WorldWideScience
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Ultrasound guided obturator nerve block: a single interfascial injection technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a new technique of single interfascial injection for 25 patients scheduled for transurethral bladder tumor resection. An ultrasound probe was placed at the midline of inguinal crease and moved medially and caudally to visualize the fascial space between the adductor longus (or pectineus) and adductor brevis muscles. We injected 20 mL 1% lidocaine containing epinephrine into the interfascial space using a transverse plane approach to make an interfascial injection, not an intramuscular swelling pattern. And just distally, firm pressure was applied for 3 min. Afterwards, surgery was performed under spinal anesthesia. The time required for identification and location of the nerve was 20 ± 15 and 30 ± 15 s, respectively. Adductor muscle strength, which was measured with a sphygmomanometer, decreased in all patients, from 122 ± 26 mmHg before blockade to 63 ± 11 mmHg 5 min after blockade. No movement or palpable muscle twitching occurred in 23 cases, slight movement of the thigh not interfering with the surgical procedure was observed in 1 case, thus the obturator reflex was successfully inhibited in 96% of cases. Ultrasound-guided single interfascial injection is an easy and successful technique for obturator nerve block. PMID:21918855

Lee, Seong Heon; Jeong, Cheol Won; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Myung Ha; Kim, Woong Mo

2011-12-01

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Obturator Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type B for Patient with Adductor Thigh Muscle Spasm -A Case Report-  

OpenAIRE

Obturator nerve block has been commonly used for pain management to prevent involuntary reflex of the adductor thigh muscles. One of several options for this block is chemical neurolysis. Neurolysis is done with chemical agents. Chemical agents used in the neurolysis of the obturator nerve have been alcohol, phenol, and botulinum toxin. In the current case, a patient with spasticity of the adductor thigh muscle due to cervical cord injury had obturator nerve neurolysis done with botulinum tox...

Choi, Eun Joo; Byun, Jong Min; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Lee, Pyung Bok

2011-01-01

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Combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block versus combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block for ACL reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ayman I TharwatAin Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: We compared the efficacy of combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block with that of combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block as anesthesia for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, because both block combinations have been recommended for lower limb arthroscopic and reconstructive surgery.Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under local anesthesia were randomized to undergo either combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block (Group 1, or combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block (Group 2. Blocks were performed using nerve stimulation and bupivacaine 0.5% mixed with lignocaine 2%. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Quality of anesthesia, motor and sensory block, time to first analgesic use, sedation, and need for general anesthesia were recorded, along with verbal postoperative pain scores, and side effects.Results: No patient in Group 1 and two patients in Group 2 needed general anesthesia. Complete sensory blockade was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. However, complete motor blockade was similar in both groups. In Group 1, verbal pain scores were lower than in Group 2. Time to first analgesic was similar between the two groups. Total analgesic consumption was lower in Group 1. No significant differences were found for heart rate, pulse oximetry, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the groups, and no signs of toxicity were encountered.Conclusion: Combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block provided more comfortable intraoperative anesthesia and better postoperative analgesia than combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, local anesthetic, nerve block 

Ayman I Tharwat

2011-02-01

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Obturator nerve block with botulinum toxin type B for patient with adductor thigh muscle spasm -a case report-.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obturator nerve block has been commonly used for pain management to prevent involuntary reflex of the adductor thigh muscles. One of several options for this block is chemical neurolysis. Neurolysis is done with chemical agents. Chemical agents used in the neurolysis of the obturator nerve have been alcohol, phenol, and botulinum toxin. In the current case, a patient with spasticity of the adductor thigh muscle due to cervical cord injury had obturator nerve neurolysis done with botulinum toxin type B (BoNT-B). Most of the previous studies have used BoNT-A with only a few reports that have used BoNT-B. BoNT-B has several advantages and disadvantages over BoNT-A. Thus, we report herein a patient who successfully received obturator nerve neurolysis using BoNT-B to treat adductor thigh muscle spasm. PMID:21935496

Choi, Eun Joo; Byun, Jong Min; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Lee, Pyung Bok

2011-09-01

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CT-guided obturator nerve block for diagnosis and treatment of painful conditions of the hip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Obturator nerve blocks (ONB) have been performed by anaesthesiologists mainly to eliminate the obturator reflex during transurethral resections. An effect on hip pain has also been described. However, being a time-consuming and operator-dependent procedure if performed manually, it has not been widely used for chronic hip pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to check whether CT guidance could improve reproducibility of the block (= immediate effect) and to test its potential value for treatment of chronic hip pain. Fifteen chronically ill patients with osteoarthritis underwent a single ONB. Sixteen millilitres of Lidocaine 1 % mixed with 2 ml Iopramide was injected into the obturator canal. The patients were followed up to 9 months after the intervention. With a single injection pain relief was achieved for 1-8 weeks in 7 of 15 patients. Excellent pain relief for 3-11 months was achieved in another 4 patients. Reasons for a mid-term or even long-term effect based on a single injection of local anaesthetic are not exactly known. The CT-guided ONB is a fast, easy and safe procedure that may be useful for mid-term (weeks) and sometimes even long-term (months) treatment of hip pain. (orig.)

Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.; Amaya, B.; Pickuth, D.; Spielmann, R.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Okoniewski, M. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

2001-06-01

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CT-guided obturator nerve block for diagnosis and treatment of painful conditions of the hip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obturator nerve blocks (ONB) have been performed by anaesthesiologists mainly to eliminate the obturator reflex during transurethral resections. An effect on hip pain has also been described. However, being a time-consuming and operator-dependent procedure if performed manually, it has not been widely used for chronic hip pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to check whether CT guidance could improve reproducibility of the block (= immediate effect) and to test its potential value for treatment of chronic hip pain. Fifteen chronically ill patients with osteoarthritis underwent a single ONB. Sixteen millilitres of Lidocaine 1 % mixed with 2 ml Iopramide was injected into the obturator canal. The patients were followed up to 9 months after the intervention. With a single injection pain relief was achieved for 1-8 weeks in 7 of 15 patients. Excellent pain relief for 3-11 months was achieved in another 4 patients. Reasons for a mid-term or even long-term effect based on a single injection of local anaesthetic are not exactly known. The CT-guided ONB is a fast, easy and safe procedure that may be useful for mid-term (weeks) and sometimes even long-term (months) treatment of hip pain. (orig.)

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CT-guided obturator nerve block for diagnosis and treatment of painful conditions of the hip.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obturator nerve blocks (ONB) have been performed by anaesthesiologists mainly to eliminate the obturator reflex during transurethral resections. An effect on hip pain has also been described. However, being a time-consuming and operator-dependent procedure if performed manually, it has not been widely used for chronic hip pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to check whether CT guidance could improve reproducibility of the block (= immediate effect) and to test its potential value for treatment of chronic hip pain. Fifteen chronically ill patients with osteoarthritis underwent a single ONB. Sixteen millilitres of Lidocaine 1% mixed with 2 ml Iopramide was injected into the obturator canal. The patients were followed up to 9 months after the intervention. With a single injection pain relief was achieved for 1-8 weeks in 7 of 15 patients. Excellent pain relief for 3-11 months was achieved in another 4 patients. Reasons for a mid-term or even long-term effect based on a single injection of local anaesthetic are not exactly known. The CT-guided ONB is a fast, easy and safe procedure that may be useful for mid-term (weeks) and sometimes even long-term (months) treatment of hip pain. PMID:11419151

Heywang-Köbrunner, S H; Amaya, B; Okoniewski, M; Pickuth, D; Spielmann, R P

2001-01-01

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Nerve Blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

... injection to achieve temporary pain relief. Often, such pain originates from the spine, but other areas commonly affected include the neck, buttocks, legs and arms. Delivering a nerve block injection allows a damaged nerve time to heal itself ...

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The role of succinylcholine in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to present our 8 year experience in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. This study was performed in Ataturk University Hospital between 1999 and 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 89 patients with inferolateral bladder tumors, who underwent transurethral resection under epidural or general anesthesia and requested obturator nerve reflex inhibition. Epidural anesthesia was administered to 57 patients, while the remaining 32 patients underwent general anesthesia via mask; and succinylcholine was administered prior to resection. Of the 57 patients received epidural anesthesia, 18 were diagnosed as inferolateral bladder tumors during endoscopy and had to undergo general anesthesia. Obturator nerve block was attempted preoperatively in 39 patients. However, a nerve identification failure, hematoma and 4 obturator nerve reflex events, despite the block, were observed and these patients were subjected to general anesthesia with succinylcholine. Fifty-six patients (32 patients initially had general anesthesia and 24 converted from epidural to general anesthesia) were all given succinylcholine prior to resection. Due to its mechanisms of action, succinylcholine is completely effective and represents a simple alternative to obturator nerve block. No contraction was observed in any patient given succinylcholine. (author)

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Obturator Nerve Injury: An Infrequent Complication of TOT Procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transvaginal mid-urethral slings have become the most preferred surgical treatment option for female stress urinary incontinence. However, various complications have been reported for these operations occurring especially during penetration of the retropubic space. It can negatively affect patient's quality of life. Early treatment increases the chance of complete normalization of the functions. In this case report we presented a case of obturator nerve damage that was diagnosed and treated at early stage after TOT operation. PMID:25343052

Aydogmus, S; Kelekci, S; Aydogmus, H; Ekmekci, E; Secil, Y; Ture, S

2014-01-01

11

[Elimination of the obturator reflex as a specific indication for dilute solutions of etidocaine. A study of the suitability of a local anesthetic for reflex elimination in the 3-in-1 block technic].  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct stimulation of the obturator nerve by the electroresectoscope during transurethral resection of tumors in lateral bladder regions is possible under regional or general anaesthesia without muscle relaxation. The resulting obturator reflex may lead to perforation of the bladder. Two different regional techniques can be used to interrupt the obturator reflex arc: (1) separate block of the obturator nerve; or (2) the "3-in-1 block" (Winnie). In the present study elimination of the obturator reflex was carried out by "3-in-1 block" with diluted solutions of etidocaine in 55 cases. Venous plasma levels of etidocaine were measured in 9 patients after application of etidocaine 0.5% (unilateral 30 ml and bilateral 60 ml). Samples were taken 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 120 min after the "3-in-1 block". RESULTS. The "3-in-1 block" with diluted etidocaine produced excellent motor block of the obturator nerve. Clinical side effects did not occur. Plasma peak levels reached 2.2 micrograms/ml; the protein binding rate was 85%-95%. DISCUSSION. Elimination of the obturator reflex is the only specific motor nerve block in anesthesia. Diluted etidocaine solutions seem to be adequate: irrespective the technique used for eliminating the reflex, diluted etidocaine produces a good effect and permits a dosage reduction compared with other local anesthetics. It is possible to block the obturator nerve bilaterally by "3-in-1 block" or unilaterally by "3-in-1 block" in combination with epidural analgesia within the recommended dose limits. PMID:2305117

Schwilick, R; Weingärtner, K; Kissler, G V; Reinhold, P

1990-01-01

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Anatomical feasibility of the anterior obturator nerve transfer to restore bowel and bladder function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total sacrectomies are radical procedures required to treat tumorigenic processes involving the sacrum. The purpose of our anatomical study was to assess the feasibility of a novel nerve transfer involving the anterior obturator nerve to the pudendal and pelvic nerves to the rectum and bladder. Anterior dissection of the obturator nerve was performed in eight hemipelvis cadaver specimens. The common obturator nerve branched into the anterior and posterior at the level of the obturator foramen. The anterior branch then divided into two separate branches (adductor longus and gracilis). The branch to the gracilis was on average longer and also larger than the branch to the adductor longus (8.7 ± 2.1 cm vs. 6.7 ± 2.6 cm in length and 2.6 ± 0.2 mm vs 1.8 ± 0.4 mm in diameter). Each branch of the anterior obturator was long enough to reach the pelvic nerves. The novel transfer of the anterior branch of the obturator nerve to reinnervate the bladder and bowel is anatomically feasible. This represents a promising option with minimal donor site deficit. PMID:24710737

Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Wyles, Cody C; Moran, Steven L

2014-09-01

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The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability. PMID:23813615

Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

2014-07-01

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Immediate Repair of an Incompletely Transected Obturator Nerve During Robotic-assisted Pelvic Lymphadenectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraoperative injury of the obturator nerve may occur in gynecologic oncologic procedures when extensive pelvic side wall dissection is performed. In this case, we report an immediate repair of an incompletely transected obturator nerve during robotic-assisted pelvic lymphadenectomy. A 62-year-old gravida 3, para 3 woman was admitted to our clinic for postmenopausal bleeding. The result of an endometrial biopsy was complex endometrial hyperplasia with atypia, and a robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. A frozen section of the specimen revealed grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma with >1/2 myometrial invasion. During the pelvic lymphadenectomy, the left obturator nerve was incompletely transected. The obturator nerve edges were oriented and reapproximated end-to-end with two 6/0 polypropylene sutures. The operation and console times were 244 and 223 minutes, respectively. The final pathologic finding was a stage IB endometrial adenocarcinoma. The number of the obtained lymph nodes was 38. Postoperatively, the patient did not exhibit any clinically apparent loss of adductor function or any other neurologic deficiency. Over 6 months of follow-up, the patient experienced no residual neuropathy or deficit in the left thigh. Robotic-assisted repair of a transected obturator nerve during surgery is feasible, and immediate repair of the damaged nerve may result in no neurologic deficit postoperatively. PMID:25218992

Göçmen, Ahmet; Sanl?kan, Fatih

2014-09-16

15

Critérios de avaliação do bloqueio anestésico 3 em 1: É comum o envolvimento do nervo obturador? / Evaluation criteria for 3-in-1 anesthetic block: Is the involvement of the obturator nerve common? / Criterios de evaluación del bloqueo anestésico 3 en 1: ¿Es común el envolvimiento del nervio obturador?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: No bloqueio 3:1 é controvertida a participação do nervo obturador. Intervenções cirúrgicas de superfície na face medial da coxa incidem sobre os dermátomos dos nervos femoral e obturador, de limites imprecisos, sobrepostos ou mesmo ausentes. A correlação entre o desfecho c [...] línico com outros meios de diagnóstico podem ser conclusivos sobre o acometimento do nervo obturador. CONTEÚDO: Comumente o desfecho de um bloqueio regional é pesquisado mais pela insensibilidade dos dermátomos que a atividade motora dos miótomos. A partir de conhecimentos anatômicos sobre o percurso dos componentes plexulares do bloqueio 3:1, critérios clínicos complementados por outros meios de diagnóstico esclarecem o envolvimento do nervo obturador. CONCLUSÕES: A simbiose entre o desfecho clínico do bloqueio 3:1 com os diversos meios de complementação diagnóstica são interpretativos e conclusivos e, de acordo com o que a literatura nos indica sobre a participação do nervo obturador, o bloqueio 3:1 com injeção única, não justifica o seu nome. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: En el bloqueo 3:1 es controvertida la participación del nervio obturador. Intervenciones quirúrgicas de superficie en la face medial del muslo inciden sobre los dermátomos de los nervios femoral y obturador, de límites imprecisos, sobrepuestos o mismo ausentes. La correlac [...] ión entre el desenlace clínico con otros medios de diagnóstico pueden ser conclusivos sobre el acometimiento del nervio obturador. CONTENIDO: Comúnmente el desenlace de un bloqueo regional es pesquisado más por la insensibilidad de los dermátomos de que por la actividad motora de los miótomos. A partir de conocimientos anatómicos sobre el trayecto de los componentes plexulares del bloqueo 3:1, criterios clínicos complementados por otros medios de diagnóstico esclarecen el envolvimiento del nervio obturador. CONCLUSIONES: La simbiosis entre el desenlace clínico del bloqueo 3:1 con los diversos medios de complementación diagnóstica son interpretativos y conclusivos y, de acuerdo con lo que la literatura nos indica sobre la participación del nervio obturador, el bloqueo 3:1 con inyección única, no justifica su nombre. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The participation of the obturator nerve in 3:1 blockades is controversial. Superficial surgical interventions in the medial face of the thigh strike femoral and obturator nerves dermatomes with imprecise, overlapped or even absent limits. The correlation between clinical [...] outcome and other diagnostic methods may be conclusive about the involvement of the obturator nerve. CONTENTS: In general, regional block outcomes are confirmed more by the lack of dermatome sensitivity than by miotomes motor activity. As from the anatomic understanding of the pathway of plexus components of 3:1 blocks, clinical criteria aided by other diagnostic methods explain obturator nerve involvement. CONCLUSIONS:The symbiosis between 3:1 block outcome and different diagnostic methods is interpretative and conclusive and, according to literature indications about the obturator nerve participation, 3:1 block with single injection does not justify its name.

Karl Otto, Geier.

2003-08-01

16

Critérios de avaliação do bloqueio anestésico 3 em 1: É comum o envolvimento do nervo obturador? Criterios de evaluación del bloqueo anestésico 3 en 1: ¿Es común el envolvimiento del nervio obturador? Evaluation criteria for 3-in-1 anesthetic block: Is the involvement of the obturator nerve common?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: No bloqueio 3:1 é controvertida a participação do nervo obturador. Intervenções cirúrgicas de superfície na face medial da coxa incidem sobre os dermátomos dos nervos femoral e obturador, de limites imprecisos, sobrepostos ou mesmo ausentes. A correlação entre o desfecho clínico com outros meios de diagnóstico podem ser conclusivos sobre o acometimento do nervo obturador. CONTEÚDO: Comumente o desfecho de um bloqueio regional é pesquisado mais pela insensibilidade dos dermátomos que a atividade motora dos miótomos. A partir de conhecimentos anatômicos sobre o percurso dos componentes plexulares do bloqueio 3:1, critérios clínicos complementados por outros meios de diagnóstico esclarecem o envolvimento do nervo obturador. CONCLUSÕES: A simbiose entre o desfecho clínico do bloqueio 3:1 com os diversos meios de complementação diagnóstica são interpretativos e conclusivos e, de acordo com o que a literatura nos indica sobre a participação do nervo obturador, o bloqueio 3:1 com injeção única, não justifica o seu nome.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: En el bloqueo 3:1 es controvertida la participación del nervio obturador. Intervenciones quirúrgicas de superficie en la face medial del muslo inciden sobre los dermátomos de los nervios femoral y obturador, de límites imprecisos, sobrepuestos o mismo ausentes. La correlación entre el desenlace clínico con otros medios de diagnóstico pueden ser conclusivos sobre el acometimiento del nervio obturador. CONTENIDO: Comúnmente el desenlace de un bloqueo regional es pesquisado más por la insensibilidad de los dermátomos de que por la actividad motora de los miótomos. A partir de conocimientos anatómicos sobre el trayecto de los componentes plexulares del bloqueo 3:1, criterios clínicos complementados por otros medios de diagnóstico esclarecen el envolvimiento del nervio obturador. CONCLUSIONES: La simbiosis entre el desenlace clínico del bloqueo 3:1 con los diversos medios de complementación diagnóstica son interpretativos y conclusivos y, de acuerdo con lo que la literatura nos indica sobre la participación del nervio obturador, el bloqueo 3:1 con inyección única, no justifica su nombre.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The participation of the obturator nerve in 3:1 blockades is controversial. Superficial surgical interventions in the medial face of the thigh strike femoral and obturator nerves dermatomes with imprecise, overlapped or even absent limits. The correlation between clinical outcome and other diagnostic methods may be conclusive about the involvement of the obturator nerve. CONTENTS: In general, regional block outcomes are confirmed more by the lack of dermatome sensitivity than by miotomes motor activity. As from the anatomic understanding of the pathway of plexus components of 3:1 blocks, clinical criteria aided by other diagnostic methods explain obturator nerve involvement. CONCLUSIONS:The symbiosis between 3:1 block outcome and different diagnostic methods is interpretative and conclusive and, according to literature indications about the obturator nerve participation, 3:1 block with single injection does not justify its name.

Karl Otto Geier

2003-08-01

17

The role of succinylcholine in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To present our 8 year experience in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. METHODS This study was performed in Ataturk University Hospital between 1999 and 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 89 patients with inferolateral bladder tumors, who underwent transurethral resection under epidural or general anesthesia and requested obturator nerve reflex inhibitio...

Mehmet Cesur; Erdem, Ali F.; Alici, Haci A.; Turgut Yapanoglu; Yuksek, Mustafa S.; Yilmaz Aksoy

2008-01-01

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Femoral and obturator nerves palsy caused by pelvic cement extrusion after hip arthroplasty.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cement extrusion into the pelvis with subsequent palsy of the obturator and femoral nerves is a rare entity after hip replacement surgery. Cemented fixation of the acetabular cup has been considered as a safe and reliable standard procedure with very good long term results. We present a case of fifty year old female patient after hip arthroplasty procedure which suffered an obturator and femoral nerve palsy caused by extrusion of bone cement into the pelvis. Postoperative X-rays and CT-scan of the pelvis demonstrated a huge mass consisted of bone cement in close proximity of femoral and obturator nerves. The surgery charts reported shallow and weak bony substance in postero-superior aspect of the acetabulum. This weak bony acetabular substance may have caused extrusion of bone cement during press-fitting of the polyethylene cup into the acetabulum, and the following damage of the both nerves produced by polymerization of bone cement. The bone cement fragment has been surgically removed 3 weeks after arthroplasty. The female patient underwent intensive postoperative physical therapy and electro stimulation which resulted in full recovery of the patient to daily routine and almost normal electromyography results.

Joern William-Patrick Michael

2011-03-01

19

Withdrawal reflexes in adductor muscles elicited by electrical and magnetic stimulation of the obturator nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The withdrawal reflex in the short head of the biceps femoris muscle after electrical stimulation of the sural nerve at the ankle has been investigated in numerous studies. These studies have described two distinct responses: early (R-II) and late (R-III). However, withdrawal reflex activity of the adductor muscles in the legs has not been studied systematically. Adductor muscle reflex activity is important because it can produce serious clinical problems, such as adductor spasticity and spasms, during bladder surgery. The present study examined withdrawal reflex features of adductor muscles obtained by electrical and magnetic stimulation of the obturator nerve (ON) in 34 normal healthy subjects. Early adductor muscle withdrawal reflex responses were elicited by ipsilateral ON electrical stimulation with a mean latency of 45.7+/-2.0 ms (responses in 94% of subjects). Reflex responses were also obtained using magnetic stimulation at a similar incidence rate. Contralateral ON electrical stimulation resulted in a similar reflex, but with a lower incidence. ON and femoral nerve electrical and magnetic coil stimulation produced similar low-incidence responses in the vastus medialis. These findings indicate that short latency adductor withdrawal reflexes are easily obtained on both sides following electrical or magnetic stimulation of the ON, and they can be elicited by both nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli. These reflexes prepare the body for a proper response to incoming signals and likely serve to protect the pelvic floor and pelvic organs. PMID:18816621

Ertekin, Cumhur; Bademkiran, Fikret; Yalin, Sevket; Karapinar, Nevin; Uysal, Hilmi

2008-11-01

20

Electrical nerve stimulation for peripheral nerve block under ultrasound guidance  

OpenAIRE

Background: The use of nerve stimulation to identify the ideal injection point for peripheral nerve blocks has been very common in regional anesthesia. However, ultrasound guidance is increasingly being used as an alternative. The ideal injection point is defined for the needle tip to be as close as possible to the nerve. We examined nerve stimulation under ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Additionally we tried to quantify the effect of D5%-Solution on nerve stimulation. Methods: Afte...

Ocken, Michele

2011-01-01

21

A randomised controlled trial of ultrasound-guided blockade of the saphenous nerve and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve for postoperative analgesia after day-case knee arthroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blockade of the saphenous nerve and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve in addition to a standard analgesic regimen for patients discharged the same day after knee arthroscopy. The primary outcome was knee pain on flexion during the first 24 postoperative hours, calculated as area under the curve. We allocated 60 patients to ultrasound-guided nerve blocks with either ropivacaine or saline, 30 to each. The median (IQR [range]) pain score on knee flexion in the ropivacaine group 2.0 (1.1-3.7 [0.1-7.1]) was not statistically different to that in the saline group (3.3 (1.7-4.6 [0.3-6.8]), p = 0.06). There were no differences in pain at rest, opioid consumption or function. PMID:25267335

Westergaard, B; Jensen, K; Lenz, K; Bendtsen, T F; Vazin, M; Tanggaard, K; Worm, B S; Krogsgaard, M; Børglum, J

2014-12-01

22

[Case of bladder perforation due to the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder tumor using the TUR in saline (Turis) system under spinal anesthesia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bladder perforation due to the obturator nerve reflex (ONR) is a serious complication during TUR of bladder tumor using the conventional TUR system; requiring monopolar electrocautery and non-conductive solution as perfusate. Recently, the TURis system, which employs bipolar electrocautery and physiological saline as perfusate, has been developed. Electrical resistance of physiological saline and human tissues are approximately 40 and 500 omega, respectively. Thus, theoretically, electrical current flows between the resection loop and the recovery electrode integrated in the outer sleeve of the endoscope, without forming electrical circuit in the patient's body; suggesting possible elimination of the ONR. Here we describe a case of bladder perforation during surgery using the TURis system; the ONR was exaggerated during the procedure to stop bleeding at the lateral wall using bipolar electrocautery. In addition to this case, there have been a few reports of the ONR during surgery using the TURis system, and it is reported that weak electrical current may pass through the patient's body in the TURis system. We consider that evaluation of the necessary precautions, such as the obturator nerve block, for the prevention of the ONR is important even in the surgery using the TURis system. PMID:20229762

Kitamura, Takayuki; Mori, Yoshiteru; Ohno, Nagara; Suzuki, Yoshie; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

2010-03-01

23

Ultrasound guidance of uncommon nerve blocks  

OpenAIRE

In the past nerve stimulation was considered the standard tool for anesthesiologists to locate the peripheral nerve for nerve blocks. However, with the recent introduction of ultrasound (US) technology for regional anesthesia, the use of nerve stimulation has become a rarity nowadays. There is a growing interest by most anesthesiologists in using US for nerve blocks because of its simplicity and accuracy. US is now available in most hospitals practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular to...

Thallaj, Ahmed

2011-01-01

24

Obturator neuropathy  

OpenAIRE

Obturator neuropathy is a difficult clinical problem to evaluate. One possible cause of pain is due to fascial entrapment of the nerve. Symptoms include medial thigh or groin pain, weakness with leg adduction, and sensory loss in the medial thigh of the affected side. Radiographic imaging provides limited diagnostic help. MRI may detect atrophy in the adductors of the leg. However, it is unable to detect any abnormality of the nerve or in the fibro-osseus tunnel. The best test for diagnosis i...

Tipton, John Sison

2008-01-01

25

Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms have been shown to provide peripheral nerve conductivity block in many acute and chronic animal models. KHFAC nerve block could be used to address multiple disorders caused by neural over-activity, including blocking pain and spasticity. However, one drawback of KHFAC block is a transient activation of nerve fibers during the initiation of the nerve block, called the onset response. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using charge balanced direct current (CBDC) waveforms to temporarily block motor nerve conductivity distally to the KHFAC electrodes to mitigate the block onset-response. Approach. A total of eight animals were used in this study. A set of four animals were used to assess feasibility and reproducibility of a combined KHFAC + CBDC block. A following randomized study, conducted on a second set of four animals, compared the onset response resulting from KHFAC alone and combined KHFAC + CBDC waveforms. To quantify the onset, peak forces and the force-time integral were measured during KHFAC block initiation. Nerve conductivity was monitored throughout the study by comparing muscle twitch forces evoked by supra-maximal stimulation proximal and distal to the block electrodes. Each animal of the randomized study received at least 300 s (range: 318-1563 s) of cumulative dc to investigate the impact of combined KHFAC + CBDC on nerve viability. Main results. The peak onset force was reduced significantly from 20.73 N (range: 18.6-26.5 N) with KHFAC alone to 0.45 N (range: 0.2-0.7 N) with the combined CBDC and KHFAC block waveform (p nerve conductivity was observed after application of the combined KHFAC + CBDC block relative to KHFAC waveforms. Significance. The distal application of CBDC can significantly reduce or even completely prevent the KHFAC onset response without a change in nerve conductivity.

Franke, Manfred; Vrabec, Tina; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

2014-10-01

26

Pudendal nerve block for vaginal birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pudendal nerve block is a safe and effective pain relief method for vaginal birth. Providing analgesia to the vulva and anus, it is used for operative vaginal birth and subsequent repair, late second stage pain relief with spontaneous vaginal birth, repair of complex lacerations, or repair of lacerations in women who are unable to achieve adequate or satisfactory pain relief during perineal repair with local anesthesia. Key to its efficacy is the knowledge of pudendal nerve anatomy, the optimal point of infiltration of local anesthetic, and an understanding of the amount of time necessary to effect adequate analgesia. PMID:25294258

Anderson, Deborah

2014-11-01

27

Obturator Hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obturator hernia is a rare type of pelvic hernia and the clinical diagnosis is difficult to make. However, a delay in diagnosis is associated with a high mortality rate. Sixty-two patients with obturator hernia undergoing surgery at the Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital between 1968 and 2006 were assessed, to identity the clinical features of obturator hernias. Patients with obturator hernias tended to be elderly, thin multiparous females. One-third of the cases had bilateral obturator hernia; therefore, bilateral hernias should be ruled out in patients with one obturator hernia. Most patients had a lower-median incision; a bowel resection was done in more than half of cases. Pelvic CT is very useful for diagnosing obturator hernia and allows an early preoperative diagnosis to be made. In this study it was found that bilateral obturator hernias are more common than previously noted. Unfortunately, it is still common for patients not to be properly diagnosed and to receive conservative treatment; the need to rule out obturator hernia should be stressed to all hospital departments. (author)

28

[Elimination of the obturator reflex with prilocaine in transurethral resection of bladder tumors in combination with spinal and general anesthesia].  

Science.gov (United States)

During transurethral resection of bladder tumors under either spinal or general anesthesia without muscular relaxation, direct stimulation of the obturator nerve by the electroresectoscope is possible. The resulting obturator reflex may lead to severe complications, at the worst to a perforation of the bladder. Therefore, if resection in lateral bladder regions is necessary, blockade of the obturator nerve is often required to provide optimal conditions for transurethral resection of bladder tumors. To interrupt the obturator reflex are, we blocked the inguinal lumbar plexus using the "3-in-1-block" as described by Winnie because of its advantages compared to isolated blockade of the obturator nerve. Prilocaine 1% was the chosen local anesthetic because of its low tendency towards cardiac and cerebral side effects. Spinal anesthesia was induced with 3-4 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. After the onset of analgesia, making use of a nerve stimulator, a "3-in-1-block" was completed with 30-35 ml prilocaine 1%. The study included over 90 patients. Firstly we observed the efficiency of the obturator motor block by the "3-in-1-block"; secondly clinical side effects of prilocaine were evaluated; and finally in 20 cases methemoglobin levels were measured before and 90 min after injection of prilocaine. A "3-in-1-block" with prilocaine 1% provided a good motor block of the obturator nerve. Neither clinical side effects nor relevant methemoglobinemia occurred. In 3 cases methemoglobin levels were elevated by 1%, whereas in the remaining 17 cases methemoglobin values were normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3615982

Schwilick, R; Steinhoff, H

1987-04-01

29

The Role of Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks  

OpenAIRE

A continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB) is provided in the hospital and ambulatory setting. The most common use of CPNBs is in the peri- and postoperative period but different indications have been described like the treatment of chronic pain such as cancer-induced pain, complex regional pain syndrome or phantom limb pain. The documented benefits strongly depend on the analgesia quality and include decreasing baseline/dynamic pain, reducing additional analgesic requirements, decrease of po...

Aguirre, Jose?; Del Moral, Alicia; Cobo, Irina; Borgeat, Alain; Blumenthal, Stephan

2012-01-01

30

An improvised indigenous technique for nerve stimulation-assisted peripheral nerve blocks  

OpenAIRE

Regional anesthesia is one of the most satisfying expertise in anesthesia. Nerve stimulation guided peripheral nerve blocks greatly enhance the success rate of block. Often the nerve stimulation needle becomes a limiting factor due to cost and unavailablity. We have proposed a simple innovation to create a nerve stimulation needle at the point of care that would overcome the limitation associated with commercially available needle for nerve stimulation. This innovation may prove instrumental ...

Jain, Anuj; Singh, Surendra

2012-01-01

31

Different clinical electrodes achieve similar electrical nerve conduction block  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. We aim to evaluate the suitability of four electrodes previously used in clinical experiments for peripheral nerve electrical block applications. Approach. We evaluated peripheral nerve electrical block using three such clinical nerve cuff electrodes (the Huntington helix, the Case self-sizing Spiral and the flat interface nerve electrode) and one clinical intramuscular electrode (the Memberg electrode) in five cats. Amplitude thresholds for the block using 12 or 25 kHz voltage-controlled stimulation, onset response, and stimulation thresholds before and after block testing were determined. Main results. Complete nerve block was achieved reliably and the onset response to blocking stimulation was similar for all electrodes. Amplitude thresholds for the block were lowest for the Case Spiral electrode (4 ± 1 Vpp) and lower for the nerve cuff electrodes (7 ± 3 Vpp) than for the intramuscular electrode (26 ± 10 Vpp). A minor elevation in stimulation threshold and reduction in stimulus-evoked urethral pressure was observed during testing, but the effect was temporary and did not vary between electrodes. Significance. Multiple clinical electrodes appear suitable for neuroprostheses using peripheral nerve electrical block. The freedom to choose electrodes based on secondary criteria such as ease of implantation or cost should ease translation of electrical nerve block to clinical practice.

Boger, Adam; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

2013-10-01

32

Ultrasound Guidance for Deep Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Brief Review  

OpenAIRE

Nerve stimulation and ultrasound have been introduced to the practice of regional anesthesia mostly in the last two decades. Ultrasound did not gain as much popularity as the nerve stimulation until a decade ago because of the simplicity, accuracy and portability of the nerve stimulator. Ultrasound is now available in most academic centers practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular tool amongst trainees for performance of nerve blocks. ...

Detlef Obal; Ralf Erich Gebhard; Sujittra Tongpresert; Sunitha Kanchi Kandadai; Anupama Wadhwa

2011-01-01

33

High frequency electrical conduction block of the pudendal nerve  

OpenAIRE

A reversible electrical block of the pudendal nerves may provide a valuable method for restoration of urinary voiding in individuals with bladder–sphincter dyssynergia. This study quantified the stimulus parameters and effectiveness of high frequency (HFAC) sinusoidal waveforms on the pudendal nerves to produce block of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). A proximal electrode on the pudendal nerve after its exit from the sciatic notch was used to apply low frequency stimuli to evoke EUS ...

Bhadra, Narendra; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

2006-01-01

34

The successful use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case report of four patients with severe cardiac insufficiency where peripheral nerve blocks guided by either nerve stimulation or ultrasonography were the sole anaesthetic for above-knee amputation. The patients were breathing spontaneously and remained haemodynamically stable during surgery. Thus, use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation in high-risk patients seems to be the technique of choice that can lower perioperative risk Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2

Bech, B.; Melchiors, J.

2009-01-01

35

High frequency electrical conduction block of the pudendal nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

A reversible electrical block of the pudendal nerves may provide a valuable method for restoration of urinary voiding in individuals with bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. This study quantified the stimulus parameters and effectiveness of high frequency (HFAC) sinusoidal waveforms on the pudendal nerves to produce block of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). A proximal electrode on the pudendal nerve after its exit from the sciatic notch was used to apply low frequency stimuli to evoke EUS contractions. HFAC at frequencies from 1 to 30 kHz with amplitudes from 1 to 10 V were applied through a conforming tripolar nerve cuff electrode implanted distally. Sphincter responses were recorded with a catheter mounted micro-transducer. A fast onset and reversible motor block was obtained over this range of frequencies. The HFAC block showed three phases: a high onset response, often a period of repetitive firing and usually a steady state of complete or partial block. A complete EUS block was obtained in all animals. The block thresholds showed a linear relationship with frequency. HFAC pudendal nerve stimulation effectively produced a quickly reversible block of evoked urethral sphincter contractions. The HFAC pudendal block could be a valuable tool in the rehabilitation of bladder-sphincter dyssynergia.

Bhadra, Narendra; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

2006-06-01

36

[Up-to-date ultrasound-guided nerve block techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound guidance for regional anesthesia has gained enormous popularity in the past decade. The usage of ultrasound guidance has reawaken many block techniques in daily clinical practice. In this review, the author described how the ultrasound guidance has changed the manner of intraoperative and postoperative analgesic methods. Here, interscalene block, transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, paravertebral block and femoral nerve block were discussed. Those success rates increased using sonography, whereas the complications decreased. Advanced sonography shows the clear images of the detailed nerve tissues, so that we can perform the more pin-pointed nerve block considering postoperative benefits of patients. However, it must never be forgotten that both the pre-scan examination before a needle insertion and the continuous watching of an advancing needle tip are essential to perform safer regional anesthesia techniques. PMID:25255662

Nomura, Takeshi

2014-09-01

37

Ventricular Pneumocephalus with Meningitis after Lumbar Nerve Root Block  

OpenAIRE

Lumbar nerve root block is a common modality used in the management of radiculopathy. Its complications are rare and usually minor. Despite its low morbidity, significant acute events can occur. Pneumocephalus is an accumulation of air in the intracranial space. It indicates a violation of the dura or the presence of infection. The object of this report is to describe the case of a patient with intraventricular pneumocephalus and bacterial meningitis after lumbar nerve root block. A 70-year-o...

Shin Ahn; Young Sang Ko; Kyung Soo Lim

2013-01-01

38

Greater occipital nerve block in chronic migraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Headache syndromes often involve occipital and neck symptoms suggesting a functional connectivity between nociceptive trigeminal and cervical afferents. Several studies have suggested that pain relief in migraine and other types of headache can be achieved by local injections of steroids, local anaesthetics or a mixture of both in the area of greater occipital nerve (GON). Usually greater occipital nerve block (GONB) is performed by using local anaesthetics alone or with steroid. The rationale of performing a GONB for the treatment of chronic headache states is on the anatomical connections between trigeminal and upper cervical sensory fibres at the level of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, the reason for the improvement after GONB in primary headache is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetics increased the efficacy of GONB and trigger point injections (TPIs) for chronic migraine (TM). Patients with TM were randomized to receive GONB and TPIs using lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% + either saline or triamcinolone 40 mg. Particularly, a 10-ml syringe containing 4.5 ml of lidocaine 2%, 4.5 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% and 1 ml of either saline (group A) or triamcinolone 40 mg/ml (group B) was prepared for each patients. Patients were given bilateral GONB and TPIs in the cervical paraspinal and trapezius muscles bilaterally. 2 ml were injected into each GON at the medial third of the distance between the occipital protuberance and the mastoid process. In addition, 0.5 ml was injected into each of the 12 trigger points. The total injected volume was 10 ml. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean headache severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Secondary outcome measures were the change in mean neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Patients documented headache and severity of associated symptoms for 4 weeks after injection. Changes in symptom severity were compared between the two groups. Thirty-seven patients were included. Twenty minutes after injection, mean headache severity decreased by 3.2 points in group A (p points in group B (p points in group A (p points in group B (p < 0.01). Mean duration of being headache-free was 2.7 +/- 3.8 days in group A and 1.0 +/- 1.1 days in group B (p = 0.67). None of the outcome measures differed significantly between the two groups. Both treatments were full tolerated. In our study, adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetic when performing GONB and TPIs was not associated with improved outcome in the sample of patients with TM. In both groups, the procedure resulted in significant and rapid relief of headache, neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia. PMID:20464617

Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Valfrè, W; Cavallini, M; Aguggia, M

2010-06-01

39

Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks: what are the benefits?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Use of ultrasound by anaesthesiologists performing regional blocks is rapidly gaining popularity. The aims of this review were to summarize and update accumulating evidence on ultrasound-guided nerve blocks, with an emphasis on the clinical relevance of the results and to critically appraise changing standards in regional anaesthesia. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966 to 31 December 2007) was conducted using the following free terms: 'ultrasound and regional anesthesia', 'ultrasound and peripheral block' and 'ultrasound and nerve and block'. These were combined with the MESH terms 'nerve block' and 'ultrasonography'. The following limits were applied: studies with abstracts, only in humans, published in core clinical journals. Trial type: meta-analysis, randomized-controlled trial and clinical trial. RESULTS: When peripheral nerves are adequately imaged by ultrasound, the concomitant use of nerve stimulation offers no further advantage. However, several studies reported problems with obtaining satisfactory images in some patients. Ultrasound guidance significantly shortened the block performance time and/or reduced the number of needle passes to reach the target in all comparative studies. The occurrence of paraesthesia during block performance was also reduced, but not the incidence of short-lasting post-operative neuropraxia. The frequency of accidental vascular punctures may be lower, but the data are contradictory. Block onset time was significantly shortened. Block duration was longer in children, but not in adults. Ultrasound also allowed dose reduction of the local anaesthetic (LA). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance shortens the block performance time, reduces the number of needle passes and shortens the block onset time. Blocks may be performed using lower LA doses Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7

Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak

2008-01-01

40

Magellan: Technical Description of a New System for Robot-Assisted Nerve Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nerve blocks are common procedures used to remove sensation from a specific region of the body via injection of local anesthetic. Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are common-place in anesthesia, but require specialized training and advanced bi-manual dexterity. This paper describes a system designed to robotically assist in ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Robot-assisted nerve blocks could allow for more precise needle placement, and therefore a higher efficacy of blocks. This system is the first step in developing a completely automated nerve block system, which would also require the incorporation of ultrasound image recognition of nerves and other physiological markers.

Joshua Morse

2013-06-01

41

Ocular complications after posterior superior alveolar nerve block: a case of trochlear nerve palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many intraoperative complications occurring during third molar surgery are described in the literature. Unilateral trochlear nerve palsy secondary to dental anaesthesia is a rare complication. We report the case of a 36-year-old healthy man, ASA I classification, requiring upper third molar extraction. Articaine 1:200,000 epinephrine for right posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve block was administered locally in the mucobuccal fold above the upper third molar. A few minutes after PSA nerve block the patient experienced double-vision. The patient was subsequently visited by an ophthalmologist and the condition was diagnosed as transient unilateral vertical diplopia due to temporary paralysis of the superior oblique muscle as a result of the anaesthetic solution involving the IV cranial nerve. The authors report this unusual case and discuss the possible anatomical pathways that might explain this rare phenomenon. PMID:23809987

Chisci, G; Chisci, C; Chisci, V; Chisci, E

2013-12-01

42

Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yielded no pathological findings. Overnight the neurological deficits decreased without therapy and were finally no longer detectable. We speculate that during the administration of the local anaesthetic a depot formed, localised in the medial femoral intermuscular septa, which was leaked after first mobilisation. To our knowledge no similar case has been published up to now. We conclude that patients who are treated with a nerve block should be informed and physician should be aware that delayed neurological deficits are possible.

Marius von Knoch

2012-01-01

43

PHRENIC NERVE PALSY AFTER SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 67 year old male patient was scheduled for implant removal from right upper limb under supraclavicular block. During procedure patient develops right phrenic nerve palsy & complains of dyspnea which was managed conservatively and no intervention done except chest x-ray for confirming the diagnosis. Surgeons completed the implant removal without any invasive intervention or interruption.

Gupta A K

2009-09-01

44

PHRENIC NERVE PALSY AFTER SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK  

OpenAIRE

A 67 year old male patient was scheduled for implant removal from right upper limb under supraclavicular block. During procedure patient develops right phrenic nerve palsy & complains of dyspnea which was managed conservatively and no intervention done except chest x-ray for confirming the diagnosis. Surgeons completed the implant removal without any invasive intervention or interruption.

Gupta A K; Divekar D S; Dhulkhed V K; Madhur; Shrivastav V

2009-01-01

45

Simulation of spinal nerve blocks for training anesthesiology residents  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep nerve regional anesthesiology procedures, such as the celiac plexus block, are challenging to learn. The current training process primarily involves studying anatomy and practicing needle insertion is cadavers. Unfortunately, the training often continues on the first few patients subjected to the care of the new resident. To augment the training, we have developed a virtual reality surgical simulation designed to provide an immersive environment in which an understanding of the complex 3D relationships among the anatomic structures involved can be obtained and the mechanics of the celiac block procedure practiced under realistic conditions. Study of the relevant anatomy is provided by interactive 3D visualization of patient specific data nd the practice simulated using a head mounted display, a 6 degree of freedom tracker, and a haptic feedback device simulating the needle insertion. By training in a controlled environment, the resident may practice procedures repeatedly without the risks associated with actual patient procedures, and may become more adept and confident in the ability to perform nerve blocks. The resident may select a variety of different nerve block procedures to practice, and may place the virtual patient in any desired position and orientation. The preliminary anatomic models used in the simulation have been computed from the Visible Human Male; however, patient specific models may be generated from patient image data, allowing the physician to evaluate, plan, and practice difficult blocks and/or understand variations in anatomy before attempting the procedure on any specific patient.

Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.; Martin, David P.

1998-06-01

46

Nerve Conduction Block Using Combined Thermoelectric Cooling and High Frequency Electrical Stimulation  

OpenAIRE

Conduction block of peripheral nerves is an important technique for many basic and applied neurophysiology studies. To date, there has not been a technique which provides a quickly initiated and reversible “on-demand” conduction block which is both sustainable for long periods of time and does not generate activity in the nerve at the onset of the conduction block. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of a combined method of nerve block which utilizes two well established nerve bloc...

Ackermann, D. Michael; Foldes, Emily L.; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.

2010-01-01

47

Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve : a case series of potential clinical applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The specific blocking of the axillary nerve has never been investigated clinically. We present four cases illustrating potential applications of the axillary nerve block in the perioperative setting and discuss possible directions for future research in this area. The axillary nerve blocks were all performed using a newly developed in-plane ultrasound-guided technique. In one patient undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery, we used the axillary nerve block as the only analgesic combined with propofol sedation and spontaneous breathing. Chronic shoulder pain was eliminated after the axillary nerve block in two patients. The pain score after arthroscopic shoulder surgery in these two patients remained low until termination of the nerve block. In a fourth patient, severe post-operative pain after osteosynthesis of a displaced proximal humerus fracture was almost eliminated after performing an axillary nerve block. These findings warrant larger clinical trials that investigate the pain-mediating role of the axillary nerve in the perioperative setting.

Rothe, C; Lund, J

2012-01-01

48

Comparative analysis between direct Conventional Mandibular nerve block and Vazirani-Akinosi closed mouth Mandibular nerve block technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Over the years different techniques have been developed for achieving mandibular nerve anaesthesia. The main aim of our study was to carry out comparison and clinical efficacy of mandibular nerve anaesthesia by Direct Conventional technique with that of Vazirani-Akinosi mandibular nerve block technique.Materials and Methods: 50 adult patients requiring surgical extraction of premolars, mandibular first, second and third molars were selected randomly to receive Direct Conventional technique and Vazirani- Akinosi technique for nerve block alternatively.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed regarding complete lip anaesthesia at 5 minutes and 10 minutes, nerves anaesthetized with single injection, effectiveness of anaesthesia, supplementary injections and complications in both the techniques. However, onset of lip anaesthesia was found to be faster in Vazirani-Akinosi technique, patients experienced less pain during the Vazirani-Akinosi technique as compared to the Direct Conventional technique. Post injection complication complications were less in the VaziraniAkinosi Technique.Conclusions: Except for faster onset of lip anaesthesia, less pain during injection and fewer post injection complications in Vazirani-Akinosi technique all other parameters were of same efficacy as Direct Conventional technique. This has strong clinical applications as in cases with limited mouth opening, apprehensive patients Vazirani-Akinosi technique is the indicated technique of choice.

Mishra, Sobhan; Tripathy, Ramanupam; Sabhlok, Samrat; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Patnaik, Satyabrata

2012-11-01

49

Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

2006-03-01

50

[A complication of inferior dental nerve block: temporary ocular palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

An interesting case of temporary ocular palsy, a complication of inferior dental nerve block was reported. Symptom, sign and proper management were described. Several updated literatures on this topic were reviewed and concluded that this complication might be explained by accidental intra-arterial injection of anesthetic solution. To prevent this serious complication, aspirating before each injection by an aspirated syringe was strongly recommended. PMID:2635191

Hotrabhavanond, P; Meksupa, L

1989-01-01

51

CT-guided suprascapular nerve blocks: a pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to describe the suprascapular nerve block using CT guidance and to evaluate the short- and medium-term efficacy in a range of shoulder pathologies. CT-guided infiltration around the suprascapular nerve was performed with bupivacaine and Celestone Chronodose on 40 consecutive patients presenting with chronic shoulder pathologies unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients were interviewed using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) before the procedure, 30 min after the procedure and at 3 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks afterwards. Within 30 min of the block overall pain scores decreased from a mean ({+-}SEM) pain score of 7.0 ({+-}0.4) to 3.5 ({+-}0.5) (n=39, P<0.001). At 3 days after the procedure, the mean overall improvement of the pain and disability scores were 20.4% ({+-}4.9, P<0.001) and 16.8% ({+-}4.8, P=0.004) respectively. Sustained pain relief and reduced disability were achieved in 10 of 35 (29%) patients at 3 weeks and longer. Patients suffering from soft tissue pathologies were the most likely patients to benefit from the injection. No serious side effects were noted. In some patients with chronic soft tissue pathologies who do not respond to conventional treatment, a CT-guided suprascapular nerve block can provide safe short- and medium-term relief from pain and disability. (orig.)

