analyze and assess the performance of smart grid communication network.

287

Performance testing framework for smart grid communication network  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart grid communication network is comprised of different communication mediums and technologies. Performance evaluation is one of the main concerns in smart grid communication system. In any smart grid communication implementation, to determine the performance factor of the network, a testing of an end-to-end process flow is required. Therefore, an effective and coordinated testing procedure plays a crucial role in evaluating the performance of smart grid communications. In this paper, a testing framework is proposed as a guideline to analyze and assess the performance of smart grid communication network.

Quang, D. N.; See, O. H.; Chee, L. L.; Xuen, C. Y.; Karuppiah, S.

2013-06-01

288

History and Performance of Chinese LSAT Test Takers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) has been administered to Chinese test takers in Taiwan and Hong Kong for more than 22 years and in China for the past decade, there is very little documentation on the history, test taker volumes, performance, or law school admission rates of these candidates. The current study addresses the following…

Wang, Xiang Bo; Harris, Vincent

289

Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

2014-01-01

290

Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

2014-01-01

291

PERFORMANCE TESTS OF FOUR SELECTED OIL SPILL SKIMMERS  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of performance tests were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT test facility with four selected oil spill pickup devices (skimmers). Each of the four skimmers was tested for two weeks with both high and low viscosity oils. The objectives of the...

292

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SELECTED INLAND OIL SPILL CONTROL EQUIPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardized performance tests were conducted at the Environmental Protection Agency's test facility, OHMSETT, with various off-the-shelf inland oil-spill control and clean-up devices. Operability limits were defined and then quantified via testing for eight boom systems and eigh...

293

Does Humor in Course Tests Reduce Anxiety and Improve Performance?  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes research related to humor in testing and presents new evidence on the effectiveness of humor in constructed-response items. Findings from a survey at Johns Hopkins University's School of Nursing indicated that students feel that humor makes a difference in their test performance. Describes specific strategies for using humor in tests.…

Berk, Ronald A.

2000-01-01

294

Development of a technique for the efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector for the off gas samples of a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regular monitoring of off gases released to the environment from a nuclear reactor is mandatory. The gaseous fission products are estimated by gamma ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. In view of the lack of availability of gaseous fission products standards, an indirect method based on the charcoal absorption technique was developed for the efficiency calibration of HPGe detector system using 133Ba and 152Eu standards. The known activities of 133Ba and 152Eu are uniformly distributed in a vial having activated charcoal and counted on the HPGe detector system at liquid nitrogen temperature to determine the gamma ray efficiency for the vial having activated charcoal. The ratio of the gamma ray efficiencies of off gas present in the normal vial and the vial having activated charcoal at liquid nitrogen temperature are used to determine the gamma ray efficiency of off gas present in the normal vial. (author)

295

Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

296

The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

Russell, Brian E.

2010-01-01

297

Performance Analysis of Saturated Induction Motors by Virtual Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

Many undergraduate-level electrical machines textbooks give detailed treatments of the performance of induction motors. Students can deepen this understanding of motor performance by performing the appropriate practical work in laboratories or in simulation using proper software packages. This paper considers various common and less-common tests

Ojaghi, M.; Faiz, J.; Kazemi, M.; Rezaei, M.

2012-01-01

298

Distillation as a means of separating krypton from the off-gas of a reprocessing plant for graphite-coated HTR fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AKUT-II facility is described, which is designed for an off-gas throughput of 10 Nm3/h. The low-pressure section is for primary purification in several steps, whereas in the high-pressure CO2 section (70 bar, 200C) the separation of Kr-85 by means of distillation is achieved. The parameters for the design of the rectifying columns have been determined experimentally. (HP)

299

Nuclebras' installations for performance tests of nuclear power plants components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reasons for Nuclebras' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufactures, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of facilities under construction: the components Test Loop and Facility for Testing N.P.P. components under Accident conditions, and other already in operation, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results had already obtained are also presented. (Author)

300

Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic. PMID:20503124

Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

2011-03-01

302

Tests of passive autocatalytic recombiner performance for BWR application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes overview of the test program to confirm passive autocatalytic recombiner performance for BWR application, and the first result obtained from the initial part of the test program. The program consists of separate effect test using catalyst test loop to investigate recombiner performance under various atmospheric conditions, and test for startup behavior and recombiner capability in the scaled test vessel. The catalyst test loop is designed so that inlet/exit gas concentration and gas/catalyst temperature can be measured, varying flow rate, gas content or presence of poisoning material. As the first stage, a series of tests was conducted, simulating natural circulation flow rate inside containment, inert (low oxygen concentration) atmosphere, and poisoning material concentration assumed in the conventional licensing evaluation of radiological consequence. The test data suggest that catalytic recombiner has sufficient performance in the BWR specific (inert) condition, and under presence of poisoning material postulated in hypothetical accident condition. The effect of low oxygen concentration or containment spray water on startup behavior and recombiner performance will be investigated in the following vessel test series. (author)

303

Laboratory Test System Design for Star Sensor Performance Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel laboratory test system is designed to evaluate the performance of star sensors. Two evaluation methods are presented, the star images simulation test and the zenith observation experiments method. In star image simulation, the nebula and moon lights enter into the CCD field of view (FOV is considered. A new algorithm for fast access star catalog is also designed to enhance the speed of star image simulation. Zenith observation provides a new method to test accuracy of star sensor without telescope. The results demonstrate that the test system is effectively to evaluate the star pattern recognition rates and relatively accuracy performance of star sensors.

JUN YANG

2012-04-01

304

The Impact of Test Anxiety on Test Performance among Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an affective factor, test-taking anxiety has been investigated in different contexts in the
past two decades. However, the mixed results of the relationship between test-taking anxiety and
L2 learners’ test performance show that the instrumentation for the assessment of test-taking
anxiety and the factors comprising the construct of test-taking anxiety trait requires more
investigation in order to shed more light on the issue. To this end, a test-taking anxiety
questionnaire (Sarason, 1975 [27] and a general English test were administered to 164 ESP
students of Engineering enrolled in a B.A. program to document (a the degree of their test taking
anxiety, (b the relationship between test-taking anxiety and test performance, and (c the factor
loadings of anxiety based on exploratory factor analysis. The results show that L2 learners’ test
anxiety is rather low, with most of its components having no significant negative correlation with
test performance. The results of exploratory factor analysis reveal the loading of test anxiety trait
on the rather overlapping three factors of specific test anxiety, general test anxiety, and test preparation anxiety. However, out of these factors, general test anxiety, due to its functioning at the higher-order affective level, has a significant negative correlation with test performance. By contrast, test preparation anxiety, in view of facilitating test performance, manifests a positive, albeit non-significant, correlation with test performance. The results have two implications: (a as the correlations and loadings on test anxiety factors proved to be of both negative and positive types, the anxiety questionnaire is not monolithic and hence it is not a proper measure in case the linear relationship between test anxiety and test performance is the focus of the study; and (b test anxiety does not seem to much influence on test performance at the micro- test-specific level.

