In this talk I summarize ideas and plans which have been put forward by members of all collaborations running muon or neutrino experiments at CERN. During our discussions there was general agreement that: i) substantial improvements of structure function measurements in the SPS range are still possible and necessary and ii) it is the responsibility of the present groups and of CERN to provide a ''final'' set of structure functions in the present energy range. (orig.)
Nucleon Structure Functions from a Chiral Soliton
Weigel, H.(Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa); Gamberg, L.(Department of Physics, Penn State University-Berks, Reading, PA, 19610, U.S.A.); Reinhardt, H.
1996-01-01
Nucleon structure functions are studied within the chiral soliton approach to the bosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The valence quark approximation is employed which is justified for moderate constituent quark masses ($\\sim$ 400 MeV) as the contribution of the valence quark level dominates the predictions of nucleon properties. As examples the unpolarized structure functions for the ${\
Review on nucleon structure functions
The 1994 preliminary data of the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS on the proton structure function are presented, together with the final data of the muon fixed target experiments E665 at FNAL and NMC at CERN. Perturbative QCD interpretations and extraction of αs at low χ are discussed. (author)
Phenomenological study of the nucleon structure functions
This thesis is devoted to the study of the deep inelastic scattering. Its purpose is the development of phenomenological models describing experimental results on unpolarized (F2) and polarized (g1) nucleon structure functions in the wide range of the kinematical domain. Special attention is paid to the small-x behaviour of F2 and to the link between deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction process. The investigation of the Pomeron in deep inelastic scattering shows that one single Pomeron compatible with the Froissard-Martin limit can account for all the present HERA data. A phenomenological model of the proton structure function is developed, based on a two-component structure including various features expected from both perturbative quantum chromodynamics and non perturbative Regge theory. A link with the photoproduction process is provided. A detailed analysis of the perturbative components, based on the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations is presented. Taking into account the different parton distribution, this approach allows to describe data on proton and neutron structure functions, on deep inelastic neutrino scattering, and to reproduce the gluons distribution extracted by the ZEUS collaboration. The model is applied to the polarized deep inelastic scattering and the axial anomaly effect appearing both in the description of results on the spin dependent structure functions gp,n,d and in the interpretation of the nucleon spin structure is discussed. (J.S.). 260 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appends
Nucleon structure functions from constituent quark
Khorramian, Ali N.; Arash, Firooz
1999-10-01
We have used a constituent quarks model to describe the nucleon structure function, F2( χ, Q2), for a wide range of χ=[10 -6,1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2. We have found that although F2 rises as χ decreases, but there exists some χ0 ≤ 10 -4 - 10 -5, below which the rise of F2 subsides drastically and hence, exhibits an almost flat behavior, compatible with the latest results from HERA, at least for low Q2.
Nucleon Structure Functions within a Chiral Soliton Model
Gamberg, L.(Department of Physics, Penn State University-Berks, Reading, PA, 19610, U.S.A.); Reinhardt, H.; Weigel, H.(Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa)
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu--Jona--Lasinio model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron--nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low--scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions $g_{1}(x)$ and $g_{2}(x)$ in this model. We compare...
Nucleon Structure Functions within a Chiral Soliton Model
Gamberg, L P; Weigel, H
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu--Jona--Lasinio model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron--nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low--scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions $g_{1}(x)$ and $g_{2}(x)$ in this model. We compare the model predictions on these structure functions with data from the E143 experiment by GLAP evolving them appropriately.
A no extensive statistical model for the nucleon structure function
Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos
2013-03-01
We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon.
a Nonextensive Statistical Model for the Nucleon Structure Function
Trevisan, Luis Augusto; Mirez, Carlos
2013-07-01
We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalizations in the nucleon.
Photo-production of Nucleon Resonances and Nucleon Spin Structure Function in the Resonance Region
Qing, D; Qing, Di; Schmidt, Ivan
2002-01-01
The photo-production of nucleon resonances is calculated based on a chiral constituent quark model including both relativistic corrections H{rel} and two-body exchange currents, and it is shown that these effects play an important role. We also calculate the first moment of the nucleon spin structure function g1 (x,Q^2) in the resonance region, and obtain a sign-changing point around Q^2 ~ 0.27 {GeV}^2 for the proton.
Bertini, M.
1995-05-12
This thesis is devoted to the study of the deep inelastic scattering. Its purpose is the development of phenomenological models describing experimental results on unpolarized (F{sub 2}) and polarized (g{sub 1}) nucleon structure functions in the wide range of the kinematical domain. Special attention is paid to the small-x behaviour of F{sub 2} and to the link between deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction process. The investigation of the Pomeron in deep inelastic scattering shows that one single Pomeron compatible with the Froissard-Martin limit can account for all the present HERA data. A phenomenological model of the proton structure function is developed, based on a two-component structure including various features expected from both perturbative quantum chromodynamics and non perturbative Regge theory. A link with the photoproduction process is provided. A detailed analysis of the perturbative components, based on the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations is presented. Taking into account the different parton distribution, this approach allows to describe data on proton and neutron structure functions, on deep inelastic neutrino scattering, and to reproduce the gluons distribution extracted by the ZEUS collaboration. The model is applied to the polarized deep inelastic scattering and the axial anomaly effect appearing both in the description of results on the spin dependent structure functions g{sup p,n,d} and in the interpretation of the nucleon spin structure is discussed. (J.S.). 260 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appends.
A model for nucleon, pion and kaon structure functions
The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q20 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states leads to definite predictions on their structure functions. Predictions are made here using a non-relativistic approximation for the bound states. Good agreement with experiment is found for nucleon, pion and kaon structure functions
In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect
Hen, O; Gilad, S; Wood, S A
2014-01-01
A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.
Nuclear effects in F_3 structure function of nucleon
Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente
2007-01-01
We study nuclear effects in the $F^A_3(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio $R(x,Q^2)=\\frac{F^A_3(x,Q^2)}{AF^N_3(x, Q^2)}$ and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith(GLS) integral $G(x,Q^2)=\\int_x^1 dx F^A_3(x,Q^2)$ in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data.
Nuclear effects in F3 structure function of nucleon
We study nuclear effects in the F3A(x) structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio R(x,Q2)=(F3A(x,Q2))/(AF3N(x,Q2)) and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith (GLS) integral G(x,Q2)=∫x1dxF3A(x,Q2) in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data
A measurement of the ratio of the nucleon structure function in copper and deuterium
Results are presented on the ratios of the nucleon structure function in copper to deuterium from two separate experiments. The data confirm that the nucleon structure function, F2, is different for bound nucleons than for the quasi-free ones in the deuteron. The redistribution in the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by quarks is investigated and it is found that the data are compatible with no integral loss of quark momenta due to nuclear effects. (orig.)
Polarized Structure Function of Nucleon and Orbital Angular Momentum
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh
2007-06-01
We have utilized the concept of valon model to calculate the spin structure function of a constituent quark. This structure is universal and arises from perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD. With a convolution method the polarized structure functions of proton, neutron, and deuteron are obtained. Our results agree rather well with all available experimental data. It suggests that the sea quark contribution to the spin of nucleon is consistent with zero, in agreement with HERMES data. It also reveals that while the total quark contribution to the spin of a constituent quark, or valon, is almost constant and equal to one, the gluon contribution grows with the increase of Q2, and hence, requiring a sizable negative angular momentum contribution. This component, as well as singlet and non-singlet parts are calculated in the Next-to-Leading order in QCD. We speculate that the gluon contribution to the spin of proton is in the order of 50%. Furthermore, we have determined the polarized valon distribution in a nucleon.
Structure functions of the nucleon and nuclei in neutrino reactions
Determination of parton distribution functions in nuclei is important for calculating nuclear corrections in oscillation experiments, from which detailed information should be extracted on neutrino properties. First, nuclear parton distributions are discussed for explaining high-energy nuclear reaction data. Possible nuclear modification is explained for valence-quark and antiquark distributions. It is rather difficult to determine gluon distributions in nuclei. Next, reversing the topic, we discuss structure functions which could be investigated by neutrino reactions. Determination of polarized parton distributions in the nucleon is discussed in polarized neutrino reactions. In addition, neutrino reactions should be important for finding nuclear modification of valence-quark distributions at small x if structure function ratios F3A/F3D are measured for various nuclei
Nucleon Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Quark-Hadron Duality
DONG Yu-Bing; LI Ming-Fei
2003-01-01
Based on a simple nonrelativistic constituent quark model, the nucleon structure function F2 in theresonance region is estimated by taking the contributions from low-lying nucleon resonances into account. Calculatedresults are employed to study quark-hardon duality in the nucleon electron scattering process by comparing them to thescaling behavior from the data in deep inelastic scattering region.
Chiral Quark Soliton Model and Nucleon Spin Structure Functions
Wakamatsu, M
2009-01-01
The chiral quark soliton model (CQSM) is one of the most successful models of baryons at quark level, which maximally incorporates the most important feature of low energy QCD, i.e. the chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breakdown. Basically, it is a relativistic mean-field theory with full account of infinitely many Dirac-sea quarks in a rotational-symmetry-breaking mean field of hedgehog shape. The numerical technique established so far enables us to make a nonperturbative evaluation of Casimir effects (i.e. effects of vacuum-polarized Dirac sea) on a variety of baryon observables. This incompatible feature of the model manifests most clearly in its predictions for parton distribution functions of the nucleon. In this talk, after briefly reviewing several basic features of the CQSM, we plan to demonstrate in various ways that this unique model of baryons provides us with an ideal tool for disentangling nonperturbative aspect of the internal partonic structure of the nucleon, especially the underlying spin ...
Detailed Measurements of Structure Functions from Nucleons and Nuclei
2002-01-01
The experiment will study deep inelastic muon nucleon scattering in a wide range of Q|2~(1-200 (GeV/c)|2) and x~(0.005-0.75). The main aims of the experiment are: \\item a)~~~~Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of the structure function F^2|A, of R~=~@s^L/@s^T and of the cross-section for J/@y production. They will provide a basis for the understanding of the EMC effect: the modification of quark and gluon distributions due to the nuclear environment. \\item b)~~~~A simultaneous high luminosity measurement of the structure function F^2 on hydrogen and deuterium. This will provide substantially improved accuracy in the knowledge of the neutron structure function F^2|n, of F^2|p-F^2|n and F^2|n/F^2|p and their Q|2 dependence. Furthermore, the data will allow a determination of the strong coupling constant @a^s(Q|2) with reduced experimental and theoretical uncertainties as well as of the ratio of the down to up quark distributions in the valence region. Due to the large x range covered by the experim...
Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons
We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm2 of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4√nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F2(x,Q2) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 2 2/c2. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter Λ/sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references
Nucleon Spin Structure Functions in the Resonance Region and the Duality
DONG Yu-Bing; FENG Qing-Guo
2003-01-01
We discuss the nucleon spin structure function gl and the difference between the proton and neutrontargets gp1 - gn1 , based on quark model calculation. Quark-hadron duality for the nucleon spin structure function is alsoanalyzed. Effects of the △(1232) and Roper P11(1440) resonances on the spin structure function and on the differencegn1 - gn1 are mentioned. The results of different models for the Roper resonance are also addressed.
Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons
Meyers, P.D.
1983-12-01
We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.
Nuclear medium effects in structure functions of nucleon at moderate $Q^2$
Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz
2015-01-01
Recent experiments performed on inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets have measured the nucleon electromagnetic structure functions $F_1(x,Q^2)$, $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_L(x,Q^2)$ in $^{12}C$, $^{27}Al$, $^{56}Fe$ and $^{64}Cu$ nuclei. The measurements have been done in the energy region of $1 GeV^2 < W^2 < 4 GeV^2$ and $Q^2$ region of $0.5 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 4.5 GeV^2$. We have calculated nuclear medium effects in these structure functions arising due to the Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using relativistic nucleon spectral function which include nucleon correlations. The numerical results are compared with the recent experimental data from JLab and also with some earlier experiments.
The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model
Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos
2013-05-01
We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by Δu and Δd of the polarized functions.
Quarks and gluons in nucleon polarized structure functions
Bourrely, C; Pisanti, O; Santorelli, P; Soffer, J
1996-01-01
We study the quark and gluon contributions to the proton and neutron polarized structure functions by considering two different theoretical interpretations. Both approaches are consistent with the world available data from CERN and SLAC. We conclude that, in order to clarify the situation, one should improve the accuracy of the presently running experiments, but one also needs to seriously look into HERA with both electron and proton polarized beams
Structure functions of the nucleon in a statistical model
Cleymans, J; Joubert, J
1993-01-01
Deep inelastic scattering is considered in a statistical model of the nucleon. This incorporates certain features which are absent in the standard parton model such as quantum statistical correlations which play a role in the propagation of particles when considering Feynman diagrams containing internal lines. The inclusion of the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_{s})$ corrections in our numerical calculations allows a good fit to the data for $x\\geq 0.25$. The fit corresponds to values of temperature and chemical potential of approximately $T=0.067$ GeV and $\\mu=0.133$ GeV. The latter values of parameters, however, give rise, for all $x$, to a large value for $R=\\sigma_{L}/\\sigma_{T}$.
Within the framework of quenched lattice QCD and using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and nonperturbative renormalization, a high statistics computation of low moments of the unpolarized nucleon structure functions is given. Particular attention is paid to the chiral and continuum extrapolations
Within the framework of quenched lattice QCD and using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and non-perturbative renormalisation, a high statistics computation of low moments of the unpolarised nucleon structure functions is given. Particular attention is paid to the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)
Bloom-Gilman Duality of Nucleon Spin Structure Function and Elastic Peak Contribution
DONG Yu-Bing
2005-01-01
By employing the parametrization form of the nucleon spin structure function in the resonance region,which includes the contributions of the resonance peaks and of nonresonance background, we study Bloom-Gilman quark-hadron duality of g1 both in the inelastic resonance region and elastic one.
The ratio of the nucleon structure functions Fsup(N)2 for iron and deuterium
Using the data on deep inelastic muon scattering on iron and deuterium the ratio of the nucleon structure functions F2sup(N)(Fe)/F2sup(N)(D) is presented. The observed x-dependence of this ratio is in disagreement with existing theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Measurement of nucleon structure function in muon scattering at 147 GeV/c
Results on the nucleon structure function, νW2, are presented for 0.222 and 5< or =ν< or =130 GeV. They were obtained by scattering 147-GeV positive muons inelastically from a liquid deuterium target
Generalized parton distributions provide information on the longitudinal and transverse distribution of partons in the fast moving nucleon. Furthermore, they contain information on the spin structure of the nucleon. First results of a lattice study of generalized parton distributions are presented. (orig.)
Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons
Bodek, Arie [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
2015-09-01
We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (σ_{L}) and transverse (σ_{T}) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= σ_{L}/σ_{T} for nuclei (R_{A}) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, R_{A} < R_{D}.
Once more on the radiative corrections to the nucleon structure functions in QCD
A new representation of the next to leading QCD corrections to the nucleon structure functions is given in terms of parton distributions. All O(αs) corrections to the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) are included. In contrast to the similar representations in the literature terms of order O(α2s) do not attend in our expressions for the nucleon structure functions taken in the next to leading logarithmic approximation. This result is generalized for any order in αs beyond the LLA. Terms of order O(αns) which belong only tot he approximation in consideration are present in such a representation for the structure functions. (author). 11 refs
Measurement of nucleon structure function in muon scattering at high q2
The nucleon structure function, F2, has been measured up to q2 = 120 (GeV/c)2 and for 40 2 2. The data exhibit a significant pattern of scaling violation. Compared to lower-energy data, F2 shows an observable increase of approx. 15% at high q2 for x < 0.4. The pattern of the increase may accommodate a threshold in W or new theoretical parametrizations
Nucleon structure functions from νmu-Fe scattering at the Tevatron
We present preliminary results for nucleon structure functions measured in high energy neutrino interactions. Included are new results for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith Sum Rule, ∫x/1xF3dx = 2.66 ± .03(stat)±.08(syst), the ratio of cross-sections, σbarν/σν = .511 ± .002(stat) ± .005(syst), and an analysis of the Q2 evolution of xF3. 16 refs., 5 figs
Structure function measurements in the deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering
Measurements of deep inelastic scattering events on a combined copper and deuterium target were performed by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) using a muon beam at CERN's SPS with energies at 100 GeV and 280 GeV. The data are analysed and compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation and allow the determination of structure functions from both targets. In the light of the present discrepancy between EMC's and BCDMS's structure functions, stringend cuts were applied to the data. The results confirm the EMC structure function measurements on unbound nucleons. The comparison between the copper structure function from this experiment and the NA2 iron structure function shows a trend to lower values at low xBj. (orig.)
Nucleon structure functions from nu(anti-nu) interactions in bubble chambers
The nucleon structure functions F2 and xF3 have been extracted as functions of the scaling variable x and Q2 - over a wide range of Q2(.1 to 100 GeV2/c2) - using nu(anti-nu) interactions in Ne-H2 filled bubble chambers from low energy wide band experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and high energy narrow band experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The extracted values of the structure functions were used to test specific predictions of quark-parton model and scaling violations predicted by QCD. Global fits to the structure functions using Buras-Gaemers parameterization yield a value for the scale parameter Λ of 245 +/- 840 MeV/c. A moment analysis of the non-singlet structure function yields Λ = 500 +/- 480 MeV/c and the slopes of Log-Log moments are consistent with QCD predictions
Progress towards a lattice determination of (moments of) nucleon structure functions
Using unimproved and non-perturbatively O(a) improved Wilson fermions, results are given for the three lowest moments of unpolarised nucleon structure functions. Renormalisation, chiral extrapolation and the continuum limit of the matrix elements are briefly discussed. The simulations are performed for both quenched and two flavours of unquenched fermions. No obvious sign of deviation from linearity in the chiral extrapolations are found. (This is most clearly seen in our quenched unimproved data, which extends to lighter quark mass). Possible quenching effects also seem to be small. The lowest moment thus remains too large, so it seems to be necessary to reach smaller quark masses in numerical simulations. (orig.)