Schneider-Kolsky, M.E.; Pike, J.; Connell, D.A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Victoria House Private Hospital, 316 Malvern Road, Prahran 3181, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2004-05-01

52

CT-guided suprascapular nerve blocks: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to describe the suprascapular nerve block using CT guidance and to evaluate the short- and medium-term efficacy in a range of shoulder pathologies. CT-guided infiltration around the suprascapular nerve was performed with bupivacaine and Celestone Chronodose on 40 consecutive patients presenting with chronic shoulder pathologies unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients were interviewed using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) before the procedure, 30 min after the procedure and at 3 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks afterwards. Within 30 min of the block overall pain scores decreased from a mean (±SEM) pain score of 7.0 (±0.4) to 3.5 (±0.5) (n=39, P<0.001). At 3 days after the procedure, the mean overall improvement of the pain and disability scores were 20.4% (±4.9, P<0.001) and 16.8% (±4.8, P=0.004) respectively. Sustained pain relief and reduced disability were achieved in 10 of 35 (29%) patients at 3 weeks and longer. Patients suffering from soft tissue pathologies were the most likely patients to benefit from the injection. No serious side effects were noted. In some patients with chronic soft tissue pathologies who do not respond to conventional treatment, a CT-guided suprascapular nerve block can provide safe short- and medium-term relief from pain and disability. (orig.)

53

Pressure effect on the membrane action of a nerve-blocking spin label.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reversible nerve-blocking spin label, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was used to study the nature of anesthetic-binding sites in nerve membranes as a function of pressure. The nerve-blocking effect of TEMPO is enhanced under pressure. At atmospheric pressure, TEMPO blocks nerve conduction by solubilizing in the apolar region of the nerve membrane. However, the nerve-conduction-block by TEMPO at 150 atm of helium was related to the binding of TEMPO to a pressure-induced high-affinity polar site in the nerve membrane. The new TEMPO-binding site could not be detected in lipid model membranes and, thus, the involvement of membrane protein in the new site was inferred. Pressure may induce a nerve membrane conformation change in the presence of TEMPO. The observation that under different pressure, a single anesthetic, i.e., TEMPO, was capable of blocking nerve conduction by binding to two different sites within the nerve membrane, supports the view that there are multiple anesthetic receptor sites, which differ in chemical composition and location within the nerve membrane. These sites, when occupied by different classes of anesthetics, produce the general phenomenon of nerve-conduction block. The enhancement of nerve-conduction block by pressure may be due to the increased concentration of TEMPO in the new site in the nerve membrane under pressure. PMID:4361681

Hsia, J C; Boggs, J M

1973-11-01

54

Computerized tomography-guided neurolytic splanchnic nerve block  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computerized tomography-guided neurolytic splanchnic nerve block is a technique for relieving abdominal cancer pain; the goal is the alcoholic neurolytic interruption of the sensitive structures in retroperitoneal space. Computerized tomography yields accurate anatomical detailing and the course for needle placement and alcohol spread. January, 1993, to July, 1996, twenty-one bilateral splanchnic nerve blocks were performed through the posterior access. Forty-eight hours after alcoholism. 14 patients (66%) had complete pain regression; 52% of the patients needed no analgesics for 6 to 54 days and only 9 patients (42%) needed another low opioid therapy. Complications included hypotension and diarrhea in all cases. One had a cardiac arrest and diet 8 days after the procedure. There were no other complications. The whole procedure usually lasted 60 min (range: 45 to 90 min). Splanchnic nerve neurolysis is a useful treatment in the patients with severe chronic abdominal pain. It is used as a second line treatment when large lesions change celia anatomy and complicate the percutaneous block of the celiac plexus. Endosulfan, Malathion and Methyl parathion, on the metabolic rate of the estuarine clam, Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, have been investigated. The animals exposed to the lower sublethal concentrations of Endosulfan, Malthion and Methyl parathion consumed oxygen at the rate of 1.60, 1.98 and 2.09 ml. 02 g- 1 h-1 g- 1 h-1 respectively, while at the higher concentrations of the pesticides, consumption of oxygen by the animal dropped to nearly half the control value. When compared to Malathion and Methyl parathion. Endosulfan induced animals recorded a greater reduction in her percentage deviation (from control) of oxygen consumption, possibly due to hypoxia induced by the pollutants

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Combination of spinal anesthesia and peripheral nerve block: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regional anaesthesia has advantages such as, control of postoperative pain, early mobilization, and does not affect respiratory function. In recent years, regional anaesthesia had improved by the application of the peripheral nerve stimulator and ultrasound guided blocks, new local anaesthetic drugs with the use of additional adjunctive agents. Especially in emergency conditions, combination of regional anaesthesia may avoid the complications of general anesthesia in patients with chronic disease who suffer from upper and lower extremity injuries. In this paper, we present two cases who underwent combined regional anaesthesia techniques for the lower and upper extremity surgery.

Vildan Temel

2010-12-01

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Different Learning Curves for Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Ultrasound Guidance versus Nerve Stimulation  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about the learning of the skills needed to perform ultrasound- or nerve stimulator-guided peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to compare the learning curves of residents trained in ultrasound guidance versus residents trained in nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus block. Ten residents with no previous experience with using ultrasound received ultrasound training and another ten residents with no previous experience with using nerve stimulation receive...

Eichenberger, U.; Luginb Amp Hl, M.; Greif, R.; Wipfli, M.; Sch Amp Pfer, G.; Luyet, C.

2010-01-01

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Sciatic nerve blocks for diagnosis of piriformis syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used sciatic nerve block (SNB) to make the differential diagnosis of piriformis syndrome in 188 consecutive patients with sciatica in whom it was impossible to make the diagnosis based on the lumbar MRI findings. We rated the effectiveness of SNB as excellent (60%), good (25%) and poor (15%). After performing SNBs, lumbar radicular blocks, and surgeries based on the initial diagnosis, the final diagnoses were piriformis syndrome (56%), piriformis syndrome complicated with lumbar degenerative disease (4%), lumbar degenerative disease (23%), others or unknown (16%). The prevalence of piriformis syndrome in the excellent effectiveness group was 81%. SNB was effective in all patients with piriformis syndrome and in 66% of the lumbar degeneration patients. The diagnostic value of SNB is of limited value for differentiating piriformis syndrome from lumbar degenerative disease. (author)

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Clinical observation on thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone treatment in patients with postherpetic neuralgia  

OpenAIRE

Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Methods Eighty-five patients suffered postherpetic neuralgia were divided into 4 groups: Group A (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 + local nerve block of lesion area), Group B (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + local nerve block of lesion area), Group C (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivi...

Guo, Xiang-fei; Liu, Ya-guang; Huo, Yan-song; Wu, Xian-hong; Ma, Jun

2013-01-01

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Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular regio [...] n. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 13-29% of cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition) from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side), and the second following the oclusal plane (left side), a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. RESULTS: The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. CONCLUSION: This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry.

Dafna Geller, Palti; Cristiane Machado de, Almeida; Antonio de Castro, Rodrigues; Jesus Carlos, Andreo; José Eduardo Oliveira, Lima.

2011-02-01

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Indications for repeat diagnostic medial branch nerve blocks following a failed first medial branch nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

No studies have directly measured the false negative rate of medial branch block (MBB) with correlation to medial branch neurotomy (MBN) outcome. We investigated the potential false negative MBB rate and the subsequent MBN outcome on a consecutive audit of all patients undergoing a double MBB protocol. We prospectively collected audit data and retrospectively collected data by phone on 229 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic MBB. One-hundred-twenty-two patients reporting greater than 50% of subjective pain relief subsequently underwent either MBN or a confirmatory block followed by MBN. A total of 55 patients underwent a second confirmatory MBB and within that group 27.3% (15/55) reported less than 50% relief post initial MBB and 30.9% (17/55) between 50% and 69% relief. We performed an in-depth analysis of these 2 subgroups focusing on the reason a second MBB was performed despite a "negative" or "indeterminant" first MBB. We divided the "negative" responders to the first MBB into those reporting MBN was 87% compared to the 75% relief in the false negative groups with no statistically significant difference. In summary, the false negative rate for patients reporting less than 50% relief post MBB is probably less than 20% although there is a high "apparent negative" responds in patients reporting delayed relief or in those who had a second block 2 or more years post initial MBB. Patients reporting between 50 and 69% pain relief have a false negative response rate of 47.1% and should be considered for a confirmatory block. PMID:24077194

Derby, Richard; Melnik, Irina; Choi, Jongwoo; Lee, Jeong-Eun

2013-01-01

61

Augmented reality guidance system for peripheral nerve blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral nerve block treatments are ubiquitous in hospitals and pain clinics worldwide. State of the art techniques use ultrasound (US) guidance and/or electrical stimulation to verify needle tip location. However, problems such as needle-US beam alignment, poor echogenicity of block needles and US beam thickness can make it difficult for the anesthetist to know the exact needle tip location. Inaccurate therapy delivery raises obvious safety and efficacy issues. We have developed and evaluated a needle guidance system that makes use of a magnetic tracking system (MTS) to provide an augmented reality (AR) guidance platform to accurately localize the needle tip as well as its projected trajectory. Five anesthetists and five novices performed simulated nerve block deliveries in a polyvinyl alcohol phantom to compare needle guidance under US alone to US placed in our AR environment. Our phantom study demonstrated a decrease in targeting attempts, decrease in contacting of critical structures, and an increase in accuracy of 0.68 mm compared to 1.34mm RMS in US guidance alone. Currently, the MTS uses 18 and 21 gauge hypodermic needles with a 5 degree of freedom sensor located at the needle tip. These needles can only be sterilized using an ethylene oxide process. In the interest of providing clinicians with a simple and efficient guidance system, we also evaluated attaching the sensor at the needle hub as a simple clip-on device. To do this, we simultaneously performed a needle bending study to assess the reliability of a hub-based sensor.

Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Rachinsky, Maxim; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wiles, Andrew D.; Peters, Terry M.

2010-02-01

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Cervical spine disease is a risk factor for persistent phrenic nerve paresis following interscalene nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of interscalene blocks (ISBs) for shoulder surgery improves postoperative pain control, reduces recovery room times, and reduces overall hospital stays. The most common and potentially disabling adverse effect associated with ISBs is phrenic nerve paresis. Fortunately, persistent phrenic nerve paresis (PPNP) is rare. There are only 4 case reports of PPNP in the English literature. At our institution, we identified 9 cases of PPNP over a 9-year period, representing an incidence of 1 (0.048%) in 2069. In conducting a case-control series, we found that symptomatic cervical spine disease is a risk factor for the development of PPNP. Patients with PPNP had a significantly higher incidence of cervical spine disease (85.7%) compared with the control group (30.9%), P < 0.01. Persistent phrenic nerve paresis remains a perplexing complication of ISB, and many questions remain unanswered. Our data identify an important risk factor that can aid in the risk stratification of patients undergoing ISB. PMID:23518866

Pakala, Swetha R; Beckman, James D; Lyman, Stephen; Zayas, Victor M

2013-01-01

63

A comparison of epidural anesthesia and lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks for knee surgery  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of combined lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks was compared to epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing total knee surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA Physical Status I-III patients (age range 18 to 65 undergoing knee surgery. The patients were randomly divided into one of two groups. Epidural anesthesia was performed in the epidural anesthesia (EA group (n=40, and the lumbar plexus and sciatic nerves were blockedin the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks (LPSB group (n=40. For each patient, onset of sensory and motor block, degree of motor block, sign of sensory block in the contralateral lower limb for the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group, success in providing adequate anesthesia, hemodynamic changes, time of first analgesic request, and patient and surgeon satisfaction with the anesthetic technique were recorded. RESULTS: One patient in the epidural anesthesia group and three patients in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group required general anesthesia due to failed block. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the success of providing adequate anesthesia. Eight patients in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group developed contralateral spread. The onset of sensory-motor block and the time of the first analgesic request were significantly later in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group than in the epidural anesthesia group. Although there were no significant differences regarding patient satisfaction with the anesthetic technique between the two groups, surgeon satisfaction was significantly higher in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group than in the epidural anesthesia group. CONCLUSION: The lumbar plexus -sciatic nerve blocks provide effective unilateral anesthesia and may offer a beneficial alternative to epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing total knee surgery.

Eyup Horasanli

2010-01-01

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A comparison of epidural anesthesia and lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks for knee surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of combined lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks was compared to epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing total knee surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status I-III patients (age range 18 to 65) undergoin [...] g knee surgery. The patients were randomly divided into one of two groups. Epidural anesthesia was performed in the epidural anesthesia (EA) group (n=40), and the lumbar plexus and sciatic nerves were blockedin the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks (LPSB) group (n=40). For each patient, onset of sensory and motor block, degree of motor block, sign of sensory block in the contralateral lower limb for the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group, success in providing adequate anesthesia, hemodynamic changes, time of first analgesic request, and patient and surgeon satisfaction with the anesthetic technique were recorded. RESULTS: One patient in the epidural anesthesia group and three patients in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group required general anesthesia due to failed block. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the success of providing adequate anesthesia. Eight patients in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group developed contralateral spread. The onset of sensory-motor block and the time of the first analgesic request were significantly later in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group than in the epidural anesthesia group. Although there were no significant differences regarding patient satisfaction with the anesthetic technique between the two groups, surgeon satisfaction was significantly higher in the lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve blocks group than in the epidural anesthesia group. CONCLUSION: The lumbar plexus -sciatic nerve blocks provide effective unilateral anesthesia and may offer a beneficial alternative to epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing total knee surgery.

Eyup, Horasanli; Mehmet, Gamli; Yasar, Pala; Mustafa, Erol; Fazilet, Sahin; Bayazit, Dikmen.

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Clinical observation on thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone treatment in patients with postherpetic neuralgia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Methods Eighty-five patients suffered postherpetic neuralgia were divided into 4 groups: Group A (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 + local nerve block of lesion area, Group B (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + local nerve block of lesion area, Group C (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + thoracic paravertebral nerve block + local nerve block of lesion area, Group D (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone + local nerve block of lesion area. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Quality of Sleep (QS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and C-reactive protein (CRP before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. Results After treatment, VAS, QS and SDS scores of 4 groups were lower than that before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05, for all, while a significant change in CRP was observed in patients of group D between before and after treatment (P < 0.05. The improvement of VAS, QS and SDS scores of group D was significantly better than other 3 groups (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusion Thoracic paravertebral nerve block combined with ozone is a quick and effective method for postherpetic neuralgia patients.

GUO Xiang-fei

2013-10-01

66

Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks for ventricular shunt revision in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe using ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain control in 2 children undergoing ventricular shunt surgery. In the first patient undergoing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt revision, a combination of ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve, superficial cervical plexus, and transversus abdominis plane blocks was used. In the second patient undergoing ventriculo-pleural shunt revision, a combination of ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve, superficial cervical plexus, and intercostal blocks was used. Both patients, who underwent multiple revisions during their hospitalizations, showed decreased analgesic requirements after regional anesthesia. Our experience suggests this combined block technique may provide beneficial postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing shunt revision. PMID:25612197

King, Michael R; Anderson, T Anthony

2014-12-15

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Tecnica alternativa para prevenir la estimulación del nervio obturador durante la RTU vesical de neoformaciones en cara lateral / An alternative technique to prevent of obturator nerve simulation during lateral bladder tumours transurethral resection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Presentamos una alternativa de abordaje para el bloqueo del nervio obturador durante la RTU vesical. Material y Metodos: Se revisan retrospectivamente 400 tumores vesicales intervenidos, correspondientes a 218 pacientes, localizándose un 46,8% de estos en caras laterales. Se utiliza una ví [...] a de abordaje alternativa para el bloqueo del nervio obturador. Resultados: Mediante este abordaje, que simplifica, en posición de litotomía, el bloqueo nervioso del obturador, conseguimos en más del 95% de resecciones el que no se produzca estimulación muscular. Conclusiones: Aplicando esta técnica, disminuimos el riesgo de perforación vesical por esta causa, evitando las complicaciones asociadas. Abstract in english Objetives: We presents an alternative to prevent the obturator nerve stimulation during TUBR. Material and Method: We revise 400 bladder tumours corresponding to 218 patients, 46,8% of them localized in lateral bladder wall. An alternative technique is used for that blockade. Results: There have bee [...] n no adductor contractions in more than 95% of TUBR. Conclusions: The alternative technique may reduce the stimulation of the obturador nerve and the risk of bladder perforation.

J., García Rodríguez; A., Jalón Monzón; R. Carlos, González Álvarez; C., Ardura Laso; J.M., Fernández Gomez; J.J., Rodríguez Martínez; F.J., Martínez Gómez; J., Regadera Sejas; F., González Huergo.

2005-05-01

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Electrical nerve stimulation as an aid to the placement of a brachial plexus block : clinical communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most local anaesthetic blocks are placed blindly, based on a sound knowledge of anatomy. Very often the relationship between the site of deposition of local anaesthetic and the nerve to be blocked is unknown. Large motor neurons may be stimulated with the aid of an electrical current. By observing for muscle twitches, through electrical stimulation of the nerve, a needle can be positioned extremely close to the nerve. The accuracy of local anaesthetic blocks can be improved by this technique. By using the lowest possible current a needle could be positioned within 2-5mm of a nerve. The correct duration of stimulation ensures that stimulation of sensory nerves does not occur. The use of electrical nerve stimulation in veterinary medicine is a novel technique that requires further evaluation.

K.E. Joubert

2012-07-01

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A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phenol Blocks to Peripheral Nerves in Reducing Spasticity in Patients with Paraplegia and Brain Injury  

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Full Text Available Primary objective: To evaluate effectiveness of phenol blocks of peripheral nerves in reducing spasticitybrain injured and spinal cord injured patients.Secondary objectives: To measure the change in the range of motion after phenol blocks to peripheralnerves, to identify the electrophysiological changes and to study the cost effectiveness and side effects ofphenol blocks.Study design: Descriptive studySetting: Tertiary referral centre, India.Methods: This study was conducted from March 2000 to January 2002 among 20 patients with spasticity.Spasticity was measured by modified Ashworth scale and range of motion was measured with a standardgoniometer on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of the study. Nerve conduction studies, gait analysis, and functionalindependence measure was measured on 1st and 21st day of the study. Nerve blocks were done on 7th and14th day of the study with 0.5% bupivacaine and 6% phenol in water respectively.Results: 20 patients were included in the study, out of which 85% had spinal cord injury and 15% patientshad brain injury sequelae. Spasticity measured by modified Ashworth scale, showed a statistically significantreduction with neurolysis. Following obturator neurolysis abduction of hip joint improved significantly andwith posterior tibial neurolysis there was significant improvement in dorsiflexion and plantar flexion rangeof the ankle joint. Functional improvement measured with the FIM score also showed statistically significantimprovement after neurolysis. H reflex amplitude was significantly reduced following neurolysis. Therewas a statistically significant reduction in the consumption of systemic medications for spasticity followingthe injection.Conclusion: Range of motion in neighboring joints improved significantly after blockade of spasticity usingPhenol neurolysis. There was statistically significant reduction in the amplitude of the H reflex. Therewere no major adverse effects following neurolysis with phenol and it was found to be significantly costeffective when compared to systemic antispastic medications.

Kumar ER

2008-04-01

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Effects of anesthesia versus regional nerve block on major leg amputation mortality rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are greater than 120,000 above-knee amputations (AKA) and below-knee amputations (BKA) performed in the USA each year. Traditionally, general anesthesia (GA) was the preferred modality of anesthesia. The use of regional nerve blocks has recently gained popularity, however, without the supporting evidence of any mortality benefits. Our objective was to evaluate whether regional nerve blocks yield significant mortality reduction in major lower-extremity amputations. Retrospective data of both AKA and BKA procedures at the Maimonides Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed. Patients received either general sedation, spinal or ultrasound-guided regional nerve blocks as per decision of the attending anesthesiologist. Regional nerve blocks for major lower-extremity amputations consisted of femoral, sciatic, saphenous and popliteal nerve blocks. A retrospective inquiry of 30-day mortality was performed with reference to the Social Security Death Index and hospital records. One hundred and fifty-eight patients were included in the study (82 men and 86 women with mean age of 74.5 years ± 12.9 SD, range of 33-98 years) of which 46 patients had regional nerve blocks and 112 had GA or spinal blocks. Patients who received both regional blocks and GA/spinal blocks within 30 days were excluded. The overall 30-day mortality was 17.1% (27 patients) consisting of 15.2% for regional nerve analgesia versus 17.9% for GA/spinal blocks (P = 0.867). Age did not affect mortality outcome in either groups of anesthesia modality. Our analysis did not reveal any mortality benefit of utilizing regional nerve block over GA or spinal blocks. PMID:23526101

Lin, Roy; Hingorani, Anil; Marks, Natalie; Ascher, Enrico; Jimenez, Robert; McIntyre, Thom; Jacob, Theresa

2013-04-01

71

Inhibitory effects of forskolin and papaverine on nerve conduction partially blocked by tetrodotoxin in the frog sciatic nerve.  

OpenAIRE

The effects of forskolin, sodium fluoride and papaverine on compound action potentials were investigated in de-sheathed sciatic nerve preparations of the frog. Forskolin decreased in a concentration-dependent manner the amplitude of compound action potentials when nerve conduction was partially blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In the presence of TTX a 50% decrease in the action potential amplitude recorded was obtained with about 2.5 microM forskolin. Sodium fluoride did not modify the amplitud...

Ribeiro, J. A.; Sebastia?o, A. M.

1985-01-01

72

Analgesic effects of maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks in cats undergoing dental extractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of maxillary and/or inferior alveolar nerve blocks with lidocaine and bupivacaine in cats undergoing dental extractions. Twenty-nine cats were enrolled. Using an adapted composite pain scale, cats were pain scored before the dental procedure and 30 mins, and 1, 2 and 4 h after isoflurane disconnection. Cats were sedated with buprenorphine (20 µg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and acepromazine (20 µg/kg) intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced using alfaxalone (1-2 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Each cat was randomly assigned to receive maxillary and/or inferior alveolar nerve blocks or no nerve blocks prior to dental extractions. Each nerve block was performed using lidocaine (0.25 mg/kg) and bupivacaine (0.25 mg/kg). Heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, end tidal carbon dioxide and isoflurane vaporiser settings were recorded 5 mins before and after the dental extractions, and the difference calculated. Group mean differences (mean ± SD) for heart rate (-9.7 ± 10.6 vs 7.6 ± 9.5 beats/min [nerve block vs control group, respectively], P Cats receiving nerve blocks had lower postoperative pain scores than the group without nerve blocks. PMID:24820999

Aguiar, Joana; Chebroux, Alexandre; Martinez-Taboada, Fernando; Leece, Elizabeth A

2015-02-01

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Transsacral S2-S4 nerve block for vaginal pain due to pudendal neuralgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pudendal neuralgia is a type of neuropathic pain experienced predominantly while sitting, and causes a substantial decrease in quality of life in affected patients. Pudendal nerve block is a diagnostic and therapeutic option for pudendal neuralgia. Transsacral block at S2 through S4 results in pudendal nerve block, which is an option for successful relief of pain due to pudendal nerve injury. Herein is reported blockade of S2 through S4 using lidocaine and methylprednisolone for successful treatment of pudendal neuralgia in 2 patients with severe chronic vaginal pain. The patients, aged 44 and 58 years, respectively, were referred from the Gynecology Department to the pain clinic because of burning, stabbing, electric shock-like, unilateral pain localized to the left portion of the vagina and extending to the perineum. Their initial pain scores were 9 and 10, respectively, on a numeric rating scale. Both patients refused pudendal nerve block using classical techniques. Therefore, diagnostic transsacral S2-S4 nerve block was performed using lidocaine 1%, and was repeated using lidocaine 1% and methylprednisolone 80 mg after confirming block efficiency as demonstrated by an immediate decrease in pain scores. After 1 month, pain scores were 1 and 0, respectively, and both patients were free of pain at 6-month follow up. It is suggested that blockade of S2 through S4 using lidocaine and methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option in patients with chronic pudendal neuralgia when traditional pudendal nerve block is not applicable. PMID:21545967

Cok, Oya Yalcin; Eker, H Evren; Cok, Tayfun; Akin, Sule; Aribogan, Anis; Arslan, Gulnaz

2011-01-01

74

The effects of unilateral eighth nerve block on fictive VOR in the turtle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiunit activity during horizontal sinusoidal motion was recorded from pairs of oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves of an in vitro turtle brainstem preparation that received inputs from intact semicircular canals. Responses of left oculomotor, right trochlear and right abducens nerves were approximately aligned with leftward head velocity, and that of the respective contralateral nerves were in-phase with rightward velocity. We examined the effect of sectioning or injecting lidocaine (1-2 microL of 0.5%) into the right vestibular nerve. Nerve block caused a striking phase shift in the evoked response of right oculomotor and left trochlear nerves, in which (rightward) control responses were replaced by a smaller-amplitude response to leftward table motion. Such "phase-reversed" responses were poorly defined in abducens nerve recordings. Frequency analysis demonstrated that this activity was advanced in phase relative to post-block responses of the respective contralateral nerves, which were in turn phase-advanced relative to pre-block controls. Phase differences were largest (approximately 10 degrees) at low frequencies (approximately 0.1 Hz) and statistically absent at 1 Hz. The phase-reversed responses were further investigated by eliminating individual canal input from the left labyrinth following right nVIII block, which indicated that the activation of the vertical canal afferents is the source of this activity. PMID:16725122

Jones, Michael S; Ariel, Michael

2006-06-13

75

Peripheral nerve blocks for intraoperative management in patients with hemophilia A.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of peripheral nerve blocks as the sole anesthetic, augmented with mild sedation for intraoperative management of surgery on the ankle and knee in two hemophiliac patients, is presented. Peripheral nerve blocks may be safely used for surgery of the extremities in a patient with moderate to severe hemophilia, provided a safe level of Factor VIII is maintained throughout the perioperative period. PMID:19329016

Sripada, Ramprasad; Reyes, Joseph J; Sun, Ruidong

2009-03-01

76

The efficacy of ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block for postoperative pain after caesarean section  

OpenAIRE

Background:: The effect of ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric (II-IH) nerve block on postoperative pain is well documented when applied before Caesarean section but the efficacy remains unclear when applied after the surgical procedure. Therefore we investigated the effect of II-IH nerve block on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in patients when applied after Caesarean Section. Methods: Sixty ASA I-II patients, scheduled for elective C/S were included in the study. After gener...

Melike Sakall?; Ay?egül Ceyhan; Hale Yarkan Uysal; I??n Yaz?c?; Hülya Ba?ar

2010-01-01

77

Effect of sympathetic nerve block on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve blocks relieve pain in certain chronic pain states, but the role of the sympathetic pathways in acute pain is unclear. Thus the authors wanted to determine whether a sympathetic block could reduce acute pain and hyperalgesia after a heat injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was made as a randomized, single blinded investigation, in which the volunteers served as their own controls. A lumbar sympathetic nerve block and a contralateral placebo block were performed in 24 persons by injecting 10 ml bupivacaine (0.5%) and 10 ml saline, respectively. The duration and quality of blocks were evaluated by the sympatogalvanic skin response and skin temperature. Bilateral heat injuries were produced on the medial surfaces of the calves with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min) 45 min after the blocks. Pain intensity induced by heat, pain thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulation, and secondary hyperalgesia were assessed before block, after block, and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after the heat injuries. RESULTS: Of the 24 volunteers, eight were excluded because of somatic block or incomplete sympathetic block. The study revealed no significant differences between sympathetic block and placebo for pain or mechanical allodynia during injury, or pain thresholds, pain responses to heat, or areas of secondary hyperalgesia after the injury. The comparisons were done for the period when the block was effective. CONCLUSION: Sympathetic nerve block did not change acute inflammatory pain or hyperalgesia after a heat injury in human skin.

Pedersen, J L; Rung, G W

1997-01-01

78

Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block.

Rothe, C; Asghar, S

2011-01-01

79

Severe cast burn after bunionectomy in a patient who received peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patrick K Boyle, John J Badal, Joelle W BoeveDepartment of Anesthesiology, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Although regional anesthesia offers advantages for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief, it is not possible without complications. A case of a significant burn injury after splint placement is described after a peripheral nerve block was performed for postoperative pain management. It is our hope that this case alerts physicians and others involved in the management of postoperative patients to the challenges of managing a blocked extremity after thermal cast placement and offers solutions that can be standardized.Keywords: Peripheral nerve block, cast burn, postoperative complication

Joelle W Boeve

2011-03-01

80

Effectiveness of nasopalatine nerve block for anesthesia of maxillary central incisors after failure of the anterior superior alveolar nerve block technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do bloqueio do nervo nasopalatino após falha na anestesia dos incisivos centrais superiores pelo bloqueio no nervo alveolar superior anterior (NASA). Secundariamente, investigou-se a possível inervação do incisivo central superior por ramos do nervo nas [...] opalatino (NNP). Foram avaliados 27 voluntários saudáveis, adultos jovens (idade: 17-26 anos; sexo: 9 homens e 18 mulheres). Todos eram estudantes de Odontologia da Faculdade do Vale do Rio Verde de Três Corações. Os voluntários tiveram os nervos alveolares anteriores superiores anestesiados e em seguida foram submetidos a um teste de sensibilidade térmica nos incisivos centrais superiores. Aqueles pacientes que ainda apresentavam sensibilidade após o bloqueio do NASA receberam bloqueio do NNP e então o teste térmico foi repetido. Todos os pacientes foram anestesiados por um único operador. Três pacientes ainda apresentaram sensibilidade após ambos os bloqueios bilaterais (NASA e NNP) e foram excluídos das análises de percentagem. Dos 24 pacientes restantes, 16 tiveram seus incisivos centrais superiores anestesiados pelo bloqueio do NASA e 8 permaneceram com sensibilidade após este procedimento. Estes 8 pacientes submeteram-se ao bloqueio do NNP, o que resultou em sucesso na anestesia dos incisivos centrais superiores. Neste estudo, 33,3% dos pacientes tinham a inervação de um ou de ambos os incisivos centrais superiores derivada do nervo nasopalatino, enquanto a maioria dos pacientes (66,7%) tinha tais dentes inervados pelo nervo alveolar superior anterior. O bloqueio do NNP foi eficaz para anestesiar os incisivos centrais superiores, nos casos em que falhou o bloqueio do NASA. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of nasopalatine nerve block for anesthesia of maxillary central incisors after failure of the anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN) block technique. Secondarily, the possible innervation of the maxillary central incisors by the nasopalatine [...] nerve was also investigated. Twenty-seven healthy, young adult volunteers (age: 17-26 years; gender: 9 males and 18 females) were enrolled in this study. All participants were undergraduate dental students of the University of Vale do Rio Verde de Três Corações. The volunteers had the anterior superior alveolar nerves anesthetized and a thermal sensitivity test (cold) was performed on the maxillary central incisors. The volunteers that responded positively to cold stimulus received a nasopalatine nerve block and the thermal sensitivity test was repeated. All participants were anesthetized by a single operator. Three patients presented sensitivity after both types of bilateral blocks and were excluded from the percentage calculations. In the remaining 24 patients, 16 had their maxillary central incisors anesthetized by the anterior superior alveolar block and 8 remained with sensitivity after the ASAN block. All these 8 patients had their maxillary central incisors successfully anesthetized by the nasopalatine block. In this study, 33.3% of the subjects had the innervation of one or both maxillary central incisors derived from the nasopalatine nerve, whilst most subjects (66.7%) had such teeth innervated by the anterior superior alveolar nerve. The nasopalatine nerve block was effective in anesthetizing the maxillary central incisors when the anterior superior alveolar nerve block failed.

Tufi Neder, Meyer; Leonardo Lima, Lemos; Carolina Neder Matuck do, Nascimento; William Ricardo Ribeiro de, Lellis.

81

Supra-Clavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Ultra-Sonography Guided Technique Offer Advantage Over Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Brachial Plexus block is an excellent anaesthetic option of upper limb surgery. The age old and #8220;Blind Paresthesia and #8221; technique and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS) may require multiple trial and error, not only increases block performance time and delays onset of anaesthesia, but also carries risk of damage to nerves or surrounding. Use of ultrasound to perform peripheral nerve block is a relatively new technique that is rapidly gaining popularity. Methodolog...

Rupera, Krutika B.; Khara, Birva N.; Shah, Veena R.; Parikh, Bina K.

2013-01-01

82

Effect of preemptive nerve block on inflammation and hyperalgesia after human thermal injury.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain relief may be improved by reducing sensitization of nociceptive pathways caused by surgical trauma. Such a reduction may depend on the timing and efficacy of analgesia and the duration of the nociceptive block versus the duration of the nociceptive input. We examined whether a prolonged nerve block administered before a superficial burn injury could reduce local inflammation and late hyperalgesia after recovery from the block. METHODS: The effects of a preemptive saphenous nerve block on primary and secondary hyperalgesia, skin erythema, and blister formation, were compared to the opposite unblocked leg for 12 h after bilateral thermal injuries (15 x 25 mm, 49 degrees C for 5 min) in 20 healthy volunteers. Recovery from the block was identified by return of sensation to cold. RESULTS: Six subjects were excluded because of insufficient initial block (2 subjects) or because the block lasted beyond the study period (4 subjects). The remaining 14 subjects experienced significantly reduced primary (P = 0.005) and secondary hyperplasia (P = 0.01) in the blocked leg after return of cold sensation compared to the unblocked leg. Erythema intensity and blister formation were not significantly affected by the blockade (P = 0.94 and P = 0.07, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a prolonged, preemptive nerve block reduced late hyperalgesia after thermal injury, whereas the erythema and blister formation were not significantly affected.

Pedersen, J L; Crawford, M E

1996-01-01

83

Tumescent infiltration versus femoral nerve block for skin graft harvest-a prospective randomized study  

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Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, 60 patients requiring a single sheet of graft were randomized into 2 groups. Tumescent infiltration was used for anesthesia in one group and femoral nerve block in the other. The pain during administration of anesthesia, the time required for onset of action, the pain during graft harvest and the failure rates were recorded. Statistical comparison was done using Fischers Exact probability test for the failure rates and Mann Whitney- U test for the other parameters. The pain during administration was significantly higher for tumescent infiltration. The time for onset of action was significantly faster with femoral nerve block. The pain during harvest and the failure rates did not show any significant difference. We conclude that tumescent infiltration is more painful than femoral nerve block but equally effective as anesthesia with no difference in the failure and complication rates.

Mathew J

2005-01-01

84

Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. D...

Dafna Geller Palti; Cristiane Machado de Almeida; Antonio de Castro Rodrigues; Jesus Carlos Andreo; José Eduardo Oliveira Lima

2011-01-01

85

Evaluation of Effect of Pudendal Nerve Block on Post Hemmorrhoidectomy Pain  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hemorrhoid is one of the most common anorectal disease which presents with pain, bleeding and mass protrusion from anus. One of the most important reasons to avoid operation in these patients fears of the pain. Pain control specially during the first 24 hour postoperation period results in decreasing urinary retension and constipation as well as increasing patients pleasant. In this study we assisted the effect of pudendal nerve block to reduce pain in posthemorrhoidectomy period and compared with those patients without pudendal nerve block.Materials & Methods: We randomized 120 patients with average age of 37.7 year who referred to the hospitals of Ahwaz university for hemorrhoidectomy into 2 groups (N1: 60 N2:60. In the first group pudendal nerve block was done but in the second group we didn't. Then pain scores by analogue scale method were calculated in each group at 2, 6, 12& 24 hours after operations. The scores were matched with Chi- Square test. Also we calculated and compared the dosages of injected narcotics.Results: The average pain scores at 2, 6, 12, 24 hours after operation in the first group (with nerve block. Were 2.53, 2.4, 1.91, 2.7, 2.38, and in the second group (without nerve block were 3.43, 3.23, 2.98, 2.81, 3.11. The average of narcotic dosage in the first group was 0.69 and in the second group was 1.3. P-value in two groups in those times were 0.001, 0.002, 0.001, 0.66. P-value for comparison of two groups was 0.01. P-value for comparison of narcotic consumption was 0.003Conclusions: In this study, we showed that pudendal nerve block in post hemorrhoidectomy period, reduced pain significantly and decreased narcotic consumption as well.

M.H. Sarmast Shoshtari

2008-10-01

86

Femoral nerve block in the initial management of femoral shaft fractures.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the under-used technique of femoral nerve block (F.N.B.) (Berry, 1977) has excellent analgesic action for femoral shaft fractures when performed by junior staff. It had no recorded side effects and was used in all age groups for fractures at all levels along the femoral shaft. Twenty-seven consecutive patients were studied as they presented in an accident room, all received a femoral nerve block (10 ml 1% Lignocaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline) from...

Mcglone, R.; Sadhra, K.; Hamer, D. W.; Pritty, P. E.

1987-01-01

87

The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection  

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Full Text Available

Background and aims. Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections.

Materials and methods. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test.

Results. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127 and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778.

Conclusion. According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

Sara Pourshahidi

2008-04-01

88

Femoral nerve block versus fentanyl: Analgesia for positioning patients with fractured femur  

OpenAIRE

Arissara Iamaroon, Manee Raksakietisak, Pathom Halilamien, Jitaporn Hongsawad, Kwankamol BoonsararuxsapongDepartment of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: Fracture of femur is a painful bone injury, worsened by any movement. This prospective study was performed to compare the analgesic effects of femoral nerve block (FNB) with intravenous (IV) fentanyl prior to positioning patients with fractured femur for spinal block.Patients...

Arissara Iamaroon; Manee Raksakietisak; Pathom Halilamien; et al.

2010-01-01

89

Ultrasound-guided nerve block for inguinal hernia repair : a randomized, controlled, double-blind study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Open inguinal hernia repair in adults is considered a minor surgical procedure but can be associated with significant pain. We aimed to evaluate acute postoperative pain management in male adults randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block administered before surgery, in addition to a standard analgesic regimen.

Bærentzen, Finn; Maschmann, Christian

2012-01-01

90

Frequency- and amplitude-transitioned waveforms mitigate the onset response in high-frequency nerve block  

Science.gov (United States)

High-frequency alternating currents (HFAC) have proven to be a reversible and rapid method of blocking peripheral nerve conduction, holding promise for treatment of disorders associated with undesirable neuronal activity. The delivery of HFAC is characterized by a transient period of neural firing at its inception, termed the 'onset response'. The onset response is minimized for higher frequencies and higher amplitudes, but requires larger currents. However, the complete block can be maintained at lower frequencies and amplitudes, using lower currents. In this in vivo study on whole mammalian peripheral nerves, we demonstrate a method to minimize the onset response by initiating the block using a stimulation paradigm with a high frequency and large amplitude, and then transitioning to a low-frequency and low-amplitude waveform, reducing the currents required to maintain the conduction block. In five of six animals, it was possible to transition from a 30 kHz to a 10 kHz waveform without inducing any transient neural firing. The minimum transition time was 0.03 s. Transition activity was minimized or eliminated with longer transition times. The results of this study show that this method is feasible for achieving a nerve block with minimal onset responses and current amplitude requirements.

Gerges, Meana; Foldes, Emily L.; Ackermann, D. Michael; Bhadra, Narendra; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.

2010-12-01

91

The Efficacy of Ilioinguinal and Iliohypogastric Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain After Caesarean Section  

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Full Text Available Background:: The effect of ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric (II-IH nerve block on postoperative pain is well documented when applied before Caesarean section but the efficacy remains unclear when applied after the surgical procedure. Therefore we investigated the effect of II-IH nerve block on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in patients when applied after Caesarean Section. Methods: Sixty ASA I-II patients, scheduled for elective C/S were included in the study. After general anaesthesia was performed, the patients were allocated into 2 groups randomly. In Group I (n=30, bilateral II-IH block had been applied after the skin closure, with 10 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine on each side. In Group II (n=30 sham block had been applied. For postoperative analgesia all patients received tramadol via i.v patient controlled analgesia. VAS scores, tramadol consumption and side effects at 0th, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th hours were noted. Results: There was no difference between groups regarding demographical data. The mean VAS scores in Group I were significantly lower than in Group II at 6th (p=0.003, 8th (p=0.019, 12th (p=0.024, 24th hours (p=0.004 at rest and at 6th (p=0.022, 8th hours (p=0.047 with movement. Tramadol usage in Group I was significantly less than in Group II at all estimated time intervals (P=0.001. Total tramadol consumption was 331 ± 82 mg in Group I and 622±107 mg in group II (P=0.001. Conclusions: We observed that II-IH nerve block when applied after the surgery may reduce analgesic consumption after C/S. Key Words: Caesarean section, postoperative analgesia, Ilioinguinal and Iliohypogastric (II-IH nerve block.

Melike Sakall?

2010-01-01

92

US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation  

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Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

Yilmaz, Saim, E-mail: ysaim@akdeniz.edu.tr; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur [Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2013-02-15

93

US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1–10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory nd other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

94

Paravertebral cervical nerve block in a patient suffering from a Pancoast tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with aggressive tumors resistant to conventional pain treatment, regional anaesthesia frequently becomes an alternative therapy. Cervical paravertebral nerve block among several access options to the brachial plexus is barely ever used. We present a case with severe shoulder and upper extremity pain owing to an expanding Pancoast tumor exhibiting compression upon the brachial plexus. Continuous intrathecal morphine infusion and adjuvant treatment was not sufficient to render the patient pain-free. With the addition of paravertebral nerve blockade the patient's pain improved substantially, however without impacting his longevity. PMID:21134120

Peláez, Raquel; Pascual, Gabriel; Aguilar, José L; Atanassoff, Peter G

2010-12-01

95

Suprascapular nerve block as a method of preemptive pain control in shoulder surgery.  

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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) in shoulder surgery. The study group consisted of 260 patients, which were subjected to shoulder operations. The patients were divided into two equal groups: group I with nerve block compared to a control group II without a nerve block. The mean age of the patients in group I was 56.2 +/- 6.86 years and that in group II was 54.5 +/- 7.06 years. The female to male ratio was 71:59 in group I and was 69:61 in group II. Surgical procedures were arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, arthroscopic subacromial decompression, arthroscopic acromioclavicular resection, arthroscopic removal of calcific tendonitis, arthroscopic reconstruction of instability, arthroscopic capsular release and shoulder replacement. In all cases the pain was documented by the visual analogue scale (VAS) preoperative, at the first, the second as well as at the third day after surgery. In order to evaluate the amount of fluid, which is needed for infiltration of the area of the supraspinatus fossa, we injected different amount of local anesthetic in combination with contrast dye in five patients. In this study to document the fluid distribution, after injecting with different milliliters, 10 ml is proved to be more than enough to have sufficient local anesthetic to block the SSN. Pre-operatively the mean VAS was comparable between both groups. We documented a significant difference in favour of SSNB from day 1 to day 3 after surgery. No specific complications due to this nerve block procedure were found in any patient post-operatively. PMID:18369594

Jerosch, J; Saad, M; Greig, M; Filler, T

2008-06-01

96

Development of an ultrasound-guided technique for pudendal nerve block in cat cadavers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this prospective experimental cadaveric study was to develop an ultrasound-guided technique to perform an anaesthetic pudendal nerve block in male cats. Fifteen fresh cadavers were used for this trial. A detailed anatomical dissection was performed on one cat in order to scrutinise the pudendal nerve and its ramifications. In a second step, the cadavers of six cats were used to test three different ultrasonographic approaches to the pudendal nerve: the deep dorso-lateral, the superficial dorso-lateral and the median transperineal. Although none of the approaches allowed direct ultrasonographical identification of the pudendal nerve branches, the deep dorso-lateral was found to be the most advantageous one in terms of practicability and ability to identify useful and reliable landmarks. Based on these findings, the deep dorso-lateral approach was selected as technique of choice for tracer injections (0.1 ml 1% methylene blue injected bilaterally) in six cat cadavers distinct from those used for the ultrasonographical study. Anatomical dissection revealed a homogeneous spread of the tracer around the pudendal nerve sensory branches in all six cadavers. Finally, computed tomography was performed in two additional cadavers after injection of 0.3 ml/kg (0.15 ml/kg per each injection sites, left and right) contrast medium through the deep dorso-lateral approach in order to obtain a model of volume distribution applicable to local anaesthetics. Our findings in cat cadavers indicate that ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is feasible and could be proposed to provide peri-operative analgesia in clinical patients undergoing perineal urethrostomy. PMID:23599255

Adami, Chiara; Angeli, Giovanni; Haenssgen, Kati; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia

2013-10-01

97

Needle stylet with integrated optical fibers for spectroscopic contrast during peripheral nerve blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of peripheral nerve blocks is highly dependent on the accuracy at which the needle tip is navigated to the target injection site. Even when electrical stimulation is utilized in combination with ultrasound guidance, determining the proximity of the needle tip to the target region close to the nerve can be challenging. Optical reflectance spectroscopy could provide additional information about tissues that is complementary to these navigation methods. We demonstrate a novel needle stylet for acquiring spectra from tissue at the tip of a commercial 20-gauge needle. The stylet has integrated optical fibers that deliver broadband light to tissue and receive scattered light. Two spectrometers resolve the light that is received from tissue across the wavelength range of 500-1600 nm. In our pilot study, measurements are acquired from a postmortem dissection of the brachial plexus of a swine. Clear differences are observed between spectra acquired from nerves and those acquired from adjacent tissue structures. We conclude that spectra acquired with the stylet have the potential to increase the accuracy with which peripheral nerve blocks are performed.

Desjardins, Adrien E.; van der Voort, Marjolein; Roggeveen, Stefan; Lucassen, Gerald; Bierhoff, Walter; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Brynolf, Marcus; Holmström, Björn

2011-07-01

98

The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal : a cadaver study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The spread of injectate during a saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal has not been clearly described. METHODS: We examined the spread of 15?ml dyed injectate during ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve blocks at the adductor canal in 15 unembalmed cadavers' lower limbs followed by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part (the vastoadductor membrane) covering the canal from the apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus. The fascial limits of the adductor canal formed a conduit around the femoral neurovascular bundle. The dyed aqueous injectate spread throughout the entire adductor canal to the femoral triangle and reached 1-2?cm into the popliteal fossa. Injections superficial to the adductor canal spread over the femoral artery within the subsartorial fat compartment resembling the injections within the canal but with ultrasonographic distinct features. These injections spread only half the length of the adductor canal. The only nerve observed within the adductor canal was the saphenous nerve. CONCLUSIONS: Injection of 15?ml dye was sufficient to spread throughout the adductor canal and beyond both proximally and distally. Distinct ultrasonographic features could be identified separating a subsartorial injection from an injection within the adductor canal with consequent differences in the spread.

Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L

2015-01-01

99

Ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve blocks and pulsed radiofrequency ablation for diagnosis and treatment of occipital neuralgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occipital neuralgia is a condition manifested by chronic occipital headaches and is thought to be caused by irritation or trauma to the greater occipital nerve (GON). Treatment for occipital neuralgia includes medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRFA). Landmark-guided GON blocks are the mainstay in both the diagnosis and treatment of occipital neuralgia. Ultrasound is being utilized more and more in the chronic pain clinic to guide needle advancement when performing procedures; however, there are no reports of ultrasound used to guide a diagnostic block or PRFA of the GON. We report two cases in which ultrasound was used to guide diagnostic greater occipital nerve blocks and greater occipital nerve pulsed radiofrequency ablation for treatment of occipital neuralgia. Two patients with occipital headaches are presented. In Case 1, ultrasound was used to guide diagnostic blocks of the greater occipital nerves. In Case 2, ultrasound was utilized to guide placement of radiofrequency probes for pulsed radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerves. Both patients reported immediate, significant pain relief, with continued pain relief for several months. Further study is needed to examine any difference in outcomes or morbidity between the traditional landmark method versus ultrasound-guided blocks and pulsed radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerves. PMID:24282778

Vanderhoek, Matthew David; Hoang, Hieu T; Goff, Brandon

2013-09-01

100

Femoral nerve block versus fentanyl: Analgesia for positioning patients with fractured femur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arissara Iamaroon, Manee Raksakietisak, Pathom Halilamien, Jitaporn Hongsawad, Kwankamol BoonsararuxsapongDepartment of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: Fracture of femur is a painful bone injury, worsened by any movement. This prospective study was performed to compare the analgesic effects of femoral nerve block (FNB with intravenous (IV fentanyl prior to positioning patients with fractured femur for spinal block.Patients and methods: Sixty-four ASA I–III patients aged 18–80 years undergoing surgery for femur fracture were randomized into two groups. Fifteen minutes before spinal block, the FNB group received nerve stimulator-assisted FNB with a mixture of 20 mL bupivacaine 0.5% and 10 mL normal saline 0.9%, and the fentanyl group received two doses of IV fentanyl 0.5 ?g/kg with a five-minute interval between doses. Numeric rating pain scores were compared. During positioning, fentanyl in 0.5 ?g/kg increments was given every five minutes until pain scores were ?4.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups according to pain scores, need for additional fentanyl, and satisfaction with positioning before spinal block. Conclusion: We were unable to demonstrate a benefit of FNB over IV fentanyl for patient positioning before spinal block. However, FNB can provide postoperative pain relief, whereas side effects of fentanyl must be considered, and analgesic dosing should be titrated based on pain scores. A multimodal approach (FNB + IV fentanyl may be a possible option.Keywords: femoral nerve block, bupivacaine, fentanyl, pain on positioning

Arissara Iamaroon

2010-03-01

101

Potential of a new laser target system for percutaneous CT-guided nerve blocks: technical note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype of a laser target device was used for CT-guided nerve blocks in a preliminary series of nine interventions. The system provides guidance from any possible approach. High accuracy of needle insertion was achieved; the average deviation of the planned from the actual angle was 1.4 . The target device is valuable for facilitating minimally invasive therapy and can decrease the time required for the procedure. (orig.)