Minoo Alemi

2010-09-01

305

40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations...standards —(1) Fugitive dust sources. Failure to have a fugitive dust control plan or failure to report deviations from the plan and take...

2010-07-01

306

Television computer games: a 'new look' in performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Work at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory aims at developing a battery of performance evaluation tests for environmental research (PETER). Because repeated-measures designs are virtually universal in environmental studies, the paradigm focuses on stabilisation with practice; thus far, over 50 tasks have been studied. The present report describes how five computerized video games fare as performance tests. The tasks were performed for 3 weeks each, in the same order, by the same subjects. The results show that four out of the five games meet all criteria satisfactorily and one does not, a favorable showing for the video games in comparison with conventional tests of either the paper-and-pencil or apparatus types. In terms of availability, equipment reliability, expense, and other practical considerations, the video games have many advantages. It is concluded that video games have considerable promise for performance testing and other applied contexts. PMID:7055490

Kennedy, R S; Bittner, A C; Harbeson, M; Jones, M B

1982-01-01

307

CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: QA TESTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Confocal Microscopy System Performance: QA tests, Quantitation and Spectroscopy. Robert M. Zucker 1 and Jeremy M. Lerner 2, 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research Development, U.S. Environmen...

308

Performance test of ENMC (Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter). Phase 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ENMC is the nondestructive assay (NDA) system which was developed in order to measure the quantity of plutonium mass with a short time and high-precision in comparison with PSMC (Plutonium Scrap Multiplicity Counter) by measuring the epithermal neutron in addition to the thermal neutron. JAEA is working to improve measurement accuracy of NDA on plutonium by drawing out the ENMC performance to the full. JAEA had carried out evaluation test of some kind of error factors as the phase 1 performance test. In this test, subjects to improve measurement accuracy were confirmed. Based on these results, Phase 2 performance test was carried out to find the optimum measurement condition (e.g. the amount of plutonium in the sample and manner of sample positioning). As the results of this test, it was found that measurement accuracy of the ENMC will be able to improve to approximation 0.5%. (author)

309

US Department of Energy Central Training Academy performance testing fundamentals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that performance testing is required for training and inspection, and for validation of results of the vulnerability assessment which is a section of the US DOE Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (NSSA). It is essential, regardless of the reason for performing the test, that the collection of data be well planned to eliminate the bias of the data collector. Essential Elements of Analysis (EEA) is a proven technique that provides a systematic procedure for breaking down test objectives to obtain the optimum detailed measurement criteria. Developing clear, concise objectives removes most of the bias of the data collectors' observations. The EEA technique breaks down critical issues to a point at which test measurements and data can be quantified. Performance tests of procedures can be quantified using this technique, with a completed job task analysis serving as the basis for the EEA

310

Validated Intraclass Correlation Statistics to Test Item Performance Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new method, with an application program in Matlab code, is proposed for testing item performance models on empirical databases. This method uses data intraclass correlation statistics as expected correlations to which one compares simple functions of correlations between model predictions and observed item performance. The method rests on a data population model whose validity for the considered data is suitably tested, and has been verified for three behavioural measure d...

Courrieu, Pierre; Brand-d Abrescia, Muriele; Peereman, Ronald; Spieler, Daniel; Rey, Arnaud

2010-01-01

311

Performance Analysis of Hybrid Desiccant Chiller Based on Field Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field tests of hybrid desiccant cooling systems were conducted from July to August 2011. Data were monitored and transferred in real time over the Internet. The monitored variables were analyzed to determine the performance characteristics under outdoor conditions. A series of system simulations has been conducted for outdoor conditions of the field tests. The results agree well with the experimental data in general. The system performance has been shown to deteriorate for wetter conditions, as predicted by the simulation

312

Performance Analysis of Hybrid Desiccant Chiller Based on Field Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field tests of hybrid desiccant cooling systems were conducted from July to August 2011. Data were monitored and transferred in real time over the Internet. The monitored variables were analyzed to determine the performance characteristics under outdoor conditions. A series of system simulations has been conducted for outdoor conditions of the field tests. The results agree well with the experimental data in general. The system performance has been shown to deteriorate for wetter conditions, as predicted by the simulation.

Ahn, Joon; Yun, Changho; Kang, Byung Ha [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

313

Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

2005-07-01

314

New personnel dosimeter performance test programs in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new, government-initiated personnel radiation dosimeter performance test programs are underway in the United States. The National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) is out of the pilot state and, since January of 1984, has been involved in testing and evaluation leading to the certification of dosimeter processors. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) entered the pilot program stage in February of 1985. The technical basis for and description of the NVLAP are found in ANSI N13.11 (1983), Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimeter Performance. For DOELAP, similar information is found in PNL-4515 (1984), Guidelines for the Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters. Information relating to the development of the programs, radiation test categories, details associated with the irradiations, NVLAP test results to date, DOELAP testing status, and future prospects for both programs are presented and discussed. (author)

315

Test Development with Performance Standards and Achievement Growth in Mind  

Science.gov (United States)

Items on test score scales located at and below the Proficient cut score define the content area knowledge and skills required to achieve proficiency. Alternately, examinees who perform at the Proficient level on a test can be expected to be able to demonstrate that they have mastered most of the knowledge and skills represented by the items at…

Ferrara, Steve; Svetina, Dubravka; Skucha, Sylvia; Davidson, Anne H.