Gold-plated moments of nucleon structure functions in baryon chiral perturbation theory
Lensky, Vadim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2014-01-01
We obtain leading- and next-to-leading order predictions of chiral perturbation theory for several prominent moments of nucleon structure functions. These free-parameter free results turn out to be in overall agreement with the available empirical information on all of the considered moments, in the region of low-momentum transfer ($Q^2 < 0.3$ GeV$^2$). Especially surprising is the situation for the $\\delta_{LT}$ moment, which thus far was not reproducible for proton and neutron simultaneously in chiral perturbation theory. This problem, known as the "$\\delta_{LT}$ puzzle," is not seen in the present calculation.
Determination of nucleon structure functions on the assumption of diquark presence
In this thesis, we asked for the presence in the nucleons of either scalar or axial vector diquarks. After the introduction of the basis notions on diquarks and their interest in the understanding of various physical problems, we present in the first chapter the theoretical frame in SU(6) symmetry. Chapter 2 and 3 are respectively devoted to the Stockholm and Torino models. We point out to get a very nice fit of the experimental data with models we had to put in a small Q2 dependence in the various quarks distribution functions previously determined. In chapter 4, we used our distribution functions and compared our predictions with experimental results: the ratio of the neutron electromagnetic structure function to that of the proton, the ratio of the longitudinal component to the transverse one for the lepton-nucleon scattering cross-section, so the dileptons production in Drell-Yan process. The conclusion of that study is that the presence of diquarks does not lead, at the moment, to any obvious contradiction with the experimental data; diquarks as constituents are a viable idea, which in certain kinematical regions could be of crucial importance
N Barik; R N Mishra
2001-04-01
Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks conﬁned independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions 1(,2) and 2(x,2) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions (,2) and (,2) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of 2=0.07 GeV2 to a higher $Q^{2}$ scale of $Q^{2}_{0} = 15$ GeV2 yields (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) and (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as (,$Q^{2}_{0}$) and (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input.
Nuclear effects in F{sub 3} structure function of nucleon
Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India)], E-mail: sajathar@rediffmail.com; Singh, S.K. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Vacas, M.J. Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2008-10-02
We study nuclear effects in the F{sub 3}{sup A}(x) structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio R(x,Q{sup 2})=(F{sub 3}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2}))/(AF{sub 3}{sup N}(x,Q{sup 2})) and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith (GLS) integral G(x,Q{sup 2})={integral}{sub x}{sup 1}dxF{sub 3}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2}) in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data.
A detailed study of nucleon structure function in nuclei in the valence quark region
Bianchi, N. [INFN-Laboratori, Nazionali di Frascati (Italy)
1994-04-01
The so called {open_quotes}EMC effect{close_quotes} discovered during the 1980`s, has caused a big controversy in the community of nuclear and high energy physicists; during the last ten years, five experiments have been performed in different laboratories and several hundreds of papers about the possible interpretation of the modification of the nucleon structure function inside nuclei have been published. However, from the experimental point of view, the main goal of four experiments (EMC, BCDMS, NMC, FNAL) has been to emphasize the region of low x{sub b}, where shadowing effects appear. In the region of valence quarks and nuclear effects (x{sub b} > 0.1 - 0.2) the most reliable data presently available are from the SLAC E139 experiment performed in 1983 with only 80 hours of beam time. New precise data in the valence quark region are necessary to measure separate structure functions F{sub 2}(x{sub b}, Q{sup 2}) and R{sup lt}(x{sub b},Q{sup 2}) = {sigma}{sub l}/{sigma}{sub t}, and to investigate the real A-dependence of the ratio between bound and free-nucleon structure functions which is not completely defined by the SLAC data. Moreover, from the nuclear physics point of view, a measurement on some unexplored nuclei, like {sup 3}He and {sup 48}Ca, would be of great interest. The intermediate scaling region (0.1 < x{sub b} < 0.7) would be accessible at CEBAF if the machine energy will reach 6-8 GeV, as suggested by all the tests performed on the RF cavities. This physics program has been already presented in two letter of intents.
Axial structure of the nucleon
Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner
2002-01-01
We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.
Nucleon structure using lattice QCD
Alexandrou, C.; Kallidonis, C. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computational-Based Science and technology Research Center; Constantinou, M.; Hatziyiannakou, K. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Drach, V. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, K. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Koutsou, G.; Vaquero, A. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computational-Based Science and technology Research Center; Leontiou, T. [Frederick Univ, Nicosia (Cyprus). General Dept.
2013-03-15
A review of recent nucleon structure calculations within lattice QCD is presented. The nucleon excited states, the axial charge, the isovector momentum fraction and helicity distribution are discussed, assessing the methods applied for their study, including approaches to evaluate the disconnected contributions. Results on the spin carried by the quarks in the nucleon are also presented.
The third moment d2 of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g2 is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q2 and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order Ο(p4) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d2 as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g1 and g2 to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f2 which appears in the 1/Q2 suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g1 for proton and neutron
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
Dinter, Simon
2012-11-13
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a2) discretization effects.
Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model
Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika
2016-06-01
We have analyzed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent (F1p ,n and F2p ,n) and the spin dependent (g1p ,n) structure functions of the nucleon on the Bjorken scaling variable x using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks q (x ) and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks Δ q (x ) respectively. The chiral constituent quark model, which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of p and n . In light of the improved precision of the world data, the p and n longitudinal spin asymmetries [A1p(x ) and A1n(x )] have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for the ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the p and n Δ/up(x ) up(x ) , Δ/dp(x ) dp(x ) , Δ/un(x ) un(x ) , and Δ/dn(x ) dn(x ) . The ratio of the n and p structure functions Rn p(x )=F/2n(x ) F2p(x ) has also been presented. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations. The results on the spin sum rule have also been included and compared with data and other recent approaches.
Low x Double ln2(1/x) Resummation Effects at the Sum Rules for Nucleon Structure Function g1
We have estimated the contributions to the moments of polarized nucleon structure function g1(x,Q2) coming from the region of the very low x (10-52(1/x) resummation. The Q2 evolution of g1 was described by the unified evolution equations incorporating both the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderate x, and the double ln2(1/x) resummation at small x. The moments were obtained by integrating out the extrapolated nucleon structure function in the region 10-5< x<1. (author)
Nucleon structure functions from the instanton vacuum: leading and non-leading twists
We review the description of nucleon structure functions in the instanton vacuum. This includes the calculation of the twist-2 parton distributions at a low normalization point as well as higher-twist matrix elements. The instanton vacuum with its inherent small parameter, the packing fraction of the instanton medium, ρ/R, provides a consistent picture of the nonperturbative gluon degrees of freedom at the scale ρ-1≅600 MeV. The twist-2 quark and antiquark distribution are of order unity, while the twist-2 gluon distribution is of order (ρ/R)4. Twist-4 matrix elements determining power corrections to the Bjoerken, Ellis-Jaffe and Gross-Llewellyn-Smith sum rules are found to be of order (ρ/R)0. We present numerical estimates for the parametrically large quantities. (author)
Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model
Dahiya, Harleen
2016-01-01
We have analysed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent ($F_1^{p,n}$ and $F_2^{p,n}$) and the spin dependent ($g_1^{p,n}$) structure functions of the nucleon on the the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks $q(x)$ and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks $\\Delta q(x)$ respectively. The chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM), which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of $p$ and $n$. In light of the improved precision of the world data, the $p$ and $n$ longitudinal spin asymmetries ($A_1^p(x)$ and $A_1^n(x)$) have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the $p$ and $n$ $\\frac{\\Delta u^p(x)}{u^p(x)}$, $\\frac{\\Delta d...
A high-statistics measurement of the differential cross-sections for neutrino-iron scattering in the wide-band neutrino beam at the CERN SPS is presented. Nucleon structure functions are extracted and their Q2 evolution is compared with the predictions of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)
Berge, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Dydak, F.; Hagelberg, R.; Krasny, M.W.; Meyer, H.J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, R.W.; Wotschack, J. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bluemer, H.; Brummel, H.D.; Buchholz, P.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Kampschulte, B.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Mueller, E.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik); Alvarez, T.; Belusevic, R.; Falkenburg, B.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Keilwerth, H.; Tittel, K. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik); Debu, P.; Guyot, C.; Merlo, J.P.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Peyaud, B.; Schuller, J.P.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires); Abramowicz, H.; Krolikowski, J.; Lipniacka, A. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Doswiadczalnej)
1991-02-01
A high-statistics measurement of the differential cross-sections for neutrino-iron scattering in the wide-band neutrino beam at the CERN SPS is presented. Nucleon structure functions are extracted and their Q{sup 2} evolution is compared with the predictions of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).
Study of the nucleon spin structure functions: the E154 experiment at SLAC
In experiment E154 at SLAC, the spin dependent structure function g1n was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 50 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized helium 3 target. We report the integral over the measured x range to be ∫0.0140.7g1n(x,5 GeV2)dx = -0.0348 ± 0.0033 ± 0.0043 ± 0.0014. We observe relatively large values of g1n at low x, calling into question the reliability of the data extrapolation down to x equal 0. Such a divergent behavior seems to disagree with the prediction of the Regge theory but can be quantitatively explained by perturbative QCD. Moreover, we have performed a NLO perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on g1, paying careful attention to both the theoretical hypothesis and the calculation of errors. Using a parametrization of the polarized parton distribution at a low scale, we can access the fraction of spin carried by quarks: ΔΣ = 29 ± 6 pc in the MS-bar scheme, and ΔΣ = 37 ± 7 pc in the AB scheme. The gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is not well enough constrained by the current data, but seems to lie between 0 and 2. This study allows us to extract the first moment of the g1 structure function and we find agreement with the Bjorken sum rule expectations. (author)
Nucleon Spin Structure: Experiment
Miller, Andy
2003-04-01
The experimental study of nucleon spin structure is at a transitional stage. Deeply inelastic scattering of leptons has revealed much about quark helicity distributions, and is approaching the limits of what is possible with present experimental facilities. The latest results from semi-inclusive measurements at HERMES will be presented. Precise new complementary data are expected soon from W production at RHIC-Spin. The gluon polarization will also be measured soon at COMPASS and RHIC. Meanwhile, single-spin asymmetries that promise to provide access to the unknown transversity distribution have been observed, and will be discussed. Based on these signals, the first measurements of transversity are underway. Finally, single spin asymmetries have also been recently observed in hard exclusive processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. These signals have the potential to provide a new window on both orbital angular momentum of partons, and on correlations between their longitudinal momentum and transverse position.
The Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Pretz, Jörg
2007-01-01
This article reviews recent results on the spin structure of the nucleon from polarized deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and polarized proton-proton scattering. For a description of the nucleon in terms of parton distribution functions (pdf) the knowledge of three basic distributions is needed: The relatively well known unpolarized pdfs, the helicity distributions and the transversity distributions. The latter two play an essential role in understanding the spin structure of the nucleon. New results on the gluon helicity distribution $\\Delta G(x)$ and the helicity distributions for strange and valence quarks are discussed. A first determination of the up to now unknown transversity distributions $\\Delta_{T}q(x)$ is presented. Finally results from deep virtual Compton scattering, giving access to the orbital angular momentum contribution of quarks to the nucleon spin, are discussed.
Kotlorz, Dorota
2008-01-01
Predictions for the spin dependent structure function $g_1$ of the nucleon are presented. We use an unified approach incorporating the LO DGLAP evolution and the resummation of double logarithmic terms $ln^2(x)$. We show, that the singular input parametrisation as $x\\to 0$ can be a substitute of the $ln^2(x)$ resummation. An impact of the `more running' coupling is discussed. We determine the contribution to the Bjorken sum rule solving the evolution equation for the truncated moment of $g_1^{NS}$. A comparison with the re-analysed HERMES and COMPASS data is given.
Constituent quark description of nucleon structure
Nucleon structure functions are calculated within the constituent quark in the leading order. The results compare well with the experimental data for entire range of kinematics in x and Q2and with the next - to - leading order calculation of GRV
The spin and flavor structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei is more complicated than expected in the original naive quark model. Recent results which show some of the key failures of the naive picture are summarized here with emphasis on recent results from the HERMES experiment. Some future options to study the quarks structure in exclusive processes in electroproduction, photoproduction and pp annihilation are presented. (orig.)
SU(6)-strong breaking: structure functions and small momentum transfer properties of the nucleon
Evidence for SU(6) breaking of the baryonic ground state, the connection between the quark model and the quark--parton model, the nucleon in a pure 56 at rest with relativistic quark motion, and SU(6) mixing (56, L = 0) + (70, L = 0) for the nucleon, without the small components effects, description of the F2/sup en//F2/sup ep/ behavior, and the neutron charge radius are treated. Gluons and the q anti q sea are introduced, and final results given combining the various effects. Finally the distinction between constituent and current quarks is discussed with regards to its relevance. 48 references
E.R. Nocera
2015-03-01
Full Text Available I investigate the behavior of spin-dependent parton distribution functions in the regions of small and large momentum fractions x. I present a systematic comparison between predictions for relevant observables obtained with various models of nucleon spin structure and a recent global analysis of spin-dependent distributions, NNPDFpol1.1. Together with its unpolarized counterpart, NNPDF2.3, they form a mutually consistent set of parton distributions. Because they include most of the available experimental information, and are determined with a minimally biased methodology, these are especially suited for such a study. I show how NNPDFpol1.1 can discriminate between different theoretical models, even though NNPDF uncertainties remain large near the endpoints x→0 and x→1, due to the lack of experimental information. I discuss how our knowledge of nucleon spin structure may be improved at small x by future measurements at an Electron–Ion Collider, and at large x by recent measurements at Jefferson Lab, also in view of its 12 GeV upgrade.
Nucleon structure from stochastic estimators
Bali, Gunnar S; Gläßle, Benjamin; Göckeler, Meinulf; Najjar, Johannes; Rödl, Rudolf; Schäfer, Andreas; Sternbeck, André; Söldner, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Using stochastic estimators for connected meson and baryon three-point functions has successfully been tried in the past years. Compared to the standard sequential source method we trade the freedom to compute the current-to-sink propagator independently of the hadron sink for additional stochastic noise in our observables. In the case of the nucleon we can use this freedom to compute many different sink-momentum/polarization combinations, which grants access to more virtualities. We will present preliminary results on the scalar, electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD and contrast the performance of the stochastic method to the sequential source method. We find the stochastic method to be competitive in terms of errors at fixed cost.
Use of leptons to study the internal structure of nucleons
In the light of recent results in leptoproduction experiments, a review of the lepton deep inelastic scattering is given. The nucleon structure functions are introduced in the frame of the Quark Parton Model, their Q2 evolution is described with the formalism of Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) to the leading order. The last experimental results from high energy muon-nucleon and neutrino-nucleon scattering experiments are reported and compared with the QCD predictions. All the experiments are in fair agreement and show a small but clear scaling violation corresponding to the rise with Q2 of the quark-antiquark sea and gluon contributions to the nucleon structure functions
The quark structure of the nucleons
The suitableness of the non-relativistic potential model for the description of quarks in nucleons is proved and the model extensively presented. Practical applications are some contributions to the nucleon-nucleon interaction which result from the quark structure of the nucleons. These are especially the quark-gluon exchange and the quark-pion exchange between nucleons. The influences of these interactions on the s and p scattering of the nucleons are calculated in the framework of the resonating-group method. Furthermore we study the change of the quark structure if two nucleons approach very closely. The interaction of the nucleons by quark-gluon exchange causes an increase of the nucleon radius and a shift of the quark momenta to lower values. On this base the momentum distribution of quarks in nuclei is calculated and a natural explanation of the EMC effect is given. The distance distribution of nucleons and their Fermi motion are calculated for this in the shell model. Then we make further considerations in connection with the flavor symmetry, the collapse of the nucleons and the properties of six-quark bags. Altogether it is shown that in the potential model the most different effects of the quark structure of nucleons can be surprisingly well described in an illustrative way. (orig.)
Analysis of DIS structure functions of the nucleon within truncated Mellin moments approach
Kotlorz, D
2016-01-01
We present generalized evolution equations and factorization in terms of the truncated Mellin moments (TMM) of the parton distributions and structure functions. We illustrate the $x$ and $Q^2$ dependence of TMM in the polarized case. Using the TMM approach we compare the integrals of $g_1$ with HERMES and COMPASS data from the limited $x$-ranges.
Interference Fragmentation Functions and the Nucleon's Transversity
Jaffe, R. L.; Jin, Xuemin; Tang, Jian
1997-01-01
We introduce twist-two quark interference fragmentation functions in helicity density matrix formalism and study their physical implications. We show how the nucleon's transversity distribution can be probed through the final state interaction between two mesons ($\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K\\bar K$, or $\\pi K$) produced in the current fragmentation region in deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized nucleon.