102

Evaluation of Effect of Pudendal Nerve Block on Post Hemmorrhoidectomy Pain  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Objective: Hemorrhoid is one of the most common anorectal disease which presents with pain, bleeding and mass protrusion from anus. One of the most important reasons to avoid operation in these patients fears of the pain. Pain control specially during the first 24 hour postoperation period results in decreasing urinary retension and constipation as well as increasing patients pleasant. In this study we assisted the effect of pudendal nerve block to reduce pain in posthemorrhoid...

Sarmast Shoshtari, M. H.; Talaiezadeh, A.; Alaie, A.

2008-01-01

103

Severe Dysphagia After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Preceded By Cervical Botolinum Toxin Injection: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

A 39-year-old Iranian female patient who was a known case of primary cervical dystonia since 10 years ago presented to a private office for Dysport injection. The patients experienced severe dysphagia after inferior alveolar nerve block which was preceded by cervical botolinum toxin injection. A possible synergistic effect of botolinum toxin and lidocaine to produce severe dysphagia is presented in this case report.

Shahidi, Gholamali; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash; Khatib Shahidi, Ramin; Balmeh, Pouya

2013-01-01

104

Curative effect research on curing intercostal neuralgia through paravertebral nerve block combined with pregabalin.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aimed to discuss the curative effect and safety of curing intercostal neuralgia through paravertebral nerve block combined with pregabalin. 90 cases of patients diagnosed as intercostal neuralgia were taken as research object. Random number method was used to divide the patients that is conforming to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria into 3 groups. 30 cases was in group A (oral lyrica), 30 cases was in group B (paravertebral block only) and 30 cases was in group C (paravertebral block combined with pregabalin). The clinical effect and safety of three groups was compared. The result showed that: visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of sleep (QS) of three groups of patients after treatment all decreased obviously; group A had slow work, large amount of dosage and many adverse effects; group B had quick work, but the improvement on pain and sleep was not satisfactory; the curative effect of group C was higher than group A and B (pparavertebral nerve block combined with pregabalin for curing intercostal neuralgia was superior than single use of pregabalin or paravertebral block and that is worth to promote. PMID:25262512

Xiao, Peng; Zhu, Xu; Wu, Xuejian

2014-09-01

105

Contralateral Obturator Hernia Immediately after a Right Obturator Herniorrhaphy: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An obturator hernia is a very rare condition that occurs in elderly debilitated women and its nonspecific symptoms delay the diagnosis. Computed tomography is a useful tool for the early diagnosis of an obturator hernia. Previous studies report that bilateral obturator hernias comprise approximately 6% of all obturator hernias is 6%. To the best of our knowledge, there is no reported case of a contralateral obturator hernia immediately after a herniorrhaphy. We report a case of contralateral obturator hernia that occurred immediately after a right obturator herniorrhaphy

106

Contralateral Obturator Hernia Immediately after a Right Obturator Herniorrhaphy: A Case Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An obturator hernia is a very rare condition that occurs in elderly debilitated women and its nonspecific symptoms delay the diagnosis. Computed tomography is a useful tool for the early diagnosis of an obturator hernia. Previous studies report that bilateral obturator hernias comprise approximately 6% of all obturator hernias is 6%. To the best of our knowledge, there is no reported case of a contralateral obturator hernia immediately after a herniorrhaphy. We report a case of contralateral obturator hernia that occurred immediately after a right obturator herniorrhaphy

Oh, Soo Jin [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gyo Chang; Kim, Hyeong Soo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital College of Medicine, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-15

107

Scaffolds from alternating block polyurethanes of poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) with stimulation and guidance of nerve growth and better nerve repair than autograft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve repair scaffolds from novel alternating block polyurethanes (PUCL-alt-PEG) based on PCL and PEG without additional growth factors or proteins were prepared by a particle leaching method. The scaffolds have pore size 10-20 µm and porosity 92%. Mechanical tests showed that the polyurethane scaffolds have maximum loads of 5.97?±?0.35 N and maximal stresses of 8.84?±?0.5 MPa. Histocompatiblity of the nerve repair scaffolds was tested in a SD rat model for peripheral nerve defect treatment. Two types of treatments including PUCL-alt-PEG scaffolds and autografts were compared in rat model. After 32 weeks, bridging of a 12 mm defect gap by the regenerated nerve was observed in all rats. The nerve regeneration was systematically characterized by sciatic function index (SFI), electrophysiology, histological assessment including HE staining, immunohistochemistry, ammonia sliver staining, Masson's trichrome staining and TEM observation. Results revealed that nerve repair scaffolds from PUCL-alt-PEG exhibit better regeneration effects compared to autografts. Electrophysiological recovery was seen in 90% and 87% of rats in PUCL-alt-PEG and autograft groups respectively. Biodegradation in vitro and in vivo shows good degradation match of PUCL-alt-PEG scaffolds with nerve regeneration. It demonstrates that plain nerve repair scaffolds from PUCL-alt-PEG biomaterials can achieve peripheral nerve regeneration satisfactorily. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25410272

Niu, Yuqing; Li, Linjing; Chen, Kevin C; Chen, Feiran; Liu, Xiangyu; Ye, Jianfu; Li, Wei; Xu, Kaitian

2014-11-20

108

Alcock canal syndrome due to obturator internus muscle fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcock canal syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the pudendal nerve. We report a case of perineal neuralgia where pudendal nerve compression was due to fibrosis of the obturator internus muscle following an injury of the muscle. After being misdiagnosed for 2 years, the patient was diagnosed only after a combined neurophysiologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation. This case underlines the importance of performing focused neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies in patients with neuropathic perineal pain in order to reach a correct diagnosis. PMID:20665515

Insola, Angelo; Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca

2010-09-01

109

Temporary pupillary dilatation and ptosis: complications of PSA nerve block: a case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lidocaine, an amide local anesthetic is administered regularly for the minor oral and dental surgical procedures. In this article, ophthalmic complications arising from Posterior superior nerve block are discussed and a case report which had dilatation of pupil and ptosis of eye lids is presented. A review of literature is done regarding the ophthalmic complications. The precautions one needs to take during the administration of Local Anesthesia (LA) especially Posterior Superior Alveolar nerve block and management guidelines are highlighted. PMID:23139502

Prakasm, Michael; Managutti, Anil; Dolas, R S; Agrawal, M G

2009-06-01

110

Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks and Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation for Diagnosis and Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia  

OpenAIRE

Occipital neuralgia is a condition manifested by chronic occipital headaches and is thought to be caused by irritation or trauma to the greater occipital nerve (GON). Treatment for occipital neuralgia includes medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRFA). Landmark-guided GON blocks are the mainstay in both the diagnosis and treatment of occipital neuralgia. Ultrasound is being utilized more and more in the chronic pain clinic to guide needle advancement when performing...

Vanderhoek, Matthew David; Hoang, Hieu T.; Goff, Brandon

2013-01-01

111

Ultrasound-Assisted Mental Nerve Block and Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment for Intractable Postherpetic Neuralgia: Three Case Studies  

OpenAIRE

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most difficult pain syndromes to treat. Invasive treatments may be considered when patients fail to obtain adequate pain relief from noninvasive treatment approaches. Here, we present three cases of PHN in the mandibular branch treated with ultrasound-assisted mental nerve block and pulsed radiofrequency treatment. None of the patients had adequate pain relief from the medical therapy, so we performed the mental nerve block on the affected side under...

Park, Hae Gyun; Park, Pyung Gul; Kim, Won Joong; Park, Yong Hee; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Koo, Gill Hoi; Shin, Hwa Yong

2013-01-01

112

Cortisol and pain-related behavior in disbudded goat kids with and without cornual nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma cortisol and behavior were measured in disbudded goat kids with and without the use of cornual nerve block. A total of 45 kids were used in 5 experimental groups (n=9, males and females). Group LidoD was infiltrated with 1 mL of 2% lidocaine locally at the cornual branches of lacrimal and infratrochlear nerves, 15 min before thermal disbudding. Group Lido was similarly infiltrated and was not disbudded. In group Sim, the disbudding procedure was simulated. A control group (CD) was disbudded without lidocaine infiltration, and group SD was infiltrated with saline before disbudding. The cornual nerve block did not prevent the short-term increase in cortisol levels during and after disbudding. LidoD, CD and SD groups showed higher cortisol concentrations than Lido and Sim (p0.05). Struggles tended to be higher in SD (16.5 ± 2.5), CD (17.8 ± 2.5) and LidoD (15.6 ± 2.5) than Sim (10.6 ± 2.5; p=0.1). The total behavioral response was different between groups (CD, 59.6 ± 6.8; LidoD, 52 ± 6.8; SD, 62.6 ± 6.8; Sim, 36.8 ± 6.8; p=0.05), and disbudded animals showed the strongest reactions (disbudded, 58.1 ± 3.9 vs non-disbudded, 36.8 ± 6.8; p=0.01). It was concluded that cornual nerve block (lacrimal and infratrochlear) using 2% lidocaine did not prevent pain during thermal disbudding of goat kids. PMID:25447328

Alvarez, L; De Luna, J B; Gamboa, D; Reyes, M; Sánchez, A; Terrazas, A; Rojas, S; Galindo, F

2015-01-01

113

Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciati [...] c nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

A.M., Sousa; H.A., Ashmawi; L.S., Costa; I.P., Posso; A., Slullitel.

2012-02-01

114

Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

A.M. Sousa

2012-02-01

115

Excitation block in a nerve fibre model owing to potassium-dependent changes in myelin resistance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The myelinated nerve fibre is formed by an axon and Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes that sheath the axon by winding around it in tight myelin layers. Repetitive stimulation of a fibre is known to result in accumulation of extracellular potassium ions, especially between the axon and the myelin. Uptake of potassium leads to Schwann cell swelling and myelin restructuring that impacts the electrical properties of the myelin. In order to further understand the dynamic interaction that takes place between the myelin and the axon, we have modelled submyelin potassium accumulation and related changes in myelin resistance during prolonged high-frequency stimulation. We predict that potassium-mediated decrease in myelin resistance leads to a functional excitation block with various patterns of altered spike trains. The patterns are found to depend on stimulation frequency and amplitude and to range from no block (less than 100 Hz) to a complete block (greater than 500 Hz). The transitional patterns include intermittent periodic block with interleaved spiking and non-spiking intervals of different relative duration as well as an unstable regime with chaotic switching between the spiking and non-spiking states. Intermittent conduction blocks are accompanied by oscillations of extracellular potassium. The mechanism of conductance block based on myelin restructuring complements the already known and modelled block via hyperpolarization mediated by the axonal sodium pump and potassium depolarization.

Brazhe, A.R.; Maksimov, G.V.

2011-01-01

116

Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength : A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

: The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were adductor strength and ability to ambulate.

Jæger, Pia; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak

2013-01-01

117

Supra-Clavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Ultra-Sonography Guided Technique Offer Advantage Over Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Ultrasonography guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block is quick to perform, offers improved safety and accuracy in identifying the position of the nerves to be blocked and of the structures. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 241-244

Krutika B Rupera

2013-06-01

118

Anatomical Study of The Sacum for Transsacral Block of Sacral Nerves  

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Full Text Available Inroduction: For transsacral block of sacral nerves in analgesia and anesthesia of the rectal, anal or urethral region the dorsal sacral foramina are used.To find solution of this by identifying additional anatomical landmarks and measurements of dorsal sacral foramina for transsacral nerve block. Materials & Method: Total 100 complete and undamaged adult, dry sacrums were measured with a vernier caliper (accurate to 0.1 mm. Dorsal sacral foramina of the sacrum were taken as points. Calculations and analyses were expressed as mean (SD, median and range using Open Office 3.2.0 spreadsheet version for Linux (Ubuntu 10.04. Results: The average distance between the two superolateral sacral crests was 60.61 (SD 6.71 mm. Distance between dorsal sacral foramina vertical right side 1st to 2nd 14.05 (SD 2.35mm, 2nd to 3rd 12.33 (SD 1.84mm, 3rd to 4th 11.26 (SD 2.35mm and vertical left side 1st to 2nd 14.18 (SD 2.61mm, 2nd to 3rd 12.18 (SD 1.95mm, 3rd to 4th 10.78 (SD2.42mm. Transverse distance between dorsal sacral foramina 1st to 1st 34.72 (SD 3.97mm, 2nd to 2nd 29.43 (SD 3.51mm, 3rd to 3rd 25.58 (SD 3.46mm, 4th to 4th 24.63 (SD 3.22mm. Conclusion: Measurements of dorsal sacral foramina can be used for transsacral nerve block. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 501-503

D S Patil

2012-08-01

119

MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF OBTURATOR ARTERY  

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Full Text Available Background: The obturator artery normally arises from the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery. High frequency of variations in its origin and course has drawn attention of pelvic surgeons, anatomists and radiologists. Normally, artery inclines anteroinferiorly on the lateral pelvic wall to the upper part of obturator foramen. The obturator artery may origin individually or with the iliolumbar or the superior gluteal branch of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. However, the literature contains many articles that report variable origins. Interesting variations in the origin and course of the principal arteries have long attracted the attention of anatomists and surgeons. Methods: 50 adult human pelvic halves were procured from embalmed cadavers of J.J.M. Medical College and S.S.I.M.S & R.C, Davangere, Karnataka, India for the study. Results: The obturator artery presents considerable variation in its origin. It took origin most frequently from the anterior division of internal iliac artery in 36 specimens (72%. Out of which, directly from anterior division in 20 specimens (40%, with ilio-lumbar artery in 5 specimens (10%, with inferior gluteal artery in 3 specimens (6%, with inferior vesical artery in 2 specimens (4%, with middle rectal artery in 1 specimen (2%, with internal pudendal artery in 4 specimens (8% and with uterine artery in 1 specimen (2%. The obturator artery took origin from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 9 specimens (18%, from external iliac artery in 1 specimen (2%, from inferior epigastric artery in 3 specimens (6% and was found to be absent in 1 specimen (2%.

Pavan P Havaldar

2014-06-01

120

Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models  

OpenAIRE

Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was ev...

Sousa, A. M.; Ashmawi, H. A.; Costa, L. S.; Posso, I. P.; Slullitel, A.

2011-01-01

121

Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after specific ultrasound-guided blocking of the musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar, and median nerves in the upper extremity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sympathetic block causes vasodilatation and increases in skin temperature (T(s)). However, the T(s) response after specific nerve blocking is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that T(s) would increase after specific blocking of the nerve innervating that area.

Lange, K H W; Jansen, T

2011-01-01

122

Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of electrophysiologically guided femoral nerve block in total knee arthroplasty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoon Seok Youm,1 Sung Do Cho,1 Chang Ho Hwang21Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of KoreaBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare electrophysiologically guided and traditional nerve stimulator analgesia femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty.Methods: Patients scheduled for unilateral total knee arthroplasty were randomized to electrophysiologically guided or traditional nerve stimulator analgesia by pre-emptive single injection femoral nerve block with corresponding assistance. We assessed pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS, 0 = no pain, 100 = the worst pain and the volumes of morphine consumed at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after total knee arthroplasty.Results: Of the 60 patients enrolled, eight withdrew from the study. The remaining 52 patients were randomized to the electrophysiologically guided group (n = 27 or traditional nerve stimulator analgesia (n = 25 group. Four hours after total knee arthroplasty, VAS scores were significantly lower in the electrophysiologically guided group than in the traditional nerve stimulator group at rest (4.8 ± 1.4 versus 5.9 ± 0.8, P < 0.01 and while moving (6.2 ± 1.1 versus 6.9 ± 0.9, P < 0.01. The total volumes of morphine injected at 24, 48, and 72 hours were significantly decreased in the electrophysiologically guided group (P < 0.05 each. Variable × time interaction of VAS was significant in the electrophysiologically guided group (P < 0.05, with each VAS score at 24, 48, and 72 hours being significantly lower than the baseline score (P < 0.05. VAS scores at every time point were significantly lower in the electrophysiologically group guided than in the traditional nerve stimulator group (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Electrophysiologically guided single injection femoral nerve block may provide better postoperative analgesia and a greater reduction in the demand for pain killers than femoral nerve block using traditional nerve stimulator analgesia.Keywords: femoral nerve, nerve block, electrophysiologic concepts, arthroplasty, knee, ropivacaine

Youm YS

2013-03-01

123

Femoral Nerve Block - A Guide for Medical Students and Junior Doctors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A femoral fracture is a painful and distressing traumatic injury that is commonly encountered when working in an emergency department. The incidence of femoral shaft fracture has been estimated at 1.0-1.3 per 10,000 of population. The acute treatment of such an injury involves placement of the injured limb into a Thomas traction splint, which requires the provision of pain relief, commonly through use of a femoral nerve block. A femoral nerve block is a specific regional anaesthetic technique used by doctors in emergency medicine to provide anaesthesia and analgesia of the affected leg, to allow relief of pain from the fracture and facilitate movement of the injured limb into a splint. This article provides an educational overview of this practical procedure for junior doctors and medical students alike. We describe the technique as traditionally performed, as well as highlighting an increasingly favoured method using ultrasound as an adjunct to improve the accuracy and safety of the procedure.

Andrew R Bogacz

2012-08-01

124

Use of targeted transversus abdominus plane blocks in pediatric patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a commonly overlooked source of chronic abdominal wall pain. A diagnosis of ACNES should be considered in cases of severe, localized abdominal pain that is accentuated by physical activity. Providers should consider diagnosing ACNES once a patient has both a positive result from a Carnett's test and precise localization of pain. We describe the use of transversus abdominus plane (TAP) blocks to treat ACNES in the pediatric patient population. TAP blocks are a treatment modality which have been described less frequently in the management of this syndrome, with rectus sheath blocks being used more commonly. TAP blocks can be used effectively for ACNES by targeting the site of maximal tenderness, which was identified using ultrasound guidance. Moreover, TAP blocks are an attractive procedure option for ACNES as they are less invasive than other commonly used techniques. We present 3 case series reports of pediatric patients evaluated at our institution for severe abdominal pain to describe the clinical manifestations, sequelae, and outcome of ACNES. Though the exact incidence of ACNES in the pediatric population is unknown, this condition has significant implications from chronic pain. Chronic pain can lead to significant emotional and social impacts on these pediatric patients, as well as their on their families. Further, the extensive utilization of health care resources is impacted when children with undiagnosed ACNES undergo invasive treatments when ACNES is not in the early differential. The purpose of this case series report is to prompt better recognition of the condition ACNES, and to highlight the efficacy of TAP blocks as a management strategy. PMID:25247912

Nizamuddin, Sarah L; Koury, Katharine M; Lau, Mary E; Watt, Lisa D; Gulur, Padma

2014-01-01

125

Study of the anatomical position of the femoral nerve by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with fractured neck of femur: relevance to femoral nerve block.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the anatomical location of the femoral nerve in patients who have sustained fracture of the neck of femur, and its relevance to femoral nerve block technique. DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Orthopedic and Radiology departments of a regional hospital. SUBJECTS: 10 consecutive adult ASA physical status II and III patients (mean age, 78.5 yrs) and 4 adult healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed of both upper thighs in patients and healthy volunteers successfully. MEASUREMENTS: The distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral artery and the midpoint of the femoral nerve, and the distance of the femoral nerve from the skin was measured at the mid-inguinal ligament, the pubic tubercle, and at the mid-inguinal crease. Data are shown as means (SD). Differences between both sides were compared using paired Student\\'s t-tests. P < 0.05 was significant. MAIN RESULTS: In patients the mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of femoral artery at the mid-inguinal crease on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 10.7 and 11.0, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the mid-inguinal ligament on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 9.64 and 12.5, respectively (P = 0.03). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the pubic tubercle on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 8.74 and 10.49, respectively (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of the femoral nerve may be easier to perform at the mid-inguinal crease in patients with fractured neck of femur.

Mehmood, Shehzad

2012-01-31

126

The twin block: a simple technique to block both the masseteric and the anterior deep temporal nerves with one anesthetic injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to describe a new technique to anesthetize the masseter muscle and the temporalis muscle using a single extraoral approach. The block targets both the masseteric and the deep temporal nerves as they leave the infratemporal fossa to innervate the deep surfaces of their respective muscles. PMID:24703404

Quek, Samuel; Young, Andrew; Subramanian, Gayathri

2014-09-01

127

A comparative study of nerve stimulator versus ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: With the advent of ultrasound (US) guidance, this technique saw resurgence in the late 1990s. As US guidance provides real-time view of the block needle, the brachial plexus, and its spatial relationship to the surrounding vital structures; it not only increased the success rates, but also brought down the complication rates. Most of the studies show use of US guidance for performing brachial plexus block, results in near 100% success with or without complications. This study has been designed to examine the technique and usefulness of state-of-the-art US technology-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block and compare it with routine nerve stimulator (NS)-guided technique. Aim: To note block execution time, time of onset of sensory and motor block, quality of block and success rates. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized study and were randomly divided into two groups: US (Group US) and NS (Group NS). Both groups received 1:1 mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lignocaine with 1:200000 adrenaline. The amount of local anaesthetic injected calculated according to the body weight and not crossing the toxic dosage (Inj. bupivacaine 2 mg/kg, Inj. lignocaine with adrenaline 7 mg/kg). The parameters compared between the two groups are block execution time, time of onset of sensory and motor block, quality of sensory and motor block, success rates are noted. The failed blocks are supplemented with general anesthesia. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using the SPSS (version 19) software. The parametric data were analyzed with student “t” test and the nonparametric data were analyzed with Chi-square test A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference between patient groups with regard to demographic data, the time of onset of sensory and motor block. Comparing the two groups, we found that the difference in the block execution time and success rates is not statistically significant. A failure rate of 10% in US and 20% in NS group observed and is statistically insignificant (P = 0.278). No complication observed in either group. Conclusions: US and NS group guidance for performing supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks ensures a high success rate and a decreased incidence of complications that are associated with the blind technique. However, our study did not prove the superiority of one technique over the other. The US-guided technique seemed to have an edge over the NS-guided technique. A larger study may be required to analyze the advantages of using US in performing supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks, which could help justify the cost of purchase of the US machine.

Duncan, Mithun; Shetti, Akshaya N.; Tripathy, Debendra Kumar; Roshansingh, D.; Krishnaveni, N.

2013-01-01

128

Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks combined with sedoanalgesia versus spinal anesthesia in total knee arthroplasty  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although regional anesthesia is the first choice for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), it may not be effective and the risk of complications is greater in patients who are obese or who have spinal deformities. We compared the success of ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks with sedoanalgesia versus spinal anesthesia in unilateral TKA patients in whom spinal anesthesia was difficult. Methods We enrolled 30 patients; 15 for whom spinal anesthesia was expected to be difficult were classified as the block group, and 15 received spinal anesthesia. Regional anesthesia was achieved with bupivacaine 62.5 mg and prilocaine 250 mg to the sciatic nerve, and bupivacaine 37.5 mg and prilocaine 150 mg to the femoral nerve. Bupivacaine 20 mg was administered to induce spinal anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters, pain and sedation scores, and surgical and patient satisfaction were compared. Results A sufficient block could not be obtained in three patients in the block group. The arterial pressure was significantly lower in the spinal group (P Ramsay sedation score were higher (P = 0.007). Conclusions Ultrasound-guided sciatic and femoral nerve blocks combined with sedoanalgesia were an alternative anesthesia method in selected TKA patients. PMID:25237444

Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Demirhan, Abdullah; Ozturan, Kutay Engin; Bayir, Hakan; Kocoglu, Hasan; Bilgi, Murat

2014-01-01

129

Femoral fracture repair and sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in a guinea pig.  

Science.gov (United States)

A four-month-old, entire male guinea pig was presented for surgical repair of a closed oblique femoral fracture. Analgesia was provided with 30 µg/kg buprenorphine intramuscularly (im) four times a day and 0 · 3 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously once a day. The following day, anaesthesia was induced and maintained with 100 µg/kg medetomidine im, 20 mg/kg ketamine im, 30 µg/kg buprenorphine im and isoflurane in oxygen. Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks were performed with bupivacaine. The fracture was reduced and aligned using an intramedullary 1 · 4 mm K-wire and a 3 metric polydioxanone cerclage. Three weeks postoperatively remodelling and callus formation was documented, with no evidence of complications. Complete union was present 14 weeks postoperatively. PMID:23398458

Aguiar, J; Mogridge, G; Hall, J

2014-12-01

130

A randomized comparative study of efficacy of axillary and infraclavicular approaches for brachial plexus block for upper limb surgery using peripheral nerve stimulator  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus block via the axillary approach is problematic in patients with limited arm mobility. In such cases, the infraclavicular approach may be a valuable alternative. The purpose of our study was to compare axillary and infraclavicular techniques for brachial plexus block in patients undergoing forearm and hand surgeries. After obtaining institutional approval and written informed consent, 60 patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade I or II scheduled for forearm and hand surgeries were included in the study and were randomly allocated into two groups. Brachial plexus block was performed via the vertical infraclavicular approach (VIB in patients of Group I and axillary approach in Group A using a peripheral nerve stimulator. Sensory block in the distribution of individual nerves supplying the arm, motor block, duration of sensory block, incidence of successful block and various complications were recorded. Successful block was achieved in 90% of the patients in group I and in 87% of patients in group A. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade was significantly higher in group I. No statistically significant difference was found in sensory and motor blockade of other nerves. Both the approaches are comparable, but the VIB scores ahead of axillary block in terms of its ability to block more nerves. The VIB because of its easily identifiable landmarks, a comfortable patient position during the block procedure and the ability to block a larger spectrum of nerves should thus be considered as an effective alternative to the axillary approach.

Lahori Vikram

2011-01-01

131

Peripheral nerve blocks result in superior recovery profile compared with general anesthesia in outpatient knee arthroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may have some potential benefits in the outpatient setting. There have been no studies specifically comparing PNBs performed with short-acting local anesthetics with general anesthesia (GA) in patients undergoing outpatient knee surgery. We hypothesized that a combination of lumbar plexus and sciatic blocks using a short-acting local anesthetic will result in shorter time-to-discharge-home as compared with GA. Patients scheduled to undergo knee arthroscopy were randomized to receive a GA (midazolam, fentanyl, propofol, N(2)O/O(2)/desflurane via laryngeal mask airway) or lumbar plexus/sciatic block (PNBs; 2-chloroprocaine). Patients given GA also received an intraarticular injection of 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine for postoperative pain control. Patients in the PNB group were given midazolam (up to 4 mg) and alfentanil (500-750 microg) before block placement and propofol 30-50 microg . kg(-1) . min(-1) for intraoperative sedation. Relevant perioperative times, postanesthesia care unit bypass rate, severity of pain, and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study; 25 patients each received GA or PNBs. Total operating room time did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (97 +/- 37 versus 91 +/- 42 min). Seventy-two percent of patients receiving PNB met criteria enabling them to bypass Phase I postanesthesia care unit compared with only 24% of those receiving GA (P associated with a superior recovery profile compared with GA in patients having outpatient knee arthroscopy. PMID:15781509

Hadzic, Admir; Karaca, Pelin Emine; Hobeika, Paul; Unis, George; Dermksian, Jeffrey; Yufa, Marina; Claudio, Richard; Vloka, Jerry D; Santos, Alan C; Thys, Daniel M

2005-04-01

132

Ultrasound-assisted mental nerve block and pulsed radiofrequency treatment for intractable postherpetic neuralgia: three case studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most difficult pain syndromes to treat. Invasive treatments may be considered when patients fail to obtain adequate pain relief from noninvasive treatment approaches. Here, we present three cases of PHN in the mandibular branch treated with ultrasound-assisted mental nerve block and pulsed radiofrequency treatment. None of the patients had adequate pain relief from the medical therapy, so we performed the mental nerve block on the affected side under ultrasound assistance. Two patients showed satisfactory pain relief continuously over 12 months without any further interventions, whereas one patient only had short-term pain relief. For the patient had short-term pain relief we performed pulsed radiofrequency treatment (PRFT) on the left mental nerve under ultrasound assistance. After PRFT, the patient had adequate pain relief for 6 months and there was no need for further management. PMID:24478907

Park, Hae Gyun; Park, Pyung Gul; Kim, Won Joong; Park, Yong Hee; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Koo, Gill Hoi; Shin, Hwa Yong

2014-01-01

133

System to obturate a hole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description is given of a system to obturate a hole inside a containment fitted with an access aperture smaller in cross section than that of the aperture to be closed. It includes a cover in several parts and a cover bearing surface. The cover is composed of a central unit and two C shaped side parts, the dimensions of which allow passage in the access aperture. This system is specially designed for steam generators in nuclear power stations and particularly of the pressurised water type, but it can obviously be employed whenever the need arises to close an aperture giving into a containment fitted with a small cross section access aperture

134

Obturator dislocation of the hip.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe two patients with obturator dislocation of the hip which was irreducible by described techniques of closed reduction. The first required open reduction using the iliofemoral approach with release of rectus femoris. The second was treated on a traction table which allowed disengagement of the head and, when combined with simultaneous lateral traction, adduction and gradual release of the longitudinal traction, facilitated a smooth reduction. Since the hip is stable in flexion, early mobilisation in an extension-limiting brace avoids the prolonged bed rest traditionally recommended for this injury. PMID:11245517

Toms, A D; Williams, S; White, S H

2001-01-01

135

Phrenic nerve block with ultrasound-guidance for treatment of hiccups: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent hiccups can be more than a simple and short-lived nuisance and therefore sometimes call for serious consideration. Hiccupping episodes that last only a few minutes may be annoying, but persistent hiccups may initiate many major complications. Case presentation A 72-year-old Caucasian man with spinal stenosis presented for L4-5 laminectomy under spinal anesthesia. The surgery and anesthesia, as well as the perioperative period, passed without any incident, except for persistent postoperative hiccups not responding to conservative and pharmacological treatment. Hiccups resulted in a prolonged hospital stay as they lasted until the seventh postoperative day. On that day, a right-sided ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block with 5 ml of bupivacaine 5 mg/ml with epinephrine was performed successfully with a single-injection technique. Ten minutes after the procedure the hiccups vanished and a partial sensomotoric block of his right shoulder developed. No adverse effect occurred; our patient could be discharged on the same day and the hiccups did not return. Conclusion Ultrasound provides us with non-invasive information regarding anatomy and allows anesthesiologists to visualize needle insertion, to identify the exact location of the injected solution and to avoid such structures as arteries or veins. As such, this method should be actively utilized. In cases where both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments prove to be ineffective when treating persistent hiccups, a single-shot ultrasound-guided technique should be considered before the patient becomes exhausted.

Pyylampi Ville

2011-10-01

136

Management of low back pain with facet joint injections and nerve root blocks under computed tomography guidance. A prospective study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of facet joint and nerve root infiltrations under computed tomography guidance for the management of low back pain and to investigate the complications and patient tolerance. The study was board-certified and informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 1 year, 86 consecutive patients (47 male, 39 female, age range 47-87 years, mean age 63) with low back pain for more than 2 years were included. All patients were clinically examined and had cross-sectional imaging performed before the procedure. Fifty-five facet joint infiltrations and 31 nerve blocks were performed under computed tomography guidance. All patients completed two valid pain questionnaires before and 3 months after the procedures. At the same time, they were clinically examined by the referring Orthopaedic Surgeon. The pain response was assessed by comparing the scores of the questionnaires. The improvement in clinical examination findings was assessed as well. In patients who underwent facet joint infiltrations, long-term pain improvement was achieved in 79% and in those with nerve blocks in 85%. Immediate pain relief was demonstrated in 83% of patients with nerve infiltrations. No complications were observed. All procedures were very well tolerated by patients. Facet joint and nerve infiltrations under computed tomography guidance constitute an accurate and safe method that could be used to relieve low back pain and minimize the risk of disabiliack pain and minimize the risk of disability. (orig.)

137

Management of low back pain with facet joint injections and nerve root blocks under computed tomography guidance. A prospective study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of facet joint and nerve root infiltrations under computed tomography guidance for the management of low back pain and to investigate the complications and patient tolerance. The study was board-certified and informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 1 year, 86 consecutive patients (47 male, 39 female, age range 47-87 years, mean age 63) with low back pain for more than 2 years were included. All patients were clinically examined and had cross-sectional imaging performed before the procedure. Fifty-five facet joint infiltrations and 31 nerve blocks were performed under computed tomography guidance. All patients completed two valid pain questionnaires before and 3 months after the procedures. At the same time, they were clinically examined by the referring Orthopaedic Surgeon. The pain response was assessed by comparing the scores of the questionnaires. The improvement in clinical examination findings was assessed as well. In patients who underwent facet joint infiltrations, long-term pain improvement was achieved in 79% and in those with nerve blocks in 85%. Immediate pain relief was demonstrated in 83% of patients with nerve infiltrations. No complications were observed. All procedures were very well tolerated by patients. Facet joint and nerve infiltrations under computed tomography guidance constitute an accurate and safe method that could be used to relieve low back pain and minimize the risk of disability. (orig.)

Fotiadou, Anastasia; Wojcik, Andrew; Shaju, Antony [Hinchingbrooke Hospital NHS Trust, Huntingdon, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15

138

A comparison between acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve and acupressure: methodology, analgesia, and mechanism involved  

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Full Text Available Danping Luo,1,2 Xiaolin Wang,1 Jiman He1,31Pain Medicine Program, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Acupressure is an alternative medicine methodology that originated in ancient China. Treatment effects are achieved by stimulating acupuncture points using acute pressure. Acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve is a newly reported analgesic method based on a current neuroscience concept: stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold. Both methods use pressure as an intervention method. Herein, we compare the methodology and mechanism of these two methods, which exhibit several similarities and differences. Acupressure entails variation in the duration of manipulation, and the analgesic effect achieved can be short- or long-term. The acute effect attained with acupressure presents a scope that is very different from that of the chronic effect attained after long-term treatment. This acute effect appears to have some similarities to that achieved with acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve, both in methodology and mechanism. More evidence is needed to determine whether there is a relationship between the two methods.Keywords: acupressure, acute pressure block, sciatic nerve, pain

Luo D

2013-07-01

139

Ultrasound-guided continuous suprascapular nerve block for adhesive capsulitis: one case and a short topical review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case with an ultrasound-guided (USG) placement of a perineural catheter beneath the transverse scapular ligament in the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (SSN). The patient suffered from a severe and very painful adhesive capsulitis of the left shoulder secondary to an operation in the same shoulder conducted 20 weeks previously for impingement syndrome and a superior labral anterior-posterior tear. Following a new operation with capsular release, the placement of a continuous nerve block catheter subsequently allowed for nearly pain-free low impact passive and guided active mobilization by the performing physiotherapist for three consecutive weeks. This case and a short topical review on the use of SSN block in painful shoulder conditions highlight the possibility of a USG continuous nerve block of the SSN as sufficient pain management in the immediate post-operative period following capsular release of the shoulder. Findings in other painful shoulder conditions and suggestions for future studies are discussed in the text.

Neimann, Jens Dupont BØrglum; Bartholdy, Anne

2011-01-01

140

How to treat a difficult-to-anesthetize patient. Twelve alternatives to the traditional inferior alveolar nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the case of the difficult-to-anesthetize patient, the inferior alveolar nerve can be particularly challenging In those patients, other approaches may be necessary to achieve profound anesthesia. This article presents techniques that may be used in those efforts. The clinician can change his target slightly, or increase the dosage of anesthetic. Accessory innervation by lingual and mylohyoid nerves sometimes needs to be addressed. Some standard alternative approaches are Gow-Gates and Varizani-Akinosi injections. Intraosseous and intraligamentary injections should be considered. For lower anteriors, infiltration and incisive nerve blocks can be effective. Slight changes in armamentarium, such as increasing the needle gauge, can be helpful. Twelve approaches that can be used instead of or as an adjunct to, the traditional Halstead injection are described. PMID:20583494

Forbes, William C

2010-01-01

141

Extended Use of Vettath’s Anastomotic Obturator (VAO  

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Full Text Available Stroke rate in redo coronary artery bypass surgery has remained a stumbling block, where the aorta is used as origin for the top end of the vein graft. Avoiding the side-clamp on these redo aortas by using the Vettath’s Anastomotic Obturator (VAO technique of anatomosing the vein graft could bring this down. We have also been able to use this technique in combined aortic valve replacement and CABG. These two situations where the VAO is used are elucidated here.

Vettath Prabhakaran Murali

2011-11-01

142

Effectiveness of different obturation techniques in surpassing the ledge formed in simulated curved canals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To compare the effectiveness of different obturation techniques in surpassing the ledge formed in simulated curved root canals. METHODS: Eighty acrylic-resin blocks with curved canals were instrumented with Gates-Glidden drills to simulate a ledge formation. Then, a K-File #10 was used for tryi [...] ng to surpass the deviation, and the blocks that permitted surpassing were rejected. The remaining blocks were divided into 4 groups according to the obturation technique: lateral condensation, Tagger's Hybrid technique, Thermafil and System B. The blocks had their images digitalized using a scanner before and after the obturation procedures. The images were analyzed with Image Tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA at a significant level of 5%. RESULTS: The System B resulted in the highest obturated area (p0.05). The lateral condensation resulted in the worst ability in filling the ledge space (p

Marilisa Carneiro Leão, Gabardo; Wander José da, Silva; Letícia Machado, Gonçalves; Marili Doro Andrade, Deonízio.

2013-06-01

143

Herniography off femoral, obturator and perineal hernias  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positive contrast herniography was used in the workup of 550 patients with unclear groin pain. The majority of these patients had rather characteristic hernias of indirect, direct or femoral type. However, now and then diagnostic problems arose. A femoral hernia may look like a direct or even obturator hernia. There is also a variety of multilocular femoral hernias and other types. A femoral hernia may be present together with other hernias in the ipsilateral or contralateral groin. Obturator hernias are usually small but are always confined to the obturator canal laterally in the obturator foramen. Abnormalities in the pouch of Douglas may include a deep rectogenital pouch, diverticula and true herniations. These uncommon herniographic findings are described and discussed. (orig.)

144

Scalp Nerve Block in Children Undergoing a Supratentorial Craniotomy; A Randomized Controlled Study  

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Full Text Available The aim of this randomized double blinded controlled study was to evaluate the effect of SNB during craniotomies for supratentorial tumors in pediatric patients, with respect to intra- and postoperative hemodynamics, intraoperative anesthetic and analgesic consumption and postoperative analgesic requirements. Thirty children, aged 6 to 12 years, scheduled for elective craniotomies for supratentorial tumors were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n = 15 and Scalp Nerve Block (SNB group (n = 15. After a standardized induction and 5 min prior to head pinning, a SNB was performed. In the control group the block was performed with normal saline, while in the SNB group the block was performed with bupivacaine 0.25%. Intraoperative Mean Arterial blood Pressure (MAP and Heart Rate (HR were recorded before induction (baseline, 5 min after induction, at head pinning and at skin incision, together with sevoflurane and fentanyl consumption. Postoperative MAP and HR were measured and recorded. Postoperative pain assessment was done using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score. Rescue analgesia (IV paracetamol, 15 mg kg-1 was given for a VAS>3. Time to first rescue analgesic, number of patients who required analgesia as well as number of paracetamol doses in the first 24 h postoperative were recorded. The SNB group showed more stable intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamics and a significant reduction in the total intraoperative fentanyl dose required. VAS scores were significantly lower in the SNB group compared to the control group till 12 h postoperative. Significantly fewer patients in the SNB group required rescue analgesic in the first 24 h postoperative (8 vs. 15, p<0.05. Time to first rescue analgesic was significantly longer in the SNB group compared to the control group (6.6±1.9 h vs. 1.7±0.8 h, p<0.05. Number of paracetamol doses required in the first 24 h postoperative was significantly higher in the control group compared to the SNB group. We conclude that SNB using bupivacaine 0.25% results in decreased intraoperative analgesic requirements and more stable intra- and postoperative hemodynamics. It also reduces postoperative pain leading to decreased postoperative analgesic consumption.

Manal el Gohary

2009-01-01

145

Comparison of continuous femoral nerve block, caudal epidural block, and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in pain control after total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study  

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Full Text Available Thirty-six patients who underwent primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA were randomly allocated to 4 groups with different pain control protocols; continuous femoral nerve block (FNB group, single-shot caudal epidural block with morphine (EB group, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl (IV-PCA group, and systemic administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs group. Postoperative pain was assessed using the numerical rating scale (NRS scores and the analgesic effect was compared among the groups. The NRS upon arrival at the recovery room and 6 hours after surgery in the FNB, EB, and IV-PCA groups were significantly lower than that in the NSAIDs group. The amount of additional analgesics requested by the patient was smaller in the FNB, EB, and IV-PCA groups as compared to the NSAIDs group. Regarding the complications related to the analgesia, 5 of the 9 patients in the IV-PCA group complained nausea and vomiting and received antiemetic drugs. Delay in the rehabilitation process due to drowsiness was encountered in 3 patients in this group, while no patient in the FNB and EB groups suffered from delayed rehabilitation. Considering both the analgesic effect and the potential risk of complications, continuous femoral nerve blocks and caudal epidural blocks for are recommended for postoperative pain control after THA procedure.

Shoji Nishio

2014-01-01

146

Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.  

OpenAIRE

To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations w...

Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

1998-01-01

147

Temporary pupillary dilatation and ptosis: complications of PSA nerve block: a case report and review of literature  

OpenAIRE

Lidocaine, an amide local anesthetic is administered regularly for the minor oral and dental surgical procedures. In this article, ophthalmic complications arising from Posterior superior nerve block are discussed and a case report which had dilatation of pupil and ptosis of eye lids is presented. A review of literature is done regarding the ophthalmic complications. The precautions one needs to take during the administration of Local Anesthesia (LA) especially Posterior Superior Alveolar ner...

Prakasm, Michael; Managutti, Anil; Dolas, R. S.; Agrawal, M. G.

2009-01-01

148

Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality  

OpenAIRE

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF). Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) block at its origin, we observed re...

Thapa, Deepak; Ahuja, Vanita

2014-01-01

149

Outpatient analgesia via paravertebral peripheral nerve block catheter and On-Q pump--a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outpatient pain management after iliac crest bone harvesting can be challenging. We report the use of home L2 paravertebral nerve block catheter (L2PVBC) in a series of five children. The pain scores were low, and analgesic medication consumption was minimal. No complications were reported related with these catheters, and the patients reported very high pain control satisfaction scores. Outpatient L2PVBC can be beneficial as part of a multimodal analgesia strategy in selected pediatric patients. PMID:24815589

Visoiu, Mihaela

2014-08-01

150

Prospective randomized comparison between ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block within and distal to the adductor canal with low volume of local anesthetic  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims: The anatomic site and the volume of local anesthetic needed for an ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block differ in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of two different ultrasound-guided low volume injections of local anesthetic on saphenous and vastus medialis nerves. Materials and Methods: Recruited patients (N = 48) scheduled for orthopedic surgery were randomized in two groups; Group distal adductor canal (DAC): Ultrasound-guided injection (5 ml of local anesthetic) distal to the inferior foramina of the adductor canal. Group adductor canal (AC): Ultrasound-guided injection (5 ml local anesthetic) within the adductor canal. Following the injection of local anesthetic, block progression was monitored in 5 min intervals for 15 min in the sartorial branches of the saphenous nerve and vastus medialis nerve. Results: Twenty two patients in each group completed the study. Complete block of the saphenous nerve was observed in 55% and 59% in Group AC and DAC, respectively (P = 0.88). The proportion of patients with vastus medialis weakness at 15 min in Group AC, 36%, was significantly higher than in Group DAC (0/22), (P = 0.021). Conclusions: Low volume of local anesthetic injected within the adductor canal or distally its inferior foramina leads to moderate success rate of the saphenous nerve block, while only the injection within the adductor canal may result in vastus medialis nerve motor block. PMID:25190947

Adoni, Areti; Paraskeuopoulos, Tilemachos; Saranteas, Theodosios; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

2014-01-01

151

Efficacy of arthroscopically placed pain catheter adjacent to the suprascapular nerve (continuous arthroscopically assisted suprascapular nerve block following arthroscopic rotator-cuff repair  

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Full Text Available Kotaro YamakadoDepartment of Orthopaedics, Fukui General Hospital, Fukui, JapanBackground: Rotator-cuff surgery is well recognized to be a painful procedure.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an arthroscopically placed perineural catheter at the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (continuous arthroscopically assisted suprascapular nerve block [ca-SSNB] following arthroscopic rotator-cuff repair (ARCR.Materials and methods: This level II, prospective, randomized, controlled trial without postoperative blinding included 40 patients, who had a 48-hour pain pump, with 0.2% ropivacaine infusion and a continuous rate of 3 mL/hour, placed via an arthroscopically placed catheter following ARCR with arthroscopic release of the superior transverse ligament: 21 patients had a ca-SSNB, and 19 patients had a continuous subacromial bursal block (SAB. The visual analog scale (at 6 hours and on the first, second, and third postoperative days and the total number of additional pain-reduction attempts during the 3 postoperative days were calculated.Results: The respective visual analog scale scores (mm obtained from the ca-SSNB and SAB groups were 62.4 and 67.6 (P=0.73 before surgery, 9.1 and 19.4 (P=0.12 at 6 hours after surgery, 24.4 and 44.6 (P=0.019 on the first postoperative day, 19.4 and 40.4 (P=0.0060 on the second postoperative day, and 18.5 and 27.8 (P=0.21 on the third postoperative day. Total additional pain-reduction attempts recorded for the ca-SSNB and SAB groups during the 3 postoperative days were 0.3 times and 1.2 times (P=0.0020, respectively.Conclusion: ca-SSNB was highly effective in controlling postoperative pain after ARCR.Keywords: shoulder, rotator cuff tear, postoperative pain control, continuous suprascapular nerve block, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

Yamakado K

2014-05-01

152

Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF). Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) block at its origin, we observed reduction in verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) in all the three patients. Two patients has relapse of PF pain which was managed with MCN block followed with pulsed radio frequency (PRF). All the patients were pain-free at the time of reporting. This case series highlights the possible role of combination of diagnostic MCN block near its origin followed with PRF as a new modality in management of patients with PF. PMID:24963184

Thapa, Deepak; Ahuja, Vanita

2014-03-01

153

Diagnosis and treatment of obturator hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obturator hernia is a rare type of hernia, but it is a significant cause of intestinal obstruction due to the associated anatomy. Correct diagnosis and treatment of obturator hernia is important, because delay can lead to high mortality. Twelve patients with obturator hernia were managed during a 11-year period, including 11 women and 1 man with a mean age of 82 years. We compared our experience with the previously published data to establish standards for the diagnosis and treatment of this hernia. All 12 patients presented with intestinal obstruction. The median interval from admission to operation was 2 days. The Howship-Romberg sign was positive in 5 patients. A correct diagnosis was made in all 8 patients who underwent pelvic CT scanning. Surgery was performed via an abdominal approach (n=7) or an inguinal approach (n=5). The hernial orifice was closed using the uterine fundus (n=6), a patch (n=5), and direct suture (n=1). Mean follow-up time was 33 months, and no recurrence has been detected. The poor physical condition of patients might have led to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. In troubled patients with nonspecific intestinal obstruction, CT scanning is useful for the early diagnosis of obturator hernia. Correct CT diagnosis of obturator hernia allows us to select the inguinal approach combined with patch repair, which is minimally invasive surgery. (author)

154

Unrecorded origin of external pudendal artery with variant obturator vessels  

OpenAIRE

During routine dissection of a female cadaver for teaching purposes, the vessels in the ilioinguinal region in both sides showed some anatomical variations. In the right side, the external iliac artery gave off the obturator artery and a common trunk for both external pudendal artery and inferior epigastric artery. The obturator vein followed the variant obturator artery while the external pudendal vein showed a normal course. Meanwhile, the obturator artery in the left side originated from t...

Me, El-sawaf

2010-01-01

155

The furcal nerve revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

Harshavardhana, Nanjundappa S; Dabke, Harshad V

2014-08-01

156

The furcal nerve revisited  

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Full Text Available Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/ professionals involved in spine care.