2011-01-01

316

Thermal Performance Testing of EMU and OSS Liquid Cooling Garments  

Science.gov (United States)

A test was conducted to evaluate three factors influencing the thermal performance of liquid cooling garments (LCG): (1) the comparable thermal performance of an Oceaneering developed engineering evaluation unit (EEU) prototype LDG, (2) the effect of the thermal comfort undergarment (TCU), and (3) the performance of a torso or upper body only LCG configuration. To evaluate the thermal performance of each configuration a metabolic test was conducted, utilizing suited subjects to generate the metabolic heat. For this study three (3) test subjects of similar health and weight produced a metabolic load on the LDG configuration by either resting (300-600 BTU/hr), walking at a slow pace (1200 BRU/hr), and walking at a brisk pace (2200 BTU/hr), as outlined in Figure 1, the metabolic profile. During the test, oxygen consumption, heart rate, relative humidity, air flow, inlet and outlet air pressure, inlet and outlet air temperature, delta air temperature, water flow (100 lb/hr), inlet water temperature (64 F), delta water temperature, water pressure, core body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat loss data was recorded. Four different test configurations were tested, with one configuration tested twice, as outlined in Table 1. The test was conducted with the suit subjects wearing the Demonstrator Suit, pressurized to vent pressure (approximately 0.5 psig). The demonstrator suit has an integrated ventilation duct system and was used to create a relevant environment with a captured ventilation return, an integrated vent tree, and thermal insulation from the environment.

Rhodes, Richard; Bue, Grant; Hakam, Mary

2012-01-01

317

40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...performance test, there is a delay (due to operational problems...as soon as possible of any delay in the original test date...mass product standard by using Equation 49 of this subpart. When determining...reduction requirement using Equation 50 of this subpart....

2010-07-01

318

Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

319

OHMSETT 'HIGH SEAS' PERFORMANCE TESTING: MARCO CLASS V OIL SKIMMER  

Science.gov (United States)

A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at various collection speeds. Skim...

320

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Performance tests of four selected oil spill skimmers. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of performance tests were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT test facility with four selected oil spill pickup devices (skimmers). Each of the four skimmers was tested for two weeks with both high and low viscosity oils. The objectives of the tests were to establish the range of best performance for each skimmer under the manufacturer's design limits and to document test results on 16mm film and by quantitative measures of performance. The four oil skimmers studied by the OHMSETT Interagency Test Committee were: (1) Oil Mop Skimmer - A catamaran vessel designed primarily for oil skimming at speeds above 1.5 m/s. (2) Cyclonet 050 - A device mounted on an inflatable boat designed for oil skimming in relatively calm water. (3) Clowsor Skimmer - A unit designed primarily for recovering oil at very high rates while held stationary in calm water. (4) Bennett Mark 6E - A semi-catamaran vessel designed for skimming oil at speeds up to 1.5 m/s. A total of 198 individual data test runs were made during the course of the 8-week test program. Each skimmer was tested to the limit of its design conditions and beyond.

Urban, R.W.; Graham, D.J.; Schwartz, S.H.

1978-09-01

322

A survey on Cattle Performance Testing Centres in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance test is the main selection tool for beef and dual purpose cattle, but it is used also in dairy cattle, despite the different aim of testing in this case. This study has aimed to obtain all available information about organisation and characteristic of performance test in Italy carried out in year 2006 by Italian Cattle Breeders Associations. The results of the survey here reported have the final aim of exploiting actual organization of selection processes carried out in Italy for beef, dual purpose and dairy cattle breeds through performance test. The survey has indicated different intensity of selection among Italian breeds, ranging from 2.45 to 3.13.

Roberto Mantovani

2010-01-01

323

Testing the abstractions used in total system performance assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple levels of complexity and detail are involved in the performance assessment models used in the Yucca Mountain project (YMP). Included are the detailed process-level models, and various higher level abstractions or idealizations of those process models, that may be used in the simpler total system simulators for performance assessments. Abstractions are applied to reduce the complex process models to simpler overall simulators for more direct total system analyses. Although seldom done in the past, the abstractions require appropriate testing to demonstrate that each is an appropriate simpler system representation. To be adequate, such testing must either: (1) Demonstrate that essential processes, conceptual representations, and the parameter variations in the original process-level models are neither lost nor the performance results unduly altered by applying the abstractions, or (2) Show that any significance lost is appropriately bounded by the abstraction assumptions and that subsequent assessments using such bounding assumptions still provide appropriate margins of safety in the overall repository performance. Failure to satisfy one of the above conditions requires changing the abstraction being test until it, in fact, verifies the representation is adequate. Such testing provides the foundation necessary for technically defensible performance assessments using the abstracted total system models. The objective of this paper is to outline an approach for tehis paper is to outline an approach for testing any proposed or specific future abstractions of the process-level models used to obtain simpler system simulators for application in total system performance assessments (TSPAs)

324

Play for Performance: Using Computer Games to Improve Motivation and Test-Taking Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of testing, especially certification and high-stakes testing, has increased substantially over the past decade. Building on the "serious gaming" literature and the psychology "priming" literature, we developed a computer game designed to improve test-taking performance using psychological priming. The game primed…

Dennis, Alan R.; Bhagwatwar, Akshay; Minas, Randall K.

2013-01-01

325

Performance demonstration experience for reactor pressure vessel shell ultrasonic testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most ultrasonic testing techniques used by many vendors for pressurized water reactor (PWR) examinations were based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers 'Boiler and Pressurized Vessel Code' (ASME B and PV Code) Sections XI and V. The Addenda of ASME B and PV Code Section XI, Edition 1989 introduced Appendix VIII - 'Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems'. In an effort to increase confidence in performance of ultrasonic testing of the operating nuclear power plants in United States, the ultrasonic testing performance demonstration examination of reactor vessel welds is performed in accordance with Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) program which is based on ASME Code Section XI, Appendix VIII requirements. This article provides information regarding extensive qualification preparation works performed prior EPRI guided performance demonstration exam of reactor vessel shell welds accomplished in January 1997 for the scope of Appendix VIII, Supplements IV and VI. Additionally, an overview of the procedures based on requirements of ASME Code Section XI and V in comparison to procedure prepared for Appendix VIII examination is given and discussed. The samples of ultrasonic signals obtained from artificial flaws implanted in vessel material are presented and results of ultrasonic testing are compared to actual flaw sizes. (author)