We have studied the nuclear effects on high energy antineutrino charged current interactions by comparing the data which were taken in the Bubble Chamber BEBC filled with Neon and Deuterium. On the one hand, the study of nuclear reinteractions gave us the possibility to estimate the formation time of hadrons. On the other hand, the comparison of structure functions does not show any significant difference between Neon and Deuterium. Though this result does not contradict the effects observed with charged leptons by the EMC and SLAC experiments, it is strongly incompatible with certain theoretical interpretations which implied a stronger effect in antineutrino interactions
Experimental results on polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering
Stuart, L.
1994-08-01
A summary is given of experimental results on spin structure functions of the proton g{sub 1}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}), deuteron g{sub 1}{sup d}(x,Q{sup 2}), and neutron g{sub 1}{sup n}(x,Q{sup 2}) as measured in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from a polarized target. All results are consistent with the Bjorken sum rule predictions at the Q{sup 2} of each experiment. The data do not support the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction for the proton which implies that the hencity carried by the strange quark may be nonzero and that the net quark helicity is smaller than expected from simple quark models.
New relations in lepton-nucleon scattering independent of the nucleon structure
New relations in deep inelastic and (quasi-)elastic scattering of polarized electrons and positrons (μ±-mesons) on non-polarized nucleons have been obtained. They connect cross sections with standard model parameters and are independent of the structure functions and form factors of the nucleon. A well known example is the Paschos-Wolfenstein relation in (ν-bar)N-scattering. 6 refs
Nasseripour, R; Ambrozewicz, P; Carman, D S; Amaryan, M J; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Blaszczyk, L; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Casey, L; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Credé, V; Dale, D; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kalantarians, N; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Krahn, Z; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; MacCormick, M; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Müller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Anefalos Pereira, S; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rubin, P D; Sabati, F; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Sayre, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Sharov, D; Shvedunov, N V; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W
2008-01-01
The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.
In the deep inelastic neutrino scattering experiment of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay collaboration realized on the CERN SPS narrow band beam, we have measured 23000 charged current neutrino and 6200 antineutrino interactions. The structure functions of the nucleon have been extracted from the differential cross sections on iron and compared with parton model predictions. The total cross sections and the fraction of momentum carried by the antiquarks in the nucleon have been measured as function of the neutrino energy. The structure functions obtained for different Q2 bins show significant deviations from scale invariance. The data are in agreement with QCD predictions for a value of the scale parameter Λ between 300 and 700 MeV
The authors presented a nuclear density empirical formula of the nucleus, where authors have established the connection between the nuclear density and the mean binding energy in nucleus. By using the formula, authors can get the nuclear density for various nuclei with A≥12. By means of the nuclear density model, authors calculate the nuclear effect function RA1/A2 (x, Q2). The calculated results are in good agreement with EMC experimental data
Quark distributions in nuclei and nuclear effects on nucleon structure functions
WANG Yan-Zhao; ZHANG Hong-Fei; GAO Yong-Hua; HOU Zhao-Yu; DONG Jian-Min; DUAN Chun-Gui; ZUO Wei
2009-01-01
Extended quark distribution functions are presented obtained by fitting a large amount of experi-mental data of the ι-A DIS process on the basis of an improved nuclear density model. The experimental data of ι-A DIS processes with A≥ 3 in the region 0.0010 ≤ x ≤ 0.9500 are quite satisfactorily described by using the extended formulae. Our knowledge of the influence of nuclear matter on the quark distributions is deepened.
Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations
Coraggio L.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.
Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations
Coraggio, L; Holt, J W; Itaco, N; Machleidt, R; Marcucci, L E; Sammarruca, F
2016-01-01
Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.
Spin structure of the nucleon and triangle anomaly
It is shown that the gluon contribution to the sum rule for spin parton distribution functions which determines the spin of the nucleon is fixed by the axial Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly. The new sum rule is consistent with OCD evolution equations and predicts that quarks carry about 70% of the nucleon spin. The gluon contribution results in negative extra term to the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule for the structure function g1 which accounts for its disagreement with experiment
Various aspects of nuclear physics at intermediate energies, in connection with the description of the nucleon-nucleon potential in terms of mesons, are presented in this thesis. The meson exchange current contribution is studied in the case of the deuteron (np capture and electrodisintegration near threshold). A consistent description of these processes is discussed, with particular emphasis on the effective range of the current, for momentum transfers as large as q2∼1 (GeV/c)2. The structure of finite nuclei and nuclear matter is then analysed in the framework of a relativistic formalism, in which the negative energy component of the nucleon wave function is explicitly taken into account. The nuclear matter saturation mechanism is studied in details and compared with the non-relativistic limit. Properties of finite nuclei are also discussed. Finally, the structure of the nucleon itself in the nuclear medium is investigated. A connection between the polarisation of the nucleon (three valence quark component), the incompressibility parameter and the mass of the first monopole excitation of the nucleon is presented
Nucleon spin structure functions
This paper reviews the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future, and discuss the polarization dependence of inclusive hadron production
On the resonance structure in nucleon-nucleon scattering
Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.
1981-10-01
A possible explanation of resonance-like structure in 1D 2 and 3F 3 proton-proton phase parameters at medium energy is suggested by the analysis of an exactly soluble coupled channel model. Looping in the Argand plot is mainly due to the nucleon-delta branch cut. This effect is already present in the NΔ box diagram, but is modified by higher order multiple scattering. Poles occur close to the NΔ branch point and originate from left-hand singularities in the unphysical sheet.
Ziaja, Beata
2002-01-01
Theoretical predictions show that at low values of Bjorken $x$ the spin structure function, $g_1$ is influenced by large logarithmic corrections, $ln^2(1/x)$, which may be predominant in this region. These corrections are also partially contained in the NLO part of the standard DGLAP evolution. Here we calculate the non-singlet component of the nucleon structure function, $g_1^{NS}=g_1^p-g_1^n$, and its first moment, using a unified evolution equation. This equation incorporates the terms des...
Study of hadron structure in a deep-inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons
The problem is discussed of nucleon structure research in deep inelastic scattering processes of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons. Using a modified Kuti-Weisskopf model theoretical relations are derived for structure functions involved in the deep inelastic differential cross section of leptons on nucleons. (Z.J.)
Nucleon Resonances and Quark Structure
Londergan, J T
2009-01-01
A pedagogical review of the past 50 years of study of resonances, leading to our understanding of the quark content of baryons and mesons. The level of this review is intended for undergraduates or first-year graduate students. Topics covered include: the quark structure of the proton as revealed through deep inelastic scattering; structure functions and what they reveal about proton structure; and prospects for further studies with new and upgraded facilities, particularly a proposed electron-ion collider.
The nucleon wave function at the origin
Gruber, Michael
2010-01-01
We calculate the next-to-leading order perturbative corrections to the SVZ sum rules for the coupling f_N, the nucleon leading twist wave function at the origin. The results are compared to the established Ioffe sum rules and also to lattice QCD simulations.
Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure
Holstein, B.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astromony Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory)
1992-01-01
Recently it has been realized that significant tests of the validity of QCD are available in low energy experiments (E < 500 MeV) by exploiting the property of (broken) chiral symmetry. This technique has been highly developed in The Goldstone boson sector by the work of Gasser and Leutwyler. Application to the nucleon system is much more difficult and is now being carefully developed.
The spin structure of the nucleon
This document describes the recent experimental results on the spin structure of the nucleon obtained with the electron accelerator Thomas Jefferson National Facility (Jefferson Lab), Virginia. We first discuss the goal of studying the nucleon spin structure and give the basis and phenomenology of high energy lepton scattering. Then, we discuss with some details a few sum rules concerning the spin structure of the nucleon. Those are important tools for studying the nucleon spin structure at Jefferson Lab. We then describe the present experimental situation and analyze the results. We have been able to determine an effective coupling constant for the strong interaction for any regime of quantum chromodynamics which proves that QCD is an approximately conformal theory. We conclude on the perspectives for this field of research, in particular with the 12 GeV energy upgrade of Jefferson Lab. The top priority will be the measurement of generalised parton distributions. The only issue that will stay misunderstood is the role of the very low x domain on the spin structure of the nucleon
We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 2 2. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal/transverse separations. The precision R σL/σT data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F1 and FL in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q2 = 1 GeV2 in the separated structure functions independently
Yongguang Liang; Michael Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W. Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Daniel Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B. Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Ronald Gilman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; J.W. Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A. Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O' neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E. Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Vladas Tvaskis; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin
2004-10-01
We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 GeV{sup 2}. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal/transverse separations. The precision R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F{sub 1} and F{sub L} in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2} in the separated structure functions independently.
A covariant model for the nucleon spin structure
Ramalho, G
2015-01-01
We present the results of the covariant spectator quark model applied to the nucleon structure function $f(x)$ measured in unpolarized deep inelastic scattering, and the structure functions $g_1(x)$ and $g_2(x)$ measured in deep inelastic scattering using polarized beams and targets ($x$ is the Bjorken scaling variable). The nucleon is modeled by a valence quark-diquark structure with $S,P$ and $D$ components. The shape of the wave functions and the relative strength of each component are fixed by making fits to the deep inelastic scattering data for the structure functions $f(x)$ and $g_1(x)$. The model is then used to make predictions on the function $g_2(x)$ for the proton and neutron.
Spin Structure of the Nucleon - Proceedings of the Riken Symposium
Shibata, S.; Ohta, N.; Saito, T.-A.
1996-08-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Foreword * Theoretical Overview * The Context of High Energy QCD Spin Physics * Experimental Studies I * PHENIX and Spin Physics * RHIC Spin Project - Acceleration of Polarized Protons * CIAE Activities for the PHENIX Experiment * Spin Physics with PHENIX Detector System at RHIC * Experiments on Spin-dependent Structure Functions of the Nucleon * Measurements of the Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Nucleon at the Spin Muon Collaboration * Theoretical Studies * Higher-twist Effects in Spin Structure Functions * Light Hadrons from Lattice QCD in a (2.4 fm)3 Box at 4-GeV Cutoff * Tensor Charge of the Nucleon on the Lattice * Perturbative QCD Study on the Chiral-Odd Twist-3 Structure Function: hL(x,Q2) * Strange Matrix Elements of the Proton and Instantons in QCD * Experimental Studies II * Proton Structure Functions from ZEUS * Measurements of the Photon Structure Functions F_{2}^γ * Constraint on the Proton Structure from CDF: Lepton Charge Asymmetry in W Decays * A Search for Jet Handedness in Hadronic Z0 Decays * Concluding Remarks * High Energy Spin Physics - Past, Present and Future * Program
Transverse nucleon structure and multiparton interactions
Strikman, Mark
2011-01-01
The transverse structure of the nucleon as probed in hard exclusive processes plays critical role in the understanding of the structure of the underlying event in hard collisions at the LHC, and multiparton interactions. We summarize results of our recent studies of manifestation of transverse nucleon structure in the hard collisions at the LHC, new generalized parton distributions involved in multiparton interactions, presence of parton fluctuations. The kinematic range where interaction of fast partons of the projectile with the target reach black disk regime (BDR) strength is estimated. We demonstrate that in the BDR postselection effect leads to effective fractional energy losses. This effect explains regularities of the single and double forward pion production in $ dAu$ collisions at RHIC and impacts on the forward physics in $pp$ collisions at the LHC.
Nucleon Structure and Generalized Parton Distributions
Eric Voutier
2006-06-28
This paper discusses a selected part of the experimental program dedicated to the study of Generalized Parton Distributions, a recently introduced concept which provides a comprehensive framework for investigations of the partonic structure of the nucleon. Particular emphasis is put on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering program performed at the Jefferson Laboratory. The short and long term future of this program is also discussed in the context of the several experimental efforts aiming at a complete and exhaustive mapping of Generalized Parton Distributions.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions (TDM) and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements. (author)
Structure and Spin of the Nucleon
Avakian, Harut A. [JLAB
2014-03-01
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Avakian, H.
2014-03-01
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.
Preliminary results on the measurement of the structure functions F2p(xBj, Q2) and F2d(xBj, Q2) and of the ratio F2n/F2p from experiment E665 are presented. The data were obtained using 465 GeV/c muons scattering off liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. The dependence of the structure functions on xBj and Q2 is examined in the kinematic range xBj > 8 x 10-4 and Q2 > 0.2 GeV2/c2. The structure function ratio is presented as a function of xBj, for xBj > 10-6
Nucleon structure as a background for determination of fundamental parameters
We consider deep inelastic, (quasi-) elastic lepton-nucleon scattering and investigate the possibilities of eliminating or suppressing theoretical uncertainties induced by nucleon structure in measuring the Standard Model parameters or in searching for new physics. On the basis of rather general hypothesis about nucleon structure we have obtained new relations between cross sections and neutral current parameters which are independent of the nucleon structure. We also investigate a dependence of the QCD Λ-parameter extracted from the data on unknown large scale nucleon structure and propose a modification of the conventional QCD predictions which are weakly dependent of this uncertainty factor. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab
Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure
Pisano, Silvia
2015-01-01
The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest...
Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure
Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on 12C and 16O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter
We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n4/3, n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)
Structure of the nucleon and nuclei studied by HERMES
Recent results from studies of inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton scattering are presented. Data with polarization provide the first measurement of the b1(x, Q2) structure function in the deuteron, a five component flavor decomposition of quark helcity distributions in the nucleon, as well as results pertaining to transverse spin physics and deep virtual Compton scattering. Data from unpolarized targets constrain models of quark hadronization and give a measure of parton energy loss in cold nuclear matter
Exploring the nucleon structure from first principles of QCD
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is generally assumed to be the fundamental theory underlying nuclear physics. In recent years there is progress towards investigating the nucleon structure from first principles of QCD. Although this structure is best revealed in Deep Inelastic Scattering, a consistent analysis has to be performed in a fully non-perturbative scheme. The only known method for this purpose are lattice simulations. We first sketch the ideas of Monte Carlo simulations in lattice gauge theory. Then we comment in particular on the issues of chiral symmetry and operator mixing. Finally we present our results for the Bjorken variable of a single quark, and for the second Nachtmann moment of the nucleon structure functions. (orig.)
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the nonlinear spinor field
The author calculates the S matrix for the elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering in the lowest approximation using the quantum theory of nonlinear spinor fields with special emphasis to the ghost configuration of this theory. Introducing a general scalar product a new functional channel calculus is considered. From the results the R and T matrix elements and the differential and integral cross sections are derived. (HSI)
Some interesting features of the experimental data on deep inelastic scattering of muons from a liquid hydrogen target are discussed. The proton structure function F2(x,q2) (where x=q2/2m(E-Esup(')), E and Esup(') stand for initial and final muon energy, respectively) has proved to fall at large x and rise at small x with increasing q2. To make extrapolations into q2 regions not covered by the data available, the integral 1∫0F2(x,q2)dx has been calculated. The integral has occureed to be constant with q2. The set of data is hoped to be explained in terms of renormalizable field theories
Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD
Warkentin, Nikolaus
2008-04-15
In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)
Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD
In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)
Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Raue, Brian; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anciant, Eric; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asavapibhop, Burin; Asryan, Gegham; Audit, Gerard; Auger, Thierry; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Casey, Liam; Cetina, Catalina; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dragovitsch, Peter; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girard, Pascal; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gothe, Ralf; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hu, Jicun; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, Konstantin; MacCormick, Marion; Manak, Joseph; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Peterson, Gerald; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Sayre, Donald; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Shafi, Aziz; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Simionatto, Sebastio; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Taylor, Shawn; Tedeschi, David; Thoma, Ulrike; Thompson, Richard; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Wang,
2008-06-01
The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.
The pion-cloud contribution to the electromagnetic nucleon structure
Kupelwieser, D
2015-01-01
The present contribution continues and extends foregoing work on the calculation of electroweak form factors of hadrons using the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. Here we are particularly interested in studying pionic effects on the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. To this aim we employ a hybrid constituent-quark model that comprises, in addition to the $3q$ valence component, also a $3q$+$\\pi$ non-valence component. With a simple wave function for the $3q$ component we get reasonable results for the nucleon form factors. In accordance with other authors we find that the pionic effect is significant only below $Q^2\\lesssim 0.5$~GeV$^2$.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Avakian H.
2014-03-01
Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL. TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC, FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.
Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function
The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade process of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is accordingly taken into account. (author)
Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Distribution Functions of the Nucleon
Wakamatsu, M.; Watabe, T
1999-01-01
A theoretical prediction is given for the spin and orbital angular momentum distribution functions of the nucleon within the framework of an effective quark model of QCD, i.e. the chiral quark soliton model. An outstanding feature of the model is that it predicts fairly small quark spin fraction of the nucleon $\\Delta \\Sigma \\simeq 0.35$, which in turn dictates that the remaining 65% of the nucleon spin is carried by the orbital angular momentum of quarks and antiquarks at the model energy sc...