Nanjundappa S. Harshavardhana

2014-08-01

157

Onset and Duration Period of Pulpal Anesthesia of Articaine and Lidocaine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A proposta deste estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo cego foi comparar o período de latência e duração da anestesia pulpar utilizando lidocaina 2% com epinefrina 1:100.000, articaina 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 e articaina 4% com epinefrina 1:200.000 no bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior (BNAI) [...] . Trinta pacientes receberam 1,8 mL de cada uma das soluções anestésicas no BNAI. Os períodos de latência e duração da anestesia pulpar foram determinados usando estimulação pulpar elétrica. O tempo médio da latência da anestesia pulpar foi 8,7, 7,4 e 7,7 min e da duração média da anestesia pulpar foi 61,8, 106,6 e 88,0 min para lidocaina 2% com epinefrina 1:100.000, articaina 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 e articaina 4% com epinefrina 1:200.000, respectivamente. Para latência houve somente diferença significante entre lidocaina 2% com epinefrina 1:100.000 e articaina 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 (p=0,037). Para a duração houve diferença significante para todas as soluções anestésicas locais (p?0,05). Em conclusão, articaina 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 exibiu mais rápida latência e também obteve mais longa duração da anestesia pulpar no BNAI. Abstract in english The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double blind study was to compare the onset and duration periods of pulpal anesthesia using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB [...] ). Thirty subjects received 1.8 mL of each of the three local anesthetic solutions in IANB. Onset and duration periods of pulpal anesthesia were determined using electric pulp stimulation. The mean time of onset of pulpal anesthesia was 8.7, 7.4 and 7.7 min and the mean duration of pulpal anesthesia was 61.8, 106.6 and 88.0 min for 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, respectively. For onset, there was only a significant difference between 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (p=0.037). For duration, there was significant difference for all the local anesthetic solutions (p?0.05). In conclusion, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine exhibited faster onset and also had longest duration of pulpal anesthesia in IANB.

Isabel Peixoto, Tortamano; Marcelo, Siviero; Sara, Lee; Roberta Moura, Sampaio; Jose Leonardo, Simone; Rodney Garcia, Rocha.

2013-07-01

158

A K+ channel in Xenopus nerve fibres selectively blocked by bee and snake toxins: binding and voltage-clamp experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The effects of mast cell degranulating peptide (MCDP), a toxin from the honey bee, and of dendrotoxin (DTX), a toxin from the green mamba snake, were studied in voltage-clamp experiments with myelinated nerve fibres of Xenopus. 2. MCDP and DTX blocked part of the K+ current. About 20% of the K+ current, however, was resistant to the toxins even in high concentrations. In Ringer solution half-maximal block was reached with concentrations of 33 nM-MCDP and 11 nM-DTX. In high-K+ solution the potency of both toxins was lower. beta-Bungarotoxin (beta-BuTX), another snake toxin, also blocked part of the K+ current, but was less potent than MCDP and DTX. 3. Tail currents in high-K+ solution were analysed and three K+ current components were separated according to Dubois (1981 b). Both MCDP and DTX selectively blocked a fast deactivating, slowly inactivating K+ current component which steeply activates between E = -60 mV and E = -40 mV (component f1). In concentrations around 100 nM, MCDP and DTX blocked neither the slow K+ current (component s) nor the fast deactivating, rapidly inactivating K+ current which activates between E = -40 mV and E = 20 mV (component f2). Similar results could be derived from K+ outward currents in Ringer solution. In high-K+, IC50 of MCDP for component f1 was 99 nM, whereas it was 7.6 microM for f2. Corresponding values for DTX are 68 nM and 1.8 microM. 4. Binding studies with nerve fibre membranes of Xenopus reveal high-affinity binding sites for 125I-labelled DTX (KD = 22 pM in Ringer solution and 81 pM in high-K+ solution). 125I-labelled DTX can be displaced from its sites completely by unlabelled DTX, toxin I (black mamba toxin), MCDP, and partially by beta-BuTX. 5. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrates that binding sites for DTX are present in nodal and paranodal regions of the axonal membrane. 6. The axonal membrane of motor and sensory nerve fibres is equipped with three types of well-characterized K+ channels and constitutes so far the best preparation to study MCDP- and DTX-sensitive K+ channels with electrophysiological and biochemical methods. PMID:2324990

Bräu, M E; Dreyer, F; Jonas, P; Repp, H; Vogel, W

1990-01-01

159

A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phenol Blocks to Peripheral Nerves in Reducing Spasticity in Patients with Paraplegia and Brain Injury  

OpenAIRE

Primary objective: To evaluate effectiveness of phenol blocks of peripheral nerves in reducing spasticitybrain injured and spinal cord injured patients.Secondary objectives: To measure the change in the range of motion after phenol blocks to peripheralnerves, to identify the electrophysiological changes and to study the cost effectiveness and side effects ofphenol blocks.Study design: Descriptive studySetting: Tertiary referral centre, India.Methods: This study was conducted from March 2000 t...

Er, Kumar; Venugopal K; Tharion G; Bhattacharji S

2008-01-01

160

Excitation block in a nerve fibre model owing to potassium-dependent changes in myelin resistance  

OpenAIRE

The myelinated nerve fibre is formed by an axon and Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes that sheath the axon by winding around it in tight myelin layers. Repetitive stimulation of a fibre is known to result in accumulation of extracellular potassium ions, especially between the axon and the myelin. Uptake of potassium leads to Schwann cell swelling and myelin restructuring that impacts the electrical properties of the myelin. In order to further understand the dynamic interaction that takes pla...

Brazhe, A. R.; Maksimov, G. V.; Mosekilde, E.; Sosnovtseva, O. V.

2010-01-01

161

Local anesthetics potently block a potential insensitive potassium channel in myelinated nerve  

OpenAIRE

Effects of some local anesthetics were studied in patch clamp experiments on enzymatically demyelinated peripheral amphibian nerve fibers. Micromolar concentrations of external bupivacaine depolarized the excised membrane considerably. The flicker K+ channel was found to be the most sensitive ion channel to local anesthetics in this preparation. Half-maximum inhibiting concentrations (IC50) for extracellular application of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, etidocaine, mepivacaine, lidocaine, and QX-3...

1995-01-01

162

Bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som Bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As técnicas de bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som são baseadas na visualização direta das estruturas nervosas, da agulha de bloqueio e das estruturas anatômicas adjacentes. Desta maneira, é possível depositar a solução de anestésico local precisamente em torno dos nervos e acompanhar a sua dispersão em tempo real, obtendo-se, assim, um bloqueio mais eficaz, de menor latência, menor dependência de referências anatômicas, menor volume de solução anestésica e maior segurança. CONTEÚDO: O artigo revisa os aspectos relativos aos mecanismos físicos para formação de imagens, a anatomia ultra-sonográfica do neuroeixo e dos plexos braquial e lombossacral, os equipamentos e materiais empregados nos bloqueios, os ajustes do aparelho de ultra-som para melhorar as imagens, os planos de visualização das agulhas de bloqueio e as técnicas e o treinamento em bloqueios guiados por ultra-som. CONCLUSÕES: Os passos para se obter sucesso em anestesia regional incluem a identificação exata da posição dos nervos, a localização precisa da agulha, sem lesões nas estruturas adjacentes e, finalmente, a injeção cuidadosa de anestésico local junto aos nervos. Embora a neuroestimulação forneça grande auxílio na identificação dos nervos, esta não consegue, isoladamente, preencher todas essas exigências. Por isso, acredita-se que os bloqueios guiados por ultra-som serão a técnica de eleição para anestesia regional num futuro não muito distante.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las técnicas de bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido se basan en la visualización directa de las estructuras nerviosas, de la aguja de bloqueo y de las estructuras anatómicas adyacentes. De esa manera, se puede depositar la solución de anestésico local precisamente en torno de los nervios y acompañar su dispersión en tiempo real, obteniéndose así, un bloqueo más eficaz, de menor latencia, menor dependencia de referencias anatómicas, menor volumenn de solución anestésica y una mayor seguridad. CONCLUSION: El artículo revisa los aspectos relativos a los mecanismos físicos para la formación de imágenes, la anatomía ultra sonográfica del neuro eje y de los plexos braquial y lumbo sacral, los equipos y materiales empleados en los bloqueos, los ajustes del aparato de ultrasonido para mejorar las imágenes, los planos de visualización de las agujas de bloqueo y las técnicas y el entrenamiento en bloqueos guiados por ultrasonido. CONCLUSIONES: Los pasos para obtener el éxito en anestesia regional incluyen la identificación exacta de la posición de los nervios, la localización precisa de la aguja, sin lesiones en las estructuras adyacentes y, finalmente, la inyección cuidadosa de anestésico local junto a los nervios. Aunque la neuro estimulación sea de gran ayuda en la identificación de los nervios, ella no logra, aisladamente, rellenar todas esas exigencias. A causa de eso, se cree que los bloqueos guiados por ultrasonido serán la técnica de elección para la anestesia regional en un futuro no muy distante.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are based on the direct visualization of nerve structures, needle, and adjacent anatomic structures. Thus, it is possible to place the local anesthetic precisely around the nerves and follow its dispersion in real time, obtaining, therefore, more effective blockades, reduced dependency on anatomic references, decreased anesthetic volume, and increased safety. CONTENTS: The aim of this paper was to review the physical mechanisms of image formation, ultrasound anatomy of the neuro axis and of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses, equipment and materials used in the blockades, settings of the ultrasound equipment to improve the image, planes of visualization of the needles, the techniques, and training in ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. CONCLUSIONS: The steps for a successful regional block include the identification of the exact position of the nerves, the precise localization of the needle, withou

Pablo Escovedo Helayel

2007-02-01

163

Therapeutic effectiveness of epicranial nerve blocks on post-traumatic syndrome from head injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The autor describes the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from headache and dizziness, sometimes nausea, tinnitus in the right ear, and diffuse scalp allodynia following an occupational accident involving a head injury. Hyposensitizing treatment by anesthetic blockade at the emergence points of the epicranial nerves, which were hyperalgesic to fi nger pressure, rapidly controlled the allodynia and eventually the headache. Unexpectedly, the patient also reported reduced dizziness and resolution of the tinnitus. The unforeseen outcome highlights the unpredictable therapeutic potential of a simple and modestly invasive procedure. The neuropathophysiological interpretation is consequently very interesting.

C. A. Caputi

2011-03-01

164

In with the new, out with the old? Comparison of two approaches for psoas compartment block.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We compared the approaches of Winnie and Capdevila for psoas compartment block (PCB) performed by a single operator in terms of contralateral spread, lumbar plexus blockade, and postoperative analgesic efficacy. Sixty patients underwent PCB (0.4 mL\\/kg levobupivacaine 0.5%) and subsequent spinal anesthesia for primary joint arthroplasty (hip or knee) in a prospective, double-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated to undergo PCB by using the Capdevila (group C; n = 30) or a modified Winnie (group W; n = 30) approach. Contralateral spread and lumbar plexus blockade were assessed 15, 30, and 45 min after PCB. Contralateral spread (bilateral from T4 to S5) and femoral and lateral cutaneous nerve block were evaluated by sensory testing, and obturator motor block was assessed. Bilateral anesthesia occurred in 10 patients in group C and 12 patients in group W (P = 0.8). Blockade of the femoral, lateral cutaneous, and obturator nerves was 90%, 93%, and 80%, respectively, for group C and 93%, 97%, and 90%, respectively, for group W (P > 0.05). No differences were found in PCB procedure time, pain scores, 24-h morphine consumption, or time to first morphine analgesia.

Mannion, Stephen

2012-02-03

165

Evaluation of Lumbar Facet Joint Nerve Blocks in Managing Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial with a 2-Year Follow-Up  

OpenAIRE

Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Objective: To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic low back pain of facet joint origin. Summary of Background Data: Lumbar facet joints have been shown as the source of chronic pain in 21% to 41% of low back patients with an average prevalence of 31% utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks...

Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Vijay Singh

2010-01-01

166

The nance obturator, a new fixed obturator for patients with cleft palate and fistula.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with fistulas that impair function (e.g., feeding, resonance, intelligibility), obturators are used to improve feeding and reduce nasal air emission by occluding the abnormal opening between the oral and nasal cavities. This report describes a novel method for occluding an anterior palatal fistula in patients with cleft palates. The new design for a fixed obturator is based on the Nance appliance, which was originally used as a space maintainer, but has been redesigned for closing an anterior palatal fistula in a patient with cleft lip and palate. The Nance obturator may be used when the surgical closure of the fistula is not feasible and a removable device is not successful. As it is a fixed device, it does not require remaking with maxillary growth. The new design may also function as a fixed space maintainer to preserve molar anchorage and maxillary transverse width. PMID:22738139

Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Groper, John N; Tanner, Aaron M; Urata, Mark M; Panossian, Andre; Yen, Stephen L-K

2012-07-01

167

Ultrasound-Guided Ilioinguinal/Iliohypogastric Nerve Blocks for Persistent Inguinal Postherniorrhaphy Pain : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background:Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve blocks are used in the clinical management of persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain, but no controlled studies have been published on the subject. In this controlled study, we investigated the analgesic and sensory effects of ultrasound-guided blocks of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves with lidocaine.Methods:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 12 patients with severe persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain, including a control group of 12 healthy controls, was performed. Assessments included pain ratings under standardized conditions with numerical rating scale (0-10), sensory mapping to a cool roller, and quantitative sensory testing (QST), in the groin regions, before and after each ultrasound-guided block. A needle approach of 1 to 2 cm superior and medial to the anterior superior iliac spine was used. Outcomes were changes in pain ratings, sensory mapping, and QST compared with preblock values. Lidocaine responders were a priori defined by a pain reduction of =80% after lidocaine block and =25% after placebo block, nonresponders by pain reduction of 25% after placebo block.Results:One of 12 pain patients was a lidocaine responder, 6 patients were nonresponders, and 5 patients were placebo responders. No consistent QST changes were observed in patients after the lidocaine block. In 10 of 12 healthy controls, a cool hypoesthesia area developed in the groin after the lidocaine block. Furthermore, QST assessments demonstrated significantly decreased suprathreshold heat pain perception in the groin after lidocaine versus placebo blocks (95% confidence interval = -3.5 to -0.5, P = 0.008).Conclusion:Ultrasound-guided lidocaine blocks of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves, at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine, are not useful in diagnosis and management of persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain.

Bischoff, Joakim Mutahi; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J

2012-01-01

168

CT-guided percutaneous ethanol nerve block therapy of celiac plexus embedded in metastatic lymph nodes for the treatment of intractable carcinomatous abdominal pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate CT-guided percutaneous ethanol nerve block therapy of celiac plexus embedded in metastatic lymph nodes in treating intractable carcinomatous abdominal pain. Methods: A total of 104 patients with late stage cancers were enrolled in this study. All patients suffered from serious carcinomatous pain at upper abdomen and their retroperitoneal lymph nodes were extensively enlarged and fused, together with the involved celiac plexus, into a hard crumb. As the patients failed to respond to narcotic analgesics CT-guided ethanol nerve block therapy of celiac plexus was carried out by pushing the puncture needle through the fused lymphatic mass to celiac plexus site. The analgesic effects and complications were observed and the therapeutic results were evaluated. Results: The analgesic effective rate of ethanol nerve block therapy immediately after the procedure was 100%, and at 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months after the treatment it was 100%, 100%, 98.0%, 96.9% and 92.6%, respectively. No serious complications occurred during perioperative period. The living quality was markedly improved in all patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of intractable carcinomatous abdominal pain in patients with their celiac plexus being embedded in mass-like metastatic retroperitoneal lymph nodes CT-guided percutaneous ethanol nerve block therapy by pushing the puncture needle through the fused lymphatic mass to celiac plexus site is of great clinical value in relieving carciof great clinical value in relieving carcinomatous abdominal pain. (authors)

169

A systematic review and meta-analysis of perineural dexamethasone for peripheral nerve blocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

We systematically reviewed the safety and efficacy of perineural dexamethasone as an adjunct for peripheral nerve blockade in 29 controlled trials of 1695 participants. We grouped trials by the duration of local anaesthetic action (short- or medium- vs long-term). Dexamethasone increased the mean (95% CI) duration of analgesia by 233 (172-295) min when injected with short- or medium-term action local anaesthetics and by 488 (419-557) min when injected with long-term action local anaesthetics, p < 0.00001 for both. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the extreme heterogeneity of results, with I(2) exceeding 90% for both analyses. Meta-regression did not show an interaction between dose of perineural dexamethasone (4-10 mg) and duration of analgesia (r(2)  = 0.02, p = 0.54). There were no differences between 4 and 8 mg dexamethasone on subgroup analysis. PMID:25123271

Albrecht, E; Kern, C; Kirkham, K R

2015-01-01

170

[Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for open reduction and internal fixation of a femoral condylar fracture in a patient with post-polio syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

The post polio symdrome (PPS) refers to the development of delayed neuromuscular symptoms among survivors, years after the initial presentation of acute poliomyelitis. The symptoms of PPS vary widely and include flaccid palsy, muscle weakness, scoliosis, osteoarthritis, gait disturbance, sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), dysphagia, chronic lung dysfunction, and others. We report the successful combination of peripheral nerve blocks, femoral and sciatic nerve blocks, for surgery on the lower extremity in a patient with PPS. A 51-year-old man with continuous positive airway pressure therapy for restrictive ventilatory impairment due to scoliosis and SAS as part of the PPS was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation (OR-IF) for a right femoral condylar fracture. Respiratory function tests demonstrated a vital capacity (VC) 1.41l (41% predicted). Arterial blood gas analysis on room air was; pH 7.376, PaCO2 55.0 mmHg, and PaO2 77.9 mmHg. With the patient in the supine position, ultrasound-guided right femoral nerve block in the infra-inguinal region was performed using 1.5% mepivacaine 10 ml and 0.75% ropivacaine 5 ml, followed by sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa using 1.5% mepivacaine 8 ml and 0.75% ropivacaine 4 ml in the prone position. OR-IF of the fractured femoral condyle was then successfully performed with propofol under spontaneous ventilation. Postoperatively, there were no adverse events; respiratory function was adequate, and his pain was within manageable bounds. Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks are safe and effective anesthetic methods for lower extremity surgery in patients with restrictive ventilatory impairment and hypercapnia due to scoliosis and SAS as PPS. PMID:21861427

Nagaoka, Takehiko; Mizuno, Ju; Ino, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morita, Shigeho

2011-08-01

171

Comparison of two needle models in terms of bevel deformation during truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Evaluar las posibles diferencias existentes en cuanto a la deformación del bisel de dos tipos de aguja de igual longitud y calibre externo, pero de distinto diámetro interno, durante el bloqueo troncal del nervio dentario inferior. Diseño del estudio: Cuatro operadores de similar formació [...] n quirúrgica realizaron el bloqueo troncal del nervio dentario inferior y la anestesia infiltrativa del nervio bucal para proceder a la extracción quirúrgica o convencional del tercer molar inferior en 266 pacientes. Para efectuar el bloqueo troncal se utilizó en todos los casos un sistema de jeringa no auto-aspirante (Uniject K®; Hoechst AG, Frankfurt, Alemania) y dos tipos de aguja: una aguja Monoprotect® de 27G x 35 mm con un calibre interno de 0.215 mm (Sofic SA, Mazamet, Francia) o una aguja XL Monoprotect® de 27G x 35 mm con un calibre interno de 0.265 mm (Sofic SA, Mazamet, Francia). Para hacer la anestesia infiltrativa del nervio bucal se utilizó el mismo tipo de jeringa y otros dos tipos de aguja: la Monoprotect®o la XL Monoprotect®, ambas con un calibre de 30G y 25 mm de longitud, diferenciándose en su calibre interno (0.215 y 0.265 mm, respectivamente) (Sofic SA, Mazamet, Francia). En cada paciente fue recopilada de forma sistemática la siguiente información: el tipo de aguja, la técnica anestésica utilizada (troncular directa o indirecta) y el número de veces que se había contactado con el hueso durante ésta, el lado de trabajo del operador, el lado del diente a extraer, el operador que hizo la intervención quirúrgica, así como la presencia o ausencia de deformación del bisel tras la técnica anestésica. Resultados: Para la técnica troncular, sólo se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la deformación de los biseles de las agujas y el operador que efectuó la técnica anestésica, mientras que para la técnica infiltrativa, se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Objectives: To evaluate the differences in terms of bevel deformation between two types of needle of the same length and external caliber, but with different internal diameters, during truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve. Study design: Four operators performed truncal block of the inferior [...] alveolar nerve and infiltrating anesthesia of the buccal nerve for the extraction of a lower third molar in 266 patients. The truncal block was carried out using a standard 27G x 35 mm needle with an internal caliber of 0.215 mm, or a 27G x 35 mm XL Monoprotect® needle with an internal caliber of 0.265 mm. The infiltrating anesthesia was made with a Monoprotect® or XL Monoprotect® needle, both with a caliber of 30G and a length of 25 mm, but with different internal calibers (0.215 and 0.265 mm, respectively). The type of needle used, the anesthetic technique and the number of bone contacts was established during the procedure, the operator working side, the side of the tooth to be removed, the operator in charge of the intervention and the presence of bevel deformation after the anesthetic technique were collected for each patient. Results: A statistically significant association was observed between bevel deformation and the operator performing the truncal block, while a statistically significant association (p

Nieves, Almendros Marqués; Esther, Delgado Molina; Meritxell, Tamarit Borrás; Leonardo, Berini Aytés; Cosme, Gay Escoda.

2007-08-01

172

Ketamine as an adjuvant in sympathetic blocks for management of central sensitization following peripheral nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Proliferation of NMDA receptors and role of glutamate in producing central sensitization and 'wind up' phenomena in CRPS [complex regional pain syndrome] forms a strong basis for the use of Ketamine to block the cellular mechanisms that initiate and maintain these changes. In this case series, we describe 3 patients of CRPS Type II with debilitating central sensitization, heat/mechano allodynia and cognitive symptoms that we termed 'vicarious pain'. Each of these patie...

Gp, Dureja; Toshniwal Gokul; Sunder Rani A

2008-01-01

173

Bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som / Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks / Bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As técnicas de bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som são baseadas na visualização direta das estruturas nervosas, da agulha de bloqueio e das estruturas anatômicas adjacentes. Desta maneira, é possível depositar a solução de anestésico local precisamente em torno dos ne [...] rvos e acompanhar a sua dispersão em tempo real, obtendo-se, assim, um bloqueio mais eficaz, de menor latência, menor dependência de referências anatômicas, menor volume de solução anestésica e maior segurança. CONTEÚDO: O artigo revisa os aspectos relativos aos mecanismos físicos para formação de imagens, a anatomia ultra-sonográfica do neuroeixo e dos plexos braquial e lombossacral, os equipamentos e materiais empregados nos bloqueios, os ajustes do aparelho de ultra-som para melhorar as imagens, os planos de visualização das agulhas de bloqueio e as técnicas e o treinamento em bloqueios guiados por ultra-som. CONCLUSÕES: Os passos para se obter sucesso em anestesia regional incluem a identificação exata da posição dos nervos, a localização precisa da agulha, sem lesões nas estruturas adjacentes e, finalmente, a injeção cuidadosa de anestésico local junto aos nervos. Embora a neuroestimulação forneça grande auxílio na identificação dos nervos, esta não consegue, isoladamente, preencher todas essas exigências. Por isso, acredita-se que os bloqueios guiados por ultra-som serão a técnica de eleição para anestesia regional num futuro não muito distante. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las técnicas de bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido se basan en la visualización directa de las estructuras nerviosas, de la aguja de bloqueo y de las estructuras anatómicas adyacentes. De esa manera, se puede depositar la solución de anestésico local precisamente e [...] n torno de los nervios y acompañar su dispersión en tiempo real, obteniéndose así, un bloqueo más eficaz, de menor latencia, menor dependencia de referencias anatómicas, menor volumenn de solución anestésica y una mayor seguridad. CONCLUSION: El artículo revisa los aspectos relativos a los mecanismos físicos para la formación de imágenes, la anatomía ultra sonográfica del neuro eje y de los plexos braquial y lumbo sacral, los equipos y materiales empleados en los bloqueos, los ajustes del aparato de ultrasonido para mejorar las imágenes, los planos de visualización de las agujas de bloqueo y las técnicas y el entrenamiento en bloqueos guiados por ultrasonido. CONCLUSIONES: Los pasos para obtener el éxito en anestesia regional incluyen la identificación exacta de la posición de los nervios, la localización precisa de la aguja, sin lesiones en las estructuras adyacentes y, finalmente, la inyección cuidadosa de anestésico local junto a los nervios. Aunque la neuro estimulación sea de gran ayuda en la identificación de los nervios, ella no logra, aisladamente, rellenar todas esas exigencias. A causa de eso, se cree que los bloqueos guiados por ultrasonido serán la técnica de elección para la anestesia regional en un futuro no muy distante. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are based on the direct visualization of nerve structures, needle, and adjacent anatomic structures. Thus, it is possible to place the local anesthetic precisely around the nerves and follow its dispersion in real time, obtaining, therefore, [...] more effective blockades, reduced dependency on anatomic references, decreased anesthetic volume, and increased safety. CONTENTS: The aim of this paper was to review the physical mechanisms of image formation, ultrasound anatomy of the neuro axis and of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses, equipment and materials used in the blockades, settings of the ultrasound equipment to improve the image, planes of visualization of the needles, the techniques, and training in ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. CONCLUSIONS: The steps for a successful reg

Pablo Escovedo, Helayel; Diogo Brüggemann da, Conceição; Getúlio Rodrigues de, Oliveira Filho.

2007-02-01

174

Obturator Hernia: A Rare Case of Acute Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction  

OpenAIRE

Obturator hernia is a rare type of pelvic hernia which generally occurs in elderly patients with accompanying diseases. Because it is difficult to diagnose before surgery, the morbidity and mortality rates for obturator hernia are high. The most common symptom is strangulation combined with mechanical intestinal obstruction.

Ibrahim Aydin; Ahmet Fikret Yucel; Ahmet Pergel; Dursun Ali Sahin

2013-01-01

175

Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB in patients with FNF. Methods Following institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1 or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2. Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score at 30?min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10. The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later. Results Of 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7 vs 27.5(14.2 h, P?=?0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4 vs 31(28, P?=?0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30?min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6?h 30.7(23.4 vs 67.0(32.0, P?=?0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72?h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1 vs 7.6(1.8, P?=?0.014]. Conclusions CFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

Szucs Szilard

2012-06-01

176

Single-cone obturation technique: a literature review  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The technique of single-cone obturation is a technique that uses only the master cone. There have been an increase in its use, especially by employing larger cones with larger taper sizes that best match the geometry of rotary nickel-titanium systems (NiTi, not requiring the use of accessory cones, thus reducing the time spent in endodontic obturation. Objective: To review the literature on this technique and to compare it with other existing techniques, as well as to elucidate its advantages and disadvantages. Literature review: The single-cone obturation technique enables an easier and faster endodontic obturation. However, regarding to the aspects such as the obturation quality, apical microleakage and bacterial penetration, this technique is similar to or lower than others. Conclusion: This technique has the advantage of saving time during the filling of the root canal. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate its prognosis, especially in canals with complex anatomy.

Lidiane de Castro Pinto

2012-12-01

177

Ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block in cats undergoing perineal urethrostomy: a prospective, randomised, investigator-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness, in terms of analgesic efficacy and safety, of ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block performed with bupivacaine in cats undergoing perineal urethrostomy. Eighteen client-owned male cats scheduled for perineal urethrostomy were enrolled in the study and assigned to one of two treatment groups. The pudendal nerve block was performed under general anaesthesia, as described elsewhere, with 0.3 ml/kg of either saline (group C) or 0.5% bupivacaine (group B) - the total injection volume being split equally between the two sites of injection (left and right). Intra-operatively, assessment of nociception was based on the rescue analgesics requirement, as well as on the evaluation of changes in physiological parameters in comparison with the baseline values. Postoperative pain assessment was performed using three different pain scales at recovery and then 1, 2 and 3 h after recovery. Cats in group B showed lower heart rates and required fewer analgesics during surgery than group C. Postoperatively, group B had lower pain scores and needed less rescue buprenorphine than group C. Iatrogenic block-related complications were not observed. In conclusion, the ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block can be considered clinically useful in feline medicine as it provides reliable analgesia in cats undergoing perineal urethrostomy. PMID:24174501

Adami, Chiara; Dayer, Thomas; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Angeli, Giovanni

2014-04-01

178

Comparison of peri- and intraarticular analgesia with femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be difficult to manage and may delay recovery. Recent studies have suggested that periarticular infiltration with local anesthetics may improve outcome. METHODS: 80 patients undergoing TKA under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive continuous femoral nerve block (group F) or peri- and intraarticular infiltration and injection (group I). Group I received a solution of 300 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.5 mg epinephrine by infiltration of the knee at the end of surgery, and 2 postoperative injections of these substances through an intraarticular catheter. RESULTS: More patients in group I than in group F could walk <3 m on the first postoperative day (29/39 vs. 7/37, p <0.001). Group I also had significantly lower pain scores during activity and lower consumption of opioids on the first postoperative day. No differences between groups were seen regarding side effects or length of stay. INTERPRETATION: Peri- and intraarticularapplication of analgesics by infiltration and bolus injections can improve early analgesia and mobilization for patients undergoing TKA. Further studies of optimal drugs, dosage, and duration of this treatment are warranted. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr

Toftdahl, Karen; Nikolajsen, Lone

2007-01-01

179

Obturator and detonation experiments in the subdetonative ram accelerator  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation has been undertaken to improve understanding of the role of the obturator and detonations in the subdetonative ram accelerator starting process. Ram accelerator start experiments were conducted with various obturator geometries to determine the obturator dynamics and assess its effect on the outcome of a start attempt. The obturator rapidly decelerates upon entrance and then moves backwards. Reversal of direction occurs more rapidly after propellant ignition, for less massive obturators, and solid geometries. Perforated geometries and decreasing obturator mass are less conducive to igniting a given propellant, as evidenced by the flowfield and start attempt outcome data presented. Wave unstarts were observed to occur with and without detonations, indicating more than one mechanism responsible for this type of start failure. Piston-initiated detonation experiments were conducted by firing the obturators without the ram accelerator projectile. The piston experiments identified the detonation limits for a wide range of propellants, but were found to not always be indicative of the upper Mach number at which a ram accelerator can be successfully started. In some instances a successful start or wave fall-off would occur at Mach numbers above which a piston alone detonated the propellant. Thus, the projectile can play a mitigating role in detonation initiation and use of piston detonation limits to quantitatively define a detonation wave unstart limit was not realized.

Schultz, E.; Knowlen, C.; Bruckner, A. P.

180

Variability in the origin of the obturator artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: General surgeons dealing with laparoscopic herniorrhaphy should be aware of the aberrant obturator artery that crosses the superior pubic ramus and is susceptible to injuries during dissection of the Bogros space and mesh stapling onto Cooper's ligament. The obturator artery is usually [...] described as a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, although variations have been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on 98 pelvic halves of embalmed cadavers, and the origin and course of the obturator artery were traced and noted. RESULTS: In 79% of the specimens, the obturator artery was a branch of the internal iliac artery. It branched off at different levels either from the anterior division or posterior division, individually or with other named branches. In 19% of the cases, the obturator artery branched off from the external iliac artery as a separate branch or with the inferior epigastric artery. However, in the remaining 2% of the specimens, both the internal and the external iliac arteries branched to form an anastomotic structure within the pelvic cavity. CONCLUSION: The data obtained in this study show that it is more common to find an abnormal obturator artery than was reported previously, and this observation has implications for pelvic surgeons and is of academic interest to anatomists. Surgeons dealing with direct, indirect, femoral, or obturator hernias need to be aware of these variations and their close proximity to the femoral ring.

Mangala M., Pai; Ashwin, Krishnamurthy; Latha V, Prabhu; Manohar V., Pai; Senthil A., Kumar; Gavishiddappa A., Hadimani.

181

K-252a, a potent protein kinase inhibitor, blocks nerve growth factor- induced neurite outgrowth and changes in the phosphorylation of proteins in PC12h cells  

OpenAIRE

Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes neuronal differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. One of the most prominent and distinguishing features of neuronal differentiation is neurite outgrowth. The mechanism by which NGF causes the cells to elaborate neurites is unknown. This study shows that K-252a, a potent protein kinase inhibitor, blocks NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and the changes in protein phosphorylation elicited by NGF. In the experiment with intact cells phosphorylated with 32P-o...

1988-01-01

182

Bloqueos nerviosos periféricos de la extremidad inferior para analgesia postoperatoria y tratamiento del dolor crónico / Lower limb continuous peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia and chronic pain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Existe un interés creciente por la realización de los bloqueos de nervio periférico (BNP) debido a sus potenciales beneficios como los concernientes a las interacciones de los fármacos anticoagulantes y los bloqueos neuroaxiales. Los BNP de la extremidad inferior, y sobre todo, los bloqueos periféri [...] cos del nervio ciático son el pariente pobre de las técnicas de anestesia regional y, en general, son poco conocidos y por tanto poco utilizados. En este artículo se realiza una revisión de los bloqueos del plexo lumbosacro, realizando especial énfasis en los bloqueos continuos mediante catéteres para analgesia postoperatoria y para el tratamiento del dolor crónico. La utilización de anestésicos locales de larga duración de acción, asociada a un escaso bloqueo motor, como es el caso de la ropivacaína, nos permite combinar técnicas de punción única para conseguir una adecuada analgesia intraoperatoria, con las técnicas de perfusión continua para analgesia postoperatoria. Es necesario un conocimiento anatómico preciso, así como de los territorios cutáneos de inervación de las ramas del plexo lumbosacro, para la realización de estas técnicas de bloqueo. La introducción de diferentes técnicas de imagen, fundamentalmente la ultrasonografía, para la localización de las estructuras nerviosas, facilita la realización de estos bloqueos y disminuye el riesgo de lesiones de los órganos adyacentes. La realización de los bloqueos continuos de nervio periférico ofrece el beneficio de una analgesia postoperatoria prolongada, con menores efectos adversos, mayor grado de satisfacción del paciente, y una recuperación funcional más rápida después de la cirugía. Abstract in english There is increasing interest in peripheral nerve blocks (PNB) because of potential benefits relative to interactions of anticoagulants and central neuraxial techniques. Among all the regional anesthesia procedures, PNB of the lower limb, and specially sciatic nerve block, are the less known and rare [...] ly used. In this paper, we summarize the recent advances in lumbosacral plexus block, with special remark on continuous catheter blocks for postoperative analgesia and chronic pain treatment. The use of long action local anes-thetics combined with a weak motor block, like ropivacaine, permits the combination of a single skin injection technique to achieve an adequate intraoperative analgesia with continuous infusion ones for postoperative analgesia. A detailed knowledge of anatomy as well as cutaneous nerve distribution is needed for the performance of these techniques. The introduction of several image-based techniques, principally ultrasound imaging, may improve the accuracy of nerve localization and needle placement. It also can help to prevent accidental puncture to vessels and other neighbouring structures. Continuous plexus and peripheral nerve blocks offer the potential benefits of prolonged analgesia with fewer side effects, greater patient satisfaction, and faster functional recovery after surgery.

V., Domingo; J. L., Aguilar; R., Pelaez.

2004-05-01

183

Evaluation of Lumbar Facet Joint Nerve Blocks in Managing Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial with a 2-Year Follow-Up  

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Full Text Available Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Objective: To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic low back pain of facet joint origin. Summary of Background Data: Lumbar facet joints have been shown as the source of chronic pain in 21% to 41% of low back patients with an average prevalence of 31% utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks. Intraarticular injections, medial branch blocks, and radiofrequency neurotomy of lumbar facet joint nerves have been described in the alleviation of chronic low back pain of facet joint origin. Methods: The study included 120 patients with 60 patients in each group with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids. The inclusion criteria was based upon a positive response to diagnostic controlled, comparative local anesthetic lumbar facet joint blocks. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale (NRS, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, opioid intake, and work status, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results: Significant improvement with significant pain relief of ? 50% and functional improvement of ? 40% were observed in 85% in Group 1, and 90% in Group II, at 2-year follow-up. The patients in the study experienced significant pain relief for 82 to 84 weeks of 104 weeks, requiring approximately 5 to 6 treatments with an average relief of 19 weeks per episode of treatment. Conclusions: Therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks, with or without steroids, may provide a management option for chronic function-limiting low back pain of facet joint origin.

Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Vijay Singh, Frank J.E. Falco, Kimberly A. Cash, Vidyasagar Pampati

2010-01-01

184

Comparação da intensidade de dor em bloqueios do nervo alveolar inferior / Comparison of pain intensity during inferior alveolar nerve block  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Este estudo foi idealizado para investigar o desconforto dos procedimentos odontológicos associados à anestesia. Este procedimento frequentemente gera uma grande ansiedade, o que aumenta a dor. O medo da injeção tem sido relatado como sendo um fator determinante à não proc [...] ura do tratamento dental. O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o nível de dor na perfuração, penetração e deposição da solução anestésica no bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior nas Técnicas Direta e Vazirani-Akinosi. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico randomizado, cruzado e duplamente encoberto envolvendo 30 pacientes atendidos no Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (DOD-UFS) que necessitaram de tratamento odontológico e que se submeteram a bloqueio bilateral do nervo alveolar inferior. Estes foram interrogados a respeito da intensidade de dor durante as seguintes etapas: perfuração, penetração e deposição do anestésico local. A mensuração da intensidade dolorosa foi realizada através da escala analógica visual (EAV) com comprimento de 10 cm, sem a existência de marcações pré-definidas. Os dados obtidos foram tabulados e submetidos aos testes estatísticos de Friedman e Wilcoxon com índice de significância estatística de 5%. RESULTADOS: A análise dos dados revelou que não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes (Wilcoxon, p > 0,05) entre os valores de EAV das duas técnicas anestésicas em nenhum dos momentos operatórios. Para ambas as técnicas, a dor induzida pela penetração foi maior (Friedman, p Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was developed to investigate anesthesia-related discomfort during dental procedures. This procedure often generates major anxiety, which increases pain. Fear of injection has been reported as a determining factor for not looking for dental treatment. This study [...] aimed at comparing the level of pain during perforation, penetration and anesthetic solution deposition during inferior alveolar block by the Direct and Vazirani-Akinosi techniques. METHODS: Randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trial involving 30 patients seen by the Dentistry Department of the Federal University of Sergipe (DOD-UFS) who needed dental treatment and were submitted to bilateral inferior alveolar nerve block. Patients were asked about pain intensity during the following stages: perforation, penetration and local anesthetic deposition. Pain intensity was measured by the 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS), without predefined marks. Data were tabulated and submitted to statistical Friedman and Wilcoxon tests with statistical significance of 5%. RESULTS: Data have not shown statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon, p > 0.05) between VAS values of both anesthetic techniques in all operatory moments. For both techniques, penetration-induced pain was higher (Friedman, p

Felippe Almeida, Costa; Liane Maciel de Almeida, Souza; Francisco, Groppo.

2013-09-01

185

Trans-obturator Tape in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new minimally-invasive surgical procedure using trans-obturator Tape (TOT to treat female stress urinary incontinence.Methods: This clinical trial study was performed from 2003 to 2004 in the Gynecology Department of Imam Hospital, Vali-e-Asr, Tehran, Iran. A total of 35 women with stress urinary incontinence underwent the TOT procedure. All patients underwent pre-operative clinical examination, cough-stress test (full bladder, uroflowmetry and post-voiding residual volume assessment. Results: The mean age of patients was 50 years, ranging from 26 to 74 years, with an average urinary stress incontinence duration of six years. The mean time of follow-up was 14 months (at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months and the average duration of surgery was about 20 minutes. The perioperative complication rate was 9% with no vascular, nerve or bowel injuries. The rate of hemorrhagic side effects (spontaneously-absorbed hematoma and blood loss not requiring blood transfusion was 2.9%. Post-operative urinary retention and vaginal erosion occurred in one case each; the former was treated by intermittent self-catheterization. In total, 91.4% of patients were completely cured and 8.6% were improved without failure of treatment. Conclusions: The present study confirms the results obtained by Delorme and coworkers, and allows us to consider TOT as a safe, minimally invasive and efficient short-term surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, alone or in combination with prolapse repair. Following this study, a randomized control trial is recommended to compare TOT with the gold standard surgery for women with urinary incontinence.

Ashrafi M

2008-06-01

186

Bilateral Obturator Neuropathy After Transobturator Vaginal Sling: A Case Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transobturator tape procedure is a popular and effective minimally invasive technique to treat stress urinary incontinence. We report a case of transient obturator neuropathy caused by transobturator tape placement for stress urinary incontinence. Findings on physical examination were significant for bilateral obturator neuropathy resulting in significant motor deficit prompting removal of the sling to avoid the potential of prolonged or permanent morbidity. There was immediate complete resolution of neuropathy with the return of motor function after surgical removal of the sling. PMID:25185599

Sanderson, Derrick J; Ghomi, Ali

2014-09-01

187

Randomized Double Blind Comparison Between Sciatic-Femoral Nerve Block and Propofol-Remifentanil, Propofol-Alfentanil General Anesthetics in Out-Patient Knee Arthroscopy  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation preparation and discharge times as well as the side-effects, patient satisfaction and costs after out-patient knee arthroscopy performed with a combined sciatic-femoral nerve block or a propofol-remifentanil, propofol-alfentanil general anesthetics. Sixty patients, (remifentanil group 1, n = 20, (alfentanil group 2, n = 20 and a combined sciatic-femoral nerve block (PNB group 3, n = 20. In group 1, anesthesia was induced with remifentanil (1 mic kg-1 followed by 0.5 mic kg-1 min-1 i.v, in group 2 alfentanil (20 mic kg-1 followed by 2 mic kg-1 min-1 i.v, in both groups (group 1, 2 propofol was given 2 mg kg-1 i.v followed by 9 mg kg-1 h-1 i.v. Patients then received atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 i.v. to facilitate endotracheal intubation. In the PNB group (group 3, patients received a sciatic-femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 25 mL 0.75 mg using a multiple injection technique aided by a nerve stimulator and a short, bevelled, Teflon®-coated stimulating needle. There was no significant difference in the duration of stay in the post anesthesia care unit and day surgery unit between groups, there was significant increase in the time to first urination in PNB group than the other two groups. Also there was no significant difference in the stay in delay surgery. The cost of disposal materials, preoperative and post operative times were higher in PNB group. The cost of drugs was higher in remifentanil and alfentanil groups than PNB group; the total cost was insignificant in the three groups. In conclusion, this prospective randomized study suggests that in patients undergoing out-patient arthroscopy, a combined sciatic-femoral nerve block (using a small volume of ropivacaine 0.75% compared with a propofol-remifentanil or propofol-alfentanil general anesthetics techniques may provide similar intraoperative analgesic efficacy, a shorter length of stay in the PACU and an increased likelihood of bypassing the first phase of postoperative recovery.

Hala Mostafa

2008-01-01

188

Indomethacin blocks the nucleus pulposus-induced effects on nerve root function: An experimental study in dogs with assessment of nerve conduction and blood flow following experimental disc herniation  

OpenAIRE

Inflammatory mechanisms have been suggested to be involved in the basic pathophysiologic events leading to nerve root injury after local application of nucleus pulposus. To assess if these nucleus pulposus-induced effects could be blocked by anti-inflammatory treatment, 41 dogs were exposed to either incision of the L6-7 disc to induce experimental disc herniation with (n=12) or without (n=14) indomethacin treatment per os (5 mg/kg per day), and no incision with (n=5) or without (n=10) indome...

Arai, Itaru; Mao, Guang -ping; Otani, Koji; Konno, S.; Kikuchi, S.; Olmarker, K.

2004-01-01

189

A preliminary study of the sensory distribution of the penile dorsal and ventral nerves: implications for effective penile block for circumcision.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensory innervation of the penis, as regional anaesthesia is often used either for postoperative analgesia or as the sole anaesthetic technique for circumcision. Since first described in 1978 the dorsal penile nerve block has become the standard technique, but some blocks are ineffective; a better understanding of the sensory innervation of the penis might improve the efficacy of the dorsal penile block technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 13 men undergoing circumcision with local anaesthetic, cutaneous sensation was tested before and after infiltration of the dorsal aspect of the penis, and then again after infiltration of the ventral aspect. The area of anaesthesia was mapped using pin-prick sensation. RESULTS: Ten of the 13 patients showed a similar pattern of sensory distribution. After the dorsal block, the dorsal aspect of the shaft of the penis and glans penis became insensate. The ventral aspect of the shaft remained sensate up to and including the frenulum. After successful ventral infiltration all sensate areas became insensate and circumcision proceeded. In one case the frenulum and distal ventral foreskin was anaesthetized after the dorsal block and ventral infiltration was not required. No patient experienced pain during circumcision. CONCLUSION: For consistently successful regional anaesthesia of the foreskin in circumcision, a dorsal block must be used. This should be combined with ventral infiltration at the site of incision. This method will avoid inconsistencies and allow pain-free circumcision using local anaesthesia in most men.

Long, Ronan M

2012-01-31

190

CT-guided plexus and splanchnic nerve neurolytic block. Experience in 150 cases and techniques optimization; Il blocco neurolitico del plesso celiaco e dei nervi splancnici con tomografia computerizzata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports the personal experience in computerized tomography guided celiac plexus and splanchnic nerve neurolytic block blocks. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' illustrare l'esperienza personale nell'uso della tomografia computerizzata nel trattamento del dolore da neoplasie addominali superiori, rivoluzionando le tecniche di esecuzione, aumentandone la precisione e riducendone notevolmente il rischio di complicanze.

Marra, V.; Frigerio, A.; Menna, S.; Di Virgilio, M.R. [Ospedale San Giovanni, Turin (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia; Debernardi, F.; Musso, L. [Ospedale San Giovanni, Turin (Italy). Serv. di Anestesia, Rianimazione e Terapia Antalgica

1999-09-01

191

CT imaging features of obturator prostheses in patients following palatectomy or maxillectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palatal tumors are often treated with palatectomy or maxillectomy. The resulting surgical defect produces an oroantral communication. An obturator is a removable prosthesis used to close the palatal or maxillectomy defect. Fifteen patients who had undergone palatectomy or maxillectomy for carcinoma and subsequent obturator prosthesis placement were retrospectively studied. Obturators were characterized by Hounsfield units and were subdivided into 3 CT imaging groups: either hyperattenuated, hollow (air-containing), or heterogeneous (isoattenuated to hyperattenuated with internal foci of air). Eight patients had hyperattenuated obturators either representing acrylic resin or Trusoft. Four patients had hollow obturators also composed of acrylic resin or Trusoft. Three patients had heterogeneous obturators, which were composed of only Trusoft. The postoperative imaging of patients treated for palatal or maxillary tumors can be complicated by the presence of obturator prostheses. The intent of this article was to familiarize the reader with the CT imaging features of obturator prostheses. PMID:21799037

Kumar, V A; Hofstede, T M; Ginsberg, L E

2011-01-01

192

A review of 12 cases of obturator hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on our evaluation in twelve cases of obturator hernia in our hospital. The subjects were twelve patients who underwent an operation for obturator hernia in our hospital between April 2001 and August 2009. We divided these patients into two groups, namely the intestinal resection group and the non-intestinal resection group, and evaluated both groups for duration from onset, radiographic findings and so on. The average age of the patients was 83.5 years (73-93 yr), and all patients were women. The average body mass index (BMI) was 17.6 kg/m2. The majority of the chief complaints was vomiting (7 cases 58.3%). The Howship-Romberg sign was observed in only three patients (25%). Preoperative CT scan revealed obturator hernia in nine patients. Preoperative duration from onset was 5-528 hr (average 120 hr). Emergency surgery was performed in all cases, and we tried the open method for eleven cases and the laparoscopic method for one case. The hernia hilus in four cases was closed with simple closure, and with mesh in eight cases. Recently, early diagnosis and treatment of obturator hernia has become feasible. Therefore, minimally invasive surgery such as laparoscopic surgery might be desirable as the first choice of surgical treatment for obturator hernia in the future. (author)

193

Pharmacological properties of a C-fibre response evoked by saphenous nerve stimulation in an isolated spinal cord-nerve preparation of the newborn rat.  

OpenAIRE

1. An isolated spinal cord-peripheral nerve preparation of the newborn rat was developed. In this preparation it is possible to record spinal reflexes from a lumbar ventral root in response to stimulation of the ipsilateral saphenous or obturator nerve. 2. Single shock, weak intensity stimulation of the saphenous nerve induced a fast conducted compound action potential in the L3 dorsal root and a fast depolarizing response in the ipsilateral L3 ventral root. As a stronger stimulus was applied...

Nussbaumer, J. C.; Yanagisawa, M.; Otsuka, M.