326

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

327

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predictedpredicted

328

Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

329

Performance of the IFSMTF helium refrigerator in Partial Array Tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) helium refrigerator in Partial Array Tests with three coils is described. The refrigerator was able to cool the coils and facility structure to 4.2 K in 20 days, with maximum temperature differentials of less than 50 K. Boiloff measurements were made for several components; only the lead dewars showed losses substantially higher than expected. Forced-flow cooling tests were also conducted. The coils and facility were warmed to room temperature in 30 days. Several repairs and improvements were carried out. Results of another recent test on the refrigerator alone are reported

330

WIPP waste package performance program and in situ testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This program deals with studying canisters and canister materials for high level and transuranic wastes and with the geochemistry of potential backfill materials. Laboratory testing is primarily on titanium metals, although there also is some testing of steel. In the area of canister studies, laboratory and modeling tests, current in-situ tests, and data reduction and analysis have been performed. Data will be evaluated to obtain design information. The intent of the program is to provide information that could be used in operating the WIPP facility in whatever waste configuration is selected by the Federal Government. (WIPP is not currently licensed or scheduled to be a defense high-level waste repository.)

331

Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2002). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to US personal dosimeter processing testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. This unique philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (author)

332

History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Dept. of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Dept. of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (authors)

333

History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. PMID:17287202

Soares, C G

2007-01-01

334

Performance testing and dose verification for extremity ring dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the testing performed on an extremity dosimetry system to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07) in photon and beta reference fields. This research refers to the American National Standard Institute to organize the performance testing for the INER's TLD-100H extremity ring dosimeters. The results show that tolerance level (L), absolute of bias (|B|) and standard deviation (S) for all categories of performance testing meet the ANSI N13.32 performance testing criteria. The performance testing results were suggested to be an important step of an accreditation procedure for the extremity ring dosimetry system in Taiwan. Besides, the dose evaluation of extremity ring dosimeters to measure Hp(0.07) in realistic fields of nuclear medicine is also verified. The reference values of Hp(0.07) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method normalized by the measured activity of the radioactive solution. For nuclear medicine irradiations the relative response to 201Tl and 99mTc radionuclides produced by INER are also satisfactory.

335

Performance testing and dose verification for extremity ring dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the testing performed on an extremity dosimetry system to measure the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(0.07) in photon and beta reference fields. This research refers to the American National Standard Institute to organize the performance testing for the INER's TLD-100H extremity ring dosimeters. The results show that tolerance level (L), absolute of bias (|B|) and standard deviation (S) for all categories of performance testing meet the ANSI N13.32 performance testing criteria. The performance testing results were suggested to be an important step of an accreditation procedure for the extremity ring dosimetry system in Taiwan. Besides, the dose evaluation of extremity ring dosimeters to measure H{sub p}(0.07) in realistic fields of nuclear medicine is also verified. The reference values of H{sub p}(0.07) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method normalized by the measured activity of the radioactive solution. For nuclear medicine irradiations the relative response to {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc radionuclides produced by INER are also satisfactory.

Lin, M.S. [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wen-Hua Road, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Dry Storage Project, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wen-Hua Road, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.H.; Chou, C.M.; Chen, I.J. [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wen-Hua Road, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Hsu, S.M., E-mail: smhsu@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

2010-03-15

336

Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: In vivo measurements, Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of two rounds of in vivo laboratory performance testing was undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the appropriateness of the in vivo performance criteria of draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard ANSI N13.3, Performance Criteria for Bioassay.'' The draft standard provides guidance to in vivo counting facilities regarding the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. This report concludes the testing program by presenting the results of the Round Two testing. Testing involved two types of measurements: chest counting for radionuclide detection in the lung, and whole body counting for detection of uniformly distributed material. Each type of measurement was further divided into radionuclide categories as defined in the draft standard. The appropriateness of the draft standard criteria by measuring a laboratory's ability to attain them were judged by the results of both round One and Round Two testing. The testing determined that performance criteria are set at attainable levels, and the majority of in vivo monitoring facilities passed the criteria when complete results were submitted. 18 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.; Olsen, P.C.

1990-04-01

337

Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

1990-02-01

338

Effect of age on test performance in community dwelling elderly people: 6 minutes walk test and ten steps test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data available in literature for test performance in elderly people are less and insufficient for use as a basis of comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate age related changes in functional performance tests and to determine criterion values depending on age in older adults who are functioning independently in the community. Aim: To study the effect of age on test performance in 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step test in community dwelling elderly people. Objectives: To assess 6 minute walk distance, time taken to perform ten step test and to report data within age cohorts. Method: Total 90 subjects were included and divided into 3 groups according to age group, A-(61-65, B-(66-70, and C-(71-75 in each 30 subjects. 6 Minute Walk Test and Ten Step Test were performed on them. The data obtained was analyzed using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. Result: The mean 6 MWD in group A was 317.13 ± 35.44 mts, in group B was 297.10 ± 47.14 mts and in group C was 262.83 ± 42.14 mts. The 10 Step Test time was found to be 11.36 ± 2.06 sec in group A, 13.24 ± 3.49 sec in group B and 14.74 ± 3.16 sec in group C. The results showed that there is a progressive decrease in the 6 MWD and progressive increase in the time taken to complete TST with increasing age. Conclusion: From the results it can be concluded that there is a progressive decrease in the test performance (6MWT & 10 Step test with age in community dwelling elderly people. The results of this study can be used as reference values while performing performance tests for elderly people in the community.