Boson-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential and nuclear structure
A fully momentum-dependent one-boson-exchange potential is derived which takes into account the mesons, π, eta, sigma, rho, ω and phi. Scattering bound states and nuclear matter properties are studied in momentum space. The use of such potential is shown to be as easy as the use of more simple phenomenological interactions. In nuclear matter the formalism of Bethe-Goldstone is chosen to compute the binding energy versus density in the approximation of two-body and three-body correlations. The three-body correlated wave function obtained is then used
Nucleon Structure and Hyperon Form Factors from Lattice QCD
In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point. to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(2G), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Σ and Ξ axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, gσσ = 0.441(14) and gΞΞ -0.277(11)
Nucleon Structure and hyperon form factors from lattice QCD
In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(26), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Sigma and Xi axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g#Sigma##Sigma# = 0.441(14) and g#Xi##Xi# = -0.277(11)
Relativistic spectral function of nucleon in hot nuclear matter
Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2010-01-01
We present a simple calculation of the nucleon self-energy in nuclear matter at finite temperature in a relativistic framework, using the real time thermal field theory. The imaginary parts of one-loop graphs are identified with discontinuities across the unitary and the Landau cuts. We find that in general both the cuts contribute significantly to the spectral function in the region of (virtual) nucleon mass usually considered, even though the unitary cut is ignored in the literature. Also o...
Short-range correlations of partons & 3D nucleon structure
Schweitzer P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is caused by non-perturbative interactions on a scale ρ ∼ 0.3 fm much smaller than the hadronic size R ∼ 1 fm. This has important consequences for the nucleon structure such as the prediction that the transverse momentum distribution of sea quarks is significantly broader than the pT -distribution of valence quarks due to short-range correlations between sea quarks in the nucleon’s light-cone wave function.
Probing nucleon structure on the lattice
The QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration has an ongoing program to calculate nucleon matrix elements with two flavours of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Here we present recent results on the electromagnetic form factors, the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle and the first three moments of the nucleon's spin-averaged and spin-dependent generalised parton distributions, including preliminary results with pion masses as low as 320 MeV. (orig.)
Probing nucleon structure on the lattice
The QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration has an ongoing program to calculate nucleon matrix elements with two flavours of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Here we present recent results on the electromagnetic form factors, the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle and the first three moments of the nucleon's spin-averaged and spin-dependent generalised parton distributions, including preliminary results with pion masses as low as 320 MeV. (orig.)
Probing nucleon structure on the lattice
Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department, Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik T39; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)
2006-08-15
The QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration has an ongoing program to calculate nucleon matrix elements with two flavours of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Here we present recent results on the electromagnetic form factors, the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle and the first three moments of the nucleon's spin-averaged and spin-dependent generalised parton distributions, including preliminary results with pion masses as low as 320 MeV. (orig.)
The Spin Structure of the nucleon
Deur, Alexandre
2015-10-01
This talk will review the status of the experiments studying the spin structure of the nucleon. After a brief overview of the topics, I will focus on the program measuring the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum, in the context of connecting the effective descriptions of the strong force at long distances to its fundamental partonic description at short distances. The generalized GDH sum rule is a theoretical relation valid at any distance. Consequently, it can be an Ariadne's thread to follow to understand how the transition between the partonic to hadronic descriptions happens. Measurements at intermediate and short distances have been made available in the 1990s and 2000s. Long distance results are being now finalized. With them, a large part of this experimental program will be completed. I will give the status of the measurements at long distances. I will then conclude the talk with a practical example on how the GDH data are used to connect the fundamental and effective descriptions of the strong force. Such example demonstrates how the generalized GDH program is bearing fruits.
Generalized Parton Distributions and the Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Ji, Xiangdong
2002-01-01
Generalized parton distributions are a new type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD pr...
Study of excited nucleons and their structure
Burkert, Volker D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
Recent advances in the study of excited nucleons are discussed. Much of the progress has been achieved due to the availability of high precision meson production data in the photoproduction and electroproduction sectors, the development of multi-channel partial wave analysis techniques, and advances in Lattice QCD with predictions of the full excitation spectrum.
Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure
Litmaath, M.F.
1996-05-07
After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).
Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure
After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)
The spin structure of the nucleon
The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*ΔΣ + Δg + Lq + Lg where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and Lq and Lg are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The ΔΣ contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization Δg/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)
Generalized Parton Distributions and the Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Ji, X
2002-01-01
Generalized parton distributions are a new type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD processes, such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and exclusive meson production, have been found to measure the distributions directly in experiments, lattice QCD offers a great promise to provide the first-principle calculations of these interesting observables.
Generalized parton distributions and the spin structure of the nucleon
Ji, Xiangdong
2003-05-01
Generalized parton distributions are a type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD processes, such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and exclusive meson production, have been found to measure the distributions directly in experiments, lattice QCD offers a great promise to provide the first-principle calculations of these interesting observables.
Generalized parton distributions and the spin structure of the nucleon
Generalized parton distributions are a type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD processes, such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and exclusive meson production, have been found to measure the distributions directly in experiments, lattice QCD offers a great promise to provide the first-principle calculations of these interesting observables
Di-nucleon structures in homogeneous nuclear matter based on two- and three-nucleon interactions
Arellano, H F; Rios, Arnau
2016-01-01
We investigate homogeneous nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach in the limits of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) as well as pure neutron matter at zero temperature. The study is based on realistic representations of the internucleon interaction as given by Argonne v18, Paris, Nijmegen I and II potentials, in addition to chiral N$^{3}$LO interactions, including three-nucleon forces up to N$^{2}$LO. Particular attention is paid to the presence of di-nucleon bound states structures in $^1\\textrm{S}_0$ and $^3\\textrm{SD}_1$ channels, whose explicit account becomes crucial for the stability of self-consistent solutions at low densities. A characterization of these solutions and associated bound states is discussed. We confirm that coexisting BHF single-particle solutions in SNM, at Fermi momenta in the range $0.13-0.3$~fm$^{-1}$, is a robust feature under the choice of realistic internucleon potentials.
The spin structure of the nucleon
Le Goff, J.M
2005-02-15
The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*{delta}{sigma} + {delta}g + L{sub q} + L{sub g} where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and L{sub q} and L{sub g} are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The {delta}{sigma} contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization {delta}g/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)
Structure Functions from Chiral Soliton Models
Weigel, H.(Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa); Gamberg, L.(Department of Physics, Penn State University-Berks, Reading, PA, 19610, U.S.A.); Reinhardt, H.
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron-nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low-scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions $g_{1}(x)$ and $g_{2}(x)$ in this model. We compa...
Delineating the polarized and unpolarized partonic structure of the nucleon
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [JLAB
2015-03-01
Reports on our latest extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon are given. First an overview of the recent JR14 upgrade of our unpolarized PDFs, including NNLO determinations of the strong coupling constant and a discussion of the role of the input scale in parton distribution analysis. In the second part of the talk recent results on the determination of spin-dependent PDFs from the JAM collaboration are reported, including a careful treatment of hadronic and nuclear corrections, as well as reports on the impact of present and future data in our understanding of the spin of the nucleon.
Delineating the polarized and unpolarized partonic structure of the nucleon
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [JLAB
2015-03-01
Our latest results on the extraction of parton distribution functions of the nucleon are reported. First an overview of the recent JR14 upgrade of our unpolarized PDFs, including NNLO determinations of the strong coupling constant and a discussion of the role of the input scale in parton distribution analysis. In the second part of the talk recent results on the determination of spin-dependent PDFs from the JAM collaboration are given, including a careful treatment of hadronic and nuclear corrections, as well as results on the impact of present and future data in our understanding of the spin of the nucleon.
Interacting boson models of nuclear and nucleon structure
Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.
1998-01-01
Interacting boson models provide an elegant and powerful method to describe collective excitations of complex systems by introducing a set of effective degrees of freedom. We review the interacting boson model of nuclear structure and discuss a recent extension to the nucleon and its excited states.
Spin Structure of the Nucleon on the Light Front
We briefly review the spin structure of the nucleon and show that it is best thought in the light-front formulation. We discuss in particular the longitudinal and transverse spin sum rules, the proper definition of canonical orbital angular momentum and the spin–orbit correlation. (author)
Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of NN data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne v18 potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a Χ2 per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of NN interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of NN interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure
Studying nucleon structure using an Electron-Ion Collider
Burton, Thomas; EIC Team
2011-04-01
The detailed composition of the spin of the nucleon remains unknown. Numerous experiments over the past two decades have shown that the spin of quarks alone cannot account for more than a third of the nucleon's spin. Proton-proton collisions at RHIC suggest a small gluon polarisation, but uncertainties remain large. An Electron-Ion Collider is proposed as future machine for precision studies of nucleon and nuclear structure. It will allow the study of the spin contribution from gluons and quarks, including their flavour decomposition, in heretofore unprecedented precision, and will access a much wider kinematic space than ever before, in particular extending to the currently unmeasured low Bjorken-x sea. The formalism of generalised parton distributions (GPDs), accessible for example via deeply-virtual Compton scattering, promises to allow study of the role of orbital angular momentum in nucleon spin. Furthermore, GPDs will extend understanding of parton distributions beyond the well-known one-dimensional PDFs, accessing three-dimensional structure via the impact parameter distributions of partons.
Understanding the nucleon structure is currently one of the main challenges encountered in nuclear physics. The present work represents a contribution to the study of the nucleon structure and deals, in particular, with the study of the role of strange quarks in the nucleon. The latter can be investigated by determining the strange quark distribution in the nucleon as well as the contribution of the spins of strange quarks to the nucleon spin. This work first presents a measurement of the nucleon spin performed via Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of a muon beam off polarized proton and deuterium targets. The result is found to be strongly dependent on the quark fragmentation functions into hadrons (FFs), which define the probability that a quark of a given flavour fragments into a final state hadron. The FFs are poorly known, in particular, the FF of strange quark into kaons, which play an important role in the determination of the nucleon spin. In deep inelastic scattering process, the access to the FFs is provided by the hadron multiplicities which, in turn, define the average number of hadrons produced per DIS event. Pion and kaon multiplicities have been extracted versus different kinematic variables, using DIS data collected by deeply inelastic scattering of a 160 GeV/c muons off a deuterium target. A first Leading Order (LO) extraction of the fragmentation functions has then been performed using the measured pion and kaon multiplicities. (author)
In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties
Statistical effect in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon
Zhang, Yunhua; Ma, Bo-Qiang
2008-01-01
A new and simple statistical approach is performed to calculate the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the nucleon in terms of light-front kinematic variables. We do not put in any extra arbitrary parameter or corrected term by hand, which guarantees the stringency of our approach. Analytic expressions of the $x$-dependent PDFs are obtained in the whole $x$ region [0,1], and some features, especially the low-$x$ rise, are more agreeable with experimental data than those in some previous instant-form statistical models in the infinite-momentum frame (IMF). Discussions on heavy-flavored PDFs are also presented.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Avakian H.
2014-01-01
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asym...
Feasibility studies for nucleon structure measurements with PANDA
Atomssa Ermias
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study of nucleon structure is one of the main physics goals of PANDA to be built at the FAIR accelerator complex. The excellent particle identification performance of the PANDA detector will enable measurements of exclusive channels p̄ p → e+e− and p̄ p → π0 J/ψ → π0e+e− to extract the electromagnetic form factors of protons and π-nucleon Transition Distribution Amplitudes (π-N TDAs. After a brief description of the PANDA apparatus and a method to handle momentum resolution degradation due to Bremsstrahlung, the physics of π-N TDAs is discussed. An estimate for the expected signal to background ratio for p̄ p → π0 J/ψ → π0e+e− that takes into account the main background source is given.
pp Elastic Scattering at LHC and Nucleon Structure
High energy elastic pp differential cross section at LHC at the c.m. energy 14 TeV is predicted using the asymptotic behavior of σtot(s) and ρ(s), and the measured p-barp differential cross section at √(s) =546 GeV. The phenomenological investigation has progressively led to an effective field theory model that describes the nucleon as a chiral bag embedded in a quark-antiquark condensed ground state. The measurement of pp elastic scattering at LHC up to large vertical bar t vertical bar > or approx. 10 GeV2 by the TOTEM group will be crucial to test this structure of the nucleon
In this report a nucleon structure function analysis will be discussed. In CHORUS experiment, lead-scintillator calorimeter was used as active target and in 1998 run a high statistics sample of CC interactions of muon (anti-) neutrinos were collected. This sample was used to extract the structure functions of the nucleons in neutrino interactions. A Monte-Carlo program has been developed to study the efficiencies of the detector and for the proper corrections to be applied to the data. The structure functions, F1, F2, xF3, were extracted using three different kinds of fits. The effects of different systematic dependencies have also been studied. Results have been compared to the earlier experiments, CCFR and CDHSW
Electromagnetic response functions of few-nucleon systems
Inclusive electromagnetic reactions in few-nucleon systems are studied basing on accurate three- and four-body calculations. The longitudinal 4He(e, e') response function obtained at q ≤ 600 MeV/c completely agrees with experiment. The exact 4He spectral function obtained in a semirealistic potential model is presented, and the accuracy of the quasielastic response calculated with its help is assessed, as well as the accuracy of some simpler approximations for the response. The photodisintegration cross section of 3He obtained with the realistic AV14 NN force plus UrbanaVIII NNN force agrees with experiment. It is shown that this cross section is very sensitive to underlying nuclear dynamics in the Eγ ≅ 100 MeV region. In particular, the NNN nuclear force clearly manifests itself in this region. (author)
European Muon Collaboration; Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Badelek, B.; Beaufays, J.; Bee, C. P.; Benchouk, C.; Berghoff, G.; Bird, I. G.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S. C.; Brück, H.; Calén, H.; Chima, J. S.; Ciborowski, J.; Clifft, R.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; d'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Derado, I.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Düren, M.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gajewski, J.; Gamet, R.; Geddes, N.; Grafström, P.; Gustafsson, L.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jancso, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Krüger, A.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Maselli, S.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Peschel, H.; Pessard, H.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Poensgen, B.; Pötsch, M.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Scheer, M.; Schlagböhmer, A.; Schiemann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, M.; Schouten, M.; Schröder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thenard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de la Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Urban, L.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Windmolders, R.; Wolf, G.
1990-03-01
Small angle scattering of 280 GeV positive muons by deuterium, carbon and calcium has been measured at scattering angles down to 2 mrad. The nucleon structure function F2 extracted from deuterium does not show a significant x dependence in the measured range of Q2 and its Q2 dependence is linear in logQ2. For calcium, a depletion of F2 is observed at low x by 30% as compared with the values at x = 0.1 where F2(Ca) and F2 (D) are not significantly different. This depletion is attributed to shadowing. The carbon structure function exhibits a similar, but less pronounced, x dependence. Such behaviour is observed to be independent of Q2. The data are consistent with those obtained from other charged lepton experiments both at similar and higher values of x and Q2 and considerably extend the range of the measurements down to the low values of x to be measured in forthcoming experiments at HERA.
Using the structure functions F2 measured in E.M.C., we have extracted the following values for the QCD scale parameter Λ, at next to leading order: hydrogen target: Λsub(MS) = 139(+170-100)MeV; iron target: Λsub(MS) = 170(+160-100)MeV we have performed a study of the 1/Q2 effects on the Q2 domain covered by SLAC and E.M.C. We have extracted the ratio R = sigma sub(L)/sigma sub(T) for various chi bins and compared it with other experimental values and theoretical predictions. The mean value = 0+-.15 was found and is compatible with zero
Cao, X. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Ma, Y. G.; Fang, D. Q.; Zhang, G. Q.; Guo, W.; Chen, J. G.; Wang, J. S.
2012-10-01
Proton-neutron, neutron-neutron, and proton-proton momentum-correlation functions (Cpn,Cnn, and Cpp) are systematically investigated for 15C and other C-isotope-induced collisions at different entrance channel conditions within the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum-molecular-dynamics model complemented by the correlation after burner (crab) computation code. 15C is a prime exotic nucleus candidate due to the weakly bound valence neutron coupling with closed-neutron-shell nucleus 14C. To study density dependence of the correlation function by removing the isospin effect, the initialized 15C projectiles are sampled from two kinds of density distribution from the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model in which the valence neutron of 15C is populated in both 1d5/2 and 2s1/2 states, respectively. The results show that the density distributions of the valence neutron significantly influence the nucleon-nucleon momentum-correlation function at large impact parameters and high incident energies. The extended density distribution of the valence neutron largely weakens the strength of the correlation function. The size of the emission source is extracted by fitting the correlation function by using the Gaussian source method. The emission source size as well as the size of the final-state phase space are larger for projectile samplings from more extended density distributions of the valence neutron, which corresponds to the 2s1/2 state in the RMF model. Therefore, the nucleon-nucleon momentum-correlation function can be considered as a potentially valuable tool to diagnose exotic nuclear structures, such as the skin and halo.
Maxwell, C J
2002-01-01
We use recently calculated next-next-to-leading order (NNLO) anomalous dimension coefficients for the n=1,3,5,...,13 moments of the xF3 structure function in nuN scattering, together with the corresponding three-loop Wilson coefficients, to obtain improved QCD predictions for the moments. The Complete Renormalization Group Improvement (CORGI) approach is used, in which all dependence on renormalization or factorization scales is avoided by a complete resummation of ultraviolet logarithms. The Bernstein Polynomial method is used to compare these QCD predictions to the xF3 data of the CCFR collaboration. Direct fits for LambdaMSbar(5), with Nf=5 effective quark flavours, over the range 20
Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering
Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions
Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering
Hughes, E.
1994-02-01
Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.