1989-01-01

194

Effect of ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block and wound infiltration with 0.5% bupivacaine on postoperative pain after hernia repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared, in 40 adult males, the effect on pain in the first 24 h after herniorrhaphy of preincisional ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block and wound infiltration with 0.5% bupivacaine or saline. After operation, patients received morphine i.v. via a patient-controlled analgesia machine and visual analogue pain scores (VAS) at rest and on movement were recorded. The bupivacaine group consumed less morphine in the first 6 h after operation. There was no difference in morphine consumption between the two groups in the next 18 h. The time to first analgesia was delayed in the bupivacaine group and was not followed by a rebound increase in requirement for analgesia. There was no significant difference in VAS scores at rest but there was a significantly higher pain score with movement in the saline group. We have shown that the combination of nerve block and wound infiltration reduces consumption of morphine in the first 24 h after herniorrhaphy. We have failed to show any effect of 0.5% bupivacaine beyond the first 6 h after operation. PMID:8024918

Harrison, C A; Morris, S; Harvey, J S

1994-06-01

195

Strategy of diagnosis and treatment for obturator hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We clinically reviewed patients with obturator hernia who were treated in our hospital. The subjects were 11 patients who underwent surgery in our hospital between January 2006 and July 2009. The mean age was 82.5 years, and all patients were females. The mean body mass index was 19.1, and the mean frequency of delivery was 2.6. The Howship-Romberg sign was present in 6 of the 11 patients. All patients with an obturator hernia had the correct diagnosis with preoperative computed tomography. All patients underwent emergency operations, and 6 of the 11 patients underwent partial resection of the small intestine because of necrosis of the intestinal wall. All the patients were discharged or transferred to another hospital. Almost all the patients with obturator hernia were slender females. A pelvic CT scan should be performed early, because their prognosis was affected by the time to diagnosis and critical treatment. (author)

196

Release of vasopressin from isolated permeabilized neurosecretory nerve terminals is blocked by the light chain of botulinum A toxin  

OpenAIRE

The intracellular action on exocytosis of botulinim A toxin and constituent chains was studied using permeabilized isolated nerve endings from the rat neural lobe. The release of the neuropeptide vasopressin was measured by radioimmunoassay. In the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol, the two-chain form of botulinum A toxin inhibited vasopressin release induced by 10 ?M free calcium. Half maximal inhibition was obtained with 15 nM botulinum A toxin. In the absence of the heavy chai...

Dayanithi, G.; Ahnert-hilger, G.; Weller, U.; Nordmann, J. J.; Gratzl, Manfred

1990-01-01

197

Study of Brass Obturator Design for Combustible Cartridge Case for 105mm Tank Gun Ammunition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brass cartridge case provides rearward obturation in the tank gun ammunition where the gun systedt has a sliding breech mechanism. In the case of semi-combustible cartridge case (SCCC ammunition, obturation is provided by a smal1 metal stub. The mechanism of obturation and obturator design for kinetic energy and high explosive squash heat (HESH, SCCC ammunition of 105mm tank gun have been studied. The dynamic firing results for SCCC ammunition for 105 mm tank gun reveal height 115 mm provides perfect obturation. The ballistic performance of SCCC ammunition is comparable with that of the brass-cartridged round in the pressure range 150-450 MPa.

R.K. Syal

2013-04-01

198

Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses: imaging photoelastic  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxillary defects resulting from cancer, trauma, and congenital malformation affect the chewing efficiency and retention of dentures in these patients. The use of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures has improved the self-esteem and quality of life of several subjects. We evaluate the stress distribution of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems by using the photoelastic analysis images. Two photoelastic models of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication were fabricated. One model received three implants on the left side of the alveolar ridge (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) and the other did not receive implants. Afterwards, a conventional palatal obturator denture (control) and two implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems (O-ring; bar-clip) were constructed. Models were placed in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) by using a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively using a software (Adobe Photoshop). The bar-clip system exhibited the highest stress concentration followed by the O-ring system and conventional denture (control). Images generated by the photoelastic method help in the oral rehabilitator planning.

Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

2013-06-01

199

Fiber-post bond strength in canals obturated with a cross-linked gutta-percha core obturator.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of fiber posts cemented in a root canal filled using various root-canal obturation techniques. A total of 33 monoradicular samples, treated endodontically, were randomly assigned to three groups according to the root-canal obturation technique: group 1, continuous-wave technique; group 2, plastic-obturator-core technique; and group 3, cross-linked gutta-percha obturator-core technique. Fiber posts were luted in each sample and each was sectioned perpendicular to the post axis. The push-out test was performed using a universal machine and the maximum failure load was recorded in MPa mm(-2) . Several samples were randomly chosen for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The mean debris and dentinal tubule-opening scores were calculated separately in the coronal and apical portions. Bond strength was significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Debris scores were significantly higher in the apical portion of groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. Within the limitations of this study it can be affirmed that thermoplasticized alpha gutta-percha seemed to worsen the cleaning of post-space walls and hence reduced fiber-post bond strength. PMID:24495099

Scotti, Nicola; Coero Borga, Francesco A; Alovisi, Mario; Bergantin, Emanuele; Marchionni, Silvia; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

2014-04-01

200

Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica / Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice / Bloqueo del nervio supraescapular: procedimiento importante en la práctica clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor no ombro é uma queixa frequente que ocasiona grande incapacidade funcional no membro acometido, assim como redução na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método terapêutico eficaz e vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado pelos anestesi [...] ologistas tanto para anestesia regional quanto para analgesia pós-operatória de cirurgias realizadas nesta articulação, o que justifica a presente revisão, cujo objetivo principal é descrever a técnica aplicada e as indicações clínicas. CONTEÚDO: Apresenta-se a anatomia do nervo supraescapular, desde a sua origem do plexo braquial até os seus ramos terminais, assim como as características gerais e a técnica empregada na execução do bloqueio deste nervo, as principais drogas utilizadas e o volume e as situações em que se faz jus a sua aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um procedimento seguro e extremamente eficaz na terapia da dor no ombro. Também de fácil reprodutibilidade, está sendo muito utilizado por profissionais de várias especialidades médicas. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El dolor en el hombro es un quejido frecuente que ocasiona una gran incapacidad funcional en el miembro perjudicado, como también la reducción en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. El bloqueo del nervio supraescapular es un método terapéutico eficaz y ha venido siendo ca [...] da vez más utilizado por los anestesiólogos tanto para la anestesia regional como para la analgesia postoperatoria de cirugías realizadas en esa articulación, lo que justifica la presente revisión cuyo objetivo principal es describir la técnica aplicada y las indicaciones clínicas. CONTENIDO: Presentamos la anatomía del nervio supraescapular, desde su origen, y desde el plexo braquial hasta sus ramas terminales, como también las características generales y la técnica usada en la ejecución del bloqueo de ese nervio, los principales fármacos utilizados y el volumen y las situaciones en que se justifica su aplicación. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo del nervio supraescapular es un procedimiento seguro y extremadamente eficaz en la terapia del dolor en el hombro. También es fácilmente reproducible y está siendo muy utilizado por profesionales de varias especialidades médicas. Cuando está bien indicado, el método debe ser tenido en cuenta Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shoulder pain is a frequent complaint that results in great functional disability in the affected shoulder as well as the decrease in patients' quality of life. Suprascapular nerve block is an effective therapeutic method and has been increasingly used by anesthesiologists [...] both for regional anesthesia and postoperative analgesia of surgeries carried out in this articulation, which justifies this review, whose main purpose was to describe the applied technique and clinical indications. CONTENT: It is presented the anatomy of suprascapular nerve, since its brachial plexus origin until its terminal branches, as well as general characteristics and technique employed to carry out the block of this nerve, main drugs used, volume and situations that give rise to its applications. CONCLUSIONS: Suprascapular nerve block is a safe and extremely effective procedure in shoulder pain therapy. It also has an easy reproducibility and has been very used by professionals of many medical specialties. When it is well-indicated, this method must be taken into consideration

Marcos Rassi, Fernandes; Maria Alves, Barbosa; Ana Luiza Lima, Sousa; Gilson Cassem, Ramos.

2012-02-01

201

Topical airway anesthesia for awake fiberoptic intubation: Comparison between airway nerve blocks and nebulized lignocaine by ultrasonic nebulizer  

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Overview: Awake fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) guided intubation is the gold standard of airway management in patients with cervical spine injury. It is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake FOB guided intubation in order to ensure patient comfort and cooperation. This randomized controlled study was performed to compare two methods of airway anesthesia, namely ultrasonic nebulization of local anesthetic and performance of airway blocks. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 adult patients with cervical spine injury were randomly allocated into two groups. Group L received airway anesthesia through ultrasonic nebulization of 10 ml of 4% lignocaine and Group NB received airway blocks (bilateral superior laryngeal and transtracheal recurrent laryngeal) each with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine and viscous lignocaine gargles. FOB guided orotracheal intubation was then performed. Hemodynamic variables at baseline and during the procedure, patient recall, vocal cord visibility, ease of intubation, coughing/gagging episodes, and signs of lignocaine toxicity were noted. Results: The observations did not reveal any significant differences in demographics or hemodynamic parameters at any time during the study. However, the time taken for intubation was significantly lower in Group NB as compared with the Group L. Group L had an increased number of coughing/gagging episodes as compared with Group NB. Vocal cord visibility and ease of intubation were better in patients who received airway blocks and hence the amount of supplemental lignocaine used was less in this group. Overall patient comfort was better in Group NB with fewer incidences of unpleasant recalls as compared with Group L. Conclusion: Upper airway blocks provide better quality of anesthesia than lignocaine nebulization as assessed by patient recall of procedure, coughing/gagging episodes, ease of intubation, vocal cord visibility, and time taken to intubate.

Gupta, Babita; Kohli, Santvana; Farooque, Kamran; Jalwal, Gopal; Gupta, Deepak; Sinha, Sumit; Chandralekha

2014-01-01

202

Tacrolimus reduces scar formation and promotes sciatic nerve regeneration?  

OpenAIRE

A sciatic nerve transection and repair model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by transecting the tendon of obturator internus muscle in the greater sciatic foramen and suturing with nylon sutures. The models were treated with tacrolimus gavage (4 mg/kg per day) for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks of intragastric administration. Masson staining revealed that the collagen fiber content and scar area in the nerve anastomosis of the sciatic nerve injury rats were si...

Que, Jun; Cao, Quan; Sui, Tao; Du, Shihao; Zhang, Ailiang; Kong, Dechao; Cao, Xiaojian

2012-01-01

203

Hermetizing ability of the new obturating material for root canals «Real Seal» with «Resilon» technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simple, reliable and predictable obturation of root canals side by side with their cleaning and forming is an essential part of the endodontic treatment. The aim of this research is investigation of obturation density of root canals. Canals filled by means of lateral condensation of the new obturative system «Real Seal/Resilon» and by means of traditional method of canals obturation with the help of gutta-percha and sealer ??-plus. The results of the research proved a ligher hermetizing ability of the new experimental material «Real Seal» in comparison with obturation by means of gutta-percha pins. The obtained data reflects an objective picture and can be applied as a unique quality monitoring obturation of root canals.

Makedonova Y.A.

2012-03-01

204

Mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: a review and case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has emerged as a reliable bioactive material with extended applications in endodontics that include the obturation of the root canal space. This article examines the literature supporting MTA as a canal filling material, suggests methods for its delivery and placement, and presents clinical cases that demonstrate its effectiveness in resolving apical periodontitis under a variety of circumstances. Case reports are presented documenting clinical outcomes after the application of MTA that include retreatment, obturation combined with root-end resection, apexification, internal resorption, dens in dente, and in conventional endodontic therapy. The review introduces clinicians to an alternative treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients presenting with complex and challenging endodontic conditions. PMID:19482173

Bogen, George; Kuttler, Sergio

2009-06-01

205

Vagal nerve stimulation blocks interleukin 6-dependent synaptic hyperexcitability induced by lipopolysaccharide-induced acute stress in the rodent prefrontal cortex.  

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The ratio between synaptic inhibition and excitation (sI/E) is a critical factor in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disease. We recently described a stress-induced interleukin-6 dependent mechanism leading to a decrease in sI/E in the rodent temporal cortex. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar mechanism takes place in the prefrontal cortex, and to elaborate strategies to prevent or attenuate it. We used aseptic inflammation (single acute injections of lipopolysaccharide, LPS, 10mg/kg) as stress model, and patch-clamp recording on a prefrontal cortical slice preparation from wild-type rat and mice, as well as from transgenic mice in which the inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling sgp130Fc was produced in a brain-specific fashion (sgp130Fc mice). The anti-inflammatory reflex was activated either by vagal nerve stimulation or peripheral administration of the nicotinic ?7 receptor agonist PHA543613. We found that the IL-6-dependent reduction in prefrontal cortex synaptic inhibition was blocked in sgp130Fc mice, or - in wild-type animals - upon application sgp130Fc. Similar results were obtained by activating the "anti-inflammatory reflex" - a neural circuit regulating peripheral immune response - by stimulation of the vagal nerve or through peripheral administration of the ?7 nicotinic receptor agonist PHA543613. Our results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is an important potential target of IL-6 mediated trans-signaling, and suggest a potential new avenue in the treatment of a large class of hyperexcitable neuropsychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and depression. PMID:25128387

Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Peña, David; Housini, Mohammad; Cheng, Derek; Lopez, Diego; Borland, Michael S; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Salgado, Humberto; D'Mello, Santosh; Kilgard, Michael P; Rose-John, Stefan; Atzori, Marco

2015-01-01

206

A description of the spread of injectate after psoas compartment block using magnetic resonance imaging.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides for excellent visualization of spread of solution after peripheral nerve block. The aim of this observational study was to utilize MRI to describe the distribution of injectate (gadopentetate dimeglumine) administered for continuous psoas compartment block (PCB) performed by use of two approaches (Capdevila and modified Winnie) and to describe the spread of injectate to the lumbar plexus. METHODS: Four volunteers were enrolled in a prospective crossover study. Each volunteer underwent PCB with catheter placement performed by use of Capdevila\\'s approach followed 1 week later by PCB, with catheter placement performed by use of a modified Winnie approach. MRI of injectate distribution was performed after each PCB. RESULTS: The catheter was unable to be inserted in 1 volunteer undergoing Winnie\\'s approach; therefore, 7 sets of MR images were analyzed. In 6 of 7 cases (4 Capdevila and 2 Winnie) spread was primarily within the psoas muscle. Contrast surrounded the L2-3 lumbar branch of the femoral nerve at L4 and cleaved the fascial plane within the psoas muscle and spread cephalad to reach the lumbar nerve roots. In 1 case (Winnie approach) contrast spread between the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles. Contrast surrounded the femoral and obturator nerves where they lie outside the psoas muscle at L5. CONCLUSION: The most common pattern of injectate spread seen on MRI with both approaches to PCB was spread within the body of the psoas muscle around the lumbar branches (L2-4), with cephalad spread to the lumbar nerve roots. One catheter resulted in injectate between the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles.

Mannion, Stephen

2012-02-03

207

Pinched Nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Pinched Nerve Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Pinched Nerve? Is there any treatment? ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Pinched Nerve? The term "pinched nerve" is a colloquial term ...

208

Use of polyetheretherketone in the fabrication of a maxillary obturator prosthesis: a clinical report.  

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To treat a patient who needed a replacement for a maxillary obturator prosthesis, a new obturator prosthesis was fabricated from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), a material often used in medicine but seldom in dentistry. This material provided the patient with a better-adjusted, more functional, and lighter prosthesis. PMID:24630397

Costa-Palau, Santiago; Torrents-Nicolas, Josep; Brufau-de Barberà, Magi; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep

2014-09-01

209

Strangulated obturator hernia - an unusual presentation of intestinal obstruction.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

An 81-year-old Caucasian emaciated female presented with 3 days history of colicky abdominal pain nausea, projectile vomiting and abdominal distension. A pre-operative diagnosis of mechanical bowel obstruction was made. The absence of characteristic clinical signs in this thin elderly woman with a small bowel obstruction failed to provide a pre-operative diagnosis. She underwent a midline laparotomy and resection and anastomosis of small bowel and repair of the strangulated right obturator hernia. The high mortality rate associated with this type of abdominal hernias requires a high index of suspicion to facilitate rapid diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention if the survival rate is to be improved.

Zeeshan, Saqib

2012-01-31

210

The Effect of Saphenous Nerve Block on the Surgical Stress Induced by Pain Following the Surgical Realignment of Medial Patellar Luxation in Dogs  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of a Saphenous Nerve Block (SNB in the decrease of surgical stress induced by post-operative pain following surgical realignment of the medial patellar luxation in dogs. All subjects were divided into 3 groups according to post-operative analgesic methods: a group with SNB (Sn, n = 5, a group with the intra-articular injection using bupivacaine (Ac, n = 5 and a control group with SNB using saline (Ct, n = 5. Surgical stress from pain was assessed at variable times after surgery using Heart Rate Variability (HRV, a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and measurement of blood glucose level. No significant differences in HRV were found between the Sn and Ac groups while there were significant differences between the Ac and control groups. However, the LF of the Sn group was significantly higher than that of the Ct group at 30 min. The values of the NRS in the Ac and Sn groups decreased significantly more than that of the Ct group. However, no statistical differences were found in the NRS between the Ac and Sn groups. There were no statistical differences among the groups in terms of blood glucose levels. Some evidence was found to suggest that SNB for pain reduction after realignment surgery of the medial patellar luxation in dogs is an easy technique to acquire some analgesic effects. However, the single use of SNB for pain control in realignment surgery of the medial patellar luxation is not recommended because of its weak analgesic effects.

Sung Chul Lim

2012-01-01

211

Relationship between Mandibular Nerve Block Anesthesia and Body Mass Index in Children / Relación entre la Anestesia del Nervio Mandibular y el Índice de Masa Corporal en Niños  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue observar la relación entre el bloqueo anestésico efectivo (BAE) del nervio mandibular, inyectando 1,8 ml de lidocaína al 2% con epinefrina 1:100.000, en niños y su índice de masa corporal (IMC). Fue diseñado un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se seleccionó una muestra [...] de 93 niños que se atienden en el Módulo Dental de JUNAEB de Frutillar entre abril y julio de 2011. Se registró edad, sexo, motivo de la exodoncia y tipo de diente (permanente o deciduo). Se calculó el IMC para cada niño, que fue categorizado en 2 cohortes de acuerdo al criterio de la OMS: “bajo peso - normal” (BPN) para aquellos con un IMC p85. Después de aplicar la técnica anestésica, a los 10 minutos se evaluó su efectividad registrando el BAE. Se analizó la relación estadística entre IMC y BAE mediante Test exacto de Fisher (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to observe the relationship between the anesthetic block sucess (ABS) of mandibular nerve, by injecting 1.8 ml of lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100,000, in children and their body mass index (BMI). A prospective cohort study was designed. A sample of 93 6-13 years childre [...] n attended in JUNAEB Dental Module of Frutillar between April and July 2011. We recorded age, gender, reason for tooth extraction and tooth type (permanent or deciduous). BMI was calculated for each child and categorized into two cohorts of study according to WHO criteria: those with a BMI p85 as "over weight - obese" (OWO). After applying the anesthetic technique, effect was evaluated at 10 minutes recording its effectivenes. We analyzed statistically significant relationship between ABS and BMI using Fisher's exact test with (p

Viviana, Castillo; Andrea, Cerón; Ricardo, Cartes-Velásquez; Pedro, Aravena.

2012-04-01

212

Comparison of three obturation techniques with regard to bacterial leakage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To compare bacterial leakage in root canals obturated with the modified single-cone, lateral condensation, and continuous wave of condensation techniques. METHODS: Distobuccal root canals of maxillary molars were shaped up to ProTaper F2 and obturated with modified singlecone, lateral condensat [...] ion or continuous wave of condensation technique. Two-chamber bacterial model using Enterococcus faecalis was employed for bacterial leakage evaluation for 30 days. The chi-square test was applied to evaluate differences between turbid and non-turbid samples, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for evaluating the time necessary for microleakage. A significance level of 5% was set for all analyses. RESULTS: The modified single-cone technique showed leakage in 73.3% of samples, lateral condensation in 66.6%, and continuous wave of condensation in 53.3%, but there were no significant differences among the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the modified single-cone technique shows similar sealing efficacy to that of lateral condensation and continuous wave of condensation technique.

Cleber Keiti, Nabeshima; Guilherme Henrique Rosa, Martins; Mário Francisco de Pasquali, Leonardo; Regina Célia Furukava, Shin; Silvana, Cai; Manoel Eduardo de Lima, Machado.

2013-09-01

213

A tropomyosine receptor kinase inhibitor blocks spinal neuroplasticity essential for the anti-hypersensitivity effects of gabapentin and clonidine in rats with peripheral nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Spinally released brain derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) after nerve injury is essential to anatomic and functional changes in spinal noradrenergic and cholinergic systems which are engaged or targeted by commonly used treatments for neuropathic pain. Since BDNF signals via tropomyosine receptor kinases (trks), we tested whether trk blockade by repeated spinal injection of the trk inhibitor K252a would reduce anatomical (spinal noradrenergic and cholinergic fiber density), functional (?2-a...

Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

2011-01-01

214

Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

2014-06-01

215

Bloqueo nervioso lumbar selectivo guiado por tomografía computada. Nuestra experiencia en un hospital universitario / Computed tomography guided selective lumbar nerve block: Our experience in a university hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Presentar nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento mínimamente invasivo de la lumbociatalgia con la inyección de corticoides y anestésicos locales bajo control tomográfico. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron bloqueos selectivos lumbares bajo control tomográfico a 102 pacientes con lumbociat [...] algia crónica, en un período comprendido entre agosto del 2011 y junio del 2012. Del total de pacientes, se infiltraron 65 a nivel foraminal (64%), 29 a nivel epidural (28%) y 8 a ambos niveles (8%). Los procedimientos se realizaron en forma ambulatoria con anestesia local. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento con antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINES) vía oral y se utilizó la escala numérica del dolor y el índice de Oswestry (IDO) para medir la discapacidad funcional en cada caso. Resultados: El 100% de los pacientes mostró disminución significativa de la sintomatología apenas finalizó el procedimiento, sin observarse complicaciones inmediatas durante el mismo. Se hizo un seguimiento clínico posterior con las escalas anteriormente mencionadas a los 7 días, 1, 3 y 6 meses. En 95 pacientes (93%) se observó una mejora significativa de los síntomas y se suspendió o se redujo la medicación oral, mientras que en 6 pacientes existió una mejoría parcial de los síntomas al mes, pero hubo una recaída a los 3 meses. En estos casos se debió reiniciar el tratamiento con AINES, manteniéndose a 4 pacientes dentro de la categoría del IDO anterior (aunque con una disminución de al menos 2 puntos en el score numérico del dolor). Sólo un paciente no presentó mejoría de la sintomatología durante el seguimiento y tuvo reaparición de los síntomas habituales a los 7 días, por lo que se debió reprogramar una segunda infiltración. Conclusión: En nuestra experiencia el bloqueo nervioso lumbar selectivo bajo control tomográfico, utilizando esteroides y anestésicos locales, resultó un procedimiento efectivo en el control del dolor con un bajo índice de complicaciones. Abstract in english Objectives: To present our experience with minimally invasive treatment of low back pain and sciatica with the computed tomography-guided percutaneous injection of steroids and local anaesthetics. Materials and methods: From August 2011 to June 2012, 102 patients underwent selective computed tomogra [...] phy-guided foraminal block for low back pain and sciatica treatment. Sixtyfi ve patients received foraminal infi ltration (64%), 29 epidural infi ltration (28%), and 8 (8%) were subject to combined procedures. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis with local anaesthetic, with no immediate complications. All patients received oral NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs) prior to the procedure. A numeric scale of pain and the Oswestry index (IDO) was employed to measure local pain and limb disability. All patients showed at least 7 points in the initial evaluation. Results: All the patients showed a significant reduction in pain by the end of procedure. A clinical follow-up was made after 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment using the previously mentioned scales. Ninety-fi ve patients (93%) showed a signifi cant improvement in their symptoms, with suspension or decrease in oral medication. Six patients showed only a partial reduction of symptoms during the follow-up after one month, with a recurrence of symptoms after 3 months and restarted oral treatment. Four of these patients remained in the same IDO category with at least a 2 point decrease in the pain scale. Only one patient showed no improvement in symptoms during follow-up with a recurrence of symptoms 7 days after procedure, and for whom a second procedure was reprogrammed. Conclusion: In our experience CT-guided percutaneous lumbar selective nerve block using steroids and local anaesthetics, is an effective method of pain control with a very low incidence of complications.

A.J, Nielsen; G, Criscuolo; S, González Calvo; N, Larrañaga; J.C, Gallo; S, Kozima.

2013-09-01

216

É realmente necessário o uso do estimulador de nervo periférico no bloqueio do nervo femoral? / Peripheral nerve stimulator for femoral nerve block. Is it really necessary? / ¿Es realmente necesario el uso del estimulador de nervio periférico en el bloqueo del nervio femoral?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Vários são os métodos de localização do nervo femoral no espaço perivascular na região inguinal sendo o mais comum o do estimulador de nervo periférico. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a necessidade do bloqueio do nervo femoral com o método do estimulador de nervo [...] periférico, comparando-o com o método da perda de resistência tanto pela técnica de injeção única como pela técnica com catéteres. MÉTODO: Foram realizados 60 bloqueios do nervo femoral divididos em quatro grupos homogêneos (GA, GB, GC e GD). Trinta bloqueios representaram dois grupos pela técnica de injeção única, quinze com agulha descartável 21G (GA) e quinze com agulha isolada adaptada ao estimulador de nervo periférico (GC) e os restantes trinta bloqueios divididos em quinze bloqueios com cateter venoso (GB) e quinze com cateter longo Contiplex® (GD). Todos os bloqueios do nervo femoral foram realizados no espaço perivascular inguinal. O espaço perifemoral foi identificado após a segunda perda de resistência ao ar (fascia ilíaca) (GA e GC), e com 0,3 a 0,4 mA com o estimulador de nervo periférico (GB e GD). Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: tempo para a realização do bloqueio; presença ou ausência de parestesias ou disestesias; dificuldade de punção e falhas. RESULTADOS: Não foram relatadas parestesias nem disestesias. Duas falhas resultaram no grupo A (p Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Varios son los métodos de localización del nervio femoral en el espacio perivascular en la región inguinal siendo el más común el del estimulador de nervio periférico. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la necesidad del bloqueo del nervio femoral con el método d [...] el estimulador del nervio periférico, comparándose con el método de la pérdida de resistencia tanto por la técnica de inyección única como por la técnica con catéteres. MÉTODO: Fueron realizados sesenta bloqueos del nervio femoral divididos en cuatro grupos homogéneos (GA, GB, GC y GD). Treinta bloqueos representaron dos grupos por la técnica de inyección única, quince con aguja desechable 21G (GA) y quince con aguja aislada adaptada al estimulador de nervio periférico (GC) y los restantes treinta bloqueos divididos en quince bloqueos con catéter venoso (GB) y quince con catéter largo Contiplex® (GD). Todos los bloqueos del nervio femoral fueron realizados en el espacio perivascular inguinal. El espacio perifemoral fue identificado después de la segunda pérdida de resistencia al aire (fascia ilíaca) (GA y GC), y con 0,3 a 0,4 mA con el estimulador de nervio periférico (GB y GD). Fueron evaluados los siguientes parámetros: tiempo para la realización del bloqueo; tiempo de duración del bloqueo; si hubo o no parestesias o disestesias; se hubo o no dificultad de punción y fallas. RESULTADOS: No fueron relatadas parestesias ni disestesias. Dos fallas resultaron en el grupo A (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are several methods to locate the femoral nerve in the perivascular inguinal space, being the most common the use of a peripheral nerve stimulator. This study aimed at evaluating femoral nerve block performed with peripheral nerve stimulator as compared to the loss o [...] f resistance to air technique, both by single injection or with catheter insertion. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing femoral nerve blocks were divided in four homogeneous groups (GA, GB, GC, GD). Thirty blocks were performed with single injection technique: 15 with disposable 21G needle (GA) and 15 with insulated needle adapted to the peripheral nerve stimulator (GC). The remaining 30 blocks were divided in 15 blocks performed with intravenous catheter (GB) and 15 with long Contiplex® catheter (GD). All femoral nerve blocks were performed in the perivascular inguinal space. Perifemoral space was identified after the second loss of resistance to air (iliac fascia, GA and GC), and with 0.3 to 0.

Karl Otto, Geier.

2003-06-01

217

Rare case of obturator hernia in a patient with Marfan's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obturator hernia is a very rare type of abdominal hernia which constitutes <1 % of all the hernias. It is an important cause of small bowel obstruction which is associated with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Obturator hernia typically occurs in an elderly women or patients with chronically raised intraabdominal pressure or previous multiple pregnancies. We report a case of obstructed obturator hernia in a young female patient with Marfan's syndrome complicated with dissecting aortic aneurysm and chronic kidney disease. Though recurrent and incisional hernia constitutes one of the minor diagnostic criteria of Marfan's syndrome, obturator hernia being a very rare entity, has been reported very rarely in a patient with Marfan's syndrome. PMID:24415041

Peter, R; Indiran, V; Kannan, K; Maduraimuthu, P; Varadarajan, C

2014-06-01

218

Rare origin of the obturator, inferior epigastric and medial circumflex femoral arteries from a common trunk.  

OpenAIRE

Two cases of arterial variation are described in which the obturator, inferior epigastric and medial circumflex femoral arteries arose from a common trunk from the external iliac artery. A possible ontogenetic explanation is provided.

San?udo, J. R.; Roig, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Ferreira, B.; Domenech, J. M.

1993-01-01

219

Root canal obturation by hybrid technique of thermomechanical gutta-percha compaction  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study was to present and discuss the thermomechanical hybrid technique in root canal obturation and investigate the efficiency of apical hermeticity. The hybrid obturation technique is well explained and performed through the lexan models and extracted teeth in aim of better visualisation and comprehension as suggested by the author Tagger and McSpadden’s articles. The technique consisted of lateral condensation of gutta-percha that was followed by thermomechanical compac...

Ili? Dragan

2004-01-01

220

Biocompatibility of root canal obturation materials implanted in rats muscular tissue  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of different dental materials for teeth root canal obturation, implanted in rat muscular tissue, by analyzing the type of muscular tissue inflammatory reaction level. In the preparation of Wistar rats M. biceps femoris, three different materials for root canal obturation were implanted: Sealapex (Kerr, Romulus, USA), AH-26 (DE Trey, Zurich, Switzerland) and Spongio cement material based on polymethil metacrylate - PMMA (Tomi?,...

Karadži? Branislav; Vujaškovi? Mirjana

2009-01-01

221

Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator-One-Step Fabrication: A Clinical Report  

OpenAIRE

A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture...

Buzayan, M. M.; Ariffin, Y. T.; Yunus, N.

2014-01-01

222

A hollow definitive obturator fabrication technique for management of partial maxillectomy  

OpenAIRE

Maxillary obturator prosthesis is the most frequent treatment option for management of partial or total maxillectomy. Heavy weight of the obturators is often a dislocating factor. Hollowing the prosthesis to reduce its weight is the well established fact. The alternate technique to hollow-out the prosthesis has been described in this article which is a variation of previously described processing techniques. A pre-shaped wax-bolus was incorporated inside the flasks during packing of the heat-...

Patil, Pravinkumar Gajanan; Patil, Smita Pravinkumar

2012-01-01

223

The Effective Injection Zone at the Popliteal Crease for Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerve Blocks and its Relation with the Origin Point of the Medial and Lateral Sural Cutaneous Nerves / Zona de Inyección Eficaz en el Pliegue Poplíteo para el Bloqueo de los Nervios Tibial y Fibular Común y su Relación con el Punto de Origen de los Nervios Cutáneo Sural Medial y Lateral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El bloqueo nervioso poplíteo puede ser utilizado para proporcionar anestesia y analgesia prolongada del miembro inferior y para aliviar el dolor postoperatorio severo y duradero. El objetivo fue determinar la localización anatómica de los nervios tibial (NT) y fibular común (NFC) en el pliegue poplí [...] teo para un bloqueo nervioso efectivo. Se utilizaron 50 miembros inferiores frescos pertenecientes a 27 cadáveres adultos chinos (16 hombres y 11 mujeres, rango de edad entre 35-87 años). Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres para identificar la localización de los nervios y los 5 restantes para determinar la profundidad de los nervios en una sección transversal. El NT se encontró en el 50% de los casos desde el punto más lateral del pliegue poplíteo a 1,4 cm de la superficie. En el 20% de 50 muestras, el nervio cutáneo sural medial se ramificó por debajo o en el pliegue poplíteo, mientras que el NFC se encontró en el 26% de los casos desde el punto más lateral del pliegue poplíteo a 0,7 cm de la superficie. Además, en el 6% de las muestras, el nervio cutáneo sural lateral se ramificó por debajo o en el pliegue poplíteo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el NT y NFC emergen del nervio ciático a distancias variables del pliegue poplíteo. Creemos que los resultados sobre la ubicación de NT y NFC en el pliegue poplíteo ofrecen una buena guía para el adecuado bloqueo nervioso. Abstract in english A popliteal nerve block may be used to provide anesthesia and extended analgesia of the lower extremity, to ameliorate severe and long lasting postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomical location of tibial (TN) and common peroneal (CPN) nerves in the popliteal crease fo [...] r effective nerve block. Fifty fresh specimens from 27 adult Chinese cadavers (16 males and 11 females, age range from 35 to 87 years) were investigated. Twenty-two cadavers were used to identify nerve locations and 5 cadavers were used to determine the depths of nerves in cross section. TN was found to be located at 50% from the most lateral point of the popliteal crease at 1.4 cm deep to the surface. In 20% of the 50 specimens, the medial sural cutaneous nerve branched out below or at the popliteal crease, whereas the CPN was located at 26.0% from the most lateral point of the popliteal crease and at 0.7 cm deep to the surface. Furthermore, in 6.0% of specimens the lateral sural cutaneous nerve branched out below or at the popliteal crease. This study suggests that the TN and CPN leave the sciatic nerve at variable distances from the popliteal crease. However, we believe that the results of the present study about the location of TN and CPN at the popliteal crease offer a good guide to optimal nerve block.

Lei, Zhong; Jincheng, Wang; Hongjuan, Fang; Yanguo, Qin; Jianlin, Zuo; Zhongli, Gao.

2014-03-01

224

Candida albicans in patients with oronasal communication and obturator prostheses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os pacientes portadores de prótese obturadora freqüentemente apresentam estomatite protética. Com o objetivo de detectar a presença de Candida albicans oral em pacientes com comunicação oronasal e avaliar a eficácia de um tratamento tópico antifúngico foi realizada citologia esfoliativa da mucosa pa [...] latina e jugal e da superfície acrílica nasal da prótese obturadora. O protocolo terapêutico consistiu de nistatina (Mycostatin®) para tratamento da mucosa oral e uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio para desinfecção da prótese. Sete pacientes (70%) apresentaram resultado positivo para C. albicans na mucosa, com um resultado negativo para a superfície protética neste grupo. A avaliação após o tratamento revelou ausência de C. albicans na mucosa oral de todos os pacientes, bem como na superfície protética. A infecção por C. albicans das mucosas jugal e palatina diferiram significantemente, enquanto que a mucosa palatina e a superfície protética apresentaram valores semelhantes. O grau de infecção da mucosa palatina foi significantemente maior quando comparado àquele da mucosa jugal e semelhante ao apresentado pela prótese, sugerindo que a mucosa subjacente à prótese é mais susceptível à infecção. O protocolo terapêutico foi efetivo em todos os casos, o que enfatiza a necessidade da desinfecção protética para se evitar a reinfecção da mucosa oral. Abstract in english Patients using obturator prostheses often present denture-induced stomatitis. In order to detect the presence of oral Candida albicans in patients with oronasal communications and to evaluate the effectiveness of a topical antifungal treatment, cytological smears obtained from the buccal and palatal [...] mucosa of 10 adult patients, and from the nasal acrylic surface of their obturator prostheses were examined. A therapeutic protocol comprising the use of oral nystatin (Mycostatin®) and prosthesis disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was prescribed for all patients. Seven patients were positive for C. albicans in the mucosa, with 1 negative result for the prosthetic surface in this group of patients. Post-treatment evaluation revealed the absence of C. albicans on prosthesis surface and on the oral mucosa of all patients. The severity of the candidal infection was significantly higher in the palatal mucosa than in the buccal mucosa, but similar in the palatal mucosa and prosthesis surface, indicating that the mucosa underlying the prosthesis is more susceptible to infection. The therapeutic protocol was effective in all cases, which emphasizes the need for denture disinfection in order to avoid reinfection of the mucosa.

Beatriz Silva Câmara, Mattos; Andréa Alves de, Sousa; Marina Helena C. G. de, Magalhães; Marcia, André; Reinaldo, Brito e Dias.

225

ANESTHETIC EFFICACY OF COMBINATION OF TWO PERCENT LIDOCAINE WITH 1:80,000 EPINEPHRINE AND 0.5 MOL/L MANNITOL FOR INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BLOCKS IN PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC IRREVERSIBLE PULPITIS: AN IN VIVO STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective randomized single blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of combination of 2 % Lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 Epinephrine and 0.5 mol / L Mannitol in Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN Blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. 60 subjects randomly received IAN Blocks using the following two anesthetic formulations: one formulation comprised of 2.5 ml of 2 % Lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 Epinephrine and the other formulation comprised of 1.6 ml of 2 % Lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 Epinephrine and 0.9 ml of 0.5 mol / L Mannitol. The pain response of the patient was recorded on endodontic access and initial instrumentation using the Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale. From the statistical analysis obtained following this study the addition of 0.5 mol / L Mannitol to lidocaine with epinephrine formulations significantly improved effectiveness in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesias compared with a lidocaine formulation without Mannitol for IAN blocks. There is a significant improvement in the efficacy of IAN blocks when 2 % Lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 Epinephrine is administered in combination with 0.5 mol / L Mannitol. Based on the results of this study we can conclude that this combination of local anesthetic should be used on a regular basis to obtain successful anesthesia. However there is a need for more research as there are very few studies done on this aspect.

Thimmaiah. P. B.

2013-08-01

226

The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla  

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Full Text Available In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales (LSP and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2,, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4–5 divided into medial (femoral nerve and lateral branches (obturator nerve. It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5–6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve. The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1–2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals.

E. M. Rickes

2012-04-01

227

The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales) (LSP) and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females) were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the dis [...] tribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4-5 divided into medial (femoral nerve) and lateral branches (obturator nerve). It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5-6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve). The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1-2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals.

M A, Martinez-Pereira; E M, Rickes.

228

Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

2006-12-01

229

Eficacia y seguridad del bloqueo del nervio safeno guiado por ultrasonido en pacientes con dolor crónico de rodilla / Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block in patients with chronic knee pain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La osteoartritis de rodilla es una causa común de consulta en el mundo. Muchos pacientes con síntomas leves responden a los tratamientos conservadores, y otros requieren de tratamiento intervencionista, como bloqueos de nervios periféricos. Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia clínica y la [...] seguridad del manejo intervencionista con bloqueo del nervio safeno guiado por ultrasonografía en pacientes con dolor crónico de rodilla. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo retrospectivo en pacientes con enfermedad dolorosa crónica de rodilla que recibieron tratamiento intervencionista guiado por ultrasonografía en una clínica de dolor del país entre los meses de septiembre de 2011 y junio de 2012, para determinar su eficacia clínica y su seguridad. Se obtuvieron datos de todos los pacientes antes del procedimiento, a los 2 días, un mes y 3 meses después. La intensidad de dolor se midió con la escala visual analógica. Resultados: Se realizaron 25 bloqueos del nervio safeno. El 68% de los pacientes presentaron alivio del dolor a los 2 días. El 56 y el 40% presentaron alivio al mes y a los 3 meses de realizado el procedimiento, respectivamente, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause for consultation around the world. Many patients with mild symptoms respond to conservative treatment, while others require interventional therapy including peripheral nerve blocks. Objective: To establish the clinical efficacy and safety of interv [...] entional management with ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block in patients with chronic keen pain. Materials and methods: Descriptive, retrospective trial in chronic keen pain patients who underwent ultrasound-guided interventional therapy at the pain clinic in the country, between September 2011 and June 2012, to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of the procedure. Data were obtained from all patients prior to the procedure, and then at two days, one month and three months later. The pain intensity was measured using the visual analog scale. Results: 25 saphenous nerve blocks were performed. 68% of the patients experienced pain relief within two days. 56% and 40% exhibited relief one and three months after the procedure, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p

Mario Andrés, Arcila Lotero; Roberto, Rivera Díaz; María Adelaida, Mejía Aguilar; Santiago, Jaramillo Jaramillo.

2014-07-01

230

Examination of Articulation in Patient Using Obturator by Means of Computer Planning  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Approximately 5% of cancers involve structures of oral cavity. Partial resection of maxilla (maxillectomy may be performed in these cases. Maxillectomy often results in significant functional disabilities such as inability in mastication, deglutition and speech with adverse impact on psychological statusand social life of patients. Obturator prosthesis is a prosthodontic treatment to separate nasal and oral cavities and restore the critical above mentioned functions. The assessment of speech is considered to examine speech function restored by the treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the speech in patients with resected maxilla who have been treated by obturator prosthesis from a pool of related patients in the Prosthodotnics department ofdental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The evaluation was performed with computer software using sentence intelligibility (SI test. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 10 subjects (23-66 years referred to the Prosthodontics department of the faculty and received an obturator. After primary examination of the prosthesis,the patients completed SI test in an acoustic room under guidance of a speech therapist. The performed tests were analyzed by the speech therapist. In addition, the SI with and without the prosthesis was evaluate by lay audience. The statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon-signed rank test and Weighted Kappa. Results: Significant differences were found between SI tests with and without the obturators (P<0.001. Two of 10 patients showed problems in speech function using obturator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, obturators had significant effect on improvement of the speech outcomes of examined patients. Improvement of the quality of life could be predicted.

Somaieh Allahiary

2013-02-01

231

É realmente necessário o uso do estimulador de nervo periférico no bloqueio do nervo femoral? ¿Es realmente necesario el uso del estimulador de nervio periférico en el bloqueo del nervio femoral? Peripheral nerve stimulator for femoral nerve block. Is it really necessary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Vários são os métodos de localização do nervo femoral no espaço perivascular na região inguinal sendo o mais comum o do estimulador de nervo periférico. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a necessidade do bloqueio do nervo femoral com o método do estimulador de nervo periférico, comparando-o com o método da perda de resistência tanto pela técnica de injeção única como pela técnica com catéteres. MÉTODO: Foram realizados 60 bloqueios do nervo femoral divididos em quatro grupos homogêneos (GA, GB, GC e GD. Trinta bloqueios representaram dois grupos pela técnica de injeção única, quinze com agulha descartável 21G (GA e quinze com agulha isolada adaptada ao estimulador de nervo periférico (GC e os restantes trinta bloqueios divididos em quinze bloqueios com cateter venoso (GB e quinze com cateter longo Contiplex® (GD. Todos os bloqueios do nervo femoral foram realizados no espaço perivascular inguinal. O espaço perifemoral foi identificado após a segunda perda de resistência ao ar (fascia ilíaca (GA e GC, e com 0,3 a 0,4 mA com o estimulador de nervo periférico (GB e GD. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: tempo para a realização do bloqueio; presença ou ausência de parestesias ou disestesias; dificuldade de punção e falhas. RESULTADOS: Não foram relatadas parestesias nem disestesias. Duas falhas resultaram no grupo A (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Varios son los métodos de localización del nervio femoral en el espacio perivascular en la región inguinal siendo el más común el del estimulador de nervio periférico. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la necesidad del bloqueo del nervio femoral con el método del estimulador del nervio periférico, comparándose con el método de la pérdida de resistencia tanto por la técnica de inyección única como por la técnica con catéteres. MÉTODO: Fueron realizados sesenta bloqueos del nervio femoral divididos en cuatro grupos homogéneos (GA, GB, GC y GD. Treinta bloqueos representaron dos grupos por la técnica de inyección única, quince con aguja desechable 21G (GA y quince con aguja aislada adaptada al estimulador de nervio periférico (GC y los restantes treinta bloqueos divididos en quince bloqueos con catéter venoso (GB y quince con catéter largo Contiplex® (GD. Todos los bloqueos del nervio femoral fueron realizados en el espacio perivascular inguinal. El espacio perifemoral fue identificado después de la segunda pérdida de resistencia al aire (fascia ilíaca (GA y GC, y con 0,3 a 0,4 mA con el estimulador de nervio periférico (GB y GD. Fueron evaluados los siguientes parámetros: tiempo para la realización del bloqueo; tiempo de duración del bloqueo; si hubo o no parestesias o disestesias; se hubo o no dificultad de punción y fallas. RESULTADOS: No fueron relatadas parestesias ni disestesias. Dos fallas resultaron en el grupo A (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are several methods to locate the femoral nerve in the perivascular inguinal space, being the most common the use of a peripheral nerve stimulator. This study aimed at evaluating femoral nerve block performed with peripheral nerve stimulator as compared to the loss of resistance to air technique, both by single injection or with catheter insertion. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing femoral nerve blocks were divided in four homogeneous groups (GA, GB, GC, GD. Thirty blocks were performed with single injection technique: 15 with disposable 21G needle (GA and 15 with insulated needle adapted to the peripheral nerve stimulator (GC. The remaining 30 blocks were divided in 15 blocks performed with intravenous catheter (GB and 15 with long Contiplex® catheter (GD. All femoral nerve blocks were performed in the perivascular inguinal space. Perifemoral space was identified after the second loss of resistance to air (iliac fascia, GA and GC, and with 0.3 to 0.4 mA stimuli from peripheral nerve stimulator (GB and GD. The following parameters were evaluated: time to blockade performance, presence or a

Karl Otto Geier

2003-06-01

232

Bloqueos de nervio periférico para el dolor posoperatorio de artroscopia de cadera / Peripheral nerve block for the postoperative pain relief after arthroscopy of the hip  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el tratamiento del dolor posoperatorio de la artroscopia de cadera es un reto y no se conocen estudios relacionados con su tratamiento basado en bloqueos regionales. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento del dolor posoperatorio y la satisfacción de los pacientes tratados por artroscop [...] ia de cadera con bloqueo femoral, bloqueo del plexo lumbar o infiltración intraarticular. Métodos: Se revisaron prospectivamente todos los registros anestésicos de 61 pacientes que requirieron artroscopia de cadera bajo anestesia general utilizando bloqueo femoral con 0,3 mL/kg de levobupivacaína al 0,375 %, bloqueo del plexo lumbar con 0,4 mL/kg de levobupivacaína al 0,375 % o infiltración intraarticular con 20 mL de bupivacaína al 0,5 %. Se revisaron los datos de dolor posoperatorio evaluados con escala visual análoga a los 15, 30, 60 y 120 minutos y a las 24 horas; la satisfacción del paciente en el momento del alta hospitalaria y a las 24 horas, el bloqueo motor y sensitivo y la necesidad de morfina en el posoperatorio. Resultados: El grupo tratado con infiltración intraarticular presentó los niveles de dolor más altos en casi todos los momentos evaluados. Comparado con el bloqueo del plexo lumbar, más pacientes del grupo bloqueo femoral presentaron niveles mayores de dolor en casi todos los momentos. De los pacientes del grupo tratado con infiltración intraarticular 55 % recibieron morfina en algún momento del posoperatorio, así como 28,5 % del grupo bloqueo femoral y 15 % del grupo bloqueo del plexo lumbar. El nivel de satisfacción de los pacientes fue alto y similar en los tres grupos. Conclusión: La analgesia posoperatoria para artroscopia de cadera fue mejor con bloqueo del plexo lumbar comparado con el bloqueo femoral o la infiltración intraarticular. Abstract in english Background: The treatment of postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the hip is a challenge and there are no known studies related to its treatment which have been based on regional block. Objectives:To determine the behaviour of postoperative pain and the satisfaction of the patients who have been [...] treated with arthroscopy of the hip with femoral block, lumbar plexus block or intra-articular infiltration. Methods:All the anaesthetic records of 61 patients that required arthroscopy of the hip under general anaesthesia using femoral block with 0,3 mL/kg of Levobupivacaine 0,375 %, lumbar plexus block with 0,4 mL/kg of Levobupivacaine 0,375 % or intra-articular infiltration with 20 mL of Bupivacaine 0,5 % were checked. The data about postoperative pain which had been assessed with visual analogous scale at the 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes and at the 24 hours, the satisfaction of the patients at the moment of the discharge from hospital at the 24 hours, the sensitive and motor block and the need to use Morphine in the postoperative phase were also checked. Results:The group of patients that were treated with intra-articular infiltration presented the highest levels of pain in almost all evaluated moments. As compared with the lumbar plexus block, more patients that underwent femoral block presented higher levels of pain in almost all moments. Out of the patients in the group that was treated with intra-articular infiltration, the 55 % received Morphine at any postoperative moment as well as the 28,5 % treated with femoral block and the 15 % who underwent lumbar plexus block. The level of patients´ satisfaction was high and similar in the three groups. Conclusions:Postoperative analgesia for arthroscopy of the hip was better with lumbar plexus block as compared with femoral block or intra-articular infiltration.

Jorge Jaime, Márquez Arábia; Carlos Eduardo, Restrepo Garcés; William Henry, Márquez Arábia.