Mahajan Pallavi Janardhan, Mistry Hetal M

2014-04-01

339

Symptom validity test performance in the Huntington Disease Clinic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symptom validity tests (SVTs) are often used in neuropsychological assessment; however, recent studies indicate that cognitive impairment/dementia may contribute to failing scores on some effort tests. The purpose of this study was to characterize how individuals with Huntington disease (HD) perform on three SVTs and to examine the relationship between SVT performance and demographic and clinical variables. Results indicate that while the majority of HD patients passed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI; 82% of n = 121) and the Test of Memory Malingering (92% of n = 36), failure of these SVTs was associated with poorer cognitive and adaptive functioning, and greater motor impairment. Results showed that less than one-third passed the RBANS Effort Scale (ES; 30% of n = 43) and few clinical and demographic variables were correlated with this SVT performance. Although some SVTs may be better suited to HD, cognitive ability should be considered when evaluating effort in HD. PMID:23266566

Sieck, Barbara C; Smith, Megan M; Duff, Kevin; Paulsen, Jane S; Beglinger, Leigh J

2013-03-01

340

Performance testing open source products for the TMT event service  

Science.gov (United States)

The software system for TMT is a distributed system with many components on many computers. Each component integrates with the overall system using a set of software services. The Event Service is a publish-subscribe message system that allows the distribution of demands and other events. The performance requirements for the Event Service are demanding with a goal of over 60 thousand events/second. This service is critical to the success of the TMT software architecture; therefore, a project was started to survey the open source and commercial market for viable software products. A trade study led to the selection of five products for thorough testing using a specially constructed computer/network configuration and test suite. The best performing product was chosen as the basis of a prototype Event Service implementation. This paper describes the process and performance tests conducted by Persistent Systems that led to the selection of the product for the prototype Event Service.

Gillies, K.; Bhate, Yogesh

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Photovoltaic module qualification testing, light-soak test equipment improvements, and module performance characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper gives an overview, status and results of the various tasks performed by the ``PV Module Exploratory/Qualification Testing and Test Method Development'' Team in the Photovoltaics Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The work presented here involves: results from module qualification testing performed on commercial products and R&D prototypes from various PV manufacturers, improvements that have been made in our indoor light-soak test equipment, and module performance characterization, which includes I-V measurements vs irradiance and temperature, and related work using these results as inputs for module energy ratings studies. All these activities are part of an ongoing effort to interact with the PV industry to help improve module performance and reliability, as well as to validate and improve PV module test methods, techniques, and procedures.

Burdick, Joseph; Pruett, Jim; Beck, Elvira

1996-01-01

342

Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

Haas, W.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); French, N.B. [Sky+, Inc. (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Burns, D.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V. [National Risk Management Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Priebe, S.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Waterland, L.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp. (United States)

1997-11-17

343

Performance tests of crowbar circuit for klystron protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A crowbar circuit to protect high power klystron for the rf acceleration of the PF storage ring has been constructed for the experimental purposes. Brief description of the test circuit and results of the performance tests are presented. The circuit is designed for 50 kV operation and works sufficiently well for our purpose: electrical energy of 9 kJ switched within 5 ?s and thus only 3 J fed to the load. (author)

344

Test anxiety and academic performance in chiropractic students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective : We assessed the level of students' test anxiety, and the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Methods : We recruited 166 third-quarter students. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was administered to all participants. Total scores from written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were used as response variables. Results : Multiple regression analysis shows that there was a modest, but statistically significant negative correlation between TAI scores and written exam scores, but not OSCE scores. Worry and emotionality were the best predictive models for written exam scores. Mean total anxiety and emotionality scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, but not worry scores. Conclusion : Moderate-to-high test anxiety was observed in 85% of the chiropractic students examined. However, total test anxiety, as measured by the TAI score, was a very weak predictive model for written exam performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that replacing total anxiety (TAI) with worry and emotionality (TAI subscales) produces a much more effective predictive model of written exam performance. Sex, age, highest current academic degree, and ethnicity contributed little additional predictive power in either regression model. Moreover, TAI scores were not found to be statistically significant predictors of physical exam skill performance, as measured by OSCEs. PMID:24350946

Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N R

2014-01-01

345

Test anxiety and academic performance in chiropractic students*  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective We assessed the level of students' test anxiety, and the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Methods We recruited 166 third-quarter students. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was administered to all participants. Total scores from written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were used as response variables. Results Multiple regression analysis shows that there was a modest, but statistically significant negative correlation between TAI scores and written exam scores, but not OSCE scores. Worry and emotionality were the best predictive models for written exam scores. Mean total anxiety and emotionality scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, but not worry scores. Conclusion Moderate-to-high test anxiety was observed in 85% of the chiropractic students examined. However, total test anxiety, as measured by the TAI score, was a very weak predictive model for written exam performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that replacing total anxiety (TAI) with worry and emotionality (TAI subscales) produces a much more effective predictive model of written exam performance. Sex, age, highest current academic degree, and ethnicity contributed little additional predictive power in either regression model. Moreover, TAI scores were not found to be statistically significant predictors of physical exam skill performance, as measured by OSCEs. PMID:24350946

Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N. R.

2014-01-01

346

Performance of Bayesian outlier diagnostic in testing mean vector  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnostic measure kd which is used to measure the effect of a single observation d on model choice was applied to a variety of univariate model. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of this diagnostic measure when applying to multivariate structure for testing the specified mean vector. We illustrate the method using data generated from multivariate normal distribution. If X a p-variate normal random variable of size n with the mean vector ? and a known covariance matrix, we consider the null hypothesis that the mean vector ? is zero. From this simulation we test the performance of kd for several n and p values.

Mohammad, Rofizah; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

2014-09-01

347

Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

2012-12-01

348

TRAC analyses and GIRAFFE tests for PCCS performance prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) would remove decay heat by steam condensation without any electric power supply or operator's action if an accident should occur in nuclear reactors. There is, however, concern that non-condensable gas might influence the PCCS performance in the event of an accident. This paper summarizes Toshiba's activities respecting PCCS development, in particular those activities relating to TRAC qualification for PCCS performance prediction and the GIRAFFE tests. TRAC is a best estimate thermal hydraulic analysis code. GIRAFFE is a full-height test facility simulating the SBWR containment with the PCCS, at Toshiba's Ukishima site. (author)

349

Performance tests of haemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the results of quality control tests performed in hemodynamic and digital subtraction angiography, which have fundamental importance to the image quality guaranty and to control the doses ministered to patients and staff. These tests are based on national and international standards and they can evaluate the performance of these systems. The results showed that the equipment do not present problems in their digital subtraction systems. Nevertheless, one of the equipment presented patient entrance skin air kerma rates above the limit prescribed by the national standard. (author)

350

Website Performance Analysis Based on Component Load Testing: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developers typically measure a Web application’s quality of service in terms of response time, throughput, and availability. Poor QoS translates into frustrated customers, which can lead to bad opportunities. One way to assess IT infrastructure performance is through load testing, which assess how the website supports its expected workload by running specified set of scripts that emulate behavior at different load levels. This paper addresses the website performance analysis based on component load testing with different QoS measures.