Low temperature polarized target for spin structure studies of nucleons at COMPASS
Pesek, Michael
In presented thesis we describe concept of Deep Inelastic Scattering of leptons on nucleons in context of nucleon spin structure studies. Both polarized and unpolarized cases are discussed and concept of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMD PDF) is introduced. The possibility of TMDs measurement using Semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) is described along with related results from COMPASS experiment. The future Drell-Yan programme at COMPASS is briefly mentioned and its importance is presented on the universality test i.e. change of sign of T-odd TMDs when measured in Drell-Yan and SIDIS. The importance of Polarized Target (PT) for spin structure studies is highlighted and principles of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) are given using both Solid effect and spin temperature concept. COMPASS experiment is described in many details with accent given to PT. Finally the thermal equilibrium (TE) calibration procedure is described and carried out for 2010 and 2011 physics runs at COMPASS. The av...
Tagged nuclear structure functions with $HERMES$
Silvano SimulaINFN - Sezione Sanita'
2014-01-01
The production of slow nucleons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off nuclei, $A(e, e'N)X$, is analyzed for kinematical conditions accessible at $HERA$ with the $HERMES$ detector. The sensitivity of the semi-inclusive cross section to possible medium-dependent modifications of the nucleon structure function is illustrated.
Nucleon electromagnetic structure studies in the spacelike and timelike regions
Guttmann, Julia
2013-07-23
The thesis investigates the nucleon structure probed by the electromagnetic interaction. One of the most basic observables, reflecting the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon, are the form factors, which have been studied by means of elastic electron-proton scattering with ever increasing precision for several decades. In the timelike region, corresponding with the proton-antiproton annihilation into a electron-positron pair, the present experimental information is much less accurate. However, in the near future high-precision form factor measurements are planned. About 50 years after the first pioneering measurements of the electromagnetic form factors, polarization experiments stirred up the field since the results were found to be in striking contradiction to the findings of previous form factor investigations from unpolarized measurements. Triggered by the conflicting results, a whole new field studying the influence of two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering emerged, which appeared as the most likely explanation of the discrepancy. The main part of this thesis deals with theoretical studies of two-photon exchange, which is investigated particularly with regard to form factor measurements in the spacelike as well as in the timelike region. An extraction of the two-photon amplitudes in the spacelike region through a combined analysis using the results of unpolarized cross section measurements and polarization experiments is presented. Furthermore, predictions of the two-photon exchange effects on the e{sup +}p/e{sup -}p cross section ratio are given for several new experiments, which are currently ongoing. The two-photon exchange corrections are also investigated in the timelike region in the process p anti p → e{sup +}e{sup -} by means of two factorization approaches. These corrections are found to be smaller than those obtained for the spacelike scattering process. The influence of the two-photon exchange corrections on
Shell-structure influence on the multinucleon transfer in nucleon transfer matrix elements
An analysis of the experimental data on the charge (mass) distributions of products in nuclear reactions with heavy ions [1], dependence of yield of fragments on their isotope numbers and ones of projectile- and target nuclei [2], and cross sections of the formation of evaporation residues at synthesis of new superheavy elements [3] shows that the individual peculiarities (shell structure, N/Z-ratio) of interacting nuclei play decisive role at formation and evolution of dinuclear system. Therefore, the appropriate microscopic model should be used for the theoretical analysis of the above mentioned effects. The main quantities which must be included into model are the realistic scheme of single-particle states, nucleon separation energy, single-particle matrix elements of nucleon transitions in nuclei and nucleon exchange between them caused by influence of the mean-field of partner-nucleus. In this work the nucleon transfer matrix elements were calculated for the Wood-Saxon potential for spherical nucleus. The eigenvalues and wave functions of single-particle states were obtained by numerical solving Schroedinger's equation. The integral estimation of the matrix elements is found by comparing the calculated width of the charge distributions of the reaction products with the experimental data. In the early paper [4], the same matrix elements were calculated analytically using an approximation for wave functions: authors have used wave functions of the spherical potential well. The numerical values of squares of proton transfer matrix elements found in this work are nearly in coincidence with that presented in [4]. There is a difference between curves of dependencies of the matrix elements under discussion on the relative distance between centres of nuclei when this distance is smaller than sum of nuclei radii. (author)
Studies of Nucleon Resonance Structure in Exclusive Meson Electroproduction
Aznauryan, I G; Braun, V; Brodsky, S J; Burkert, V D; Chang, L; Chen, Ch; El-Bennich, B; Cloët, I C; Cole, P L; Edwards, R G; Fedotov, G V; Giannini, M M; Gothe, R W; Lin, Huey-Wen; Kroll, P; Lee, T -S H; Melnitchouk, W; Mokeev, V I; Peña, M T; Ramalho, G; Roberts, C D; Santopinto, E; de Teramond, G F; Tsushima, K; Wilson, D J
2013-01-01
Studies of the structure of excited baryons are key to the N* program at Jefferson Lab. Within the first year of data taking with the Hall B CLAS12 detector following the 12 GeV upgrade, a dedicated experiment will aim to extract the N* electrocouplings at high photon virtualities Q2. This experiment will allow exploration of the structure of N* resonances at the highest photon virtualities ever yet achieved, with a kinematic reach up to Q2 = 12 GeV2. This high-Q2 reach will make it possible to probe the excited nucleon structures at distance scales ranging from where effective degrees of freedom, such as constituent quarks, are dominant through the transition to where nearly massless bare-quark degrees of freedom are relevant. In this document, we present a detailed description of the physics that can be addressed through N* structure studies in exclusive meson electroproduction. The discussion includes recent advances in reaction theory for extracting N* electrocouplings from meson electroproduction off pro...
Calculation of moments of structure functions
The progress on the lattice computation of low moments of both the unpolarised and polarised nucleon structure functions is reviewed with particular emphasis on continuum and chiral extrapolations and comparison between quenched and unquenched fermions. (orig.)
Structure functions near the chiral limit
We compute hadron masses and the lowest moments of unpolarized and polarized nucleon structure functions down to pion masses of 300 MeV, in an effort to make unambiguous predictions at the physical light quark mass. (orig.)
The physical importance of nucleon-nucleon diffraction and the main differences with well understood nucleon nucleus diffraction is discused. In the theoretical description of nucleon-nucleon diffraction in terms of the eikonal model, the hypothesis of factorization is shown to be in contradiction with the energy dependence of the impact parameter profile in proton-proton scattering at CERN - ISR. This dependence is highly non-uniform in impact parameter, giving rise to a pronounced peripheral increase with energy of the inelastic overlap function. Two experimental findings in inelastic diffraction indicate the existence of a deep relation of this process with the peripheral increase of the profile function. The first refers to the clear-cut proof that inelastic diffraction is peripheral in impact parameter space, in coherent production on deuteron. The second is the analysis of the integrated cross sections for inelastic diffraction, which leads to the conclusion that most of the total cross section increase in the ISR energy range comes from this process. It is then clear that the eikonal model should be modified in order to include inelastic diffraction. A recent trial in this direction by Miettinen and Thomas shows the existence of a substantial difference between the matter and the charge distribution inside the proton. Their results favours a description of the proton in terms of the string model. (Author)
Nucleon structure function at small χ
This is a status report on the behaviour of deeply inelastic scattering in the low x region, where a new physics to be expected. It is bound to be theoretical review, since there is no data available at truely small values of x, say x -3. New data from HERA are anticipated and I am viewing on this talk as summary of the theoretical situation in the region of small x, as is just before this new area of physics will be studied experimentally. This is an extended version of the talk which was presented at EP-HEP 91 Conference. (orig.)
Shape of hadron structure functions
The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q02 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states gives good results for nucleon, pion, and kaon structure functions. 2 figures
Studies of the 3D Structure of the Nucleon at Jlab
Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-07-01
Studies of the 3D structure of the nucleon encoded in Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions of partons and Generalized Parton Distributions are among the key objectives of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade and the Electron Ion Collider. Main challenges in extracting 3D partonic distributions from precision measurements of hard scattering processes include clear understanding of leading twist QCD fundamentals, higher twist effects, and also correlations of hadron production in target and current fragmentation regions. In this contribution we discuss some ongoing studies and future measurements of spin-orbit correlations at Jefferson Lab.
The general properties of the nucleon-nucleon potentials are reviewed. The comparison between experimental nucleon-nucleon phase shifts and deuteron properties and the theoretical ones derived with Hamada-Johnston, Reid, Paris and Bonn potentials is discussed. Also, Hartree-Fock calculations for several spherical nuclei using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction are presented systematically.(author)
Nucleon Resonance Structure Studies Via Exclusive KY Electroproduction
Carman, Daniel S
2016-01-01
Studying the structure of excited nucleon states employing the electroproduction of exclusive reactions is an important avenue for exploring the nature of the non-perturbative strong interaction. The electrocouplings of $N^*$ states in the mass range below 1.8~GeV have been determined from analyses of CLAS $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$, and $\\pi \\pi N$ data. This work has made it clear that consistent results from independent analyses of several exclusive channels with different couplings and non-resonant backgrounds but the same $N^*$ electro-excitation amplitudes, is essential to have confidence in the extracted results. In terms of hadronic coupling, many high-lying $N^*$ states preferentially decay through the $\\pi \\pi N$ channel instead of $\\pi N$. Data from the $KY$ channels will therefore be critical to provide an independent analysis to compare the extracted electrocouplings for the high-lying $N^*$ states against those determined from the $\\pi N$ and $\\pi \\pi N$ channels. A program to study excited $N^*$ state s...
Correlations and the Dirac structure of the nucleon self-energy
The Dirac structure of the nucleon self-energy in symmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter is derived from a realistic meson exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. It is demonstrated that the effects of correlations on the effective NN interaction in the nuclear medium can be parameterized by means of an effective meson exchange. This analysis leads to a very intuitive interpretation of correlation effects and also provides an efficient parametrization of an effective interaction to be used in relativistic structure calculations for finite nuclei. (orig.)
Probing Nucleon Structure with Meson Electro-production in Hall C
Wood, Stephen
2011-02-01
Meson electro-production is used in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to probe nucleon, baryon and nuclear structure. The experimental program in Hall C includes studies of semi-inclusive pion production, p, d(e, e'π±)X, where low energy factorization has been observed, suggesting that these reactions can be used to probe nucleon structure, including transverse momentum distributions of quarks, at energies available at JLab after the upcoming 12 GeV upgrade.
Structure and Flow of the Nucleon Eigenstates in Lattice QCD
Mahbub, M. Selim; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Moran, Peter J.; Williams, Anthony G.
2013-01-01
A determination of the excited energy eigenstates of the nucleon, $s=c{1}{2}$, $I={1}{2}$, $N^{\\pm}$, is presented in full QCD using 2+1 flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations. The correlation-matrix method is used and is built using standard nucleon interpolators employing smearings at the fermion sources and sinks. We develop and demonstrate a new technique that allows the eigenvectors obtained to be utilized to track the propagation of the intrinsic nature of energy-states from one quark mass...
Multi-Nucleon Short-Range Correlation Model for Nuclear Spectral Functions: I. Theoretical Framework
Artiles, Oswaldo
2016-01-01
We develop a theoretical approach for nuclear spectral functions at high missing momenta and removal energy based on the multi-nucleon short-range correlation~(SRC) model. The approach is based on the effective Feynman diagrammatic method which allows to account for the relativistic effects important in the SRC domain. In addition to two-nucleon SRC with center of mass motion we derived also the contribution of three-nucleon SRCs to the nuclear spectral functions. The latter is modeled based on the assumption that 3N SRCs are a product of two sequential short range NN interactions. This approach allowed us to express the 3N SRC part of the nuclear spectral function as a convolution of two NN SRCs. Thus the knowledge of 2N SRCs allows us to model both two- and three-nucleon SRC contribution to the spectral function. The derivations of the spectral functions are based on the two theoretical frameworks in evaluating covariant Feynman diagrams: In the first, referred as virtual nucleon approximation, we reduce Fe...
Relationship between Feshbach's and Green's function theories of the nucleon-nucleus mean field
We clarify the relationship and difference between theories of the optical-model potential which had previously been developed in the framework of Feshbach's projection operator approach to nuclear reactions and of Green's function theory, respectively. For definiteness, we consider the nucleon-nucleus system but all results can readily be adapted to the atomic case. The effects of antisymmetrization are properly taken into account. It is shown that one can develop along closely parallel lines the theories of 'hole' and 'particle' mean fields. The hole one-body Hamiltonians describe the single-particle properties of the system formed when one nucleon is taken away from the target ground state, for instance in knockout or pickup processes. The particle one-body Hamiltonians are associated with the system formed when one nucleon is elastically scattered from the ground state, or is added to it by means of stripping reactions. An infinite number of particle, as well as of hole, Hamiltonians are constructed which all yield exactly the same single-particle wave functions. Many 'equivalent' one-body Hamiltonians can coexist because these operators have a complicated structure: they are nonlocal, complex, and energy-dependent. They do not have the same analytic properties in the complex energy plane. Their real and imaginary parts fulfill dispersion relations which may be different. It is shown that hole and particle Hamiltonians can also be constructed by decomposing any vector of the Hilbert space into two parts which are not orthogonal to one another, in contrast to Feshbach's original theory; one interest of this procedure is that the construction and properties of the corresponding hole Hamiltonian can be justified in a mathematically rigorous way. We exhibit the relationship between the hole and particle Hamiltonians and the 'mass operator'. The latter is associated to the time-ordered Green's function, rather than to its advanced and retarded parts separately as
The role of strangeness in the nucleon structure
It is shown that by reformulating an SU(3) Skyrmion model as a random phase approximation (RPA) to an underlying fermion (quark) theory, one can calculate microscopic (quark) properties of the nucleon without explicit account of the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. In particular, the strangeness content of the proton can be estimated with a Skyrmion model that describes well the hyperon spectroscopy
The Jefferson Lab Contribution to the QCD Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Michel Garcon
2004-10-10
From inclusive to semi-inclusive and exclusive (polarized) deep inelastic scattering, the quark structure of the nucleon is being studied with increasingly precise experiments at Jefferson Lab. We will review here the ongoing programs to determine polarized parton distributions--helicity and transversity--as well as generalized parton distributions, addressing the question of intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon.
Structure and Flow of the Nucleon Eigenstates in Lattice QCD
Mahbub, M Selim; Leinweber, Derek B; Moran, Peter J; Williams, Anthony G
2013-01-01
A determination of the excited energy eigenstates of the nucleon, $s=\\frac{1}{2}$, $I=\\frac{1}{2}$, $N^{\\pm}$, is presented in full QCD using 2+1 flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations. The correlation-matrix method is used and is built using standard nucleon interpolators employing smearings at the fermion sources and sinks. We develop and demonstrate a new technique that allows the eigenvectors obtained to be utilized to track the propagation of the intrinsic nature of energy-states from one quark mass to the next. This approach is particularly useful for larger dimension correlation matrices where more near-degenerate energy-states can appear in the spectrum.
Nucleon structure in terms of OPE with non-perturbative Wilson coefficients
Lattice calculations could boost our understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering by evaluating moments of the Nucleon Structure Functions. To this end we study the product of electromagnetic currents between quark states. The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) decomposes it into matrix elements of local operators (depending on the quark momenta) and Wilson coefficients (as functions of the larger photon momenta). For consistency with the matrix elements, we evaluate a set of Wilson coefficients non-perturbatively, based on propagators for numerous momentum sources, on a 243 x 48 lattice. The use of overlap quarks suppresses unwanted operator mixing and lattice artifacts. Results for the leading Wilson coefficients are extracted by means of Singular Value Decomposition. (orig.)
Nucleon localization in light and heavy nuclei
Zhang, C L; Nazarewicz, W
2016-01-01
An electron localization measure was originally introduced to characterize chemical bond structures in molecules. Recently, a nucleon localization based on Hartree-Fock densities has been introduced to investigate $\\alpha$-cluster structures in light nuclei. Compared to the local nucleonic densities, the nucleon localization function has been shown to be an excellent indicator of shell effects and cluster correlations. Using the spatial nucleon localization measure, we investigate the cluster structures in deformed light nuclei and study the emergence of fragments in fissioning heavy nuclei. To illustrate basic concepts of nucleon localization, we employ the deformed harmonic oscillator model. Realistic calculations are carried out using self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with quantified energy density functionals optimized for fission studies. We study particle densities and spatial nucleon localization distributions for deformed cluster configurations of $^{8}$Be and $^{20}$Ne, and also along...
Excitation function measurement of 16O + 175Lu system below 6 MeV/nucleon
In the present work, we have measured and analyzed the excitation functions of evaporation residues produced in 16O + 175Lu reactions at energies ranging from 4.3-6.2 MeV/nucleon to study both the CF and ICF processes involved. To the best of our knowledge no earlier measurements are reported in the literature for this system
Last Experimental Results Obtained at SLAC on the Nucleon Spin Structure
Rock, S E
2003-01-01
Recent precise measurements of the spin structure function g sub 1 for proton and for deuteron using deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized ammonia targets are presented. The integrals GAMMA sub 1 integral sub 0 sup 1 g sub 1 (x)dx evaluated at the average experimental Q = 3(GeV/c) sup 2 are in agreement with previous results and well below the Ellis-Jaffe sumrule prediction, while the Bjoerken sumrule prediction on GAMMA sub 1 sup p - GAMMA sub 1 sup n is satisfied. The analysis of the results in term of Quark Parton Model implies that the quark carry about a third of the nucleon helicity.