2013-04-01

233

Obturator or "lateral" bypass in the management of infected vascular prostheses at the groin  

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Full Text Available The infection of the previously implanted vascular graft at the groin, is associated with great mortality and morbidity rate [1]. The authors present a retrospective study in which they analyzed management of infected vascular prostheses at the groin, using obturator bypass in 26 cases, and "lateral" bypass in 15 cases. The indications for obturator bypass reconstructions included: 20 infections of aorto-femoral grafts, two infected pse udoaneurysms in the groin after RTA of the superficial femoral artery, and 4 infections of iliac-femoral grafts. The indications for lateral bypass reconstructions were: infections after aorto-femoral reconstructions - 8 cases; infection after femora-popliteal reconstructions - 4 cases; infection after iliac-femoral reconstruction - 2 patients, and one infected pseudoaneurysm in the groin after RTA of the superficial femoral artery. In 3 subjects obturator bypass was performed using extraperitoneal approach while in other 23 patients transperitoneal approach was done by donor's artery. The obturator bypass was performed using a PTFE graft in 3 cases and Dacron graft in 23. The donor's artery used for obturator bypass was a noninfected proximal part of aortofemoral graft in 20 cases, and iliac artery in 6 patients. The superfical femoral artery was recipient artery for obturator bypass in 3 cases, deep femoral artery in one case, and above the knee popliteal artery in 22 cases (Figure 1. In two patients transperitoenal approach to donors artery for "lateral" bypass has been used, and in 13 cases extraperitoneal. The proximal noninfected part of aorto femoral graft was used as a donor's artery for lateral bypass in 8 patients, while common iliac artery in 7 subjects. In 5 cases recon structions were performed using PTFE grafts, in 3 using autologous saphenous vein grafts, and in 7 using Dacron grafts. The recipient artery for "lateral" bypass was deep femoral in 8 cases, superficial femoral in three patients and above the knee popliteal artery in 4 subjects. After both types of reconstruction, extirpation of infected grafts from the groin was performed (Figure 2. The control examination was performed using physical and Doppler ultrasonographic examinations, one, 3, 6, 12 months, and then every year after the operation. In cases with suspected graft infection or thrombosis, control angography was also performed. One intraoperative perforation of the urinary bladder has been done accidentally during obturator bypass reconstruction. The mean follow-up period for patients with obturator bypasses was 2.3 years, while 2.1 years for patients with "lateral" bypasses. Comparing with "lateral" bypass, obturator bypass showed statistically significant lower (p < 0.05 30- day mortality and early graft infection rate, as well as statistically significant better early and total limb salvage rate. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 between obturator and "lateral" bypass procedures having in mind, late graft infection rate, as well as early and late graft patency (Figures 3 and 4. In cases with infected vascular prostheses in the groin, the authors recommend obturator bypass comparing with "lateral" bypass.

Davidovi? Lazar B.

2002-01-01

234

Estudo comparativo entre dois protocolos anestésicos envolvendo bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e de Vazirani-Akinosi para exodontia de terceiro molar inferior / Comparative study of two anaesthetic protocols involving conventional and Vazirani-Akinosi alveolar inferior nerve block for lower third molar extraction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior (BNAI) apresenta alta porcentagem de falha na Odontologia. A fim de melhorar esse índice, vêm-se estudando diferentes alternativas, como diferentes técnicas e soluções anestésicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas diferentes técnicas - técnica convenciona [...] l e de Vazirani-Akinosi - para o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior, bem como compará-las quanto à sua efetividade e quantificar o percentual de aspirações positivas nas duas diferentes técnicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 160 pacientes de ambos os sexos, sendo 80 submetidos ao bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior de Vazirani-Akinosi e bloqueio do nervo bucal (G1), e 80 submetidos ao bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e ao bloqueio do nervo bucal (G2). Em ambos os grupos, utilizou-se a combinação de articaína 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 para bloqueio do nervo bucal, e lidocaína 2% com epinefrina 1:100.000 para bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior. Foram avaliados: a quantidade de aspirações positivas, a eficácia da anestesia e o momento em que ocorreu a falha anestésica durante o procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADO: Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p = 0,2453) entre os grupos G1 e G2 observando-se a eficácia e o índice de aspirações positivas, e o momento em que ocorreu a falha anestésica, observando-se uma maior eficácia de ambas as técnicas, quando comparadas com a literatura (90%) CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença significativa entre o BNAI pela técnica convencional e o BNAI pela técnica de Vazirani-Akinosi quanto a quantidade de aspirações positivas e eficácia, sendo que o uso da articaína 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 no bloqueio do nervo bucal possivelmente aumentou a eficácia anestésica de ambas as técnicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The inferior alveolar nerve block has a high percentage of failure in dentistry. To improve this ratio, has been studied different alternatives, as different techniques, as well as anesthetics. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate two different techniques (conventional technique and Vazirani-Akino [...] si) for inferior alveolar nerve block, and compare them regarding their effectiveness and quantify the percentage of positive aspirations in both techniques. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 160 patients were evaluated for both sex, with 80 undergoing Vazirani-Akinosi technique plus buccal nerve block (G1), and 80 to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block plus buccal nerve block (G2), both groups using a combination of 4% articaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine to buccal nerve block and 2% lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine to inferior alveolar nerve block. We evaluated the amount of positive aspirations, the effectiveness or not of anesthesia (pain) and when it occurred during the surgical procedure. RESULT: There were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.2453) between G1 and G2 observing the positive aspiration. It was obtained efficiency of 90% for both techniques. CONCLUSION: No significant difference between the conventional alveolar inferior nerve block technique and Vazirani-Akinosi alveolar nerve block technique considering the amount of positive aspirations and efficacy, and the use of 4% articaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine in buccal nerve block possibly increased the anesthetic efficacy of both techniques.

Danilo de Paula Ribeiro, Borges; Liane Maciel de Almeida, Souza; Maria Luisa Silveira, Souto; Liliane Poconé, Dantas; Mônica Silveira, Paixão; Francisco Carlos, Groppo.

2014-01-01

235

PWR pressurizer with heaters well which can be obturate and sealing process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each heater well is prolongated at the end located outer the pressurizer containment by a sleeve internally tapped which is prolongated at the other end by a guiding and fixation sleeve for welding the heater. The heater well can be obturated by a threaded plug introduce in the tapped part of the sleeve after cutting the welding sleeve and extraction of the heater

236

Bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization following orthograde mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: a scanning electron microscopy study.  

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The time domain entombment of bacteria by intratubular mineralization following orthograde canal obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single-rooted human premolars (n=60) were instrumented to an apical size #50/0.06 using ProFile and treated as follows: Group 1 (n=10) was filled with phosphate buffered saline (PBS); Group 2 (n=10) was incubated with Enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks, and then filled with PBS; Group 3 (n=20) was obturated orthograde with a paste of OrthoMTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea) and PBS; and Group 4 (n=20) was incubated with E. faecalis for 3 weeks and then obturated with OrthoMTA-PBS paste. Following their treatments, the coronal openings were sealed with PBS-soaked cotton and intermediate restorative material (IRM), and the roots were then stored in PBS for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. After each incubation period, the roots were split and their dentin/MTA interfaces examined in both longitudinal and horizontal directions by SEM. There appeared to be an increase in intratubular mineralization over time in the OrthoMTA-filled roots (Groups 3 and 4). Furthermore, there was a gradual entombment of bacteria within the dentinal tubules in the E. faecalis inoculated MTA-filled roots (Group 4). Therefore, the orthograde obturation of root canals with OrthoMTA mixed with PBS may create a favorable environment for bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization. PMID:25012869

Yoo, Jun Sang; Chang, Seok-Woo; Oh, So Ram; Perinpanayagam, Hiran; Lim, Sang-Min; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Oh, Yeo-Rok; Woo, Sang-Bin; Han, Seung-Hyun; Zhu, Qiang; Kum, Kee-Yeon

2014-12-01

237

Filling of simulated lateral canals using different obturation techniques: analysis through IDA digital radiograph system  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Lateral canals are part of the root canal system and may be related to periodontal-endodontic diseases. The filling techniques that employ thermoplasticized gutta-percha have demonstrated better results in filling lateral canals. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, through digital radiographs, three techniques of root canal obturation (Lateral Condensation, Obtura II System, Tagger’s Hybrid regarding to the ability of filling artificial lateral canals. Material and methods: 30 extracted human lower premolars were used in this study. The crowns were removed and artificial laterals canals were prepared on the coronal, medium and apical thirds of the roots by using a reamer made of a K 10 file. The root canals were instrumented and obturated by the following techniques: Lateral Condensation, Obtura II System, and Tagger’s Hybrid. The teeth were radiographed with IDA digital radiograph system and the filling of the lateral canals was evaluated by scores for further statistical analysis. Results: No significant difference was found in the filling of lateral canals between Lateral Condensation and Obtura II, but a significant difference was found among these two and Tagger’s Hybrid technique. Conclusion: Tagger’s Hybrid technique promoted the highest numbers of obturated lateral canals. In the three groups, the root thirds presenting greater number of filled lateral canals were coronal and middle, regardless of the obturation technique employed.

Clarissa Teles Rodrigues

2012-09-01

238

Apical leakage of obturated canals prepared by Er:YAG laser.  

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The present study evaluates the degree of apical leakage in vitro after root canal preparation using Er:YAG laser irradiation followed by obturation. Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were divided into 2 groups of 12. One group served as a control and these root canals were conventionally prepared up to a #50K file. The other group was prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation at parameters of 2 Hz and 170 to 230 mJ/pulse. After obturation the teeth were immersed in a vacuum flask containing 0.6% rhodamine for 48 h, longitudinally bisected, and observed by stereoscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of apical leakage from an apical stop was measured and statistical analysis was performed. The degree of apical leakage from the teeth prepared by laser was not significantly less than that from control teeth (p > 0.01). Morphological findings showed that contact between the root canal walls and obturated materials was hermetic in both groups, but canal walls prepared by laser were rough and irregular. These results show that root canal preparation by laser does not affect apical leakage after obturation compared with leakage in canals prepared using the conventional method. PMID:11556559

Kimura, Y; Yonaga, K; Yokoyama, K; Matsuoka, E; Sakai, K; Matsumoto, K

2001-09-01

239

A simple technique to fabricate a surgical obturator restoring the defect in original anatomical form.  

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Oral cancer treatment involves the surgical removal of all or part of the maxilla, leaving the patient with a defect that compromises the integrity and function of the oral cavity. The postoperative restoration of esthetics, deglutition, and speech shortens recovery time in the hospital and expedites the patient's return to the community as a functioning member. The surgical obturator is the proven treatment option in such situations. This article describes a simple technique to fabricate a surgical obturator that restores patient's original dentition and facial and palatal tissue form. The obturator fabricated with this technique utilizes the vacuum formed index of patient's original tissue form and duplicated partly in heat and partly in auto polymerizing acrylic resin. Duplication of the original tissue form helps patient to minimize the immense physiological trauma immediately after the surgical resection. The obturator fabricated with this technique supports soft tissues after surgery and minimizes scar contracture and disfigurement, and thus may have a positive effect on the patients' psychology. PMID:21814621

Shambharkar, Vaibhao I; Puri, Santosh B; Patil, Pravinkumar G

2011-06-01

240

Relationship between cup position and obturator externus muscle in total hip arthroplasty  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often challenging to find the causes for postoperative pain syndromes after total hip replacement, since they can be very allotropic. One possible cause is the muscular impingement syndrome. The most commonly known impingement syndrome is the psoas impingement. Another recently described impingement syndrome is the obturator externus muscle impingement. The aim of this study is to analyze pathological conditions of the Obturator externus and to show possible causes. Methods 40 patients who had undergone a total hip replacement were subjected to clinical and MRI examinations 12 months after the surgery. The Harris Hip Score (HHS was used to analyze pain and function. Additionally, a satisfaction score and a pain score (VAS were determined. The MRI allowed for the assessment of the spatial relation between the obturator externus muscle and the acetabulum. Also measured were the acetabular inclination angle as well as the volume and cross-sectional area of the obturator externus muscle. Results The patients were assigned to 3 groups in accordance with their MRI results. Group 1 patients (n = 18 showed no contact between the obturator externus and the acetabulum. Group 2 (n = 13 showed contact, and group 3 (n = 9 an additional clear displacement of the muscle in its course. It was not possible to establish a connection between the imaging findings, the HHS, the VAS, and patient satisfaction. What was striking, however, was a significant difference between the median inclination angle in group 1 (40° ± 5.4° and group 3 (49° ± 4.7° (p Conclusion Contact between the obturator externus muscle and the caudal acetabula border occurs frequently, but is only rarely accompanied by a painful muscular impingement. The position of the acetabula must be seen as one of the main risk factors for contact between the acetabula border and the obturator. The hip replacement process must provide for sufficient osseous coverage of the caudal acetabula border. Furthermore, the retention of the transverse ligament may serve as protective cover for the incisura acetabuli.

Perka Carsten

2010-07-01

241

Bilateral high division of sciatic nerve  

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Full Text Available Sciatic nerve is the thickest nerve in the body formed by the sacral plexus from L4 to S3 in the lesser pelvis. It emerges through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and enter the gluteal region. Then the nerve passes on the back of the thigh and at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa it terminates by dividing into tibial and common peroneal nerve. The knowledge of anatomical variations in the division of nerve is important for various surgical and anaesthetic procedures. During routine dissection in the department of anatomy, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, a rare bilateral high division of sciatic nerve was observed in a female cadaver aged about 40 years. In the present case there was bilateral high division of sciatic nerve. The nerve was seen dividing into two branches before it emerges through the greater sciatic foramen. The tibial nerve was entering the gluteal region below the piriformis muscle and common peroneal nerve was entering by piercing the piriformis. The knowledge of this variation is important as the nerve may get compressed with surrounding anatomical structures resulting in non discogenic sciatica. The awareness of variations is important for surgeons during various procedures like fracture, posterior dislocation of hip joint and hip joint replacement. The anatomical variations are important during deep intramuscular injections in gluteal region and also for anaesthetists during sciatic nerve block. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1785-1787

K. Shwetha

2014-08-01

242

Conservative management of medication-related osteonecrosis of the maxilla with an obturator prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced maxillary medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw can cause extensive hard and soft tissue destruction that results in long-term oroantral fistulae. The surgical treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw may relieve acute symptoms and eliminate the signs of inflammation, but the primary and sustained plastic closure of these defects can challenge both the clinician and the patients. Although the use of obturator prostheses for maxillary defects after ablative oncologic surgery is well documented, studies about this treatment for similar medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw-related defects are missing. This presentation of clinical situations describes the use of obturators as a conservative alternative to repetitive surgery for the rehabilitation of selected maxillary defects with oroantral communications. PMID:25444286

Troeltzsch, Matthias; Probst, Florian; Troeltzsch, Markus; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven

2014-10-29

243

Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on nerve blockade  

OpenAIRE

Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) have the potential to improve access of local anesthetics to the nerve, thereby improving nerve block performance. We assessed the effects of six CPEs on nerve blockade from tetrodotoxin (TTX) and from bupivacaine. Each of the six surfactants, representing three CPE sub-groups (anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants) was co-injected with TTX or bupivacaine at the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats. Myotoxicity of CPEs, alone and with TTX, was assess...

Simons, Emmanuel J.; Bellas, Evangelia; Lawlor, Michael W.; Kohane, Daniel S.

2009-01-01

244

Silicone obturators and the bacterial flora in symptomatic nasal septal perforations  

OpenAIRE

Background A perforation in the nasal septum can cause symptoms such as bleeding, obstruction, crusts and pain, and can be a challenge to treat. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but disease, size of the perforation, or the patient’s wish may contradict surgery. A custom-made silicone obturator is a successful treatment option, but little is known how this treatment affects the microbial flora. The purposes of this thesis were (i) to investigate the microbial flora around symptomatic nasa...

Hulterstro?m, Anna Karin

2012-01-01

245

A new technique of impression making for an obturator in cleft lip and palate patient  

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Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is a birth defect occurring in the orofacial region. One of the immediate problems to be addressed in a newborn with this defect would be to aid in suckling and swallowing. Here we present a case of a 5-day-old infant with unilateral cleft lip and palate for whom feeding obturator was made by using a simplified impression technique to facilitate feeding.

Ravichandra K

2010-01-01

246

Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. Method and Materials: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) trea...

Marti?n-gonza?lez, Jenifer; Echevarri?a-pe?rez, Marta; Sa?nchez-domi?nguez, Benito; Tarilonte-delgado, Maria L.; Castellanos-cosano, Lizett; Lo?pez-fri?as, Francisco J.; Segura-egea, Juan J.

2012-01-01

247

A simple technique to fabricate a surgical obturator restoring the defect in original anatomical form  

OpenAIRE

Oral cancer treatment involves the surgical removal of all or part of the maxilla, leaving the patient with a defect that compromises the integrity and function of the oral cavity. The postoperative restoration of esthetics, deglutition, and speech shortens recovery time in the hospital and expedites the patient's return to the community as a functioning member. The surgical obturator is the proven treatment option in such situations. This article describes a simple technique to fabricate a s...

Shambharkar, Vaibhao I.; Puri, Santosh B.; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

2011-01-01

248

Distribuição do nervo fibular comum em fetos de equinos e descrição anatômica de pontos para bloqueio anestésico / Distribution of common peroneal nerve in equine fetuses and anatomical description of sites for anesthetic block  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Analisou-se a distribuição do nervo fibular comum em 30 fetos de equinos, sem raça definida, provenientes do acervo do Laboratório de Anatomia Animal da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, que foram injetados e conservados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. [...] Contatou-se que o referido nervo deriva do isquiático, divide-se em nervos fibulares superficial e profundo, distribuindo-se para os músculos extensores lateral e longo do dedo, fibular terceiro e tibial cranial. Traçando-se uma linha imaginária na região médio-lateral da tuberosidade do osso tíbia, o nervo fibular comum pode ser bloqueado em sua parte proximal, no terço caudal, entre o tendão de inserção do músculo bíceps femoral e a face lateral do músculo gastrocnêmio lateral (terço médio); e o nervo fibular profundo, na parte proximal da tíbia, crânio-distalmente ao fibular comum. O bloqueio do nervo fibular superficial pode ser realizado em duas regiões da tíbia: na proximal, considerando-se a linha imaginária, distalmente ao ponto citado para o fibular comum e caudalmente ao descrito para o fibular profundo; e na distal, na face lateral da articulação tíbio-társica, entre os tendões de inserção dos músculos extensores lateral e longo do dedo. Abstract in english The distribution of the nervus fibularis communis was analyzed in 30 equine fetuses, mongrel, from the collection of the Animal Anatomy Laboratory at the School of Veterinary Medicine of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, which were injected and stored in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. It [...] was found that this nerve emerges from the ischiadicus, divides itself into nervus fibularis profundus and nervus fibularis superficialis distributing to the musculi extensor digitorum lateralis, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius, and tibialis cranialis. Drawing an imaginary line in the medial-lateral region of the tuberositatis tibia, the nervus fibularis communis may be blocked in its proximal portion, in the caudal third, between the tendon of insertion of the biceps femoris and the lateral side of the musculus gastrocnemius (medium third); and the nervus fibularis profundus may be blocked in the proximal tibia, cranio-distally to the nervus fibularis communis. The block of nervus fibularis profundus may be performed in two regions of the tibia: proximal, considering the imaginary line, distal to the site referred to the nervus fibularis communis, and caudal to that described for the nervus fibularis profundus; and distal, on the lateral side of the tibiotarsal joint, between the tendons of insertion of the musculi extensor digitorum lateralis and extensor digitorum longus.

Luciana P., Iglesias; Frederico O.C., Silva; Bruno G., Vasconcelos; Lucas A., Ribeiro; Nairana F., Hodniki; Lara R., Gomes; Maria A., Miglino; Alan P. F. de, Melo.

2012-07-01

249

Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges  

Science.gov (United States)

For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

2013-01-01

250

Effect of irrigation with Tetraclean on bacterial leakage of obturated root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study presented here was to evaluate the effect of Tetraclean, Hypoclean, Chlor-XTRA, 2% chlorhexidine and 6% sodium hypochlorite/17% EDTA as a final irrigant on bacterial leakage of the root canal. One hundred and fifty-five extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into five experimental groups of 25 teeth each and two control groups of 15 teeth each. The root canals in each group were irrigated with 2 ml of the relevant irrigant between each filing. The root canals in group 5 were irrigated with 5 ml of 17% EDTA at the end of root canal preparation. The teeth in each group were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer. Positive control teeth were obturated with a single gutta-percha cone without sealer, and negative controls were obturated in the same way as experimental groups. The coronal portion of each root was placed in contact with inoculum of Enterococcus faecalis in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) culture media. Findings showed that the mean number of days for bacterial penetration in the Tetraclean group was greater than for other experimental groups. On the other hand, the Chlor-XTRA Vista group showed the fewest mean number of days for bacterial leakage. PMID:24933773

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio

2014-04-01

251

Nerve Racking  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson describes the function and components of the human nervous system. It helps students understand the purpose of our brain, spinal cord, nerves and the five senses. How the nervous system is affected during spaceflight is also discussed in this lesson.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

252

Efficacy of ProTaper Retreatment System in Root Canals Obturated with Gutta-Percha Using Two Different Sealers and GuttaFlow  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To compare the efficacy of ProTaper retreatment files in removing three different obturating materials. Study Design. Forty-five human, single-rooted premolars were divided into three experimental groups. Group 1 was obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, Group 2 was obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer, and Group 3 was obturated with GuttaFlow. Retreatment was done using the ProTaper universal rotary retreatment files. Root halves were visualized usin...

Jaya Siotia; Shashi Rashmi Acharya; Sunil Kumar Gupta

2011-01-01

253

Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve injuries  

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Full Text Available Autologous nerve grafting is the most commnly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve.In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases. Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases. Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient’s age, location and the extent (total or partial of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities.

Simi? Vesna D.

2003-01-01

254

Bloqueio seletivo dos nervos supraescapular e axilar promove analgesia satisfatória e menor grau de bloqueio motor: comparação com o bloqueio interescalênico El bloqueo selectivo de los nervios supraescapular y axilar promueve una analgesia satisfactoria y un menor grado de bloqueo motor: comparación con el bloqueo interescalénico Selective suprascapular and axillary nerve block provides adequate analgesia and minimal motor block: comparison with interscalene block  

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Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Cirurgias artroscópicas do ombro cursam com intensa dor pós-operatória. Diversas técnicas analgésicas têm sido preconizadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o bloqueio dos nervos supraescapular e axilar nas cirurgias artroscópicas de ombro com a abordagem interescalênica do plexo braquial. MÉTODO: Sessenta e oito pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos de 34, de acordo com a técnica utilizada: grupo interescalênico (GI e grupo seletivo (GS, sendo ambas as abordagens realizadas com neuroestimulador. No GI, após resposta motora adequada foram injetados 30 mL de levopubivacaína em excesso enantiomérico de 50% a 0,33% com adrenalina 1:200.000. No GS, após resposta motora do nervo supraescapular e axilar, foram injetados 15 mL da mesma substância em cada nervo. Em seguida, realizada anestesia geral. Variáveis avaliadas: tempo para realização dos bloqueios, analgesia, consumo de opioide, bloqueio motor, estabilidade cardiocirculatória, satisfação e aceitabilidade pelo paciente. RESULTADOS: Tempo para execução do bloqueio interescalênico foi significativamente menor que para realização do bloqueio seletivo. Analgesia foi significativamente maior no pós-operatório imediato no GI e no pós-operatório tardio no GS. Consumo de morfina foi significativamente maior na primeira hora no GS. Bloqueio motor foi significativamente menor no GS. Estabilidade cardiocirculatória, satisfação e aceitabilidade da técnica pelo paciente não diferiram entre os grupos. Ocorreu uma falha no GI e duas no GS. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas são seguras, eficazes com mesmo grau de satisfação e aceitabilidade. O bloqueio seletivo de ambos os nervos apresentou analgesia satisfatória, com a vantagem de proporcionar bloqueio motor restrito ao ombro.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las cirugías artroscópicas del hombro cursan con un intenso dolor postoperatorio. Diversas técnicas analgésicas han sido preconizadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el bloqueo de los nervios supraescapular y axilar en las cirugías artroscópicas de hombro con el abordaje interescalénico del plexo braquial. MÉTODO: Sesenta y ocho pacientes fueron ubicados en dos grupos de 34, de acuerdo con la técnica utilizada: grupo Interescalénico (GI y grupo selectivo (GS, siendo ambos abordajes realizados con neuroestimulador. En el GI, y después de la respuesta motora adecuada, se inyectaron 30 mL de levopubivacaina en exceso enantiomérico de un 50% al 0,33% con adrenalina 1:200.000. En el GS, y después de la respuesta motora del nervio supraescapular y axilar, se inyectaron 15 mL de la misma sustancia en cada nervio. Enseguida se realizó la anestesia general. Las variables que se evaluaron fueron: tiempo para la realización de los bloqueos, analgesia, consumo de opioide, bloqueo motor, estabilidad cardiocirculatoria, satisfacción y aceptabilidad por parte del paciente. RESULTADOS: El tiempo para la ejecución del bloqueo interescalénico fue significativamente menor que para la realización del bloqueo selectivo. La analgesia fue significativamente mayor en el postoperatorio inmediato en el GI y en el postoperatorio tardío en el GS. El consumo de morfina fue significativamente mayor en la primera hora en el GS. El bloqueo motor fue significativamente menor en el GS. La estabilidad cardiocirculatoria, satisfacción y aceptabilidad de la técnica por el paciente no fueron diferentes entre los grupos. Ocurrió un fallo en el GI y dos en el GS. CONCLUSIONES: Ambas técnicas son seguras y eficaces con el mismo grado de satisfacción y de aceptabilidad. El bloqueo selectivo de ambos nervios presentó una analgesia satisfactoria, con la ventaja de proporcionar un bloqueo motor restringido al hombro.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Shoulder arthroscopic surgeries evolve with intense postoperative pain. Several analgesic techniques have been advocated. The aim of this study was to compare suprascapular and axillary nerve blocks in shoulder arthroscopy using the interscalene approach to brachial ple

Patrícia Falcão Pitombo

2013-02-01

255

Eficacia y seguridad del bloqueo de nervio supraescapular guiado por ultrasonido en pacientes con dolor crónico de hombro / Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block in patients with chronic shoulder pain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El síndrome de hombro doloroso es una de las patologías más comunes de dolor crónico de origen osteomuscular. Y es frecuente encontrar pacientes sin mejoría con el tratamiento conservador con terapia física y fármacos, e incluso fallo en el manejo quirúrgico. El bloqueo supraescapular [...] guiado por ultrasonido es una alternativa cuando la terapia de base no funciona. Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia clínica y la seguridad del manejo intervencionista con bloqueo del nervio supraescapular guiado por ultrasonografía en pacientes con dolor crónico de hombro. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo, prospectivo, de seguimiento a una cohorte de 46 pacientes con enfermedad dolorosa crónica de hombro que recibieron tratamiento intervencionista guiado por ultrasonografía en el Instituto Colombiano del Dolor entre los meses de octubre de 2011 y mayo de 2012, para determinar su eficacia y seguridad. Se obtuvieron datos antes del procedimiento, a los 2 días y un mes después. La intensidad de dolor se midió con la escala visual analógica (EVA). Resultados: Se realizaron 46 bloqueos. El 78,3% de los pacientes presentaron una disminución del dolor de al menos el 50% a los 2 días y el 47,8% al mes, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction: The painful shoulder syndrome is one of the most common chronic pain conditions of muscle-skeletal origin. It is frequent to find patients who do not improve with conservative treatment based on medications and physical therapy, or even with surgical management. Ultrasound-guided supra [...] scapular blockade is another option when basic therapy does not work. Objective: To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of interventional management with ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Materials and methods: A descriptive, prospective, follow-up study was conducted in a cohort of 46 patients with chronic shoulder pain disorder who received interventional treatment under ultrasound guidance at the Colombian Pain Institute between October 2011 and May 2012, with the objective of determining efficacy and safety of the procedure. Data were gathered before the procedure, and then two days later and one month after the procedure. Pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Forty-six blocks were performed. Overall, 78.3% of the patients experienced at least 50% reduction of pain two days later, and 47.8% had pain relief after one month, with a statistically significant difference (p

Mario Andrés, Arcila Lotero; Roberto Cario, Rivera Díaz; Daniel, Campuzano Escobar; María Adelaida, Mejía Aguilar; Sandra Milena, Martínez Ramírez.

2013-06-01

256

Comparison of laterally condensed, vertically compacted thermoplasticized, cold free-flow GP obturations - A volumetric analysis using spiral CT  

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Full Text Available Aim/Objective: To compare the laterally condensed gutta-percha, vertically compacted thermoplastized gutta-percha (E and Q Plus system and cold free-flow gutta-percha (GuttaFlow. This is a volumetric analysis using spiral CT, an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 60 single rooted anterior teeth; cleaning and shaping was done and obturated with three of the different techniques: group A: cold lateral; group B: vertically compacted thermoplasticized and group C: cold free-flow obturation techniques. Volume analysis was done using spiral computed tomography (CT. The percentage difference was calculated and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc multiple comparison Tukey HSD tests. Results: There were statistical significant differences between group A (0.183cm 3 and group B (0.136cm 3 ; group A (0.183cm 3 and group C (0.128cm 3 . But there was no statistical significance between group B (0.136cm 3 and group C (0.128cm 3 . Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study it can be concluded that cold free-flow obturation technique showed the highest volume of obturation, followed by the vertically condensed thermoplasticized technique. The least volume of obturation was observed in cold lateral condensation technique.

Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

2009-01-01

257

Comparison of laterally condensed, vertically compacted thermoplasticized, cold free-flow GP obturations – A volumetric analysis using spiral CT  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim/Objective: To compare the laterally condensed gutta-percha, vertically compacted thermoplastized gutta-percha (E and Q Plus system) and cold free-flow gutta–percha (GuttaFlow). This is a volumetric analysis using spiral CT, an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 60 single rooted anterior teeth; cleaning and shaping was done and obturated with three of the different techniques: group A: cold lateral; group B: vertically compacted thermoplasticized and group C: cold free-flow obturation techniques. Volume analysis was done using spiral computed tomography (CT). The percentage difference was calculated and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc multiple comparison Tukey HSD tests. Results: There were statistical significant differences between group A (0.183cm3) and group B (0.136cm3); group A (0.183cm3) and group C (0.128cm3). But there was no statistical significance between group B (0.136cm3) and group C (0.128cm3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study it can be concluded that cold free-flow obturation technique showed the highest volume of obturation, followed by the vertically condensed thermoplasticized technique. The least volume of obturation was observed in cold lateral condensation technique. PMID:20543923

Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Krishna, Reddy Gopi; Hannah, Rosaline; Arathi, Ganesh; Roohi, Riaz

2009-01-01

258

Neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shoulder joint is an enarthrodial or ball-and-socket joint. A complex network of anatomic structures endows the human shoulder with tremendous mobility, greater than any other joint in the body. Many pathologies can been found in those patients with chronic shoulder pain. The painful limitation of shoulder motion affects hand and arm motion as well; therefore, it significantly influences work performance and everyday activities as well as the quality of life. Therefore, the treatment of patients with chronic shoulder pain has major social and health economic implications. In this article we present a patient with a complex history of shoulder pathology including 7 surgeries that left the patient with chronic debilitating shoulder pain. She was suffering from chronic pain and limited mobility of the shoulder joint due to adhesive shoulder capsulitis. She was treated with a multimodality approach with the goals of increasing shoulder range of motion and decreasing her pain. This did not provide significant improvement. The suprascapular nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the shoulder, and can be easily accessible in the supraspinatus fossa. A suprascapular nerve block dramatically decreased her pain. This clinical observation along with confirmatory nerve block play an important role during the decision-making process for a trial period of electrical neuromodulation. She was followed for 3 months after the permanent implantation of a suprascapular nerve stimulator. Her pain and shoulder range of motion in all planes improved dramatically. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) of the suprascapular nerve, in addition to multimodality pain management, is one approach to the difficult task of treating adhesive capsulitis with accompanying pain and the inability to move the shoulder. We conducted a literature review on PubMed and found no case describing a similar patient to our knowledge. PMID:25415792

Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan G

2014-12-01

259

Prosthodontic rehabilitation after partial maxillar resection by obturator denture retained with the system of attachments: Case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Maxillar resection surgery results in unusual morphology of the remaining maxillary arch and communication between the oral and nasal cavities. Consequences are speech, mastication and swallowing difficulties, impaired face appearance and significant decrease of life quality. For the reconstruction of emerging defects after total or partial maxillar resection, the most suitable solution is prosthetic therapy with obturator dentures. Case Report. This study describes the rehabilitation of a 60-year-old male patient after partial maxillar resection with obturator dentures having radicular attachment. The patient's diagnosis was Planocellular oral carcinoma. Conclusion. Radicular attachment improves retention in comparison with conventional obturator. Successful rehabilitation of the speech and mastication was achieved. The passage of air and fluids between the oral and nasal cavity was disabled and facial asymmetry was corrected. The patient expressed satisfaction with the therapy.

Markovi? Dubravka

2010-01-01

260

What Are Nerve Blocks for Headache?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pain at the Montefiore Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. Matthew S. Robbins, MD, FAHS, is the director of the neurology service at the Einstein Division of Montefiore Medical ...

261

Femoral nerve damage (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

262

Ulnar nerve damage (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

263

Nerve conduction velocity  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... surface electrodes are placed on the skin over nerves at various locations. Each patch gives off a ...

264

Optic Nerve Imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

265

System for sampling liquids in small jugs obturated by screwed taps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention describes a machine which samples automatically liquids in small jugs obturated by screwed taps. This device can be situated in an isolated room in order to work with radioactive liquids. The machine can be divided in three main parts: a module to catch the jug, in order to take and fix it, a module to open and to close it, and a module to sample. The later takes the liquid thanks to a suction device and puts it in a container, in order to analyse the sample. (TEC)

266

Monoblock Obturation Technique for Non-Vital Immature Permanent Maxillary Incisors Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: Results from Case Series  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten patients presented with non-vital immature teeth for root canal treatment. In all these cases the pre-operative clinical examination revealed apical periodontitis with a buccal sinus tract of endodontic origin. These cases were treated by a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) monoblock obturation technique. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1 - 2 years after treatment. Eight out of 10 cases were associated with periradicular healing at follow-up evaluation. Mineral trioxide aggregate Monoblock obturation technique appears to be a valid material to obtain periradicular healing in teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps. (author)

267

Nerve Impulses in Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

Blatt, F. J.

1974-01-01

268

Distribution of Sciatic nerve in Hamstring muscles  

OpenAIRE

Regarding the importance of sciatic nerve distribution in replacement of anal sphincter and sciatic nerve block we decided to study this matter for the first time in Iran. In this way 100 cadavers (88% male and 12% female) were dissected and studied by loop microscope. The results shows that primarily, according to the first branch derived from sciatic; there would be 4 main Groups. If this samples were rgarded according to the second branch of the nerve, then there would be 6 accessory group...

"Khaleghi R; Barbarestani M; Akbari M; Pasbakhsh P.; Marzban H; Zanganehnia F "

2000-01-01

269

Pharmacological properties of a C-fibre response evoked by saphenous nerve stimulation in an isolated spinal cord-nerve preparation of the newborn rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. An isolated spinal cord-peripheral nerve preparation of the newborn rat was developed. In this preparation it is possible to record spinal reflexes from a lumbar ventral root in response to stimulation of the ipsilateral saphenous or obturator nerve. 2. Single shock, weak intensity stimulation of the saphenous nerve induced a fast conducted compound action potential in the L3 dorsal root and a fast depolarizing response in the ipsilateral L3 ventral root. As a stronger stimulus was applied to the saphenous nerve, a slowly conducted compound action potential appeared in the dorsal root and a slow depolarizing ventral root potential (v.r.p.) in the L3 ventral root. 3. Single shock stimulation of the obturator nerve induced a rapidly conducted compound action potential in the L3 dorsal root and monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes, with a fast time course, in the ipsilateral L3 ventral root. 4. The slow v.r.p. evoked by saphenous nerve stimulation was depressed by the tachykinin antagonist, [D-Arg1, D-Trp7,9, Leu11] substance P (spantide), 4-16 microM. The response recovered its original shape and size 30-60 min after the removal of this antagonist. 5. The saphenous nerve-evoked slow v.r.p. was depressed by [Met5] enkephalin (0.1-1 microM), dynorphin (1-13)(0.2 microM) and morphine (1-2 microM), and these effects were reversed by naloxone (1 microM). 6. Two endogenous peptides, galanin (1-2 microM) and somatostatin (1-2.5 microM), inhibited the slow v.r.p. evoked by saphenous nerve stimulation, whereas another endogenous peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (0.1-0.5 microM), potentiated the slow v.r.p. The slow v.r.p. was also inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 20 microM) and muscimol (0.2 microM), and their effects were antagonized by bicuculline (1 microM). 7. The present results suggest that substance P and neurokinin A are involved in the saphenous nerve-evoked C-fibre response in the spinal cord of the newborn rat. PMID:2479438

Nussbaumer, J C; Yanagisawa, M; Otsuka, M

1989-10-01

270

Relationship Between Volume of Pterygopalatine Fossa and Block Anesthesia of Maxillary Nerve: A Pilot Study / Relación entre el Volumen de la Fosa Pterigopalatina y la Anestesia Troncular del Nervio Maxilar: Un Estudio Piloto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El bloqueo troncular del nervio maxilar (BTNM) se logra depositando anestesia vía canal palatino mayor en la fosa pterigopalatina. Los autores difieren en la cantidad de anestesia a depositar y la tasa de complicaciones asociadas (diplopía y hematomas). Coronado et al. (2008) midió el volumen de la [...] fosa pterigopalatina encontrando un promedio de 1,2ml, sugiriendo dicha cantidad de anestesia para el BTNM. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar la eficacia de dosis bajas de 1,2ml (DB) versus dosis tradicional de 1,8ml (DT) de anestesia para el BTNM y sus efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio clínico cuasiexperimental de carácter exploratorio, participaron 82 pacientes donde la técnica anestésica estaba indicada para un procedimiento de exodoncia, los que fueron aleatorizados en los grupos DB y DT, administrándoles lidocaína al 2% con 1:50.000 de epinefrina. Se registraron variables demográficas (sexo y edad), clínicas (pieza a extraer y dosis administrada) y anatómicas (índices facial superior y craneal). El éxito anestésico (EA) se definió como la posibilidad de realizar la exodoncia con nulo o mínimo dolor, medido con escala visual análoga (EVA). En el análisis estadístico se utilizaron los tests de chi cuadrado y t de student (p Abstract in english Block anesthesia of maxillary nerve 9BAMN) is achieved by depositing anesthesia through greater palatine canal into the pterygopalatine fossa. Authors differ in the amount of anesthesia to be administered and the rate of complications (diplopia and hematomas), Coronado et al., (2008), measured the s [...] ize of the pterygopalatine fossa finding an average of 1.2 ml, suggesting that amount of anesthesia for BAMN. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of low doses of 1.2 ml (LD)versus traditional dose of 1.8 m. (TD) of anesthesia for BAMN and its adverse effects. A quasi experimental exploratory clinical study was performed involving 82 patients where the anesthetic technique was suitable for tooth extraction procedure; patients were randomized in LD and TD groups, 2% lidocaine with 1:50.000 epinephrine was used. Demographic (sex and age), clinical (tooth for extraction and anesthetic dose) as well as anatomical variables (upper facial and cranial index) were recorded. The anesthetic success (AS) was defined as the possibility to perform the tooth extraction with no pain or minimal pain as measured by visual analogue scale (VAS). For statistical analysis chi-square and t test (p

Pedro, Aravena Torres; Nicole, Cresp Sinning; Katherine, Büchner Sagredo; Carlos, Muñoz Rocha; Ricardo, Cartes-Velásquez.

2011-09-01

271

Ischemic and reperfusion injury of rat peripheral nerve  

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A rat model of severe nerve ischemia was used to study the effects of ischemia and reperfusion on nerve conduction, blood flow, and the integrity of the blood-nerve barrier. Conduction failure was consistently found in the sciatic-tibial nerve during 1- and 3-hr ischemic periods. Recovery of the compound muscle action potential was prompt and complete upon reperfusion following 1 hr of ischemia. However, after 3 hr of ischemia, recovery in the proximal portion of the sciatic nerve was <10%, and conduction block occurred in the distal portion of the nerve. Nerve blood flow was restored to only 55% and 45% of resting values following 1 and 3 hr, respectively, of ischemia and did not recover even after 2 hr of reperfusion. The blood-nerve barrier was not statistically impaired to the passage of ({sup 14}C)sucrose following 1 hr of ischemia but was significantly impaired after 3 hr of ischemia. The permeability-surface area product was consistently greater following 1 hr of reperfusion than during the immediate reperfusion period. These data indicate that severe ischemia of peripheral nerve results in reperfusion injury, conduction block, and blood-nerve barrier disruption. Microvascular events, which may occur during reperfusion, may be important in amplifying the nerve fiber damage that began during ischemia.

Schmelzer, J.D.; Zochodne, D.W.; Low, P.A. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

1989-03-01

272

AN ANOMALOUS ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE IN HUMANS  

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Full Text Available Background:Obturator artery is one of the medium sized parietal branches of the anterior division of internaliliac artery and it supplies the medial side of the thigh. It is the most variable vessel among thebranches of theinternal iliac artery.Materials and Methods:The present study was conductedon a total of 45 pelvic halves hadbeen studied. The material consisted of adult subjects between the ages of forty and eighty five, from thedissection hall of department of anatomy of Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru,andAndhra Pradesh.The findings were observed and recorded.Results:Origin of obturator arterywas most fre-quently a direct branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, in 16 specimens (35.55%. It wasarising from the inferior epigastric artery in 12 specimens (26.66%. It arose from the common trunkof inferiorgluteal and internal pudendal artery in 6 specimens (13.33% etc.Conclusion:Thevariations in obturatorartery may lead to surgical complications during pelvic surgeries requiring suturing along the pelvic brim. Theanomalies affecting the arterial patterns of the limbs are based on unusual selection of channels from primarycapillaries. The most appropriate channel enlarges, whilst the others retract and disappear, therebyestablish-ing thefinalarterial pattern and resulting in variations in the origin.Prior knowledge of the anatomical varia-tions may be beneficial for vascular surgeons ligating the internal iliac artery or its branches andthe radiolo-gists interpreting angiograms of the pelvic region.

Thirupathi rao. Vishnumukkala

2013-05-01

273

Application of microcomputed tomography for quantitative analysis of dental root canal obturations  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to apply microcomputed tomography to quantitative evaluation of voids and to test any specific location of voids in tooth’s root canal obturations. Materials and Methods: Twenty root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal sealer using the thermoplastic compaction method (System B + Obtura II. Roots were scanned and three-dimensional visualization was obtained. The volume and Feret’s diameter of I-voids (at the filling/dentine interface and S-voids (surrounded by filling material were measured. Results: The results revealed that none of the scanned root canal fillings were void-free. For I-voids, the volume fraction was significantly larger, but their number was lower (P = 0.0007, than for S-voids. Both types of voids occurred in characteristic regions (P < 0.001. I-voids occurred mainly in the apical third, while S-voids in the coronal third of the canal filling. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, our results indicate that microtomography, with proposed semi-automatic algorithm, is a useful tools for three-dimensional quantitative evaluation of dental root canal fillings. In canals filled with thermoplastic gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal, voids at the interface between the filling and canal dentine deserve special attention due to of their periapical location, which might promote apical microleakage. Further studies might help to elucidate the clinical relevance of these results.

Ma?gorzata Jaworska

2014-03-01

274

Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into three groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey's test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB) in the middle third, and a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB and MS < SB) in the apical third. To analyze the quality of the obturations, the canals were radiographed and evaluated by three examiners. The Kappa test on interexaminer agreement and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant difference between filling techniques. It was concluded that Resilon achieves greater levels of penetration when associated with thermoplastic obturation techniques. PMID:25466332

Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Araki, Angela Toshie; Akisue, Eduardo; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

2015-01-01

275

Influence of the spatulation of two zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers on the obturation of lateral canals  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in vitro, the importance of the correct manipulation of endodontic sealers, correlating it with flow rate and with the consequent obturation of root canals. Twenty-four human canines were prepared, 1 mm from the apex, with K-files up to size 50, by means of the step-back technique. Six lateral canals were then drilled in each tooth, with size 10 file fixed to a low-speed handpiece. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups, and root canals were obturated either with the EndométhasoneÒ sealer or Grossman sealer, prepared at ideal or incorrect clinical consistency. After obturation by means of the lateral condensation technique, the teeth were radiographed and evaluated as to the number of sealed lateral canals. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.001 between the tested sealers, and indicated the higher capacity of the well-manipulated Grossman sealer to fill lateral canals. It can be concluded that the flow rate of a sealer and its correct manipulation are very important for the satisfactory obturation of lateral canals.

Pécora Jesus Djalma

2002-01-01

276

Bilateral variant of sciatic nerve exhibiting intra-pelvic division  

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Full Text Available Context (background: In case of high division of the sciatic nerve in the pelvis its, common peroneal component may pierce the Piriformis muscle. This anatomical variant can explain many clinical findings. Aims: Its objective is to report a case of high division of the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomical understanding of the gluteal region. Methods and Material: Routine undergraduate dissection of a male cadaver revealed bilateral variation in sciatic nerve. Results: Sciatic nerve is dividing into tibial and common peroneal components in the pelvis. Common peroneal component is piercing through the piriformis muscle. Tibial component is emerging between piriformis and superior gemelli muscle. Conclusions: Sciatic nerve variation can lead to a Piriformis muscle syndrome, inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region, failure of sciatic nerve block and/or sciatic neuropathy. The differences in routes of these two nerve components can explain them.

Rejeena P Raj, Kunjumon PC, More Anju B

2014-04-01

277

Recurrent rectal cancer causing lumbosacral plexopathy with perineural spread to the spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve: An anatomic explanation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several groups have reported cases of rectal cancer with carcinomatous involvement of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic, obturator, pudendal, or spinal nerves. To our best knowledge, clear examples of perineural tumor spread in rectal carcinoma have not yet been described. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and imaging studies of three patients with primary or recurrent rectal cancer involving the lumbosacral plexus. Imaging studies included MRI and (18) FDG PET/CT scans in all (n?=?3) patients, histological samples were available in two (n?=?2). Imaging studies demonstrated distinct features of tumor spread from the organ to the plexus and beyond in all cases (n?=?3), histological specimens demonstrated perineural involvement thus supporting our theory (n?=?2). We present these three cases of perineural tumor spread in rectal cancer as a proof of concept. We hypothesize that not only our cases, but other similar reported cases can be explained anatomically by extension of the rectal cancer to the inferior hypogastric plexus with perineural tumor spread to the lumbosacral plexus using the pelvic and sacral splanchnic nerves as conduits. Once the tumor reaches the lumbosacral plexus, it can continue to spread proximally or distally. We believe that perineural spread of colon cancer represents an important, under-recognized mechanism of recurrence to neighboring major nerves in the pelvis. Clin. Anat. 28:136-143, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25090969

Capek, Stepan; Sullivan, Patrick S; Howe, Benjamin M; Smyrk, Thomas C; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J; Dozois, Eric J

2015-01-01

278

[Cerebrovascular accidents after endoscopic obturation of esophageal varices with isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate in 2 patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report 2 cases of cerebral stroke in cirrhotic patients following endoscopic obturation of esophageal varices with Isobutyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. In both cases, hemiplegia appeared several hours after the procedure. A brain CT scan showed radiodense material in the cerebral arteries due to dissemination of Isobutyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. One patient died, the other improved slowly. Different hypotheses may be raised: defectuous injection into the arterial circulation, systemic emboli via portopulmonary venous shunts, delayed polymerization of Isobutyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. Systemic emboli have been reported previously following percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of esophageal varices, suggesting portopulmonary venous shunts. In spite of these 2 complications, this procedure remains useful in stopping acute variceal bleeding and in preventing recurrent bleeding. PMID:3781162

Sée, A; Florent, C; Lamy, P; Lévy, V G; Bouvry, M

1986-01-01

279

Tension-free vaginal tape obturator system in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence  

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Full Text Available Surgical approach to the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence has changed significantly since 1995, when Ulmsten first described the procedure providing tension-free support in the middle part of urethra. Although retropubic placement of TVT tapes seemed to meet all the standards of minimally invasive surgical procedures, the occurrence of complications (bleeding, hematomas, and bladder, urethral of intestinal injuries necessitated a new obturator approach. This study presents a transobturator approach to TVT tapes placement (Gynecare, Johnson-Johnson Company with "inside-out" technique, first shown by De Leval in 2003. During 2005, 6 TVT tapes for stress urinary incontinence treatment were placed at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad without any intra or post-operative complications. .