1Charu Babbar 2Neha Bajpai

2011-04-01

351

Delay model and performance testing for FPGA carry chain TDC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Time-of-flight (TOF) information would improve the performance of PET (position emission tomography). TDC design is a key technique. It proposed Carry Chain TDC Delay model. Through changing the significant delay parameter of model, paper compared the difference of TDC performance, and finally realized Time-to-Digital Convertor (TDC) based on Carry Chain Method using FPGA EP2C20Q240C8N with 69 ps LSB, max error below 2 LSB. Such result could meet the TOF demand. It also proposed a Coaxial Cable Measuring method for TDC testing, without High-precision test equipment. (authors)

352

Fertilization test performance using Arbacia punctulata maintained in static culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sea urchin fertilization test using the Atlantic urchin, Arbacia punctulata, is widely utilized in evaluating toxicity of receiving waters and effluents as part of the NPDES program. While this species is easily maintained in uncontaminated, flow-through seawater systems, laboratories without access to flowing seawater either obtain new urchins for each test or maintain populations in static cultures. This study was conducted to assess test success and reproducibility of fertilization tests conducted using urchins maintained in separate-sex, static, temperature-controlled aquaria containing filtered natural seawater. Test performance was evaluated by periodically conducting the standard sea urchin fertilization test (EPA 600/4-87-028) using a common reference toxicant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) Thirteen tests were conducted between September 1993 and May 1994 using one population of urchins, and five tests were conducted between June and December 1994 with a second population of urchins. Test success was 100% (control fertilization > 50%) with a control fertilization mean of 96.4% (S.D. = 3.3). There were no differences between mean EC{sub 50} values calculated for each set of tests (p < 0.05). The running mean value for toxicity was 7.1 mg/L (S.D. = 1.26) for 18 tests, with a CV of 17.7%, comparing favorably with values generated using urchins maintained in flowing seawater. The running mean value for toxicity in these tests was 2.4 mg/L (S.D. = 0.9) for 18 tests conducted between November 1987 and July 1989 (ASTM STP 1124). Data from all urchin tests were used to construct a control chart defining normal ranges for SDS toxicity. This study demonstrated that fertile, adult sea urchins can produce consistent toxicity responses with low variability while being maintained in static, temperature regulated culture facilities.

Serbst, J.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Wright, L.; Sheehan, C.V.; Fitzpatrick, K. [Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

353

Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. When the vehicle's battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W(center dot)h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W(center dot)h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

Kramer, W. E.; MacDowall, R. D.; Burke, A. F.

1994-06-01

354

High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be successfully calcined at 600 C with an AAR of 1.75. Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced to less than 10 ppm (7% O2, dry basis), with >90% reduction of NOx emissions. Mercury removal by the carbon bed reached 99.99%, surpassing the control efficiency needed to meet MACT emissions standards. No deleterious impacts on the carbon bed were observed during the tests. The test results imply that upgrading the NWCF calciner with a more efficient cyclone separator and the proposed MACT equipment can process the remaining tanks wastes in 3 years or less, and comply with the MACT standards.

Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

2004-02-01

355

Testing of reinforced high performance fibre concrete members in tension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFC) is a high performance construction material, coupling strength, ductility and compacity. Up to the present time, its mechanical properties have been widely studied, but design approaches and structural applications in which it can be efficiently applied are needed. To improve this knowledge, a study on the behaviour of real-scale UHPFC ties with additional ordinary steel bars constitues an important step. The results of a test series pr...

Redaelli, Dario

2006-01-01

356

?-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background ?-alanine supplementation has been shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance and capacity. However, the effects on intermittent exercise are less clear, with no effect shown on repeated sprint activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ?-alanine supplementation on YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YoYo IR2) performance. Methods Seventeen amateur footballers were allocated to either a placebo (PLA; N ...

Saunders Bryan; Sunderland Caroline; Harris Roger C; Sale Craig

2012-01-01

357

Performance test of database server based on MySQL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MySQL is preliminarily chosen as the archive toolkit of CSNS experimental control system. A performance test of a database server based on MySQL is introduced. Main characters including the relationship between query rate, insertion rate and the number of connection threads are carried out with the consideration of data size. The hardware setup, software environment, ways and means of the test, and the results analysis are introduced in detail. The test results will help a lot to the database system design of the CSNS experiment control system. (authors)

358

Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

2001-01-01

359

Heat transfer performance test of the KN-12 transport cask  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two heat transfer tests were performed as a fabrication performance test to demonstrate the heat transfer capability of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport cask. The tests were conducted under normal conditions of transport with a total heat load of 12.6kW to simulate the design heat load of the cask. The heat load was best represented by twelve electrical dummy heaters, which were designed to simulate actual configurations and conditions of twelve PWR spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The test determined steady state temperatures on the outer surfaces of the cask and impact limiters and within the fuel basket. The steady state temperatures were compared to the calculated temperatures to determine the accuracy of the design calculations. The intention of this paper is to evaluate test results which were measured during the heat transfer test for the KN-12 cask. The evaluation was done using maximum values for different cask components which were calculated for the Safety Analysis Report of the KN-12 transport cask. The test temperatures were described very well by the calculated maximum component temperatures and the calculated component temperatures were higher and therefore conservative

360

Numerical analysis on letdown system performance test for YGN 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrated performance test of Chemical and Volume control System was successfully performed in 1994. However, an extensive effort to correct hardware and software problems in the letdown line was required mainly due to the lack of adequate simulation code to predict the test accurately. Although the LTC computer code was used during the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design process, the code can not satisfactorily predict the test due to its insufficient letdown line modeling. This study developed a numerical model to simulate the letdown test by modifying the current LTC code, and then verified the model by comparing with the test data. The comparison shows that the modified LTC computer code can predict the transient behavior of letdown system tests very well. Especially, the model was verified to be able to predict the instantaneous fluctuations in the letdown backpressure and flowrate which are caused by the `Stiction (composition of stick and friction)` of valve. Therefore, it is concluded that the modified LTC computer code with the ability of calculating the `Stiction` phenomena will be very useful for future plant design and test predictions. 1 tab., 11 figs., 7 refs. (Author).