Recent results on the nucleon resonance spectrum and structure from the CLAS detector
Mokeev V. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has provided the dominant part of all available worldwide data on exclusive meson electroproduction off protons in the resonance region. New results on the γυpN* transition amplitudes (electrocouplings are available from analyses of the CLAS data and will be presented. Their impact on understanding of hadron structure will be discussed emphasizing the credible access to the dressed quark mass function that has been achieved for the first time by a combined analysis of the experimental results on the electromagnetic nucleon elastic and N → N* transition form factors. We will also discuss further convincing evidences for a new baryon state N′ (17203/2+ found in a combined analysis of charged double pion photo- and electroproduction cross sections off the protons.
Recent results on the nucleon resonance spectrum and structure from the CLAS detector
Mokeev, Viktor I. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Aznauryan, Inna G. [Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute and Physics Department at Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; Burkert, Volker D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gothe, Ralf W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)
2016-03-01
The CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has provided the dominant part of all available worldwide data on exclusive meson electroproduction off protons in the resonance region. New results on the $\\gamma_{v}pN^*$ transition amplitudes (electrocouplings) are available from analyses of the CLAS data and will be presented. Their impact on understanding of hadron structure will be discussed emphasizing the credible access to the dressed quark mass function that has been achieved for the first time by a combined analysis of the experimental results on the electromagnetic nucleon elastic and $N \\rightarrow N^*$ transition form factors. We will also discuss further convincing evidences for a new baryon state $N^{\\, '}(1720)3/2^+$ found in a combined analysis of charged double pion photo- and electroproduction cross sections off the protons.
This book is an introduction to the interactions of nucleons with special regards to their contribution to nuclear forces. After a general description of the nuclear structure as a configuration of many nucleons the properties and interactions of nucleons are described with an excursion to the fundamental processes governing them. Then nuclear energy levels are considered. Thereafter nuclear energy-level transitions are described in the framework of the governing elementary processes. Finally nuclear reactions are considered in this framework. This book is suited as a supplement to a textbook in nuclear physics for students, who want to get a deeper insight in the fundamental processes in nuclei. (HSI)
Nucleon and hadron structure changes in the nuclear medium and the impact on observables
Saito, K.; Tsushima, K.; Thomas, A. W.
2007-01-01
hypernuclei and meson-nucleus deeply bound states. It is also of great interest that the QMC model predicts a variation of the nucleon form factors in nuclear matter, which will certainly affect the analysis of electron scattering off nuclei, including polarization transfer experiments. Recent experimental analysis of data taken at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) and MAMI does indeed seem to support such a variation of nucleon form factors in nuclei. The change of nucleon structure in a nuclear medium is also expected to modify nuclear structure functions (the nuclear EMC effect), which are measured by scattering with high energy charged leptons and/or neutrinos. We study such possibilities, including consideration of the empirically observed, Bloom-Gilman (quark-hadron) duality. We also study hadronic reactions in a nuclear medium, namely, subthreshold kaon production in heavy ion collisions, D and Dbar meson production in antiproton-nucleus collisions, and J/Ψ suppression. In particular, the modification of the D and Dbar meson properties in a nuclear medium derived from the QMC model can lead to a large J/Ψ absorption cross section, which is required to explain the observed J/Ψ suppression in the microscopic hadronic comover dissociation scenario, without assuming the formation of a QGP phase. The present investigation indicates that the traditional nuclear/hadronic physics approach may have its limitations. It further suggests the need for the study of alternative approaches which include subhadronic degrees of freedom, even at normal nuclear matter density.
Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS
Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.
Statistical description of the flavor structure of the nucleon sea
Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco
2014-01-01
The theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions are reviewed together with the phenomenological motivations from a few specific features of Deep Inelastic Scattering data. The chiral properties of QCD lead to strong relations between quarks and antiquarks distributions and automatically account for the flavor and helicity symmetry breaking of the sea. We are able to describe both unpolarized and polarized structure functions in terms of a small number o...
The spin structure of nucleons and deep inelastic scatterings
Based on a simple model which is compatible with the idea of the static quark model and the parton model, the polarized structure functions of proton and deuteron, two-spin asymmetries of π0 in polarized pp reactions and inelastic J/ψ productions in polarized lepton-proton collisions are analyzed. In the particular, an important role of polarized gluon distributions is pointed out
An overview of recent nucleon spin structure measurements at Jefferson Lab
Allada, Kalyan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-02-01
Jefferson Lab have made significant contributions to improve our knowledge of the longitudinal spin structure by measuring polarized structure functions, g1 and g2, down to Q2 = 0.02 GeV2. The low Q2 data is especially useful in testing the Chiral Perturbation theory (cPT) calculations. The spin-dependent sum rules and the spin polarizabilities, constructed from the moments of g1 and g2, provide an important tool to study the longitudinal spin structure. We will present an overview of the experimental program to measure these structure functions at Jefferson Lab, and present some recent results on the neutron polarizabilities, proton g1 at low Q2, and proton and neutron d2 measurement. In addition to this, we will discuss the transverse spin structure of the nucleon which can be accessed using chiral-odd transversity distribution (h1), and show some results from measurements done on polarized 3He target in Hall A.
Nucleon Structure from 2+1 Flavor Domain Wall QCD at Nearly Physical Pion Mass
Ohta, Shigemi
2011-05-01
The RBC and UKQCD collaborations have been investigating hadron physics in numerical lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with (2+1) flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions (DWF) quarks that preserves continuum-like chiral and flavor symmetries. The strange quark mass is adjusted to physical value via reweighting and degenerate up and down quark masses are set as light as possible. In a recent study of nucleon structure we found a strong dependence on pion mass and lattice spatial extent in isovector axialvector-current form factors. This is likely the first credible evidence for the pion cloud surrounding nucleon. Here we report the status of nucleon structure calculations with a new (2+1)-flavor dynamical DWF ensembles with much lighter pion mass of 180 and 250 MeV and a much larger lattice spatial exent of 4.6 fm. A combination of the Iwasaki and dislocation-suppressing-determinant-ratio (I+DSDR) gauge action and DWF fermion action allows us to generate these ensembles at cutoff of about 1.4 GeV while keeping the residual breaking of chiral symmetry sufficiently small. Nucleon source Gaussian smearing has been optimized. Preliminary nucleon mass estimates are 0.98 and 1.05 GeV.
Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics revisited
Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.
2009-01-01
We use a recently improved density-matrix expansion to calculate the nuclear energy density functional in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation treats systematically the effects from $1\\pi$-exchange, iterated $1\\pi$-exchange, and irreducible $2\\pi$-exchange with intermediate $\\Delta$-isobar excitations, including Pauli-blocking corrections up to three-loop order. We find that the effective nucleon mass $M^*(\\rho)$ entering the energy density functional is iden...
Evolution of the nucleon structure in light nuclei
The evolution of the EMC effect as a function of atomic mass A is considered for the first time for the lightest nuclei, D, 3He and , 4He, with an approach based on the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. We show that the pattern of the oscillation of the ratio rA(x)=F2A/F2N(D) with respect to the line rA(x)=1 varies with A, unlike the pattern for nuclei with masses A>4, where only the amplitude of the oscillation changes. It is found that the shape of the structure function distortions, which is typical for metals, is being reached in 3He
Statistical description of the flavor structure of the nucleon sea
Soffer, Jacques; Buccella, Franco
2014-01-01
The theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions are reviewed together with the phenomenological motivations from a few specific features of Deep Inelastic Scattering data. The chiral properties of QCD lead to strong relations between quarks and antiquarks distributions and automatically account for the flavor and helicity symmetry breaking of the sea. We are able to describe both unpolarized and polarized structure functions in terms of a small number of parameters. The extension to include their transverse momentum dependence will be also briefly considered.
Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations
Arrington, J; Rosner, G; Sargsian, M
2011-01-01
The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information ...
Functional renormalisation group for few-nucleon systems: SU(4) symmetry and its breaking
Birse, Michael C; Walet, Niels R
2012-01-01
We apply the functional renormalisation group to few-nucleon systems. Our starting point is a local effective action that includes three- and four-nucleon interactions, expressed in terms of nucleon and two-nucleon boson fields. The evolution of the coupling constants in this action is described by a renormalisation group flow. We derive these flow equations both in the limit of exact Wigner SU(4) symmetry and in the realistic case of broken symmetry. In the symmetric limit we find that the renormalisation flow equations decouple, and can be combined into two sets, one of which matches the known results for bosons, and the other result matches the one for fermions with spin degrees only. The equations show universal features in the unitary limit, which is obtained when the two-body scattering length tends to infinity. We calculate the spin-quartet neutron-deuteron scattering length and the deuteron-deuteron scattering lengths in the spin-singlet and quintet channels.
Exploring the nucleon structure through GPDs and TDAs in hard exclusive processes
Pire, B; Szymanowski, L; Wagner, J
2011-01-01
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) offer a new way to access the quark and gluon nucleon structure. We review recent progress in this domain, emphasizing the need to supplement the experimental study of deeply virtual Compton scattering by its crossed version, timelike Compton scattering. We also describe the extension of the GPD concept to three quark operators and the relevance of their nucleon to meson matrix elements, namely the transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs) which factorize in backward meson electroproduction and related processes. We discuss the main properties of the TDAs. \\
Nucleon structure in the chiral regime with domain wall fermions on an improved staggered sea
Moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon are presented from a preliminary analysis of lattice results using pion masses down to 359 MeV. The twist two matrix elements are calculated using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks and are renormalized perturbatively. Several observables are extrapolated to the physical limit using chiral perturbation theory. Results are compared with experimental moments of quark distributions and electromagnetic form factors and phenomenologically determined generalized form factors, and the implications on the transverse structure and spin content of the nucleon are discussed. (orig.)
Effect of nucleon and hadron structure changes in-medium and its impact on observables
K. Saito; K. Tsushima; A.W. Thomas
2005-07-05
We study the effect of hadron structure changes in a nuclear medium using the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. The QMC model is based on a mean field description of non-overlapping nucleon (or baryon) bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons in the isoscalar and isovector channels. The model is extended to investigate the properties of finite nuclei, in which, using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to describe the interacting quark-meson system, one can derive the effective equation of motion for the nucleon (or baryon), as well as the self-consistent equations for the meson mean fields.
Initial nucleon structure results with chiral quarks at the physical point
Syritsyn, S; Engelhardt, M; Green, J; Izubuchi, T; Jung, C; Krieg, S; Lin, M; Meinel, S; Negele, J; Ohta, S; Pochinsky, A; Shintani, E
2014-01-01
We report initial nucleon structure results computed on lattices with 2+1 dynamical M\\"obius domain wall fermions at the physical point generated by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations. At this stage, we evaluate only connected quark contributions. In particular, we discuss the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors, nucleon axial charge and the isovector quark momentum fraction. From currently available statistics, we estimate the stochastic accuracy of the determination of $g_A$ and $_{u-d}$ to be around 10%, and we expect to reduce that to 5% within the next year. To reduce the computational cost of our calculations, we extensively use acceleration techniques such as low-eigenmode deflation and all-mode-averaging (AMA). We present a method for choosing optimal AMA parameters.
Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics
Kaiser, N.; Fritsch, S.; Weise, W.
2002-01-01
We calculate the nuclear energy density functional relevant for N=Z even-even nuclei in the systematic framework of chiral perturbation theory. The calculation includes the one-pion exchange Fock diagram and the iterated one-pion exchange Hartree and Fock diagrams. From these few leading order contributions in the small momentum expansion one obtains already a very good equation of state of isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We find that in the region below nuclear matter saturation density th...
Polarized structure of nucleon in the valon representation
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh
2007-07-01
We have utilized the concept of valon model to calculate the spin structure functions of proton, neutron, and deuteron. The valon structure itself is universal and arises from the perturbative dressing of the valence quark in QCD. Our results agree rather well with all of the relevant experimental data on g1p,n,d and gA/gV, and suggests that the sea quark contribution to the spin of proton is consistent with zero. It also reveals that while the total quark contribution to the spin of a valon, ΔΣvalon, is almost constant at Q2 >= 1 the gluon contribution grows with the increase of Q2 and hence requiring a sizable negative orbital angular momentum component Lz. This component along with the singlet and non-singlet parts are calculated in the Next-to-Leading order in QCD . We speculate that gluon contribution to the spin content of the proton is about 60% for all Q2 values. Finally, we show that the size of gluon polarization and hence, Lz, is sensitive to the initial scale Q02.
Polarized structure of nucleon in the valon representation
We have utilized the concept of valon model to calculate the spin structure functions of proton, neutron, and deuteron. The valon structure itself is universal and arises from the perturbative dressing of the valence quark in QCD. Our results agree rather well with all of the relevant experimental data on g1p,n,d and gA/gV, and suggests that the sea quark contribution to the spin of proton is consistent with zero. It also reveals that while the total quark contribution to the spin of a valon, ΔΣvalon, is almost constant at Q2 ≥ 1 the gluon contribution grows with the increase of Q2 and hence requiring a sizable negative orbital angular momentum component Lz. This component along with the singlet and non-singlet parts are calculated in the Next-to-Leading order in QCD . We speculate that gluon contribution to the spin content of the proton is about 60% for all Q2 values. Finally, we show that the size of gluon polarization and hence, Lz, is sensitive to the initial scale Q02
Can a many-nucleon structure be visible in bremsstrahlung emission during $\\alpha$ decay?
Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Zou, Li-Ping
2015-01-01
We analyze if the nucleon structure of the $\\alpha$ decaying nucleus can be visible in the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra of the emitted photons which accompany such a decay. We develop a new formalism of the bremsstrahlung model taking into account distribution of nucleons in the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclear system. We conclude the following: (1) After inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model the calculated bremsstrahlung spectrum is changed very slowly for a majority of the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclei. However, we have observed that visible changes really exist for the $^{106}{\\rm Te}$ nucleus ($Q_{\\alpha}=4.29$ MeV, $T_{1/2}$=70 mks) even for the energy of the emitted photons up to 1 MeV. This nucleus is a good candidate for future experimental study of this task. (2) Inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model increases the bremsstrahlung probability of the emitted photons. (3) We find the following tendencies for obtaining the nuclei, which have bremsstrahlung spectra more sensitive to the ...
Probing effective nucleon-nucleon interaction at band termination
Satula, Wojciech
2006-01-01
Low-energy nuclear structure is not sensitive enough to resolve fine details of nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Insensitivity of infrared physics to the details of short-range strong interaction allows for consistent, free of ultraviolet divergences, formulation of local theory at the level of local energy density functional (LEDF) including, on the same footing, both particle-hole as well as particle-particle channels. Major difficulty is related to parameterization of the nuclear LEDF and...
Recent COMPASS results on the nucleon longitudinal spin structure and QCD fits
Andrieux Vincent
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The latest measurements of the proton longitudinal spin structure function, ɡ1p, in the deep inelastic (DIS regime are presented. They improve the statistical accuracy of the existing data and extend the kinematic domain to a lower value of x and higher values of Q2. A global NLO QCD fit of all ɡ1 world data on the proton, deuteron and neutron has been achieved. The results give a quantification of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, 0.26 < ΔΣ < 0.34 at 3 (GeV/c2 in M̅S̅ scheme. The errors are dominated by the uncertainty on the shape of the functional forms assumed in the fit. A new verification of the fundamental Bjorken sum rule is obtained at a 9% level, using only COMPASS ɡ1 proton and deuteron measurements. Preliminary results of a reevaluation of the gluon polarization Δɡ/ɡ are presented. The analysis is based on double spin asymmetry of high-pT hadron production cross-sections in the DIS regime. A positive value of 〈Δɡ/ɡ〉 = 0.113 ± 0.038 ± 0.035 is obtained at leading order at x ~ 0.1. In parallel, the double spin asymmetry in the photoproduction regime is also studied. Finally, preliminary results on quark fragmentation functions into pions extracted from a LO fit of pion multiplicities in semi-inclusive DIS are presented.
The Structure of the Nucleon and its Excited States
The past year has been an exciting and productive one for particle physics research at Abilene Christian University. The thrust of our experimental investigations is the study of the nucleon and its excited states. Laboratories where these investigations are presently being conducted are the AGS at Brookhaven, Fermilab and LAMPF. Some analysis of the data for experiments at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina, Russia) is still in progress. Scheduling of activities at different laboratories inevitably leads to occasional conflicts. This likelihood is increased by the present budget uncertainties at the laboratories that make long-term scheduling difficult. For the most part, the investigators have been able to avoid such conflicts. Only one experiment received beam time in 1994 (E890 at the AGS). The situation for 1995-1996 also appears manageable at this point. E890 and another AGS experiment (E909) will run through May, 1995. El 178 at LAMPF is presently scheduled for August/September 1995. E866 at Fermilab is scheduled to start in Spring/Summer 1996. Undergraduate student involvement has been a key element in this research contract since its inception. Summer students participated at all of the above laboratories in 1994 and the same is planned in 1995. A transition to greater involvement by graduate students will provide cohesiveness to ACU involvement at a given laboratory and full-time on-site involvement in the longer running experiments at FNAL and BNL. Funds to support a full-time graduate student are requested this year. Finally, collaboration by Russian, Croatian and Bosnian scientists has proven to be mutually beneficial to these experimental programs and to the overall programs at the institutions involved. Past support has been augmented by other grants from government agencies and from the Research Council at Abilene Christian University. Additional funds are requested in this renewal to enable more programmatic support for these
Higher Twists in the Pion Structure Function
We calculate QCD moments of the pion structure function using Drell-Yan data on the quark distributions in the pion and a phenomenological model for the resonance region. The extracted higher twist corrections are found to be larger than those for the nucleon, contributing around 50% of the lowest moment at Q2 = 1 GeV2
Lynn, J E
2015-01-01
I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^2$LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N$^2$LO and present some results for light nuclei.