?ur?evi? Sr?an

2006-01-01

280

Recurrent obturator abscess with spontaneous expulsion of the mesh after transobturator tape operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transobturator tape operation has been the most popular method of SUI surgery worldwide owing to its low complication rate and high success rate. However, erosions and abscesses secondary to transobturator tape have been observed. Here we report a 36-year-old woman referred to our unit with fever, persistent swelling in the left groin, difficulty in walking, and a tape that came through the vagina, 4 years after the transobturator tape operation. She had a history of ischiorectal abscess and rectovaginal fistula. A recurrent obturator abscess with fistula formation and spontaneous expulsion of the mesh was diagnosed. The patient underwent antibiotic therapy, incision through the fistula tract, drainage of the abscess, and removal of the necrotic material. Patients should be informed about risks of erosion and infection and that pain and foul smelling vaginal discharge might be the first signs of severe infectious morbidities after transobturator tape operation. PMID:23512114

Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Ozsurmeli, Mehmet; Bakir, Baris; Saygili, Halil; Yalcin, Onay

2013-12-01

281

Root canal obturation by hybrid technique of thermomechanical gutta-percha compaction  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to present and discuss the thermomechanical hybrid technique in root canal obturation and investigate the efficiency of apical hermeticity. The hybrid obturation technique is well explained and performed through the lexan models and extracted teeth in aim of better visualisation and comprehension as suggested by the author Tagger and McSpadden’s articles. The technique consisted of lateral condensation of gutta-percha that was followed by thermomechanical compaction of the same mass using Ni-Ti flexible compactor. Firstly the master gutta-percha cone had to be adapted and then the master machine compactor selected for setting inside the canal. Upon laterally arranging gutta-percha cones, the master compactor was inserted between canal wall and gutta-percha. The master compactor was rotated for 5-6 seconds to creat heat to soften the cones to merge themselves and fill the first half of the canal. The bigger compactor served to fill the rest of the canal adding more gutta-percha cones. In comparison to the single cone and simple manual compaction techniques the hybrid technique is less time consuming more efficient in homogenicity and apical leakage. Considering the many device-consuming techniques the hybrid one is simpler to perform and cheaper as well. Precaution is to be taken when treating curved and narrow canals where much patience is needed due to possible compactor breakage and root fracture. It can be concluded that this hybrid technique is preferable particularly in cases of relatively straight canals with preserved apical foramen when time is to be saved for the radiographic and prosthetics procedure that has to be done during the same visit, which is very often convenient for patient and therapist.

Ili? Dragan

2004-01-01

282

In vitro evaluation of coronal microleakage associated with two root obturation techniques  

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Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the smear layer on the coronal microleakage in root canals obturated with laterally condensed cold gutta-percha or Thermafil and two root canal sealers. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted single-rooted human teeth with straight root canals were allocated to two experimental groups. The root canals were instrumented using the STEP-BACK technique, K reamers and K files and irrigated with 2.5 % NaOCl. The teeth in the first group were treated with 17% EDTA and 2.5 % NaOCl to remove the smear layer. The teeth in both groups were obturated either with laterally condensed cold guttapercha (28 teeth or Thermafil gutta-percha with plastic cores (28 teeth and RSA or AH-PLUS sealers. The specimens were evaluated for coronal microleakage using silver nitrate solution. The linear penetration of the dye was assessed using a binocular magnifying glass (x25, with an inserted micrometer scale. Results: The results showed low coronal microleakage in the group where the smear layer was removed in both the lateral compaction technique (RSA - 1.71mm and AHPLUS - 1.61mm and the Thermafil groups - RSA (1.65mm and AH-PLUS (1.66mm. In the group with the intact smear layer, greater microleakage was noticed in both groups, lateral compaction technique -RSA (3.06 mm and AH-PLUS (2.83mm and Thermafil technique -RSA (2.99mm and AH-PLUS ( 2.83mm. The difference was statistically significant between the groups with and without the smear layer for both RSA (p< 0.001 and AH-PLUS sealers ( p<0.001. Conclusion: The present results suggest that the removal of the smear layer significantly improves the tightness of the coronal seal and reduces the coronal microleakage.

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2007-01-01

283

Interscalene block for shoulder surgery  

OpenAIRE

Fracture dislocation of the shoulder is a common musculoskeletal injury following road traffic accident. Peripheral nerve block has become a recognized anesthetic technique due to the rapid onset of prolonged analgesia, sufficient for both pain and surgical management. However, interscalene block for shoulder surgery has not been reported as a primary anesthetic technique in our environment. We report its successful use in open reduction and internal fixation of left humeral surgical neck fra...

Rukewe Ambrose; Adeoye Imoniche; Sule Umar; Fatiregun Akinola

2011-01-01

284

Prolonged nerve blockade in a patient treated with lithium  

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Full Text Available Amit Lehavi, Boris Shenderey, Yeshayahu (Shai KatzDepartment of Anesthesiology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: We report a case of a patient, chronically treated with oral lithium, who presented with an extremely prolonged (42-hour duration of sensory and motor paralysis following an uneventful infraclavicular block for hand surgery that was performed under ultrasound guidance using bupivacaine and lidocaine. Due to its direct effect on nerve conduction of action potential, we propose that lithium may have had a role in the unusually prolonged duration of a peripheral nerve block.Keywords: nerve blockade, lithium, duration, anesthesia

Lehavi A

2012-04-01

285

Radial nerve dysfunction (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

286

Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

V, Sangeetha

2014-01-01

287

The Physics of Nerves  

CERN Document Server

The accepted model for nerve pulse propagation in biological membranes seems insufficient. It is restricted to dissipative electrical phenomena and considers nerve pulses exclusively as a microscopic phenomenon. A simple thermodynamic model that is based on the macroscopic properties of membranes allows explaining more features of nerve pulse propagation including the phenomenon of anesthesia that has so far remained unexplained.

Heimburg, Thomas

2010-01-01

288

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

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Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H

1997-01-01

289

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

OpenAIRE

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H; Kantharia C; Shenoy A

1997-01-01

290

Laryngeal nerve damage  

Science.gov (United States)

Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. ... Injury to the laryngeal nerves is uncommon. It it does occur, it can be from: A complication of neck or chest surgery (especially thyroid, lung, ...

291

Bloqueio do nervo frênico após realização de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalênica: relato de caso / Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report / A bloqueo del nervio frénico después de la realización de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frênico é um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercussões clínicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frênico, com comprometimento ventilatório, em pac [...] iente com insuficiência renal crônica submetido a instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalênica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 50 anos, tabagista, portador de insuficiência renal crônica em regime de hemodiálise, hipertensão arterial, hepatite C, diabetes mellitus, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, a ser submetido à instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa no membro superior direito sob bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalênica. O plexo braquial foi localizado com utilização do estimulador de nervo periférico. Foram injetados 35 mL de uma solução de anestésico local, constituída de uma mistura de lidocaína a 2% com epinefrina a 1:200.000 e ropivacaína a 0,75% em partes iguais. Ao final da injeção o paciente apresentava-se lúcido, porém com dispnéia e predomínio de incursão respiratória intercostal ipsilateral ao bloqueio. Não havia murmúrio vesicular na base do hemitórax direito. A SpO2 manteve-se em 95%, com cateter nasal de oxigênio. Não foi necessária instalação de métodos de auxílio ventilatório invasivo. Radiografia do tórax revelou que o hemidiafragma direito ocupava o 5° espaço intercostal. O quadro clínico foi revertido em três horas. CONCLUSÕES: O caso mostrou que houve paralisia total do nervo frênico com sintomas respiratórios. Apesar de não ter sido necessária terapêutica invasiva para o tratamento, fica o alerta para a restrição da indicação da técnica nesses casos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio frénico es un evento adverso del bloqueo del plexo braquial, sin embargo, en su mayoría, sin repercusiones clínicas importantes. El objetivo de este relato fue presentar un caso en que ocurrió bloqueo del nervio frénico, con comprometimiento ventilato [...] rio en paciente con insuficiencia renal crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa, bajo bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía perivascular interescalénica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 50 años, tabaquista, portador de insuficiencia renal crónica en régimen de hemodiálisis, hipertensión arterial, hepatitis C, diabetes melito, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa en el miembro superior derecho bajo bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica. El plexo braquial fue localizado con la utilización del estimulador de nervio periférico. Se inyectaron 35 mL de una solución de anestésico local constituida de una mezcla de lidocaína a 2% con epinefrina a 1:200.000 y ropivacaína a 0,75% en partes iguales. Al final de la inyección el paciente estaba lúcido, pero sin embargo con disnea y predominio de incursión respiratoria intercostal ipsilateral al bloqueo. No había murmullo vesicular en la base del hemitórax derecho. La SpO2 se mantuvo en un 95%, con catéter nasal de oxígeno. No fue necesaria la instalación de métodos de auxilio ventilatorio invasivo. La radiografía del tórax reveló que el hemidiafragma derecho ocupaba el 5° espacio intercostal. El cuadro clínico se revirtió en tres horas. CONCLUSIONES: El caso mostró que hubo parálisis total del nervio frénico con síntomas respiratorios. A pesar de no haber sido necesaria la terapéutica invasiva para el tratamiento, queda el aviso aquí para la restricción de la indicación de la técnica en esos casos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phrenic nerve block is a common adverse event of brachial plexus block. However, in most cases it does not have any important clinical re

Luis Henrique, Cangiani; Luis Augusto Edwards, Rezende; Armando, Giancoli Neto.

2008-04-01

292

Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into th [...] ree groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey’s test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p

André Luiz da Costa, MICHELOTTO; Cacio, MOURA-NETTO; Angela Toshie, ARAKI; Eduardo, AKISUE; Gilson Blitzkow, SYDNEY.

293

Comparison of laterally condensed, vertically compacted thermoplasticized, cold free-flow GP obturations – A volumetric analysis using spiral CT  

OpenAIRE

Aim/Objective: To compare the laterally condensed gutta-percha, vertically compacted thermoplastized gutta-percha (E and Q Plus system) and cold free-flow gutta-percha (GuttaFlow). This is a volumetric analysis using spiral CT, an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 60 single rooted anterior teeth; cleaning and shaping was done and obturated with three of the different techniques: group A: cold lateral; group B: vertically compacted ...

Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu; Reddy Gopi; Hannah Rosaline; Arathi Ganesh; Roohi Riaz

2009-01-01

294

Avaliação da dor pós-operatória e alta hospitalar com bloqueio dos nervos ilioinguinal e ílio-hipogástrico durante herniorrafia inguinal realizada com raquianestesia: estudo prospectivo / Assessment of postoperative pain and hospital discharge after inguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block for inguinal hernia repair under spinal anesthesia: a prospective study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar a qualidade da analgesia (intensidade da dor e consumo de analgésicos) e o tempo de alta hospitalar dos pacientes que receberam ou não bloqueio ilioinguinal (II) e ílio- hipogástrico (IH) pós-incisão associado à infiltração da ferida operatória com ropivacaína 0,75% em cirurgia de [...] herniorrafia inguinal, sob raquianestesia. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo, aleatório, duplo-cego com 34 pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia inguinal. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (C) e bloqueio II e IH (B). O grupo C (n = 17) recebeu raquianestesia com 15 mg de bupivacaína 0,5% hiperbárica e o grupo B (n = 17) recebeu raquianestesia com 15 mg de bupivacaína 0,5% hiperbárica em associação com bloqueio II e IH (10 mL de ropivacaína 0,75%) e infiltração da ferida cirúrgica (10 mL de ropivacaína 0,75%). Foram registrados os dados antropométricos, intensidade da dor pela escala analógica visual (EAV) e número de doses de analgésicos (dipirona, cetorolaco e nalbufina) no pós-operatório imediato, assim como o tempo de alta hospitalar. RESULTADOS: A EAV em repouso três horas após o término do procedimento e o tempo de hospitalização foram significativamente menores no grupo B em comparação com o grupo C (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate analgesia (pain intensity and analgesic consumption) and the time of discharge of patients who underwent ilioinguinal (II) and iliohypogastric (IH) nerve block associated with wound infiltration with 0.75% ropivacaine, or not, after inguinal hernia repa [...] ir surgery under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study with 34 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Patients were divided into two groups: control (C) and II and IH nerve block (B). Group C (n = 17) received spinal anesthesia with 15 mg hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine and Group B (n = 17) received spinal anesthesia with 15 mg hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine associated with II and IH nerve block (10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine) and surgical wound infiltration (10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine). The following data were analyzed: demographic data, pain intensity according to the visual analog scale (VAS), and number of doses of analgesics (dipyrone, ketorolac and nalbuphine) in the immediate postoperative period, as well as at the time of hospital discharge. RESULTS: The VAS at rest was significantly lower in Group B compared with Group C (p

Guilherme de Castro, Santos; Gisela Magalhães, Braga; Fábio Lopes, Queiroz; Túlio Pinho, Navarro; Renato Santiago, Gomez.

2011-10-01

295

Bilateral optic nerve injury.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bilateral optic nerve injury is a rare condition and is reported in 5-6 percent of all optic nerve injuries. However, there is no published series on bilateral optic nerve injury. Analysis of 31 cases of bilateral optic nerve involvement seen amongst 275 patients with optic nerve injury (11.5 percent is discussed. Road traffic accident which is the most common cause of optic nerve injury, was recorded in 61 percent. Shotgun injury and blast in jury was the cause in 22.5 percent of cases. All the patients except 4 received steroids. Anterior cranial fossa fracture and opacity of paranasal sinuses were recorded in a third of the patients. Visual evoked potentials were recorded in 27 patients. Improvement in vision was noticed in 23 patients (74 percent. However, among the 62 eyes, 39 eyes showed improvement (62.8 percent. Possible reasons for better outcome in bilateral optic nerve injury are discussed.

Mahapatra A

1999-04-01

296

Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

2013-10-01

297

[Hypoglossal nerve neuropraxia after shoulder hemiarthroplasty].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of hypoglossal nerve damage after shoulder hemiarthroplasty with the patient in "beach chair" position, performed with general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation, and without complications. An ultrasound-guided interscalene block was previously performed in an alert patient. After the intervention, the patient showed clinical symptomatology compatible with paralysis of the right hypoglossal nerve that completely disappeared after 4 weeks. Mechanisms such as hyperextension of the neck during intubation, endotracheal tube cuff pressure, excessive hyperextension, or head lateralization during surgery have been described as causes of this neurological damage. We discuss the causes, the associated factors and suggest preventive measures. PMID:23787368

Pariente, L; Camarena, P; Koo, M; Sabaté, A; Armengol, J

2014-05-01

298

Avaliação da dor pós-operatória e alta hospitalar com bloqueio dos nervos ilioinguinal e ílio-hipogástrico durante herniorrafia inguinal realizada com raquianestesia: estudo prospectivo Assessment of postoperative pain and hospital discharge after inguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block for inguinal hernia repair under spinal anesthesia: a prospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a qualidade da analgesia (intensidade da dor e consumo de analgésicos e o tempo de alta hospitalar dos pacientes que receberam ou não bloqueio ilioinguinal (II e ílio- hipogástrico (IH pós-incisão associado à infiltração da ferida operatória com ropivacaína 0,75% em cirurgia de herniorrafia inguinal, sob raquianestesia. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo, aleatório, duplo-cego com 34 pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia inguinal. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (C e bloqueio II e IH (B. O grupo C (n = 17 recebeu raquianestesia com 15 mg de bupivacaína 0,5% hiperbárica e o grupo B (n = 17 recebeu raquianestesia com 15 mg de bupivacaína 0,5% hiperbárica em associação com bloqueio II e IH (10 mL de ropivacaína 0,75% e infiltração da ferida cirúrgica (10 mL de ropivacaína 0,75%. Foram registrados os dados antropométricos, intensidade da dor pela escala analógica visual (EAV e número de doses de analgésicos (dipirona, cetorolaco e nalbufina no pós-operatório imediato, assim como o tempo de alta hospitalar. RESULTADOS: A EAV em repouso três horas após o término do procedimento e o tempo de hospitalização foram significativamente menores no grupo B em comparação com o grupo C (p OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate analgesia (pain intensity and analgesic consumption and the time of discharge of patients who underwent ilioinguinal (II and iliohypogastric (IH nerve block associated with wound infiltration with 0.75% ropivacaine, or not, after inguinal hernia repair surgery under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study with 34 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Patients were divided into two groups: control (C and II and IH nerve block (B. Group C (n = 17 received spinal anesthesia with 15 mg hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine and Group B (n = 17 received spinal anesthesia with 15 mg hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine associated with II and IH nerve block (10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine and surgical wound infiltration (10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine. The following data were analyzed: demographic data, pain intensity according to the visual analog scale (VAS, and number of doses of analgesics (dipyrone, ketorolac and nalbuphine in the immediate postoperative period, as well as at the time of hospital discharge. RESULTS: The VAS at rest was significantly lower in Group B compared with Group C (p < 0.05, three hours after the procedure, with no differences on VAS during movement in all postoperative periods. The number of doses of analgesics during the postoperative period was similar in both groups, but patients in Group B were discharged earlier than in Group C. CONCLUSION: II and IH nerve block associated with surgical wound infiltration with 0.75% ropivacaine provides better postoperative analgesia and early hospital discharge in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair under spinal anesthesia.

Guilherme de Castro Santos

2011-10-01

299

Imaging the trigeminal nerve  

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Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

2010-05-15

300

Gastric mucosal nerve density  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy. PMID:20837965

Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.

2010-01-01

301

Root canal obturation: experimental study on the thermafil system related to different irrigation protocols  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Aim The aim of this study was to stress the ability of a specific obturation technique (thermafil technique) to seal root canal system in presence or absence of smear layer. Methodology Sixteen monoradicular teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected for this study. All specimens were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files, and then divided into two groups: for each group was applied a different kind of irrigation method, verifying the effectiveness in removing the smear layer, thus rendering the dentinal tubules more permeable for penetration of softened gutta-percha. Thermafil system was used to fill the root canals, and then all the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results The results showed that the Group which followed irrigation only with sodium hypochlorite exhibited significantly less gutta-percha tags when compared to the second Group, which was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. Conclusion The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated. PMID:25506413

Migliau, Guido; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Cosma, Salvatore; Eramo, Stefano; Gallottini, Livio

2014-01-01

302

Nervio Femoral Accesorio: Una Variación del Plexo Lumbar / Accessory Femoral Nerve: a Variation of Lumbar Plexus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Variaciones en el origen de los ramos del plexo lumbar son observadas comúnmente durante las disecciones. Entre ellas se pueden mencionar: ausencia del nervio iliohipogástrico, presencia de un nervio obturador accesorio, bifurcación del nervio femoral, entre otras, destacándose la presencia de un ne [...] rvio accesorio del nervio femoral. Durante una disección de rutina, en un cadáver fijado en formaldehido 10%, de un individuo adulto, Chileno, de sexo masculino, se observó la presencia unilateral de este nervio femoral accesorio originado del ramo anterior del nervio femoral, el cual estaba formado por dos ramos, describiendo sus características de origen, trayecto y distribución. Las variaciones anatómicas del plexo lumbar deben ser consideradas en el momento de efectuar cirugías en la región, evitando daños al nervio mencionado u otros, durante la disección quirúrgica. Abstract in english Variations in the origin of the branches of the lumbar plexus are commonly observed during dissections. Among them may be mentioned: absence of iliohypogastric nerve, the presence of an accessory obturator nerve, femoral nerve bifurcation, highlighting the presence of a accessory femoral nerve. Duri [...] ng routine dissection in a cadaver fixed in 10% formaldehyde, an adult individual, Chilean, male, unilateral accessory femoral nerve was observed, originating from the anterior branch of femoral nerve, which consisted of two branches.The characteristics of origin, course and distribution are described. Anatomical variations of the lumbar plexus must always be considered at the time of surgery in the mentioned sector avoiding nerve damage, during surgical dissection.

E, Olave; J. J, Cabezas; A, Soto; O, Binvignat.

1479-14-01

303

Distribution of Sciatic nerve in Hamstring muscles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regarding the importance of sciatic nerve distribution in replacement of anal sphincter and sciatic nerve block we decided to study this matter for the first time in Iran. In this way 100 cadavers (88% male and 12% female were dissected and studied by loop microscope. The results shows that primarily, according to the first branch derived from sciatic; there would be 4 main Groups. If this samples were rgarded according to the second branch of the nerve, then there would be 6 accessory groups added. So, in group A the first branch was related to proximal part of semimembranosus, in group B the branch was recorded as normal variations based on the above mentioned patterns.

"Khaleghi R

2000-09-01

304

Spinal accessory nerve neurilemmoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neurilemmoma of the spinal accessory nerve extending from the lower brain stem to the high cervical region, without typical jugular foramen syndome is presented. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high cervical intradural extramedullary lesion in patients with lower cranial nerve(s) dysfunction. The value of intrathecal and intravenous contrast enhancement computed tomography (CT) myelogram is emphasized. 13 refs.; 3 figs

305

Sensory nerves and pancreatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis. PMID:25493260

Li, Qingfu; Peng, Jie

2014-11-01

306

Contralateral spread of local anesthetic with stellate ganglion block.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. Stellate ganglion block is a technically simple procedure but is liable to many complications because of the adjacent structures. We report a contralateral and bilateral Horner's syndrome with stellate ganglion block in the same patient on different occasions. We also report a bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve block with this procedure. PMID:8095400

Wallace, M S; Milholland, A V

1993-01-01

307

Raquianestesia com morfina versus raquianestesia sem morfina associada a bloqueio do nervo pudendo: avaliação da analgesia e complicações em hemorroidectomias Spinal anesthesia with morphine versus spinal anesthesia without morphine associated to pudendal nerve block: evaluation of the analgesia and complications in hemorrhoidectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Recentemente, alguns autores têm relatado que o bloqueio do nervo pudendo com uso de ropivacaína proporciona boa analgesia pós-operatória. Assim, considerou-se de interesse a comparação de dois métodos anestésicos verificando a analgesia pós-operatória e as complicações. OBJETIVO: Comparar duas técnicas anestésicas (raquianestesia com morfina versus raquianestesia sem morfina associada com bloqueio do nervo pudendo para hemorroidectomia quanto à analgesia pósoperatória e complicações. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 40 pacientes provenientes do ambulatório de Coloproctologia do Hospital Regional de Mato Grosso do Sul no período de março a outubro de 2008. Todos os pacientes foram randomizados por sorteio imediatamente antes de se iniciar a intervenção cirúrgica e foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo 1: 20 pacientes submetidos à raquianestesia com morfina com 0,15µg associado com bupivacaína hiperbárica 10mg; - Grupo 2: 20 pacientes submetidos à raquianestesia com bupivacaína pesada 10mg associado ao bloqueio do nervo pudendo bilateral com agulha para raquianestesia 27G utilizando ropivacaína 10mg/ml diluída em 10ml de água destilada. RESULTADOS: Avaliou-se 40 pacientes, sendo 21 do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 52 anos, variando de 21 a 72 anos. Apenas no grupo 1 observou-se complicações, sendo a principal prurido, seguida de retenção urinária e cefaléia. Após 6 horas da cirurgia, a média do nível de dor foi 1,55 no grupo 1 e 1,4 no grupo 2. Após 12 horas da cirurgia as médias foram 1,75 e 0,15 nos grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A hemorroidectomia realizada com associação de raquianestesia sem morfina e bloqueio do nervo pudendo utilizando ropivacaína proporcionou melhor efeito analgésico no período de 12 horas após a cirurgia e não apresentou complicações nesta casuística, mostrando-se superior à raquianestesia com morfina.INTRODUCTION: Recently, some authors have reported that the pudendal nerve block using ropivacaine provides good postoperative analgesia. Thus, we consider of interest to compare two anesthetic methods checking postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare two anesthetic techniques (spinal anesthesia with morphine versus spinal anesthesia without morphine associated with pudendal nerve block for hemorrhoidectomy in relation to postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 40 patients from Hospital Regional de Mato Grosso do Sul among March to October of 2008. All patients were randomized by lot immediately before surgery, distributed in two groups: Group 1: 20 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with morphine 0.15µg associated with hyperbaric bupivacaine 10mg; - Group 2: 20 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with heavy bupivacaine 10mg associated with bilateral pudendal nerve block with ropivacaine 10mg/ml diluted in 10ml of distilled water. RESULTS: Most patients were female (N = 21. The average age was 52 years, ranging from 21 to 72 years. The group 1 presented a higher prevalence of adverse effects (62.5%. Among the adverse effects of group 1 was higher prevalence of itch, urinary retention and migraine. Most patients who reported pain in the postoperative range from group 1 was male and prevailing in the first 12 hours, with the average level of pain of 1.55. In group 2 the pain was observed in equal proportion in both sexes and in the first six hours, with the average level of pain of 1.75. CONCLUSION: The hemorrhoidectomy accomplished with spinal anesthesia without morphine and blockade of the pudendal nerve using ropivacaine provided better analgesic effect in the period of 12 hours after the surgery and it didn't present complications in this casuistry, being shown superior to the spinal anesthesia with morphine.

Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

2009-03-01

308

Raquianestesia com morfina versus raquianestesia sem morfina associada a bloqueio do nervo pudendo: avaliação da analgesia e complicações em hemorroidectomias / Spinal anesthesia with morphine versus spinal anesthesia without morphine associated to pudendal nerve block: evaluation of the analgesia and complications in hemorrhoidectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Recentemente, alguns autores têm relatado que o bloqueio do nervo pudendo com uso de ropivacaína proporciona boa analgesia pós-operatória. Assim, considerou-se de interesse a comparação de dois métodos anestésicos verificando a analgesia pós-operatória e as complicações. OBJETIVO: Compar [...] ar duas técnicas anestésicas (raquianestesia com morfina versus raquianestesia sem morfina associada com bloqueio do nervo pudendo) para hemorroidectomia quanto à analgesia pósoperatória e complicações. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 40 pacientes provenientes do ambulatório de Coloproctologia do Hospital Regional de Mato Grosso do Sul no período de março a outubro de 2008. Todos os pacientes foram randomizados por sorteio imediatamente antes de se iniciar a intervenção cirúrgica e foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo 1: 20 pacientes submetidos à raquianestesia com morfina com 0,15µg associado com bupivacaína hiperbárica 10mg; - Grupo 2: 20 pacientes submetidos à raquianestesia com bupivacaína pesada 10mg associado ao bloqueio do nervo pudendo bilateral com agulha para raquianestesia 27G utilizando ropivacaína 10mg/ml diluída em 10ml de água destilada. RESULTADOS: Avaliou-se 40 pacientes, sendo 21 do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 52 anos, variando de 21 a 72 anos. Apenas no grupo 1 observou-se complicações, sendo a principal prurido, seguida de retenção urinária e cefaléia. Após 6 horas da cirurgia, a média do nível de dor foi 1,55 no grupo 1 e 1,4 no grupo 2. Após 12 horas da cirurgia as médias foram 1,75 e 0,15 nos grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A hemorroidectomia realizada com associação de raquianestesia sem morfina e bloqueio do nervo pudendo utilizando ropivacaína proporcionou melhor efeito analgésico no período de 12 horas após a cirurgia e não apresentou complicações nesta casuística, mostrando-se superior à raquianestesia com morfina. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Recently, some authors have reported that the pudendal nerve block using ropivacaine provides good postoperative analgesia. Thus, we consider of interest to compare two anesthetic methods checking postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare two anesthetic techniq [...] ues (spinal anesthesia with morphine versus spinal anesthesia without morphine associated with pudendal nerve block) for hemorrhoidectomy in relation to postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 40 patients from Hospital Regional de Mato Grosso do Sul among March to October of 2008. All patients were randomized by lot immediately before surgery, distributed in two groups: Group 1: 20 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with morphine 0.15µg associated with hyperbaric bupivacaine 10mg; - Group 2: 20 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with heavy bupivacaine 10mg associated with bilateral pudendal nerve block with ropivacaine 10mg/ml diluted in 10ml of distilled water. RESULTS: Most patients were female (N = 21). The average age was 52 years, ranging from 21 to 72 years. The group 1 presented a higher prevalence of adverse effects (62.5%). Among the adverse effects of group 1 was higher prevalence of itch, urinary retention and migraine. Most patients who reported pain in the postoperative range from group 1 was male and prevailing in the first 12 hours, with the average level of pain of 1.55. In group 2 the pain was observed in equal proportion in both sexes and in the first six hours, with the average level of pain of 1.75. CONCLUSION: The hemorrhoidectomy accomplished with spinal anesthesia without morphine and blockade of the pudendal nerve using ropivacaine provided better analgesic effect in the period of 12 hours after the surgery and it didn't present complications in this casuistry, being shown superior to the spinal anesthesia with morphine.

Carlos Henrique Marques dos, Santos; Fábio Tacla, Saad; Robson Luiz Silveira, Jará; Magali da Silva Sanches, Machado.

2009-03-01

309

Compression of the suprascapular nerve after fracture of the scapular notch.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 32-year-old man with a fracture of the scapular notch associated with a lesion of the suprascapular nerve is reported. A nerve decompression operation was performed 20 months after the injury with relief of pain. The possibility that residual disability following a fracture of the scapula can be due to a lesion of the suprascapular nerve is underlined. The value of X-ray examination with projections visualizing the notch and diagnostic local anaesthetic block of the nerve passing through the notch are emphasized. Primary wide resection of the scapular notch is a preferable procedure preventing recurrence of nerve compression symptoms. PMID:696273

Solheim, L F; Roaas, A

1978-08-01

310

Lesão do músculo obturador externo em atletas de futebol profissional Injury of the external obturator muscle in professional soccer athletes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diversos estudos têm analisado os diferentes tipos de lesões que acometem o jogador de futebol. Nota-se, no entanto, que nenhum cita a lesão do músculo obturador externo. Na medida em que este é um músculo pequeno e monoarticular, sua incidência provavelmente é baixa e pouco documentada na literatura. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo é apresentar quatro casos de estiramentos do obturador externo em uma equipe profissional de futebol no ano de 2006. Os dados foram coletados a partir de um programa de armazenamento denominado Sistema de Preparação Desportiva que fornece dados referentes ao nome, diagnóstico, mecanismo de trauma, história clínica, tempo de afastamento e evolução. Todos os atletas que apresentaram imagem de ressonância nuclear magnética compatível com ruptura do obturador externo foram inclusos no estudo. Quatro lesões por estiramento do músculo obturador externo foram encontradas, de um total de 28 lesões por estiramento muscular durante o ano de 2006. Todos os atletas apresentavam dor difusa na região do quadril durante os movimentos de rotação lateral e medial do quadril. O mecanismo de trauma predominante foi o movimento de rotação lateral do tronco sobre o fêmur em cadeia cinética fechada. Concluímos que a lesão do obturador externo pode ser confundida com uma lesão dos músculos adutores do quadril, devido à localização da dor relatada pelo indivíduo. A avaliação clínica deve basear-se no relato do atleta e na realização dos testes funcionais, principalmente para os músculos rotadores do quadril. O exame de ressonância nuclear magnética foi fundamental para localizar, classificar e avaliar a extensão da lesão neste estudoSeveral studies have investigated different injuries that occur among soccer players. However, it has been noticed that none has mentioned injury to the external obturator muscle. As a small and monoarticulated muscle, its incidence is probably low and barely documented in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present four external obturator muscle strain cases in a professional soccer team in 2008. The data was collected from a database using the software Sistema de Preparação Desportiva which provides data such as name, diagnosis, trauma mechanism, clinical history, time away from training and progress. All athletes who undertook Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the external obturator muscle and presented rupture of the external obturator muscle were included in the study. Four external obturator muscle strain injuries were identified from a total of twenty-eight muscle strains during the year of 2006. All athletes presented diffuse pain on the hip for medial and lateral rotation of the joint. The predominant injury mechanism was lateral rotation of the trunk over the femur on closed kinetic chain. It was concluded that external obturator muscle strain injuries can be mistaken for those related to the hip adductor muscles due to the reported pain area. Clinical examination should be based on the athletes' report and functional tests, mainly for the hip rotator muscles. The MRI scan was essential to the location, classification and evaluation of the injury size.

Henrique Gonçalves Valente

2011-02-01

311

Lesão do músculo obturador externo em atletas de futebol profissional / Injury of the external obturator muscle in professional soccer athletes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Diversos estudos têm analisado os diferentes tipos de lesões que acometem o jogador de futebol. Nota-se, no entanto, que nenhum cita a lesão do músculo obturador externo. Na medida em que este é um músculo pequeno e monoarticular, sua incidência provavelmente é baixa e pouco documentada na literatur [...] a. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo é apresentar quatro casos de estiramentos do obturador externo em uma equipe profissional de futebol no ano de 2006. Os dados foram coletados a partir de um programa de armazenamento denominado Sistema de Preparação Desportiva que fornece dados referentes ao nome, diagnóstico, mecanismo de trauma, história clínica, tempo de afastamento e evolução. Todos os atletas que apresentaram imagem de ressonância nuclear magnética compatível com ruptura do obturador externo foram inclusos no estudo. Quatro lesões por estiramento do músculo obturador externo foram encontradas, de um total de 28 lesões por estiramento muscular durante o ano de 2006. Todos os atletas apresentavam dor difusa na região do quadril durante os movimentos de rotação lateral e medial do quadril. O mecanismo de trauma predominante foi o movimento de rotação lateral do tronco sobre o fêmur em cadeia cinética fechada. Concluímos que a lesão do obturador externo pode ser confundida com uma lesão dos músculos adutores do quadril, devido à localização da dor relatada pelo indivíduo. A avaliação clínica deve basear-se no relato do atleta e na realização dos testes funcionais, principalmente para os músculos rotadores do quadril. O exame de ressonância nuclear magnética foi fundamental para localizar, classificar e avaliar a extensão da lesão neste estudo Abstract in english Several studies have investigated different injuries that occur among soccer players. However, it has been noticed that none has mentioned injury to the external obturator muscle. As a small and monoarticulated muscle, its incidence is probably low and barely documented in the literature. Therefore, [...] the aim of this study is to present four external obturator muscle strain cases in a professional soccer team in 2008. The data was collected from a database using the software Sistema de Preparação Desportiva which provides data such as name, diagnosis, trauma mechanism, clinical history, time away from training and progress. All athletes who undertook Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the external obturator muscle and presented rupture of the external obturator muscle were included in the study. Four external obturator muscle strain injuries were identified from a total of twenty-eight muscle strains during the year of 2006. All athletes presented diffuse pain on the hip for medial and lateral rotation of the joint. The predominant injury mechanism was lateral rotation of the trunk over the femur on closed kinetic chain. It was concluded that external obturator muscle strain injuries can be mistaken for those related to the hip adductor muscles due to the reported pain area. Clinical examination should be based on the athletes' report and functional tests, mainly for the hip rotator muscles. The MRI scan was essential to the location, classification and evaluation of the injury size.

Henrique Gonçalves, Valente; Felipe Osório, Marques; Luciano Da Silva De, Souza; Roberto Trápaga, Abib; Daniel Cury, Ribeiro.

2011-02-01

312

Suprascapular nerve compression syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five patients suffering from suprascapular nerve compression syndrome were treated by surgical decompression of the nerve. The syndrome is described and the surgical treatment is outlined. The diagnostic necessity for electromyography is stressed as is the intraoperative evaluation of the conductive obstacle by use of electrostimulation. PMID:6463842

Laulund, T; Fedders, O; Søgaard, I; Kornum, M

1984-09-01

313

Imaging the hypoglossal nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hypoglossal nerve is a pure motor nerve. It provides motor control to the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles thus being essential for normal tongue movement and coordination. In order to design a useful imaging approach and a working differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglossal nerve damage one has to have a good knowledge of the normal anatomy of the nerve trunk and its main branches. A successful imaging evaluation to hypoglossal diseases always requires high resolution studies due to the small size of the structures being studied. MRI is the preferred modality to directly visualize the nerve, while CT is superior in displaying the bony anatomy of the neurovascular foramina of the skull base. Also, while CT is only able to detect nerve pathology by indirect signs, such as bony expansion of the hypoglossal canal, MRI is able to visualize directly the causative pathological process as in the case of small tumors, or infectious/inflammatory processes affecting the nerve. The easiest way to approach the study of the hypoglossal nerve is to divide it in its main segments: intra-axial, cisternal, skull base and extracranial segment, tailoring the imaging technique to each anatomical area while bearing in mind the main disease entities affecting each segment.

Alves, Pedro [Department of Radiology, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central-Hospital de Sao Jose, Rua Jose Antonio Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: tojais.pedro@gmail.com

2010-05-15

314

Microscopic analysis of the quality of obturation and physical properties of MTA Fillapex.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzed the quality of obturation and physical properties of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus sealer. A sample of 30 human maxillary central incisors were instrumented with Protaper until a F5 (50/05) file. Both sealers were mixed with Rhodamine-B dye to allow visualization on a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Next, the canals were filled using the single cone technique. After setting, all samples were sectioned at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the apex. CLSM was used to analyze the gaps and sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules. All samples were scanned 10 µm below the dentin surface and images were recorded at 100× magnification using the fluorescent mode. Additionally, the solubility, flowability and setting time of the sealers were evaluated. All the measured quantities of the examined materials were evaluated for significant differences by means of statistical analysis. The CLSM analysis of the MTA Fillapex showed the highest percentage of gaps at all sections (P = 0.0001). Physical tests revealed adequate properties for both sealers except for a higher solubility of the MTA Fillapex (P = 0.0001). The MTA Fillapex presented flowability and intratubular penetration similar to the AH Plus. Nevertheless, the MTA Fillapex sealer presented a higher solubility and considerable quantity of gaps between the sealer/dentin interface in relation to the AH Plus sealer. Clinicians must take into consideration, the quality of endodontic sealers as it is essential in the outcome of the root canal filling. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:1031-1036, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25209870

Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Marciano, Marina AngéLica; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; De Almeida, Marcela Milanezi; De Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

2014-12-01

315

FP core carrier technique: thermoplasticized gutta-percha root canal obturation technique using polypropylene core.  

Science.gov (United States)

Core carrier techniques are unique among the various root canal filling techniques for delivering and compacting gutta-percha in the prepared root canal system. Thermafil (TF), considered the major core carrier device, is provided as an obturator consisting of a master core coated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. We have devised a thermoplasticized gutta-percha filling technique using a polypropylene core, FlexPoint® NEO (FP), which was developed as a canal filling material that can be sterilized in an autoclave. Therefore, FP can be coated onto thermoplasticized gutta-percha and inserted into the prepared canal as a core carrier. The FP core carrier technique offers many advantages over the TF system: the core can be tested in the root canal and verified radiographically; the core can be adjusted to fit and surplus material easily removed; furthermore the core can be easily removed for retreatment. The clinical procedure of the FP core carrier technique is simple, and similar that with the TF system. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha in a syringe is heated in an oven and extruded onto the FP core carrier after a trial insertion. The FP core carrier is inserted into the root canal to the working length. Excess FP is then removed with a red-hot plastic instrument at the orifice of the root canal. The FP core carrier technique incorporates the clinical advantages of the existing TF system while minimizing the disadvantages. Hence the FP core carrier technique is very useful in clinical practice. This paper describes the FP core carrier technique as a new core based method. PMID:21139375

Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi

2010-01-01

316

Prolonged nerve blockade delays the onset of neuropathic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain. Pharmacological blockade of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system. However, results in preventing onset of pain behaviors by providing prolonged nerve blockade have been mixed. Furthermore, the experimental techniques used to date to provide that blockade were limited in clinical potential in that they would require surgical implantation. To address these issues, we have used liposomes (SDLs) containing saxitoxin (STX), a site 1 sodium channel blocker, and the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone to provide nerve blocks lasting ~1 wk from a single injection. This formulation is easily injected percutaneously. Animals undergoing spared nerve injury (SNI) developed mechanical allodynia in 1 wk; nerve blockade with a single dose of SDLs (duration of block 6.9 ± 1.2 d) delayed the onset of allodynia by 2 d. Treatment with three sequential SDL injections resulting in a nerve block duration of 18.1 ± 3.4 d delayed the onset of allodynia by 1 mo. This very prolonged blockade decreased activation of astrocytes in the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord due to SNI. Changes in expression of injury-related genes due to SNI in the dorsal root ganglia were not affected by SDLs. These findings suggest that formulations of this kind, which could be easy to apply clinically, can mitigate the development of neuropathic pain. PMID:23045676

Shankarappa, Sahadev A; Tsui, Jonathan H; Kim, Kristine N; Reznor, Gally; Dohlman, Jenny C; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

2012-10-23

317

Optic nerve oxygenation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen tension. Lowering the intraocular pressure tends to increase the optic nerve oxygen tension, even though this effect may be masked by the autoregulation when the optic nerve oxygen tension and perfusion pressure is in the normal range. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors increase the optic nerve oxygen tension through a mechanism of vasodilatation and lowering of the intraocular pressure. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition reduces the removal of CO2 from the tissue and the CO2 accumulation induces vasodilatation resulting in increased blood flow and improved oxygen supply. This effect is inhibited by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical trials and needed to test this hypotheses.

Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach

2005-01-01

318

Uso de obturadores en cirugía oral y maxilofacial: Presentación de cinco casos clínicos / Use of obturators in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A report of five cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los defectos creados en el maxilar, principalmente tras cirugía resectiva de tumores malignos, traumatismo o defectos congénitos, deben ser corregidos con el fin de recuperar los consecuentes déficits en el habla, la deglución, la masticación y la estética. Para ello contamos con dos amplias posibil [...] idades: reconstrucción quirúrgica o colocación de un obturador protésico maxilar. En este artículo llevamos a cabo una revisión de la literatura reciente y clásica sobre obturadores palatinos, ilustrándola mediante 5 casos clínicos con esta opción terapéutica. Hemos encontrado descritas una amplia variedad de modificaciones para los distintos tipos de obturadores, como la fabricación de aletas nasales, colocación de obturadores de forma inmediata tras la cirugía, el hecho de ahuecar el aditamento obturador, etc. En nuestra práctica hemos observado una serie de ventajas en la colocación de este tipo de prótesis de forma posquirúrgica diferida y en estrecha colaboración con su médico responsable. Abstract in english Defects created in the maxillary bone, principally after surgical resection of malignant tumors, trauma or congenital defects, must be corrected to eliminate the resulting speech, swallowing, and chewing defects and restore the cosmetic appearance. Two major options available are surgical reconstruc [...] tion or the placement of a maxillary obturator prosthesis. The recent and classic literature on palatal obturators is reviewed and five clinical cases treated with a palatal obturator are reported. A large variety of modifications have been reported for different types of obturators, such as nasal wings, immediate postoperative obturator prosthesis placement, etc. In the authors' experience, deferred postoperative obturator placement in close collaboration with the responsible doctor has advantages.

R.T., Velázquez-Cayón; R., Flores-Ruiz; D., Torres-Lagares; S., González-Guerrero; D., González-Padilla; J.L., Gutiérrez-Perez.

2011-03-01

319

Uso de obturadores en cirugía oral y maxilofacial: Presentación de cinco casos clínicos Use of obturators in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A report of five cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los defectos creados en el maxilar, principalmente tras cirugía resectiva de tumores malignos, traumatismo o defectos congénitos, deben ser corregidos con el fin de recuperar los consecuentes déficits en el habla, la deglución, la masticación y la estética. Para ello contamos con dos amplias posibilidades: reconstrucción quirúrgica o colocación de un obturador protésico maxilar. En este artículo llevamos a cabo una revisión de la literatura reciente y clásica sobre obturadores palatinos, ilustrándola mediante 5 casos clínicos con esta opción terapéutica. Hemos encontrado descritas una amplia variedad de modificaciones para los distintos tipos de obturadores, como la fabricación de aletas nasales, colocación de obturadores de forma inmediata tras la cirugía, el hecho de ahuecar el aditamento obturador, etc. En nuestra práctica hemos observado una serie de ventajas en la colocación de este tipo de prótesis de forma posquirúrgica diferida y en estrecha colaboración con su médico responsable.Defects created in the maxillary bone, principally after surgical resection of malignant tumors, trauma or congenital defects, must be corrected to eliminate the resulting speech, swallowing, and chewing defects and restore the cosmetic appearance. Two major options available are surgical reconstruction or the placement of a maxillary obturator prosthesis. The recent and classic literature on palatal obturators is reviewed and five clinical cases treated with a palatal obturator are reported. A large variety of modifications have been reported for different types of obturators, such as nasal wings, immediate postoperative obturator prosthesis placement, etc. In the authors' experience, deferred postoperative obturator placement in close collaboration with the responsible doctor has advantages.

R.T. Velázquez-Cayón

2011-03-01

320

[Nerve sheath tumours].  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are common neoplasms in daily practice. Diagnosis and classification of most conventional peripheral nerve sheath tumors are relatively straightforward for the experienced observer; but on occasion, they are diagnostically challenging (especially with locally aggressive and malignant tumors). This article aims to provide an update of the data (clinical, histological, immunohistochemistry and genomic) of benign, intermediate and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, thanks to the latest WHO "Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone", published in 2013, which includes a new chapter on "Nerve Sheath Tumors". Advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the nature of the various peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and have begun to suggest novel targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25541115

Le Guellec, Sophie

2015-01-01

321

Population Blocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

322

Pulsed radiofrequency to the great occipital nerve for the treatment of intractable postherpetic itch: a case report  

OpenAIRE

A patient with intractable postherpetic itch lasting for 1 year was reported. The itch was mainly from the left vertex, frontal and ophthalmic regions and extended to the left neck area. The patient had negative response to the ophthalmic nerve block. Under the initial positive response to the great occipital nerve block, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) was performed on the position of the great occipital nerve. After 4 months treatment, the itch was completely vanished. This case study demonstra...

Ding, De-fang; Li, Rong-chun; Xiong, Qiu-ju; Zhou, Ling; Xiang, Hong-bing

2014-01-01

323

[Changes of the hemostasis system in patients, suffering obturation jaundice, caused by choledocholithiasis, and possibilities of their correction with the help of miniinvasive operative interventions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the hemostasis system in choledocholithiasis, taking into account the obturation jaundice severity and possibility of the correction conduction, using miniinvasive operative interventions, were studied. Dynamic of changes in the hemostasis system in patients preoperatively, in 1 and 3 days after endoscopic papillosphincterotomy were monitored, using the method of a low--rate piezoelectric thromboelastography. Basing on analysis of the results, the changes in hemostasis in obturation jaundice were classified, taking into account its degree of severity, what have permitted to select a correct tactics for prophylaxis of hemorrhagic complications intraoperatively and postoperatively. PMID:25507008

2014-08-01

324

[Changes of the hemostasis system in patients with obturation jaundice caused by choledocholithiasis, and possibilities of their correction with the help of miniinvasive operative interventions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the hemostasis system in choledocholithiasis, taking into account the obturation jaundice severity and possibility of the correction conduction, using miniinvasive operative interventions, were studied. Dynamic of changes in the hemostasis system in patients preoperatively, in 1 and 3 days after endoscopic papillosphincterotomy were monitored, using the method of a low--rate piezoelectric thromboelastography. Basing on analysis of the results, the changes in hemostasis in obturation jaundice were classified, taking into account its degree of severity, what have permitted to select a correct tactics for prophylaxis of hemorrhagic complications intraoperatively and postoperatively. PMID:25417280

Tkachenko, A I

2014-08-01

325

Axillary Block as the Sole Anesthetic for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Placement in an Infant with Goldenhar Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

The use of peripheral nerve block as the sole anesthetic in infants is not very common. Studies have demonstrated that ultrasound guided (USG) peripheral nerve block is associated with higher overall success rate when compared with nerve stimulation (Rubin et al., 2009, and Gelfand et al., 2011). Described below is a medically complex infant who had an USG axillary brachial plexus block for peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement.

Ma. Carmen Bernardo-Ocampo

2013-01-01

326

Axillary Block as the Sole Anesthetic for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Placement in an Infant with Goldenhar Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of peripheral nerve block as the sole anesthetic in infants is not very common. Studies have demonstrated that ultrasound guided (USG) peripheral nerve block is associated with higher overall success rate when compared with nerve stimulation (Rubin et al., 2009, and Gelfand et al., 2011). Described below is a medically complex infant who had an USG axillary brachial plexus block for peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement. PMID:24371529

Bernardo-Ocampo, Ma. Carmen

2013-01-01

327

Spontaneous nerve torsion: unusual cause of radial nerve palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous nerve torsion is a rare cause of nerve palsy. We describe a case of nerve torsion affecting the radial nerve in order to inform radiologists of the existence of this condition and subtle features on cross-sectional imaging that can suggest the diagnosis preoperatively. PMID:25244923

Endo, Yoshimi; Miller, Theodore T; Carlson, Erik; Wolfe, Scott W

2015-03-01

328

Optic nerve sheath meningocele  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez, Silvia Muñoz Quiñones, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: A 53-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of visual loss in his left eye. Visual acuity could be corrected to 20/20 with an increased hyperopic correction. Dilated funduscopy showed faint choroidal folds and elevation of the left optic disc. The coronal view of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a fluid-filled dilated sheath surrounding normal optic nerves. General physical examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. The subject was diagnosed as having dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath and followed a course of acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily for three months, and displayed good anatomical and functional results during a 2-year follow-up period. Despite the fact that several authors have recommended an optic nerve decompression, most of the patients follow a benign clinical course. The role of corticosteroids is not described in the literature. Raised levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid in the perioptic subarachnoidal space could be a determining factor. On the basis of an osmotic gradient between the cerebral subarachnoid space and perioptic subarachnoid space, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors could be beneficial. In contrast to other reports, we believe that surgical intervention could be reserved for patients with rapid or progressive optic nerve dysfunction.Keywords: optic nerve, perineural subaracnoid space, optic nerve meningocoele, optic nerve tumors

Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez

2008-10-01

329

Suprascapular nerve entrapment.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to be aware of neuropathy involving the suprascapular nerve. While direct trauma to the suprascapular nerve is the usual cause (direct blow to the base of the neck or posterior shoulder, shoulder dislocation or fracture), the problem may result from overuse injuries (such as repetitive tennis serving or spiking of a volley ball), excessive horizontal adduction, weight lifting, backpacking or no apparent reason. These last three years we have operated 8 cases of suprascapular nerve neurolysis at the level of suprascapular incision, and section of the transverse scapular ligament through the back supraspinal approach. PMID:15830964

Corò, L; Azuelos, A; Alexandre, A

2005-01-01

330

Starting with ultrasonography decreases popliteal block performance time in inexperienced hands: a prospective randomized study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The widespread of hallux valgus surgery in a day care setting enhanced the role of regional anaesthesia in the last few years. Sciatic nerve block at popliteal fossa has been shown to provide safe and effective analgesia. Our purpose was to compare the success rate and performance time of popliteal block during resident’s training for regional anaesthesia by using nerve stimulation (NS) or combined nerve stimulation and ultrasound (NS + US). Metho...