Seo, Ho Taek; Sohn, Seok Hoon; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Numerical analysis on letdown system performance test for YGN 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrated performance test of Chemical and Volume control System was successfully performed in 1994. However, an extensive effort to correct hardware and software problems in the letdown line was required mainly due to the lack of adequate simulation code to predict the test accurately. Although the LTC computer code was used during the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design process, the code can not satisfactorily predict the test due to its insufficient letdown line modeling. This study developed a numerical model to simulate the letdown test by modifying the current LTC code, and then verified the model by comparing with the test data. The comparison shows that the modified LTC computer code can predict the transient behavior of letdown system tests very well. Especially, the model was verified to be able to predict the instantaneous fluctuations in the letdown backpressure and flowrate which are caused by the 'Stiction (composition of stick and friction)' of valve. Therefore, it is concluded that the modified LTC computer code with the ability of calculating the 'Stiction' phenomena will be very useful for future plant design and test predictions. 1 tab., 11 figs., 7 refs. (Author)

362

42 CFR 493.1236 - Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. 493.1236...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. (a...Any test or procedure it...

2010-10-01

363

Testing performance of Standards-based protocols in DPM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the interests of the promotion of the increased use of non-proprietary protocols in grid storage systems, we perform tests on the performance of WebDAV and pNFS transport with the DPM storage solution. We find that the standards-based protocols behave similarly to the proprietary standards currently in use, despite encountering some issues with the state of the implementation itself. We thus conclude that there is no performance-based reason to avoid using such protocols for data management in future.

364

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

365

40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test...and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this part...chromium electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and...

2010-07-01

366

Teacher Performance and Pupil Achievement on Teacher-Made Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the predictive validity of the Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI) using pupil gains on teacher-made tests (TMT) as a criterion. The TPAI and the TMT's were administered to 56 elementary and secondary classrooms in Georgia. Results supported the validity of the TPAI with a large number of correlations ranging…

Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

367

Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

2014-01-01

368

Thermal Performance Testing of Order Dependancy of Aerogels Multilayered Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Robust multilayer insulation systems have long been a goal of many research projects. Such insulation systems must provide some degree of structural support and also mechanical integrity during loss of vacuum scenarios while continuing to provide insulative value to the vessel. Aerogel composite blankets can be the best insulation materials in ambient pressure environments; in high vacuum, the thermal performance of aerogel improves by about one order of magnitude. Standard multilayer insulation (MU) is typically 50% worse at ambient pressure and at soft vacuum, but as much as two or three orders of magnitude better at high vacuum. Different combinations of aerogel and multilayer insulation systems have been tested at Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Analysis performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed an importance to the relative location of the MU and aerogel blankets. Apparent thermal conductivity testing under cryogenic-vacuum conditions was performed to verify the analytical conclusion. Tests results are shown to be in agreement with the analysis which indicated that the best performance is obtained with aerogel layers located in the middle of the blanket insulation system.

Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, James E.; Demko, J. A.

2009-01-01

369

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE TETRADYNE HIGH SPEED AIR JET SKIMMER  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the performance of the prototype Tetradyne High Speed Air Jet Skimmer at their OHMSETT test facility at Leonardo, New Jersey. The skimmer depends on an air-jet impacting the water surface at an angle and deflecting rapidly moving...

370

Developing and Testing the Guitar Songleading Performance Scale (GSPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Guitar songleading is a critical component in music education and music therapy training curricula. However, at present, there is no standardized instrument to evaluate guitar songleading performance that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this article is to describe the construction, development, and testing of a guitar songleading…

Silverman, Michael J.

2011-01-01

371

Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

2011-01-01

372

Social housing improves dairy calves' performance in two cognitive tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n?=?8) or kept in pairs using a double pen (n?=?10). Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white) until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa). Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves. PMID:24587281

Gaillard, Charlotte; Meagher, Rebecca K; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M

2014-01-01

373

Performance of rapid influenza diagnostic testing in outbreak settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory disease outbreaks to identify influenza and enable antivirals to be rapidly administered to patients and for the prophylactic treatment of those exposed to the virus but not yet symptomatic. The performance of RIDTs at the outbreak level is not well documented in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of RIDTs in comparison with that of real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR in the context of institutional respiratory disease outbreaks. This study included outbreak-related respiratory specimens tested for influenza virus at Public Health Ontario Laboratories by both RIDT and rRT-PCR, from 1 September 2010 to 30 April 2013. At the outbreak level, performance testing of RIDTs compared to rRT-PCR for the detection of any influenza virus type demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 99.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.5%, and a negative predictive value of 85.3%. Because of their high specificity and PPV, even outside of the influenza season, RIDTs can play a role in screening for influenza virus in outbreaks and instituting antiviral therapy in a timely manner when positive. RIDTs can also be useful in remote settings where molecular virology testing is not easily accessible. Suboptimal sensitivity of RIDTs can be addressed by the use of molecular testing. PMID:25320225

Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; King, Eddie-Chong; Blair, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B

2014-12-01

374

WhalePower tubercle blade power performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toronto-based WhalePower Corporation has developed turbine blades that are modeled after humpback whale flippers. The blades, which incorporate tubercles along the leading edge of the blade, have been fitted to a Wenvor 25 kW turbine installed in North Cape, Prince Edward Island at a test site for the Wind Energy Institute of Canada (WEICan). A test was conducted to characterize the power performance of the prototype wind turbine. This report described the wind turbine configuration with particular reference to turbine information, power rating, blade information, tower information, control systems and grid connections. The test site was also described along with test equipment and measurement procedures. Information regarding power output as a function of wind speed was included along with power curves, power coefficient and annual energy production. The results for the power curve and annual energy production contain a level of uncertainty. While measurements for this test were collected and analyzed in accordance with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines (IEC 61400-12-1), the comparative performance data between the prototype WhalePower wind turbine blade and the Wenvor standard blade was not gathered to IEC data standards. Deviations from IEC-61400-12-1 procedures were listed. 6 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2008-07-15

375

LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The tests and evaluation were performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a ''Dump-type'' because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

1978-11-01

376

SP-100 Fuel Pin Performance: Results from Irradiation Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

Makenas, Bruce J.; Paxton, Dean M.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Marietta, Martin; Hoth, Carl W.