Cataldo Rita; Carassiti Massimiliano; Costa Fabio; Martuscelli Matteo; Benedetto Maria; Cancilleri Francesco; Marinozzi Andrea; Martinelli Nicolò

2012-01-01

331

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of median nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Fibrolipomaous hamartoma is a benign neoplasm of nerves, resulting from anomalous growth of fibroadipose tissue of the nerve sheath. The median nerve is the most commonly involved nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features are pathognomonic, showing a coaxial cable-like appearance on axial images and spaghetti-like appearance on coronal images. Preferred management of the lesion is conservative

332

Nerve pathways involved in adrenergic regulation of electrical and mechanical activities in the chicken rectum.  

OpenAIRE

Peripheral nerve pathways responsible for adrenergic inhibition of mechanical and electrical activities in the chicken rectum and receptors mediating the adrenergic inhibition were investigated in isolated extrinsically-innervated rectum of the chicken. Electrical stimulation of the anal end (Ra) or the ileal cut end (Ri) of Remak's nerve, or perivascular nerves (P) elicited relaxation of the rectum pretreated with atropine (0.5 microM) and hexamethonium (0.3 mM) to block the cholinergic and ...

Komori, S.; Ohashi, H.

1987-01-01

333

Sacral nerve stimulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited.

Besendörfer M.

2004-01-01

334

Vagus Nerve Stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

Howland, Robert H

2014-06-01

335

Axillary nerve dysfunction  

Science.gov (United States)

... This is the nerve that helps control the deltoid muscles of the shoulder and the skin around ... shoulder can cause difficulty moving your arm. The deltoid muscle of the shoulder may show signs of ...

336

Lymphoma Nerve Infiltration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurolymphomatosis (NL denotes the invasion of cranial nerves, nerve roots, plexus, or nerves by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL or leukaemia. This occurs in the absence (primary NL or presence (primary NL of systemic NHL. Clinical patterns include a painful polyneuropathy or polyradiculopathy, cranial neuropathy, painless polyneuropathy, and peripheral mononeuropathy. Integration of clinical information, imaging findings, as well as histopathologic examination of involved nerves or non-neural tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are needed to establish the diagnosis. Timely recognition of the disease and its exact neuroanatomical extent is the basis for successful therapy using systemic chemotherapy and localized irradiation of bulky disease sites. More complex regimens are required when cerebrospinal fluid and systemic disease sites are affected.

Baehring JM

2014-01-01

337

Bilateral suprascapular nerve entrapment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilateral suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome is very rare. It presents with shoulder pain, weakness and atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. We present a twenty-year old man having a history of bilateral shoulder pain associated with weakness. Electromyographic studies revealed signs of a lesion that caused a neupraxic state of the left suprascapular nerve, moderate axonal loss of the right suprascapular nerve and denervation of the right suprascapular muscle. The patient was treated with physical and medical therapy. Due to worsening of the symptoms, a surgical operation was performed by the excision of the transverse scapular ligaments bilaterally. His pain, weakness and atrophy had diminished on examination six weeks later. Suprascapular nerve entrapment should be considered in patients with shoulder pain, particularly those with weakness and atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. PMID:15004884

Aydin, Teoman; Ozaras, Nihal; Tetik, Sevgi; Emel, Erhan; Seyithanoglu, Hakan

2004-02-29

338

Degenerative Nerve Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

339

Optic Nerve Atrophy  

Science.gov (United States)

... to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. ONA that occurs as a child may result in nystagmus (rhythmic involuntary eye movements) [See figures 1 and ...

340

Experience with Nerve Allograft Transplantation  

OpenAIRE

Nerve allograft transplantation should be used for the repair of devastating peripheral nerve injuries that cannot be reconstructed through traditional means such as autologous nerve grafting or nerve transfer procedures. The risks of required systemic immunosuppression, although only temporary for nerve allograft recipients, preclude widespread use of this treatment modality. Translational research has led to several advancements in this field including the use of preoperative allograft cold...

Fox, Ida K.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2007-01-01

341

Facial nerve schwannoma  

OpenAIRE

A study of 26 patients with facial nerve schwannomas treated at the University Hospital of Zurich was done. The general clinical features are described, but particular emphasis is placed on tumor histologic findings, recovery of facial function after grafting, and the nature of intracranial facial nerve schwannomas Presenting symptoms are stratified by tumor location, with facial dysfunction being commonest with intracranial tumors, neurotologic symptoms being associated with intracranial tum...

Dort, Joseph C.; Fisch, Ugo

1998-01-01

342

Facial Nerve Schwannomas  

OpenAIRE

A study of 26 patients with facial nerve schwannomas treated at the University Hospital of Zurich was done. The general clinical features are described, but particular emphasis is placed on tumor histologic findings, recovery of facial function after grafting, and the nature of intracranial facial nerve schwannomas Presenting symptoms are stratified by tumor location, with facial dysfunction being commonest with intracranial tumors, neurotologic symptoms being associated with intracranial tum...

Dort, Joseph C.; Fisch, Ugo

1991-01-01

343

facial nerve, spinal accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve (not including vagal nerve or swallowing)  

OpenAIRE

The present review gives a survey of rehabilitative measures for disorders of the motor function of the mimetic muscles (facial nerve), and muscles innervated by the spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves. The dysfunction can present either as paralysis or hyperkinesis (hyperkinesia). Conservative and surgical treatment options aimed at restoring normal motor function and correcting the movement disorders are described. Static reanimation techniques are not dealt with. The final section desc...

Laskawi, R.; Rohrbach, S.

2005-01-01

344

Starting with ultrasonography decreases popliteal block performance time in inexperienced hands: a prospective randomized study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread of hallux valgus surgery in a day care setting enhanced the role of regional anaesthesia in the last few years. Sciatic nerve block at popliteal fossa has been shown to provide safe and effective analgesia. Our purpose was to compare the success rate and performance time of popliteal block during resident’s training for regional anaesthesia by using nerve stimulation (NS or combined nerve stimulation and ultrasound (NS + US. Methods 70 adult patients undergoing hallux valgus surgery were randomly assigned to receive sciatic nerve block at popliteal fossa with US+NS or NS alone with a double injection technique for peroneal and tibial branches, respectively. Two residents experienced with nerve stimulator performed the procedures after a learning phase concerning ultrasonography. A local anaesthetic solution, containing 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine and 10 mL of 2% lidocaine was used: 12 mL were infiltrated close the tibial nerve, and 8mL were infiltrated close the common peroneal nerve. Block success rate, sensory block onset time, block performance time were evaluated. Recourse to general anaesthesia was considered as failure. Results No differences were detected in success rate and onset time of sensory block between the two groups (P > 0.05. The time to block tibial nerve and the overall block time were significantly faster in US+NS group (P Conclusions Ultrasound guidance for popliteal nerve block resulted in similar success rate with a faster procedure time when compared with nerve stimulator, thus providing a possible effect on resident education and operating room efficiency.

Cataldo Rita

2012-12-01

345

Eficácia de duas técnicas de obturação em cavidades experimentais de reabsorção radicular interna / Efficacy of two obturation techniques in experimental internal root resorption cavities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O preenchimento com material endodôntico obturador em dentes com reabsorção radicular interna é extremamente difícil. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia de duas técnicas de obturação no preenchimento de cavidades experimentais de reabsorção interna. Material e método: Vinte incisivos cent [...] rais superiores artificiais, com a presença de uma cavidade simulada padronizada de reabsorção no terço médio do canal radicular, foram utilizados. Após o preparo endodôntico dos dentes, os mesmos foram randomicamente divididos em dois grupos (n=10), de acordo com a técnica de obturação empregada: híbrida de Tagger ou com auxílio do sistema ultrassônico. A verificação da obturação endodôntica, junto à cavidade de reabsorção interna, foi feita por meio da tomada radiográfica com dois tipos de incidência: mesiodistal e vestibulolingual. Para a análise da área de obturação, foi empregado o programa Image Tool®. Os dados obtidos da obturação foram submetidos à análise estatística por meio do Teste t de Student, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultado: Não houve diferença estatística entre as técnicas de obturação testadas. Apenas pôde-se observar diferença significativa nos dentes obturados com auxílio do ultrassom, quando se comparou a incidência radiográfica realizada no sentido mesiodistal com a vestibulolingual. Conclusão: As duas técnicas de obturação testadas foram similares no preenchimento da cavidade de reabsorção interna. Abstract in english Introduction: The filling with obturation endodontic material in teeth with internal root resorption is extremely difficult. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of two obturation techniques in the filling of experimental internal resorption cavities. Material and method: Twenty maxillary centra [...] l incisors artificial, with the presence of a standardized simulated resorption cavity in the middle third of the root canal were used. After endodontic treatment of teeth, they were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), according to the obturation technique used: hybrid Tagger or with the aid of the ultrasonic system. Verification of endodontic obturation, with the cavity internal resorption, was taken by radiography with two types of incidence: mesiodistal and buccolingual. For the analysis of area closures, we used the Image Tool® program. The data of the filling were subjected to statistical analysis using Student's t test, with significance level of 5%. Result: There was no statistical difference between the tested obturation techniques. As one can observe a significant difference in teeth obturated with the aid of ultrasound, when compared to the radiograph performed in mesiodistal with buccolingual. Conclusion: The two obturation techniques tested were similar to fill the cavity of internal resorption.

Tiago André Fontoura de, Melo; Gustavo Golgo, Kunert; Mireli Belizario da, Silva; Mariella Falci, Cabeda.

2014-12-01

346

Multiple signal transduction pathways alterations during nerve agent toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve agent toxicity is primarily due to the synaptic build up of toxic levels of acetylcholine. The acute lethal effects of the nerve agents are generally attributed to respiratory failure caused by a combination of effects at both central and peripheral levels and are further complicated by copious secretions, muscle fasciculations, and convulsions. In addition to this, a range of non cholinergic effects have been observed. The development of effective treatment to block multiple effects resulting from nerve agent exposure is hampered by a limited understanding of the molecular changes responsible for their persistent effects. Excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to activation nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, these receptors activate diverse kind of cellular responses by distinct signaling pathways. Metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, membrane phospholipids, activation of a multitude of protein kinases and the induction of transcription factors are the key biochemical steps and pathways that have been investigated. This review will focus on the effects of nerve agents on signal transduction pathways; particularly, MAP kinases, protein kinase C isozymes, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and on cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, and certain transcription factors and discusses how such changes may be involved in nerve agent induced neurotoxicity. Alterations in these key brain proteins could explain the neurological impairments following nerve agent exposure. A better understanding of the whole picture may lead to new pharmacological interventions aimed to improve or modulate those signal transduction pathways affected during nerve agent poisoning or associated pathologies that are responsible for neuronal disturbances. PMID:22001750

RamaRao, G; Bhattacharya, B K

2012-01-01

347

Optical recording of action potential propagation in demyelinated frog nerve.  

OpenAIRE

Conduction in focally demyelinated frog nerves has been measured optically using potential-sensitive dyes. Absorption changes were recorded with an array of photodiodes positioned in the image plane of a microscope. Both the amplitude and conduction velocity of the optical signals decreased in the demyelinated region. Conduction was improved after exposure to the potassium channel blocking agent 4-aminopyridine.

Shrager, P.; Chiu, S. Y.; Ritchie, J. M.; Zecevic, D.; Cohen, L. B.

1987-01-01

348

Thinking Blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking Blocks is an interactive Flash tool for modeling and solving math problems visually. Students represent quantities and relationships by placing blocks and braces on a work space and using the tools to resize and label them accordingly. Users can change the color of blocks, move them, copy them, divide them into equal parts, and separate them. A pencil tool and keyboard are also available. The site includes video tutorials demonstrating how to use the tool and how to model a wide variety of problem types. It also contains a bank of hundreds of word problems.

2011-01-01

349

End-to-side nerve repair in peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

In peripheral nerve injury, end-to-side neurorrhaphy has been reported as an alternative in cases that the proximal nerve stump is not accessible. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain peripheral nerve regeneration after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Recent evidence suggests that nerve regeneration occurs by collateral sprouting. Although a great number of humoral factors have been identified, molecular mechanism of nerve regeneration after end-to-side neurorrhaphy has not been completely clarified yet. The goal of this technique is to provide satisfactory functional recovery for the recipient nerve, without any deterioration of the donor nerve function. End-to-side technique has been investigated in detail in both experimental and clinical studies. Only a limited number of reported cases in clinical practice, until today, can reveal that end-to-side technique may become a viable means of repairing peripheral nerves in certain clinical situations. PMID:17518544

Beris, Alexandros; Lykissas, Marios; Korompilias, Anastasios; Mitsionis, Grigorios

2007-05-01

350

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIAL AND ULNAR NERVE AT A HIGH HUMERAL LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various communications between the different branches of brachial plexus have been reported by many authors but the communication between the radial and ulnar nerve; the branches of posterior and medial cords of brachial plexus in the arm is very rare. It features the communicating ramus travelling from proximal radial nerve and distal ulnar nerve at a high humeral level in the right arm of a 56 year old male cadaver. Knowledge of such variations may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomenon of ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical interventions in that particular area is also of clinical significance in anaesthetic blocks.

Monika Lalit

2014-06-01

351

Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ?18weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (Pfacial-nerve-mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (Pfacial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation of skeletal muscle after motor nerve lesion, which not only has implications for interpreting facial nerve reinnervation results, but also calls into question whether autonomic-mediated innervation of striated muscle occurs naturally in other forms of neuropathy. PMID:24480367

Heaton, James T; Sheu, Shu Hsien; Hohman, Marc H; Knox, Christopher J; Weinberg, Julie S; Kleiss, Ingrid J; Hadlock, Tessa A

2014-04-18

352

Structural properties of spinal nerve roots: biomechanics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomechanics of spinal nerve roots obtained from normal and nerve-crushed mice were evaluated. Photographs and longitudinal force measurements were taken as nerve roots were elongated through mechanical failure. Proportional limit stress and strain as well as the apparent modulus were calculated from photographic and force measurements to characterize nerve root strength, elasticity, and stiffness, respectively. Resulting mechanical data were indicative of an extremely weak material. Comparisons of nerve and nerve root mechanical properties revealed major differences. While nerve root elasticity was comparable to nerve, nerve root strength was only 10% that of nerve and root stiffness was only 20% of nerve values. Differences in nerve and root mechanics are attributed to the large discrepancies in relative amounts of connective tissue. Also in sharp contrast with peripheral nerve, unilateral nerve crush produced no significant alterations in root mechanics. Comparisons of nerve and nerve root strengths suggested possible pathways for dissipation of peripherally applied forces through epineurial and dural structures. PMID:3940878

Beel, J A; Stodieck, L S; Luttges, M W

1986-01-01

353

Laryngeal nerve monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves is increasingly used during thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, skull base surgery, and cervical discectomy with fusion. Monitoring can assist in nerve localization and in reducing the incidence of neural trauma. To be effective, however, monitoring must be correctly implemented and the results interpreted based on an in-depth understanding of technique and the surgical structures at risk. Because "poor monitoring is worse than no monitoring" all members of the surgical monitoring team must have training specific to laryngeal recording to maximize its benefit and minimize pitfalls. This publication will review pertinent anatomy and neurophysiology as well as technical and interpretative factors. PMID:25351033

Kartush, Jack M; Naumann, Ilka

2014-09-01

354

Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a little battery that constantly delivers small electrical impulses to a nerve that is in the neck. ... big nerve in the neck and it delivers impulses toward the brain on a continuous basis. The ...

355

Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the area where the nerve is. It lies right next to an artery and a vein, which ... called the carotid sheath. The vagus nerve runs right between the carotid artery and the jugular vein, ...

356

Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... nerve is. It lies right next to an artery and a vein, which makes it very easy ... The vagus nerve runs right between the carotid artery and the jugular vein, so that’s where we’ ...

357

Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in the United States have some form of epilepsy. You are about to see a vagus nerve ... the implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator for epilepsy. My name is Dr. Stephanie Einhaus and I ...

358

Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

2014-03-01

359

Optic nerve sheath meningocele.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 53-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of visual loss in his left eye. Visual acuity could be corrected to 20/20 with an increased hyperopic correction. Dilated funduscopy showed faint choroidal folds and elevation of the left optic disc. The coronal view of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a fluid-filled dilated sheath surrounding normal optic nerves. General physical examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. The subject was diagnosed as having dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath and followed a course of acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily for three months, and displayed good anatomical and functional results during a 2-year follow-up period. Despite the fact that several authors have recommended an optic nerve decompression, most of the patients follow a benign clinical course. The role of corticosteroids is not described in the literature. Raised levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid in the perioptic subarachnoidal space could be a determining factor. On the basis of an osmotic gradient between the cerebral subarachnoid space and perioptic subarachnoid space, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors could be beneficial. In contrast to other reports, we believe that surgical intervention could be reserved for patients with rapid or progressive optic nerve dysfunction. PMID:19668771

Mesa-Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos; Quiñones, Silvia Muñoz; Ginebreda, Jorge Arruga

2008-09-01

360

MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frédéric; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Røkkum, Magne; Klaastad, Øivind

2014-01-01

361

Nerve fiber analysis on the morphology of the lingual nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The route of fine fascicles of nerve fibers in the lingual nerve was clarified. Contemporary anatomy textbooks describe the lingual nerve as supplying sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the presulcal part of the tongue, the floor and side wall of the mouth, and the mandibular gums. In addition to receiving the chorda tympani and a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, the lingual nerve is connected to the submandibular ganglion by a few branches. It carries preganglionic fibers from the chorda tympani and postganglionic fibers from the submandibular ganglion to the submandibular and sublingual glands. The branch from the mylohyoid nerve is described as a sensory nerve. However, we observed that this branch was directly connected to the submandibular ganglion. Furthermore, the branch from the submandibular ganglion innervated thin membranous tissue that originated in the petrous part of the temporal bone and inserted into the lateral surface of the superior constrictor. These branches have not been described in the anatomy textbooks and literature. Therefore, we studied the morphological features of the lingual nerve and discovered the route of fine fascicles of nerve fibers in the lingual nerve. These findings will likely improve the neurological and physiological understanding of the function of the lingual nerve. PMID:25467528

Takezawa, Kojiro; Kageyama, Ikuo

2014-12-01

362

Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

363

Comparative assessment of ActiV GP/glass ionomer sealer, Resilon/Epiphany, and gutta-percha/AH plus obturation: a bacterial leakage study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare the sealing ability of ActiV GP/glass ionomer (GI) sealer (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), Resilon/Epiphany (Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT), and gutta-percha (GP)/AH Plus (Dentsply Maillefer, Tulsa, OK). Seventy-three human single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into three test groups (20 canals each) and two control groups (5 positive and 8 negative). Using Enterococcus faecalis, a split-chamber bacterial leakage model was developed to evaluate the sealing ability of the three obturation systems. Samples were monitored every 24 hours for 65 days. Thirteen teeth leaked in both the Resilon/Epiphany and GP/AH Plus groups, whereas 17 teeth leaked in the ActiV GP/GI group at the end of the observation period. There were no statistically significant differences in the resistance to leakage between the three obturation systems (p > 0.05). PMID:18498900

Fransen, Joel N; He, Jianing; Glickman, Gerald N; Rios, Alejandro; Shulman, Jay D; Honeyman, Allen

2008-06-01

364

Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of the Periapical Status of Nonvital Tooth with Open Apex Obturated with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Management of a tooth with open apex is a challenge to the dental practitioners. Evaluation of the periapical healing is required in such cases by radiographic techniques. The objective of this paper was to assess the healing of a periapical lesion in a non-vital tooth with open apex treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) obturation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The endodontic treatment of a fractured non-vital discolored maxillary left lateral incisor with an open apex w...

Vijay Shekhar; Shashikala, K.

2013-01-01

365

Effects of nerve growth factor on nerve regeneration after corneal nerve damage  

OpenAIRE

The study aims to determine the relation between the effects of mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) and nerve regeneration after corneal surgery nerve damage. Mechanical nerve injury animal model was established by LASIK (the excimer laser keratomileusis) surgery in 12 Belgian rabbits. mNGF and the balanced salt solution (BBS) were alternatively administered in the left and right eye two times every day for 8 weeks. The morphous and growth of the sub-basal nerve plexus and superficial stroma wer...

Ma, Ke; Yan, Naihong; Huang, Yongzhi; Cao, Guiqun; Deng, Jie; Deng, Yingping

2014-01-01

366

Post stimulus effects of high frequency biphasic electrical current on a fibre's conductibility in isolated frog nerves  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. High frequency biphasic (HFB) electrical currents are widely used in nerve blocking studies. Their safety margins largely remain unknown and need to be investigated. Approach. This study, exploring the post stimulus effects of HFB electrical currents on a nerve's conductibility, was performed on bullfrog sciatic nerves. Both compound action potentials (CAPs) and differential CAPs (DCAPs, i.e. control CAPs subtracted by CAPs following HFB currents) were obtained, and N1 and N2 components, which were the first and second upward components of DCAPs, were used for analyses of the effects introduced by HFB electrical stimulation. Main results. First, HFB currents of 10 kHz at a completely blocking threshold were applied for 5 s. The maximum amplitudes and conducting velocities of the CAPs were significantly (P tests showed a linear relationship between the HFB stimulation durations and recovering periods of N1 amplitudes. Supra-threshold blocking did not cause higher N1 amplitudes. Significance. This study indicates that HFB electrical currents lead to long lasting post stimulus reduction of a nerve's conductibility, which might relate to potential nerve injuries. A possible mechanism, focusing on changes in intracellular and periaxonal ionic concentrations, was proposed to underlie the reduction of the nerve's conductibility and potential nerve injuries. Greater caution and stimulation protocols with greater safety margins should be explored when utilizing HFB electrical current to block nerve conductions.

Liu, Hailong; Zhu, Linlin; Sheng, Shulei; Sun, Lifei; Zhou, Hongmin; Tang, Hong; Qiu, Tianshuang

2013-06-01

367

Traumatic third nerve palsy.  

OpenAIRE

Twenty patients with a traumatic third nerve palsy had sustained a closed head injury with prolonged loss of consciousness in a high-speed deceleration accident. Sixteen were male, and the average age was 25 years. Seven had skull or facial fractures, 15 damage to the anterior visual pathways, and 16 other permanent neurological damage. Nineteen developed the misdirection/regeneration syndrome. Thirteen had strabismus surgery, and an area of binocular single vision was enlarged or achieved in...

Elston, J. S.

1984-01-01

368

Bloqueio do nervo isquiático por abordagem posterior simplificada no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral: estudo com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1% / Simplified posterior sciatic nerve block at mid gluteofemoral dulcus: comparison of different 1% lidocaine volumes / Bloqueo del nervio isquiático por abordaje posterior simplificado en el punto medio del surco glúteo-femoral: estudio con diferentes volúmenes de lidocaína a 1%  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo isquiático por via subglútea foi descrito com sucesso em estudo anterior, sendo mais uma opção entre as várias abordagens possíveis. O nervo isquiático torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo, permitindo seu acesso com fácil loca [...] lização, pouco desconforto e baixo risco de punção acidental de grandes vasos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático por esta abordagem simplificada com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1%. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com intervenções cirúrgicas na perna ou no pé distribuídos em dois grupos. Após monitorização, eles foram posicionados em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com auxílio de neuroestimulador e agulha de 5 cm eletricamente isolada, utilizando 300 mg (G1) ou 200 mg (G2) de lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e a concentração usados. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,6 ± 5,7 min (G1) e 5,6 ± 5,7 min (G2). A latência foi de 5,98 ± 1,4 min (G1) e 6,7 ± 2,9 min (G2). A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 243 ± 37 min e 152 ± 30 min (G1) e 235 ± 39 min e 149 ± 59 min (G2), respectivamente. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Essa abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução, podendo a dose total de anestésico ser reduzida sem comprometimento da qualidade. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio isquiático por vía subglútea fue descrito con éxito en estudio anterior, siendo una opción más entre los varios abordajes posibles. El nervio isquiático se hace superficial en el borde inferior del músculo glúteo máximo, permitiendo su acceso con fáci [...] l ubicación, poca incomodidad y bajo riesgo de punción accidental de grandes vasos. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar el bloqueo del nervio isquiático por este abordaje simplificado con diferentes volúmenes de lidocaína a 1%. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 40 pacientes con intervenciones quirúrgicas en la pierna o en el pie, distribuidos en dos grupos. Después de la monitorización, fueron colocados en decúbito ventral y realizado el bloqueo en el punto medio del surco glúteo-femoral, con auxilio de neuroestimulador y aguja de 5 cm, eléctricamente aislada, utilizando 300 mg (G1) o 200 mg (G2) de lidocaína a 1% sin adrenalina. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo anestesia adecuada en todos los casos con el volumen y la concentración utilizados. El tiempo de ejecución del bloqueo fue de 8,6 ± 5,7 min (G1) y 5,6 ± 5,7 min (G2). La latencia fue de 5,98 ± 1,4 min (G1) y 6,7 ± 2,9 min (G2). La duración sensitiva y motora del bloqueo fue de 243 ± 37 min y 152 ± 30 min (G1) y 235 ± 39 min y 149 ± 59 min (G2), respectivamente. No se observaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los grupos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Ese abordaje es eficaz y de fácil ejecución, pudiendo la dosis total de anestésico ser reducida sin el comprometimiento de la calidad. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Subgluteus sciatic nerve block has been successfully described in a previous study and is one more option among several possible approaches. The sciatic nerve becomes superficial at inferior gluteus maximus muscle where it is easily located and accessed with minor discomfo [...] rt and low risk of accidental great vessels puncture. Our study aimed at evaluating this simplified sciatic nerve block approach with different 1% lidocaine volumes. METHODS: Participated in this study 40 patients submitted to leg or foot procedures, who were distributed in two groups. Patients were placed in the prone position after monitoring and blockade was induced at mid gluteofemoral sulcus with the aid of neurostimulator and with beveled insulated 5 cm needle, with 300 mg (G1) or 200 mg (G2) of

Neuber Martins, Fonseca; Beatriz Lemos, Mandim; Roberto Araújo, Ruzi; Fabiana Rosa, Tavares.

2006-06-01

369

Nerve growth factor protects human keratinocytes from ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultraviolet radiation is a potent inducer of apoptosis, whereas autocrine nerve growth factor protects human keratinocytes from programmed cell death. To evaluate the role of nerve growth factor in the mechanisms of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis, cultured human keratinocytes were ultraviolet B irradiated following pretreatment with K252, a specific inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor. Here we report that the addition of K252 significantly enhanced keratinocyte apoptosis. We then transfected normal human keratinocytes with pNUT-hNGF. Nerve growth factor overexpressing keratinocytes secreted the highest amounts of nerve growth factor in culture supernatants, were more viable, and had a higher rate of proliferation than mock-transfected cells. Whereas ultraviolet B radiation downregulated nerve growth factor mRNA and protein as well as the tyrosine kinase high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor in normal keratinocytes, it failed to do so in nerve growth factor-transfected cells. Moreover, nerve growth factor overexpressing keratinocytes were partially resistant to apoptosis induced by increasing doses of ultraviolet B at 24 and 48 h. These results indicate that downregulation of nerve growth factor function plays an important part in the mechanisms of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes. In addition, ultraviolet B caused a decrease in BCL-2 and BCL-xL expression in mock-transfected keratinocytes, but not in nerve growth factor overexpressing cells. Finally, nerve growth factor prevented the cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase induced in human keratinocytes by ultraviolet B. These results are consistent with a model whereby the autocrine nerve growth factor protects human keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis by maintaining constant levels of BCL-2 and BCL-xL, which in turn might block caspase activation. PMID:10594731

Marconi, A; Vaschieri, C; Zanoli, S; Giannetti, A; Pincelli, C

1999-12-01

370

Mapping sensory nerve communications between peripheral nerve territories.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human cutaneous sensory map has been a work in progress over the past century, depicting sensory territories supplied by both the spinal and cranial nerves. Two critical discoveries, which shaped our understanding of cutaneous innervation, were sensory dermatome overlap between contiguous spinal levels and axial lines across areas where no sensory overlap exists. These concepts define current dermatome maps. We wondered whether the overlap between contiguous sensory territories was even tighter: if neural communications were present in the peripheral nerve territories consistently connecting contiguous spinal levels? A literature search using peer-reviewed articles and established anatomy texts was performed aimed at identifying the presence of communications between sensory nerves in peripheral nerve territories and their relationship to areas of adjacent and non-adjacent spinal or cranial nerves and axial lines (lines of discontinuity) in the upper and lower limbs, trunk and perineum, and head and neck regions. Our findings demonstrate the consistent presence of sensory nerve communications between peripheral nerve territories derived from spinal nerves within areas of axial lines in the upper and lower limbs, trunk and perineum, and head and neck. We did not find examples of communications crossing axial lines in the limbs or lines of discontinuity in the face, but did find examples crossing axial lines in the trunk and perineum. Sensory nerve communications are common. They unify concepts of cutaneous innervation territories and their boundaries, and refine our understanding of the sensory map of the human skin. PMID:23824984

Ladak, Adil; Tubbs, R Shane; Spinner, Robert J

2014-07-01

371

Efeitos da clonidina por via muscular e perineural no bloqueio do nervo isquiático com ropivacaína a 0,5% / Effects of intramuscular and perineural clonidine on sciatic nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine / Efectos de la clonidina por vía muscular y perineural en el bloqueo del nervio isquiático con ropivacaína a 0,5%  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Foram estudados os efeitos da clonidina sobre a latência, a qualidade da anestesia e a duração da analgesia do bloqueio do nervo isquiático com ropivacaína a 0,5%. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes adultos foram submetidos a cirurgias sobre o pé e/ou a face lateral do tornozelo s [...] ob bloqueios combinados de nervos femoral e isquiático, por via anterior, em que foram alocados, segundo números aleatórios em grupo 1: 25 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% e placebo perineural; grupo 2: 2 µg.kg-1 de clonidina por via muscular e 25 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% perineural; e grupo 3: 2 µg.kg-1 de clonidina e 25 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% perineural, injetados após obtidas respostas motoras com correntes de 0,2 e 0,5 mA. A sensibilidade e a motricidade foram avaliadas por 30 minutos após o bloqueio. Um escore de efetividade total do bloqueio foi atribuído. A qualidade da anestesia cirúrgica foi classificada com sucesso ou falha, segundo a necessidade de suplementação sistêmica. A duração foi o tempo desde a realização do bloqueio até a primeira solicitação de analgésico. RESULTADOS: As latências medianas foram 5, 12,5 e 17,5 minutos nos grupos 1 a 3, respectivamente (p = 0,11). As taxas de sucesso foram de 100%, 93% e 75%, respectivamente (p = 0,12). A duração da analgesia pós-operatória foi de 14,5, 13,5, e 13,75 horas, respectivamente (p = 0,15). CONCLUSÕES: A clonidina por via muscular ou perineural não influenciou a latência, a qualidade de anestesia ou a duração da analgesia do bloqueio do nervo isquiático com ropivacaína a 0,5%. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Se estudiaron los efectos de la clonidina sobre la latencia, la calidad de la anestesia y la duración de la analgesia de lo bloqueo del nervio isquiático con ropivacaína a 0,5%. MÉTODO: Cuarenta pacientes adultos fueron sometidos a cirugías sobre el pie y/o la faz lateral [...] del tobillo bajo bloqueos combinados de nervios femoral e isquiático, por vía anterior, en que fueron distribuidos, según números aleatorios en el grupo 1: 25 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% y placebo perineural; grupo 2: 2 µg.kg-1 de clonidina por vía muscular y 25 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% perineural; y grupo 3: 2 µg.kg-1 de clonidina y 25 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% perineural, inyectados después de lograr respuestas motoras con corrientes de 0,2 y 0,5 mA. La sensibilidad y la motricidad fueron evaluadas por 30 minutos después del bloqueo. El resultado de la efectividad total del bloqueo fue atribuido. La calidad de la anestesia quirúrgica fue clasificada con éxito o falla, según la necesidad de suplementación sistémica. La duración fue el tiempo desde la realización del bloqueo hasta la primera solicitación de analgésico. RESULTADOS: Las latencias medianas fueron 5, 12,5 y 17,5 minutos en los grupos 1 a 3, respectivamente (p = 0,11). Las tasas de éxito fueron del 100%, 93% y 75%, respectivamente (p = 0,12). La duración de la analgesia posoperatoria fue de 14,5, 13,5, y 13,75 horas, respectivamente (p = 0,15). CONCLUSIONES: La clonidina por vía muscular o perineural no influenció la latencia, la calidad de la anestesia o la duración de la analgesia del bloqueo del nervio isquiático con ropivacaína a 0,5%. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of clonidine on anesthesia onset, quality and duration of analgesia of sciatic nerve block using 0.5% ropivacaine. METHODS: Forty adult patients scheduled for foot or lateral aspect of the ankle procedures under combined anterior femoral/sc [...] iatic nerves block were randomly assigned to group 1, receiving 25 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine plus placebo perineurally, group 2, receiving intramuscular 2 µg.kg-1 clonidine and perineural 25 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine and group 3, receiving perineural 2 µg.kg-1 clonidine and 25 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine injected after motor responses were obtained with stimulations between 0.2 and 0.5 mA. Sensory and motor block

Pablo Escovedo, Helayel; Luciano, Kroth; Gustavo Luchi, Boos; Márcio Tagliari, Jahns; Getúlio Rodrigues de, Oliveira Filho.

2005-10-01

372

Paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve  

OpenAIRE

After the incidental intraoperative discovery of a paraganglioma of cranial nerve XII, we searched our hospital database and literature for similar cases to determine whether evidence exists to support the existence of paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve. We describe a case of cranial nerve XII paraganglioma, recognized only during surgery, without any indicative preoperative sign or symptom nor diagnostic imaging studies. In light of published findings, only four cases described since 196...

Rispoli, Pietro; Santovito, Davide; Varetto, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

373

TopSeal-Dentine Interface After two Obturation Techniques: Lateral Condensation and Thermoplastified/Thermosoftened Technique. A SEM Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Background: Vertical condensation (VC endodontic systems have improved results of endodontic treatment when compared to lateral condensation (LC. They improve the diffusion and adaptability of the sealer cement (SC and the gutta-percha (GP, in order to obtain a hermetic sealing and ensure the lack of cracks in the sealer material-dentine interface. However, it has not been established whether the application of heat may or not alter the sealer cement-dentine interface (SCDI. Objective: Compare the SCDI at different distances from the root apex, when using two obturation techniques, vertical (TopSeal® and lateral. Methods: An in vitro experimental study with scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out. Canals of 40 recently extracted single-root premolars were endodontically prepared with the same instrumentation technique. 20 of them were sealed with LC and TopSeal® and the other 20 were sealed with VC and TopSeal®. The specimens were then cut at 1 mm, 4 mm, and 8 mm from the root apex and observed under SEM. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the SCDI of teeth sealed with VC compared to those sealed with LC (pConclusions: The thermoplastified/thermosoftened technique reduces the SCDI when compared to the LC technique. However, the former showed a thicker cement layer on the 1 mm measures, which may have significant clinic implications.

Bennys Guzmán de Sousa

2010-06-01

374

Pregnancy after tension-free vaginal mesh (anterior Prolift and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator procedure  

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Full Text Available Objective. Treatment of anterior vaginal wall prolapse and stress urinary incontinence (SUI with transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (anterior Prolift and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O has been proved feasible, safe and effective. However, there is little known about the influence of pregnancy on women who have had such procedures before pregnancy. Design and methods. A 32-year-old woman (gravid 1, para 1 with two years history of SUI and nine months history of pelvic organ prolapse (POP was treated with transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (anterior Prolift and concomitant TVT-O. Her recovery was excellent, and she was pregnant eight months after the operation. Results. The patient went through her pregnancy smoothly with no special discomfort and successfully delivered an infant via caesarean section without recurrence of POP and SUI. Her last visit to our clinic about 14 months after caesarean section revealed that the anterior Prolift mesh and TVT-O mesh still remained intact and the position of the vaginal fornix, anterior and posterior walls and uterus also remained normal. Conclusions: Pelvic floor reconstruction with vaginal mesh (Prolift may have positive significance for young patients who desire uterine preservation for future pregnancies. However, further studies are warranted to determine whether it can be used in pregnant women or women planning future pregnancies.

Jia Wang

2011-07-01

375

Estudo comparativo do bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático, por punção em sítio único, com anestesia subaracnóidea para cirurgia unilateral do membro inferior / Comparative study between combined sciatic-femoral nerve block, via a single skin injection, and spinal block anesthesia for unilateral surgery of the lower limb / Estudio comparativo del bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático por punción en sitio único, con anestesia subaracnoidea para cirugías unilateral del miembro inferior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A raquianestesia unilateral pode apresentar vantagens em pacientes ambulatoriais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a raquianestesia unilateral com o bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático em cirurgias ortopédicas unilaterais e ambulatoriais. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes [...] foram aleatoriamente separados em dois grupos para receber 6 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica ou hipobárica (grupo RQ) em decúbito lateral esquerdo ou 800 mg de lidocaína 1,6% com epinefrina nos nervos femoral e isquiático (grupo CFI) em decúbito dorsal. O bloqueio dos nervos foi realizado com agulha de 150 mm conectada a um neuroestimulador e inserida no ponto médio entre as duas abordagens clássicas, sendo injetados 15 mL no nervo femoral e 35 mL no nervo isquiático. Avaliados o tempo para realização dos bloqueios e sua duração. Vinte minutos após, os pacientes foram avaliados em relação aos bloqueios sensitivo e motor. RESULTADOS: O tempo para a realização da raquianestesia foi significativamente menor do que o bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático. O bloqueio unilateral foi obtido em 90% dos pacientes no grupo RQ e 100% no grupo CFI. O tempo para recuperação do bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi significativamente maior no grupo CFI. Não houve bradicardia ou hipotensão. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo conclui que é tecnicamente fácil realizar bloqueio anterior combinado femoral-isquiático e pode ser uma alternativa para o bloqueio unilateral do membro inferior. A raquianestesia unilateral com baixas doses de bupivacaína resultou em menor tempo para realização, menor número de tentativas e recuperação mais precoce do bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático, porém com mesma efetividade. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La raquianestesia unilateral puede presentar ventajas en pacientes ambulatoriales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la raquianestesia unilateral con el bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático en cirugías ortopédicas unilaterales y ambulatoriales. MÉTODO: Sesenta pacie [...] ntes fueron separados aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 30 para recibir 6 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica o hipobárica (grupo RQ), en decúbito lateral izquierdo u 800 mg de lidocaína 1,6% con epinefrina en los nervios femoral e isquiático (grupo CFI), en decúbito dorsal. El bloqueo de los nervios fue realizado con una aguja de 150 mm conectada a un neuroestimulador e insertada en el punto medio entre las dos incisiones clásicas. Se inyectaron 15 mL en el nervio femoral y 35 mL en el nervio isquiático. Fue mensurado el tiempo para la realización de los bloqueos y su duración. Veinte minutos después, los pacientes fueron evaluados con relación a los bloqueos sensitivo y motor. RESULTADOS: El tiempo para la realización de la raquianestesia fue significativamente menor que el bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático. El bloqueo unilateral se obtuvo en un 90% de los pacientes en el grupo RQ y en un 100% en el grupo CFI. El tiempo para la recuperación del bloqueo sensitivo y motor fue significativamente mayor en el grupo CFI. No hubo bradicardia o hipotensión. CONCLUSIONES: Por medio de este estudio, se llega a la conclusión de que es técnicamente fácil realizar el bloqueo anterior combinado femoral-isquiático y de que ese puede ser una alternativa para el bloqueo unilateral del miembro inferior. La raquianestesia unilateral con bajas dosis de bupivacaína, mostró un menor tiempo para la realización, un menor número de intentos y una recuperación más rápida del bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático. Sin embargo, la efectividad fue la misma. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unilateral spinal anesthesia has advantages when used in outpatient basis. The objective of the present study was to compare unilateral spinal anesthesia with combined sciatic-femoral nerve block in unilateral orthopedic surgeries in outpatients. METHODS: Sixty patients we [...] re randomly divided into two groups o

Luiz Eduardo, Imbelloni; Gustavo Volpato Passarini de, Rezende; Eliana Marisa, Ganem; José Antonio, Cordeiro.

2010-12-01

376

Estudo comparativo do bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático, por punção em sítio único, com anestesia subaracnóidea para cirurgia unilateral do membro inferior Estudio comparativo del bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático por punción en sitio único, con anestesia subaracnoidea para cirugías unilateral del miembro inferior Comparative study between combined sciatic-femoral nerve block, via a single skin injection, and spinal block anesthesia for unilateral surgery of the lower limb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A raquianestesia unilateral pode apresentar vantagens em pacientes ambulatoriais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a raquianestesia unilateral com o bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático em cirurgias ortopédicas unilaterais e ambulatoriais. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes foram aleatoriamente separados em dois grupos para receber 6 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica ou hipobárica (grupo RQ em decúbito lateral esquerdo ou 800 mg de lidocaína 1,6% com epinefrina nos nervos femoral e isquiático (grupo CFI em decúbito dorsal. O bloqueio dos nervos foi realizado com agulha de 150 mm conectada a um neuroestimulador e inserida no ponto médio entre as duas abordagens clássicas, sendo injetados 15 mL no nervo femoral e 35 mL no nervo isquiático. Avaliados o tempo para realização dos bloqueios e sua duração. Vinte minutos após, os pacientes foram avaliados em relação aos bloqueios sensitivo e motor. RESULTADOS: O tempo para a realização da raquianestesia foi significativamente menor do que o bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático. O bloqueio unilateral foi obtido em 90% dos pacientes no grupo RQ e 100% no grupo CFI. O tempo para recuperação do bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi significativamente maior no grupo CFI. Não houve bradicardia ou hipotensão. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo conclui que é tecnicamente fácil realizar bloqueio anterior combinado femoral-isquiático e pode ser uma alternativa para o bloqueio unilateral do membro inferior. A raquianestesia unilateral com baixas doses de bupivacaína resultou em menor tempo para realização, menor número de tentativas e recuperação mais precoce do bloqueio combinado femoral-isquiático, porém com mesma efetividade.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La raquianestesia unilateral puede presentar ventajas en pacientes ambulatoriales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la raquianestesia unilateral con el bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático en cirugías ortopédicas unilaterales y ambulatoriales. MÉTODO: Sesenta pacientes fueron separados aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 30 para recibir 6 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica o hipobárica (grupo RQ, en decúbito lateral izquierdo u 800 mg de lidocaína 1,6% con epinefrina en los nervios femoral e isquiático (grupo CFI, en decúbito dorsal. El bloqueo de los nervios fue realizado con una aguja de 150 mm conectada a un neuroestimulador e insertada en el punto medio entre las dos incisiones clásicas. Se inyectaron 15 mL en el nervio femoral y 35 mL en el nervio isquiático. Fue mensurado el tiempo para la realización de los bloqueos y su duración. Veinte minutos después, los pacientes fueron evaluados con relación a los bloqueos sensitivo y motor. RESULTADOS: El tiempo para la realización de la raquianestesia fue significativamente menor que el bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático. El bloqueo unilateral se obtuvo en un 90% de los pacientes en el grupo RQ y en un 100% en el grupo CFI. El tiempo para la recuperación del bloqueo sensitivo y motor fue significativamente mayor en el grupo CFI. No hubo bradicardia o hipotensión. CONCLUSIONES: Por medio de este estudio, se llega a la conclusión de que es técnicamente fácil realizar el bloqueo anterior combinado femoral-isquiático y de que ese puede ser una alternativa para el bloqueo unilateral del miembro inferior. La raquianestesia unilateral con bajas dosis de bupivacaína, mostró un menor tiempo para la realización, un menor número de intentos y una recuperación más rápida del bloqueo combinado femoral-isquiático. Sin embargo, la efectividad fue la misma.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unilateral spinal anesthesia has advantages when used in outpatient basis. The objective of the present study was to compare unilateral spinal anesthesia with combined sciatic-femoral nerve block in unilateral orthopedic surgeries in outpatients. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients to receive 6 mg of hyperbaric or hypobaric bupivacaine (RQ group in left lateral decubitus, or 800 mg of 1.6% li

Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

2010-12-01

377

Vertiginous Syndrome Associated with Incorrect Anesthesia Technique to Block the Maxillary Nerve via the Greater Palatine Canal: Case Report and Anatomic Correlation with Cadaveric Parts / Síndrome Vertiginoso Asociado a Técnica Anestésica Incorrecta para Bloquear el Nervio Maxilar vía Canal Palatino Mayor: Reporte de Caso y Correlación Anatómica en Piezas Cadavéricas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La técnica anestésica vía canal palatino mayor tiene como objetivo abordar al nervio maxilar en la fosa pterigopalatina, anestesiando un gran territorio, incluyendo la pulpa y periodonto de la hemiarcada correspondiente. Después de haber aplicado esta técnica en una paciente y no obteniendo el resul [...] tado esperado, esta comenzó a experimentar vértigo, náuseas, sensación de líquido en el oído y vómitos. Fue evaluada en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Parroquial de San Bernardo y en una Clínica Privada, sin lograr un diagnóstico preciso y realizando solo un tratamiento sintomático. Al día siguiente fue dada de alta con baja sintomatología, la cual desapareció totalmente durante el día. Se propone la hipótesis de una difusión del anestésico hacia el oído medio e interno mediante el tubo auditivo. Esto explicaría por un lado la sintomatología vestibular y por otro la ausencia de anestesia en los dientes y territorios esperados. Además se realizó una correlación anatómica en cadáveres, utilizando 8 hemicabezas conservadas y siguiendo el posible trayecto de la aguja desde la mucosa palatina hasta el orificio faríngeo de la tuba auditiva. Se concluyó que el síndrome vertiginoso experimentado por la paciente se pudo deber a una técnica fallida al nervio maxilar vía canal palatino mayor con ingreso de la aguja al tubo auditivo, difundiendo el anestésico hacia el oído medio. Abstract in english The anesthetic technique through the greater palatine canal seeks to block the maxillary nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa and anesthetize a large area, including the pulp and periodontium of the arch in question. After applying this technique in a patient, it failed to obtain the expected result. [...] The patient began to experience dizziness, nausea, vomiting and the sensation of fluid in the ear. She was evaluated in both the emergency room of the Hospital Parroquial de San Bernardo and at a private clinic without accurate diagnosis. Only symptomatic treatment was provided. The next day she was discharged with reduced symptoms, which disappeared completely during the day. We propose the hypothesis of a diffusion of the anesthetic solution into the middle and inner ear through the auditory tube. This diffusion would explain the vestibular symptoms and the absence of anesthesia in the expected areas. We carried out an anatomic correlation in cadavers, following the path of a needle from the palatal mucosa to the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube. We conclude that the vertiginous syndrome could be due to an incorrect application of the technique, with the needle entering the auditory tube and spreading the anesthetic solution into the middle ear.

Reinaldo, Soto; Felipe, Cáceres; Jorge, Lankin.

2014-09-01

378

Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.  

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Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?Nanofiber conduit group compared to the Microfiber group. This study demonstrated the impact of fibre size on peripheral nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

2014-05-01

379

21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.  

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...8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food...Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve cuff is a tubular silicone rubber sheath...

2010-04-01

380

Pulsed radiofrequency to the great occipital nerve for the treatment of intractable postherpetic itch: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient with intractable postherpetic itch lasting for 1 year was reported. The itch was mainly from the left vertex, frontal and ophthalmic regions and extended to the left neck area. The patient had negative response to the ophthalmic nerve block. Under the initial positive response to the great occipital nerve block, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) was performed on the position of the great occipital nerve. After 4 months treatment, the itch was completely vanished. This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of PRF for intractable postherpetic itch originating in the head and neck. However, more samples needed to verify this management. PMID:25419389

Ding, De-Fang; Li, Rong-Chun; Xiong, Qiu-Ju; Zhou, Ling; Xiang, Hong-Bing

2014-01-01