1994-07-01

377

Performance of the CANFLEX fuel bundle under mechanical flow testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANFLEX is a 43-element fuel bundle consisting of two element sizes, to reduce element ratings, while maintaining the same bundle power, and an uranium content very close to the uranium content of a standard 37-element bundle. The overall dimensions of the bundle are designed to be the same as the overall dimensions of the standard 37-element fuel bundle. Several out-reactor tests were performed, under in-reactor operating conditions of flow, pressure and temperature, to demonstrate the hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design. The hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity of the CANFLEX fuel-bundle design were verified through various out-reactor tests conducted at the laboratories of KAERI and AECL to show that the CANFLEX bundle design meets the design requirements of the CANDU 6 reactor fuel [1] and that it is also compatible with the CANDU 6 fuelling machine. (author)

378

Performance tests of a cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing for turbopumps  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were performed on a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing designed for cryogenic applications such as turbopumps. This bearing is considerably smaller and lighter than conventional magnetic bearings and is more efficient because it uses a permanent magnet to provide a bias flux. The tests were performed in a test rig that used liquid nitrogen to simulate cryogenic turbopump temperatures. The bearing was tested at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature (-320 F). The maximum speed for the test rig was 14000 rpm. For a magnetic bearing stiffness of 20000 lb/in, the flexible rotor had two critical speeds. A static (nonrotating) bearing stiffness of 85000 lb/in was achieved. Magnetic bearing stiffness, permanent magnet stiffness, actuator gain, and actuator force interaction between two axes were evaluated, and controller/power amplifier characteristics were determined. The tests revealed that it is feasible to use this bearing in the cryogenic environment and to control the rotor dynamics of flexible rotors when passing through bending critical speeds. The tests also revealed that more effort should be placed on enhancing the controller to achieve higher bearing stiffness and on developing displacement sensors that reduce drift caused by temperature and reduce sensor electrical noise.

Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

1992-01-01

379

Rate and peak concentrations of off-gas emissions in stored wood pellets--sensitivities to temperature, relative humidity, and headspace volume.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood pellets emit CO, CO(2), CH(4), and other volatiles during storage. Increased concentration of these gases in a sealed storage causes depletion of concentration of oxygen. The storage environment becomes toxic to those who operate in and around these storages. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature, moisture, and the relative size of storage headspace on emissions from wood pellets in an enclosed space. Twelve 10-l plastic containers were used to study the effects of headspace ratio (25, 50, and 75% of container volume) and temperatures (10-50 degrees C). Another eight containers were set in uncontrolled storage relative humidity (RH) and temperature. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that emissions of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from stored wood pellets are more sensitive to storage temperature than to RH and the relative volume of headspace. Higher peak emission factors are associated with higher temperatures. Increased headspace volume ratio increases peak off-gas emissions because of the availability of oxygen associated with pellet decomposition. Increased RH in the enclosed container increases the rate of off-gas emissions of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) and oxygen depletion. PMID:19656803

Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Melin, Staffan

2009-11-01

380

Specification and performance of testing and balancing in biological facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biologics facilities for pilot, clinical trial, and manufacturing applications have special testing and balancing requirements. The testing and balancing function can ensure the integrity of the design intent through start-up; it provides valuable test data for clean room certification and validation while providing the owner long-term mechanical system reliability. One of the most important functions of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in these facilities is the maintenance of different pressures between rooms. A testing and balancing procedure to accomplish this is not addressed effectively by NEBB or AABC standards. A detailed specification of the testing and balancing procedures and incorporation of all system design data in the testing and balancing contract package is essential to the ultimate success of the project. The pressure differential instrumentation furnished and installed by the controls contractor should be calibrated during the testing and balancing activity. A final verification of the system performance by the engineer must be conducted prior to beginning clean room testing and certification activities.

Burns, J.T.; Milburn, W.F.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ''GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report'' (WHC-SD-VI-027)

382

Performance test of a ceramic turbo-viscous pump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the special fields of nuclear fusion facilities and semiconductor production installation, the development of new vacuum pumps which can cope with strong magnetic fields, high temperature gas and corrosive gas is demanded. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. has advanced the development of ceramic turbo-molecular pumps and ceramic turbo-viscous pumps, which use ceramic rotors and gas bearings since 1985. The evaluation test of the ceramic turbo-viscous vacuum pump CT-3000H which can evacuate from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum with one pump was carried out, and the experimental results on the performance and the reliability were obtained, therefore, those are reported in this paper. The structure, specification and features of the CT-3000H are shown. The exhaust performance test of the pump was carried out in conformity with the standard of the Vacuum Society of Japan, JVIS 005 'Method of performance test for turbo-molecular pumps'. The gases used were nitrogen and helium. The results are shown. The exhaust test from atmospheric pressure was carried out by two methods, and the results are shown. (K.I.).

Abe, Tetsuya; Hiroki, Seiji; Murakami, Yoshio (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Shiraishi, Shigeyuki; Totoura, Sadayuki; Ohtaki, Takashi

1994-03-01

383

Performance of battery charge controllers: First year test report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the first year of an evaluation of charge controllers for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems are presented. The objectives of the test program are to positively influence the development of battery charge controllers for stand-alone PV applications and to develop design and application criteria that will improve PV system reliability and battery performance. Future goals are to expand the evaluation program to include various battery technologies and controller algorithms. Also, the information is being communicated to manufacturers to aid in the design of more effective and reliable charge controllers for PV systems. Eight different models of small (nominal 10 amp) charge controllers are being subjected to a comprehensive evaluation. These evaluations include operational tests in identical stand-alone PV systems and environmental and electrical cycling tests. Selected custom tests are also performed on the controllers to determine the response to transients, installation requirements and system design compatibilities. Data presented in this paper include measured electrical characteristics of the controllers, temperature effects on set points, and operational performance in PV systems both in the lab and in the field. A comparison is presented for four different charge controller algorithms which include array-shunt, series-interrupting, series-linear constant-voltage and series-linear-multistep constant-current. 9 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dunlop, J. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)); Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Harrington, S. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

384

Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture, UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture with poreformer, M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

Lee, Young Woo; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S

2001-02-01

385

Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO2-5wt%CeO2 powder mixture, UO2-5wt%CeO2 powder mixture with poreformer, M3O8 powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill

386

Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 ?m AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 ?m pixel size and 160x120, 52 ?m pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

2014-03-01

387