Lynn, J. E.
2016-03-01
I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.
Lynn J. E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss our recent work on Green’s function Monte Carlo (GFMC calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO. I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.
This book contains the lectures given at the International Summer School on Structure and Stability of Nucleon and Nuclear Systems held in Predeal, Romania, in the period August 24 - September 5, 1998. The program of the school covered the following six topics: Nuclear structure (11 lectures); Dynamics of nuclear systems explored by collisions with various projectiles at different energies (8 lectures); Light and heavy cluster emission, cold and ternary fission (4 lectures); β+-, 2νββ, 0νββ and other neutrino processes; Structure and stability of nucleons (3 lectures); Nuclear matter under exotic conditions (2 lectures). Related to these topics were 17 short communications whose full text can be obtained on request from the authors or from a special issue of Romanian Journal of Physics. The aim of the school was concentrated on the behaviour of nuclear systems under extreme conditions, to understand newly discovered properties of complex nuclei and nucleons, to approach subjects bordering nuclear and particle physics, to identify specific phenomena taking place under conditions met presumably in stars, to investigate the newly explored systems of very short half-life. Exotic phenomena like halo structure of some light nuclei, superdeformation, structure of nuclei lying far from the stability line, specific properties of hot nuclei were also considered in many lectures
Measurements of the neutron polarized structure function at SLAC
Detailed measurements of unpolarized or spin-averaged nucleon structure functions over the past two decades have led to detailed knowledge of the nucleon's internal momentum distribution. Polarized nucleon structure function measurements, which probe the nucleon's internal spin distribution, started at SLAC in 1976. E-142 has recently measured the neutron polarized structure function g1n(x) over the range 0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 at an average Q2 of 2 GeV2 and found the integral In = ∫01g1n(x)dx=-0.022±0.011. E-143, which took data recently, has measured g1p and g14. Two more experiments (E-154 and E-155) will extend these measurements to lower x and higher Q2
Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS
Avakian H.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS, with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.
Progress in resolving charge symmetry violation in nucleon structure
Young, R.D.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia); Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.
2013-01-01
Recent work unambiguously resolves the level of charge symmetry violation in moments of parton distributions using 2+1-flavor lattice QCD. We introduce the methods used for that analysis by applying them to determine the strong contribution to the proton-neutron mass difference. We also summarize related work which reveals that the fraction of baryon spin which is carried by the quarks is in fact structure-dependent rather than universal across the baryon octet.
Distribution Functions of the Nucleon and Pion in the Valence Region
Holt, Roy J.; Roberts, Craig D.
2010-01-01
We provide an experimental and theoretical perspective on the behavior of unpolarized distribution functions for the nucleon and pion on the valence-quark domain; namely, Bjorken-x \\gtrsim 0.4. This domain is key to much of hadron physics; e.g., a hadron is defined by its flavor content and that is a valence-quark property. Furthermore, its accurate parametrization is crucial to the provision of reliable input for large collider experiments. We focus on experimental extractions of distributio...
Navratil, P; Caurier, E
2003-10-14
The authors calculate properties of A = 6 system using the accurate charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential at fourth order of chiral perturbation theory. By application of the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) and a variational calculation in the harmonic oscillator basis with basis size up to 16 {h_bar}{Omega} they obtain the {sup 6}Li binding energy of 28.5(5) MeV and a converged excitation spectrum. Also, they calculate properties of {sup 10}B using the same NN potential in a basis space of up to 8 {h_bar}{Omega}. The results are consistent with results obtained by standard accurate NN potentials and demonstrate a deficiency of Hamiltonians consisting of only two-body terms. At this order of chiral perturbation theory three-body terms appear. It is expected that inclusion of such terms in the Hamiltonian will improve agreement with experiment.
Nucleon structure in lattice QCD with dynamical domain-wall fermions quarks
Huey-Wen Lin; Shigemi Ohta
2006-07-23
We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with about 200 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is about 1.7 GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9 fm){sup 3}. Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g{sub A}/g{sub V} and that of structure function moments
NUCLEON STRUCTURE IN LATTICE QCD WITH DYNAMICAL DOMAIN--WALL FERMIONS QUARKS.
LIN H.-W.; OHTA, S.
2006-10-02
We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with 220 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is a{sup -1} {approx} 1.7GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9fm){sup 3}. Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g{sub A}/g{sub V} and that of structure function moments
Transverse Spin Structure of the Nucleon from Lattice-QCD Simulations
We present the first calculation in lattice QCD of the lowest two moments of transverse spin densities of quarks in the nucleon. They encode correlations between quark spin and orbital angular momentum. Our dynamical simulations are based on two flavors of clover-improved Wilson fermions and Wilson gluons. We find significant contributions from certain quark helicity flip generalized parton distributions, leading to strongly distorted densities of transversely polarized quarks in the nucleon. In particular, based on our results and recent arguments by Burkardt [Phys. Rev. D 72, 094020 (2005)], we predict that the Boer-Mulders function h1perpendicular, describing correlations of transverse quark spin and intrinsic transverse momentum of quarks, is large and negative for both up and down quarks
What we can learn about nucleon spin structure from recent data
We have used recent data from the CERN and SLAC to extract information about nucleon spin structure. We find that the SMC proton data on ∫01g1pdx, the E142 neutron data on ∫01g1ndx, and the deuteron data from the SMC and E143 give different results for fractions of the spin carried by each of the constituents. These appear to lead to two different and incompatible models for the polarized strange sea. The polarized gluon distribution occurring in the gluon anomaly does not have to be large in order to be consistent with either set of experimental data. However, it appears that the discrepancies in the implications of these data cannot be resolved with any simple theoretical arguments. We conclude that more experiments must be performed in order to adequately determine the fraction of spin carried by each of the nucleon constituents. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Nucleon structure from 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD at nearly physical pion mass
Ohta, Shigemi
2011-01-01
The RBC and UKQCD collaborations have been investigating hadron physics in numerical lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with (2+1) flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions (DWF) quarks that preserves continuum-like chiral and flavor symmetries. The strange quark mass is adjusted to physical value via reweighting and degenerate up and down quark masses are set as light as possible. In a recent study of nucleon structure we found a strong dependence on pion mass and lattice spatial extent in isovector axialvector-current form factors. This is likely the first credible evidence for the pion cloud surrounding nucleon. Here we report the status of nucleon structure calculations with a new (2+1)-flavor dynamical DWF ensembles with much lighter pion mass of 180 and 250 MeV and a much larger lattice spatial exent of 4.6 fm. A combination of the Iwasaki and dislocation-suppressing-determinant-ratio (I+DSDR) gauge action and DWF fermion action allows us to generate these ensembles at cutoff of about 1.4 GeV while ke...
We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain-wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.
Towards AN Understanding of Nucleon Spin Structure:. from Hard to Soft Scales
Bass, Steven D.; Aidala, Christine A.
The workshop The Helicity Structure of the Nucleon (BNL June 5, 2006) was organized as part of the 2006 RHIC & AGS Users' Meeting to review the status of the spin problem and future directions. The presentations can be found at the workshop's website:1 www.phenix.bnl.gov/WWW/publish/caidala/UsersHelicityWorkshop2006/. Recent data suggest small polarized glue and strangeness in the proton. Here we present a personal summary of the main results and presentations. What is new and exciting in the data, and what might this tell us about the structure of the proton?
Contribution of Quark Structure Term in Nucleon Electric and Magnetic Form Factors
WANG Hong-Min; ZHANG Ben-Ai
2004-01-01
The constituent quarks in the nucleon have always been considered as a point-like particle in the relativistic constituent quark model. However its calculation results of GnE agree poorly with the new experimental data. The electromagnetic structure of light front constituent quarks is considered in this paper. We find that the calculation results have good agreement with the new experimental data of GnE after considering the contribution of the quark structure term. This treatment seems to be able to improve the fit to experimental data of Gep/GMp, /Q2F2p/kpF1p,and Gen/GMn as well.
Advances on statistical/thermodynamical models for unpolarized structure functions
During the eights and nineties many statistical/thermodynamical models were proposed to describe the nucleons’ structure functions and distribution of the quarks in the hadrons. Most of these models describe the compound quarks and gluons inside the nucleon as a Fermi / Bose gas respectively, confined in a MIT bag with continuous energy levels. Another models considers discrete spectrum. Some interesting features of the nucleons are obtained by these models, like the sea asymmetries -d/-u and -d–-u.
Nucleon form factors for the elastic electron-deuteron scattering at high momentum transfer
Bekzhanov, A V; Burov, V V
2014-01-01
The reaction of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering at high momentum transfer is investigated within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The relativistic covariant Graz II separable kernel of nucleon-nucleon interactions is used to analyze the deuteron structure functions, form factors and tensor of polarization components. The modern data for the electromagmetic nucleons structure from the double polarization experiments as well as some other models of the nucleon form factors are considered.
Study of the Nucleon Spin Structure by the Drell–Yan Process in the COMPASS-II Experiment
Quaresma, M
2012-01-01
The Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the spin structure of the nucleon are important topics studied by the COMPASS experiment. The Drell–Yan (DY) process will be used in the future COMPASS-II measurements to access the Transverse Momentum Dependent PDFs (TMD PDFs). Studying the angular distributions of dimuons from the DY reactions with a negative pion beam with 190 GeV/c momentum and a transversely polarised proton target, we will be able to extract the azimuthal spin asymmetries and to access the various TMD PDFs, such as Sivers and Boer–Mulders functions. The start of the COMPASS DY experiment is scheduled for 2014. Three beam tests have been already performed, one of them in 2009 using a prototype hadron absorber downstream of the target, to understand the background reduction factors and the spectrometer response, and also to verify our results from Monte Carlo simulations. COMPASS aims at performing the first DY experiment with a transversely polarised target.
Contribution of Quark Structure Term in Nucleon Electric and Magnetic Form Factors
WANGHong-Min; ZHANGBen-Ai
2004-01-01
The constituent quarks in the nucleon have always been considered as a point-like particle in the relativisticconstituent quark model. However its calculation results of GEn agree poorly with the new experimental data. Theelectromagnetic structure of light front constituent quarks is considered in this paper. We find that the calculationresults have good agreement with the new experimental data of GEn after considering the contribution of the quarkstructure term. This treatment seems to be able to improve the fit to experimental data of GEp/GMp,√Q2F2p/kpF1p,and GEn/GMn as well.
Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS
Avakian H.
2016-01-01
The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more co...
Status of nucleon structure calculations with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions
Lin, Meifeng
2013-01-01
We report the status of our nucleon structure calculations with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions on the RBC-UKQCD $32^3\\times64$ gauge ensembles with the Iwasaki+DSDR action. These ensembles have a fixed lattice scale of 1/a = 1.37 GeV, and two pion masses of about 170 and 250 MeV. Preliminary results for the isovector electromagnectic form factors and their corresponding root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) radii will be presented.
Gebremariam, B.; Bogner, S. K.; Duguet, T.
2010-01-01
The density matrix expansion (DME) of Negele and Vautherin is a convenient tool to map finite-range physics associated with vacuum two- and three-nucleon interactions into the form of a Skyme-like energy density functional (EDF) with density-dependent couplings. In this work, we apply the improved formulation of the DME proposed recently in arXiv:0910.4979 by Gebremariam {\\it et al.} to the non-local Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (EFT) two-nucleon (NN) interactions a...
Sub-structures in hadrons and proton structure functions
Arash, Firooz; Khorramian, Ali N.
2001-04-01
We calculate the partonic structure of constituent quark in the Next-to-Leading Order. Using a convolution method, Structure function of proton is presented. While the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contributions coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of Gottfried sum rule. Excellent agreement with data in a wide range of x = [10 -6, 1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2 for Fp2 is reached.
Chang, Wen-Chen
2016-02-01
The observation of the violation of Lam-Tung relation in the πN Drell-Yan process triggered many theoretical speculations. The TMD Boer-Mulders functions characterizing the correlation of transverse momentum and transverse spin for partons in unpolarized hadrons could nicely account for the violation. The COMPASS experiment at CERN will measure the angular distributions of dimuons from the unpolarized Drell-Yan process over a wide kinematic region and study the beam particle dependence. Significant statistics is expected from a successful run in 2015 which will bring further understanding of the origin of the violation of Lam-Tung relation and of the partonic transverse spin structure of the nucleon.
Chang, Wen-Chen
2016-01-01
The observation of the violation of Lam-Tung relation in the $\\pi N$ Drell-Yan process triggered many theoretical speculations. The TMD Boer-Mulders functions characterizing the correlation of transverse momentum and transverse spin for partons in unpolarized hadrons could nicely account for the violation. The COMPASS experiment at CERN will measure the angular distributions of dimuons from the unpolarized Drell-Yan process over a wide kinematic region and study the beam particle dependence. Significant statistics is expected from a successful run in 2015 which will bring further understanding of the origin of the violation of Lam-Tung relation and of the partonic transverse spin structure of the nucleon.
Hadronic Structure Functions from the Universal and the Basic Structures
Arash, F.
2005-04-01
It is shown that there is a basic structure common to all hadrons, which is generated perturbatively in QCD. Basically, it is a valence quark with its own cloud of quarks and gluons, a quasi-particle that we will call it a valon. In the valon representation, structure functions of nucleon and pion are calculated and is shown that there is an excellent agreement between the data and the model results in a wide range of kinematics. Calculation of the polarized structure functions also shows that there is a sizeable orbital angular momentum contribution to the spin of a valon coming from the partonic cloud.
Litvinova, Elena
2016-04-01
The relativistic particle-vibration coupling (RPVC) model is extended by the inclusion of isospin-flip excitation modes into the phonon space, introducing a new mechanism of dynamical interaction between nucleons with different isospin in the nuclear medium. Protons and neutrons exchange by collective modes which are formed by isovector π and ρ-mesons, in turn, softened considerably because of coupling to nucleons of the medium. These modes are investigated within the proton-neutron relativistic random phase approximation (pn-RRPA) and relativistic proton-neutron time blocking approximation (pn-RTBA). The appearance of isospin-flip states with sizable transition probabilities at low energies points out that they are likely to couple to the single-particle degrees of freedom and, in addition to isoscalar low-lying phonons, to modify their spectroscopic characteristics. Such a coupling is quantified for the shell structure of 100,132Sn and found significant for the location of the dominant single-particle states.
The soft-rotator model is used for the analysis of the nuclear level structure and the nucleon interaction data for 52Cr. In this work, the optical model calculations of scattering cross sections are self-consistent, since the parameters of the nuclear Hamiltonian are determined by adjusting the energies of the collective levels to the evaluated nuclear structure data prior to the optical model calculation. The model succeeds in describing the low-lying experimental collective levels up to 3.5 MeV and the nucleon interaction experimental data up to 150 MeV for 52Cr. (author)
Structure functions in the bag model
In this paper we present calculations of nucleon structure functions in the three-dimensional MIT bag model. The nucleon wave functions are modified by the Peierls Yoccoz projection in order to give eigenstates of the total momentum operator. Pair creation by the probe is taken into account. Without this the quark distributions would not obey normalization requirements. The quark distributions have vanishing support for x>1. The effect of one-gluon exchange, yielding the N-Δ mass splitting, is incorporated. This has significant effects on the d/u ratio as well as the spin-dependent g1(x) of the neutron. Finally, the results are compared to data after allowing for perturbative QCD evolution
Moments of Spin Structure Functions: Sum Rules and Polarizabilities
Jian-Ping Chen
2010-10-01
Nucleon structure study is one of the most important research areas in modern physics and has challenged us for decades. Spin has played an essential role and often brought surprises and puzzles to the investigation of the nucleon structure and the strong interaction. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture in the strong region of the interaction and of the transition region from the strong to the asymptotic-free region. Insight for some aspects of the theory for the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Bjorken, Burkhardt-Cottingham, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH), and the generalized GDH). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator-product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers.
Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors
Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor
Studying the Phase-Space Structure of Nucleons Using Generalized Parton Distributions
Ahmad, Saeed; Liuti, Simonetta; Honkanen, Heli; Taneja, Swadhin K.
2006-11-01
We study the correlation of momentum and coordinate space distributions of partons which are measured in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. Being able to understand the phase-space distributions of quarks, we hope to look into the question of `how much quark orbital angular momentum contributes towards the nucleon spin?' It was in fact suggested recently [1] that using the information provided by DVCS experiments, one can develop a complete three dimensional spatial picture of nucleons, along with the momentum distributions (the so-called Wigner distributions). However, in order pin down the spatial distribution in the longitudinal direction one has to take into account the constraint imposed by the uncertainty principle. In addition, similarly to inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, the lectromagnetic probe has an extended length in the longitudinal direction, known in the literature as ``Ioffe time'' [2]. Using the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) obtained in [3] we define and evaluate ``Generalized Ioffe time'' distributions as a function of the additional degrees of freedom--both transverse, t = -2̂ and longitudinal, ξ--extracted from DVCS experiments. [1] A. V. Belitsky, X. d. Ji and F. Yuan, Phys. Rev. D 69, 074014 (2004) [2] B. L. Ioffe, Phys. Lett. B 30, 123 (1969); V. Del Duca, S. J. Brodsky and P. Hoyer, Phys. Rev. D 46, 931 (1992); V. Braun, P. Gornicki and L. Mankiewicz, Phys. Rev. D 51, 6036 (1995). [3] S. Liuti and S. K. Taneja, Phys. Rev. D 70, 074019 (2004); H. Honkanen, S. K. Taneja, S. Ahmad and S. Liuti, in preparation.
Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.
1998-01-01
We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so called spin crisis: one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule and another one, where the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the ...
Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions
Bourrely, C; Pisanti, O; Santorelli, P; Soffer, J
1998-01-01
We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so called spin crisis: one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule and another one, where the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the CERN SMC data.
Quarks and Gluons in Nucleon Polarized Structure Functions
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.
1996-01-01
We study the available data in polarized e-p deep inelastic scattering to test two different solutions to the so called spin crisis: one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule and another one, where the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. Experimental data, especially the very recent SLAC E154, favour the first solution and demand a gluon polarizatio...
Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.
1998-06-01
We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so-called spin crisis, one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule, and another in which the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the CERN SMC data.
The longitudinal charge function in the quasi-elastic peak region is calculated, including effects of two-nucleon collisions. The coupled RPA equation for 2p2h states is solved, using a Thomas-Fermi type theory. To calculate the response function for RPA orders, the Gogny force (a density dependent finite range force) is used, both for the mean field and the residual ph interaction. To include the 2p2h states it was necessary to study the dynamic nuclear mass operator M in the 2p1h (2h1p) approximation. The Gogny force was used as interaction at the vertex of the mass operator. The density dependence of the Gogny force gives a pronounced surface peak in the imaginary part of M. The inclusion of the mass operator in the ph motion gives 2p2h states. Their influence considerably reduces the RPA order response and generally produces a better agreement between theory and experiment, although inexplicable exceptions remain. The investigation suggests that it is not necessary to modify the nuclear form factor
Ab initio Nuclear structure Theory with chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions
Low-energy nuclear theory has entered an era of ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD. One of the most promising paths from QCD to nuclear observables employs Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory as consistent starting point for precise ab initio nuclear structure and reaction studies. However, the full inclusion of chiral two- plus three-nucleon (NN+3N) interactions in exact and approximate many-body calculations still poses a formidable challenge. We discuss recent developments towards this goal, ranging from consistent Similarity Renormalization Group evolutions of NN+3N Hamiltonians to large-scale ab initio calculations for ground states and spectra in the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model with full 3N interactions. We highlight recent achievements and discuss open issues and future perspectives for nuclear structure theory with QCD-based interactions. Moreover, we discuss successful steps towards merging ab initio structure and reaction theory and show applications to low-energy reactions in the p-shell relevant for astrophysics.
Nuclear Effects on the Spin-Dependent Structure Functions
We address the question how the spin-dependent nucleon structure function g1(x,Q2) gets modified when the nucleon is bound inside a nucleus. We analyze the influence of nuclear interactions using the Δ - π model, known to describe well the unpolarized effect, and the free polarized parton distributions. The results for the neutron in 3He and proton in 3H,7Li and 19F are presented, showing significant changes in the parton spin distributions and in their moments. Scattering processes off polarized 7Li are suggested which could justify these theoretical calculations and shed more light on both nuclear spin structure and short distance QCD. (author)
Polarized Structure Functions and the GDH Integral from Lattice QCD
Schierholz, G
2004-01-01
The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral $I_{GDH}(Q^2)$, and its relation to polarized nucleon structure functions, is discussed from the lattice perspective. Of particular interest is the variation of $I_{GDH}(Q^2)$ with $Q^2$, and what it may teach us about the origin and magnitude of higher-twist contributions.
In-medium nucleon-nucleon potentials in configuration space
Based on the thermodynamic Green function approach two-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter at finite temperatures are revisited. To this end, we derive phase-equivalent effective r-space potentials that include the effect of Pauli blocking at a given temperature and density. These potentials enter into a Schroedinger equation that is the r-space representation of the Galitskii-Feynman equation for two nucleons. We explore the analytical structure of the equation in the complex k-plane by means of Jost functions. We find that despite the Mott effect the correlation with deuteron quantum numbers are manifested as antibound states, i.e. as zeros of the Jost function on the negative imaginary axis of the complex momentum space. The analysis presented here is also suited for Coulombic systems. (author)
Nucleon-nucleon correlations in dense nuclear matter
In this thesis new results on the problematics of the formation of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter could be presented. Starting from a general study of the two-particle problem in matter we studied the occurrence of a suprafluid phase (pair condensate of nucleons). The Gorkov decoupling by means of anomalous Green functions was generalized, so that also Cooper pairs with spin 1 (triplet pairing) can be described. A generalized gap equation resulted, which permits to determine the order parameters of the suprafluied phase in arbitrary channels of the nucleon-nucleon scattering states. This equation was solvd in the 1S0-, in the 3P2-3F2, and in the 3S1-3D1 channel under application of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The behaviour of the resulting gap parameters in the single channels was studied as function of density and temperature. (orig.)
A lattice evaluation of four-quark operators in the nucleon
Nucleon matrix elements of various four-quark operators are evaluated in quenched lattice QCD using Wilson fermions. Some of these operators give rise to twist-four contributions to nucleon structure functions. Furthermore, they bear valuable information about the diquark structure of the nucleon. Mixing with lower-dimensional operators is avoided by considering appropriate representations of the flavour group. We find that for a certain flavour combination of baryon structure functions, twist-four contributions are very small. This suggests that twist-four effects for the nucleon might be much smaller than mp2/Q2. (orig.)
Probing spin-1 diquarks in deep inelastic structure functions
Within the scope of a new diquark model for deep inelastic structure functions presented by us recently we use the existing data on F1sup(ep)(x,Q2) to learn about the admixture of spin-1 diquarks in nucleons. It turns out that they are so rare, heavy and extended compared to spin-0 diquarks that they are presumably accidental and not dynamical. Their number and form factors can be understood qualitatively within this picture. Still, the spin-1 diquarks give interesting structures in data and, together with quarks and spin-0 diquarks, carry enough momentum to account for the full nucleon energy. A gluon component is hence not needed in the nucleon. (orig.)
Electromagnetic Structure and Reactions of Few-Nucleon Systems in χEFT
Schiavilla R.; Girlanda L.; Pastore S.; Viviani M.
2010-01-01
We summarize our recent work dealing with the construction of the nucleon-nucleon potential and associated electromagnetic currents up to one loop in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT). The magnetic dipole operators derived from these currents are then used in hybrid calculations of static properties and low-energy radiative capture processes in few-body nuclei. A preliminary set of results are presented for the magnetic moments of the deuteron and trinucleons and thermal neutron captu...
Probing the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction at band termination
Low-energy nuclear structure is not sensitive enough to resolve the fine details of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. The insensitivity of the low-energy (infrared) physics to the details of the short-range strong interaction allows for a consistent, free of high-energy (ultraviolet) divergences, formulation of a local theory at the level of the local energy density functional (LEDF) including on the same footing, particle-hole and particle-particle channels. A major difficulty is related to the parameterization of the nuclear LEDF and its density dependence. It is argued that the structural simplicity of terminating or isomeric states offers an invaluable source of information that can be used for fine-tuning of the NN interaction in general and the nuclear LEDF parameters in particular. Practical applications of terminating states at the level of LEDF and nuclear shell-model are discussed. (author)
Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons
I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon
NONE
1996-10-01
This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out by New Mexico State University from April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1996 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. During this period we began phasing out our programs of study of pion-nucleus and pion-nucleon interaction and of nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions, which have been our major focus of the past two or three years. At the same time we continued moving in a new direction of research on studies of the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. The pion and nucleon work has been aimed at improving our understanding of the nature of pion and proton interactions in the nuclear medium and of various aspects of nuclear structure. The studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons are aimed at clarifying such problems as the nature of the quark sea and the relation of the nucleon spin to the spins of the quarks within the nucleon, questions which are of a very fundamental nature.
This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out by New Mexico State University from April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1996 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. During this period we began phasing out our programs of study of pion-nucleus and pion-nucleon interaction and of nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions, which have been our major focus of the past two or three years. At the same time we continued moving in a new direction of research on studies of the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. The pion and nucleon work has been aimed at improving our understanding of the nature of pion and proton interactions in the nuclear medium and of various aspects of nuclear structure. The studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons are aimed at clarifying such problems as the nature of the quark sea and the relation of the nucleon spin to the spins of the quarks within the nucleon, questions which are of a very fundamental nature
Sub-structures in hadrons and proton structure functions
We calculate the partonic structure of constituent quark in the Next-to-Leading Order. Using a convolution method, Structure function of proton is presented. While the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contributions coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of Gottfried sum rule. Excellent agreement with data in a wide range of x = [10-6, 1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2 for Fp2 is reached
Electromagnetic Structure and Reactions of Few-Nucleon Systems in χEFT
Schiavilla R.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We summarize our recent work dealing with the construction of the nucleon-nucleon potential and associated electromagnetic currents up to one loop in chiral eﬀective ﬁeld theory (χEFT. The magnetic dipole operators derived from these currents are then used in hybrid calculations of static properties and low-energy radiative capture processes in few-body nuclei. A preliminary set of results are presented for the magnetic moments of the deuteron and trinucleons and thermal neutron captures on p, d, and 3He.
Quark cluster model in the three-nucleon system
The quark cluster model is used to investigate the structure of the three-nucleon systems. The nucleon-nucleon interaction is proposed considering the colour-nucleon clusters and incorporating the quark degrees of freedom. The quark-quark potential in the quark compound bag model agrees with the central force potentials. The confinement potential reduces the short-range repulsion. The colour van der Waals force is determined. Then, the probability of quark clusters in the three-nucleon bound state systems are numerically calculated using realistic nuclear wave functions. The results of the present calculations show that quarks cluster themselves in three-quark systems building the quark cluster model for the trinucleon system. (author)
How well do we know the neutron structure function?
Arrington, J.; Rubin, J. G.; Melnitchouk, W.
2011-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the uncertainty in the neutron F2n structure function extracted from inclusive deuteron and proton deep-inelastic scattering data. The analysis includes experimental uncertainties as well as uncertainties associated with the deuteron wave function, nuclear smearing, and nucleon off-shell corrections. Consistently accounting for the Q^2 dependence of the data and calculations, and restricting the nuclear corrections to microscopic models of the deuteron, we fi...
EM vs Weak Structure Functions in DIS processes
Athar, M Sajjad; Simo, I Ruiz; Vacas, M J Vicente
2013-01-01
We obatin the ratio $F_i^A/F_i^{D}$(i=2,3, A=Be, C, Fe, Pb; D=Deuteron) in the case of weak and electromagnetic nuclear structure functions. For this, relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate the effects of Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations is used. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions and shadowing and antishadowing effects.
Deur, Alexandre
2009-12-01
We discuss the Jefferson Lab low momentum transfer data on moments of the nucleon spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ and on single charged pion electroproduction off polarized proton and polarized neutron. A wealth of data is now available, while more is being analyzed or expected to be taken in the upcoming years. Given the low momentum transfer selected by the experiments, these data can be compared to calculations from Chiral Perturbation theory, the effective theory of strong force that should describe it at low momentum transfer. The data on various moments and the respective calculations do not consistently agree. In particular, experimental data for higher moments disagree with the calculations.The absence of contribution from the $\\Delta$ resonance in the various observables was expected to facilitate the calculations and hence make the theory predictions either more robust or valid over a larger $Q^2$ range. Such expectation is verified only for the Bjorken sum, but not for other observables in which the $\\Delta$ is suppressed. Preliminary results on pion electroproduction off polarized nucleons are also presented and compared to phenomenological models for which contributions from different resonances are varied. Chiral Perturbation calculations of these observables, while not yet available, would be valuable and, together with these data, would provide an extensive test of the effective theory.
Del Dotto, Alessio; Salmè, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio
2016-01-01
Poincare' covariant definitions for the spin-dependent spectral function and for the momentum distributions within the light-front Hamiltonian dynamics are proposed for a three-fermion bound system, starting from the light-front wave function of the system. The adopted approach is based on the Bakamjian-Thomas construction of the Poincare' generators, that allows one to easily import the familiar and wide knowledge on the nuclear interaction into a light-front framework. The proposed formalism can find useful applications in refined nuclear calculations, like the ones needed for evaluating the EMC effect or the semi-inclusive deep inelastic cross sections with polarized nuclear targets, since remarkably the light-front unpolarized momentum distribution by definition fulfills both normalization and momentum sum rules. It is also shown a straightforward generalization of the definition of the light-front spectral function to an A-nucleon system.
Purely Functional Structured Programming
Obua, Steven
2010-01-01
The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that mainstream programmers can reap the benefits of purely functional programming like easily exploitable parallelism while using familiar structured programming syntax and without knowing concepts like monads. A second advantage is that professional purely functional programmers can often avoid hard to read functional code by using structured programming syntax that is often easier to parse mentally.
First moment of the flavour octet nucleon parton distribution function using lattice QCD
Alexandrou, C; Dinter, S; Drach, V; Hadjiyiannakou, K; Jansen, K; Koutsou, G; Vaquero, A
2015-01-01
We perform a lattice computation of the flavour octet contribution to the average quark momentum in a nucleon, $\\la x\\ra^{(8)} _{\\mu^2 = 4~\\gev^2 }$. In particular, we fully take the disconnected contributions into account in our analysis for which we use a generalization of the technique developed in \\cite{Dinter:2012tt}. We investigate systematic effects with a particular emphasis on the excited states contamination. We find that in the renormalization free ratio $\\frac{\\la x \\ra^{(3)}}{\\la x \\ra^{(8)}}$ (with $\\la x \\ra^{(3)}$ the non-singlet moment) the excited state contributions cancel to a large extend making this ratio a promising candidate for a comparison to phenomenological analyses. Our final result for this ratio is in agreement with the phenomenological value and we find, including systematic errors, $\\frac{\\la x \\ra^{(3)}}{\\la x \\ra^{(8)}} = 0.39(1)(4)$.
Results from the forward G0 experiment. Strange quark contribution to the nucleon structure
The G0 experiment is dedicated to the determination of the strange quark contribution to the electric and magnetic nucleon form factors for a large range of momentum transfers between 0.1 to 1 (GeV/c)2. This information is provided by the asymmetries of cross-sections measured with longitudinally polarized electrons in elastic electron-proton scattering and quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering. A set of measurements at two different Q2 will allow the complete separation of the electric and magnetic weak, as well as axial nucleon form factors. This report summarizes the physics case, gives details about the dedicated set-up used, and shows the results of the combination of the strange quark contribution in the electric and magnetic form factors of the protons. The experiment was performed at the Jefferson Laboratory, during years 2003 and 2004, and will be completed after backward-angle measurements in 2006, 2007. (orig.)
Purely Functional Structured Programming
Obua, Steven
2010-01-01
The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...
Nucleon structure with pion mass down to 149 MeV
Green, Jeremy; Krieg, Stefan; Negele, John; Pochinsky, Andrew; Syritsyn, Sergey
2012-01-01
We present isovector nucleon observables: the axial, tensor, and scalar charges and the Dirac radius. Using the BMW clover-improved Wilson action and pion masses as low as 149 MeV, we achieve good control over chiral extrapolation to the physical point. Our analysis is done using three different source-sink separations in order to identify excited-state effects, and we make use of the summation method to reduce their size.
The experimental techniques related to NN resonance measurements are described. The technique used is the good geometry transmission experiment. The basic idea is to measure the difference in the attenuation factor for the corresponding difference between the total cross sections of N + N interactions for forward and reverse momentum as a function of the solenoid current. 26 references
Nucleon structure: from high energy elastic scattering and nonlinear σ-model
High energy elastic antipp and pp scattering at the SPS Collider and the ISR have been investigated by my collaborators and me. We find that the elastic scattering can be described as due to two processes: diffraction and hard scattering. The hard scattering originates from the short-distance collision of one nucleon by the other via ω exchange. This description of elastic scattering has led us to the physical picture that the nucleon has an outer cloud and an inner core. The nonLinear σ-model with the Wess-Zumino term included satisfactorily explains many of the important features of our phenomenological description. In particular, this effective QCD framework shows why in our analysis ω behaves as an elementary spin-1 boson and why a ω NN form factor occurs. Our investigation, in turn, supports the basic notion of the nonlinear σ-model that the nucleon is a soliton carrying a topological baryonic charge. It further indicates that the soliton is accompanied by a quark-antiquark cloud
Phenomenology of dark matter-nucleon effective interactions
Catena, Riccardo
2015-01-01
I compare the non-relativistic effective theory of one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions to current dark matter direct detection experiments and neutrino telescope observations, presenting exclusion limits on the coupling constants of the theory. In the analysis of direct detection experiments, I focus on the interference of different dark matter-nucleon interaction operators and on predictions observable at directional detectors. Interpreting neutrino telescope observations, I use new nuclear response functions recently derived through nuclear structure calculations and show that hydrogen is not the most important element in the exclusion limit calculation for the majority of the spin-dependent dark matter-nucleon interaction operators
Deep inelastic scattering operators in meson-nucleon theory
Nonrelativistic meson-nucleon theory of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) of leptons on the deuteron is considered. Explicit expressions of nonrelativistic composed operators of DIS in the framework of the operator product expansion method are obtained in terms of interacting meson-nucleon fields. An analytic expression of the second moment of the structure functions (up to g2 accuracy( is obtained with particular emphasis on self-energy contributions and meson exchange currents (MEC). Deuteron moments are shown to be expressed in terms of constituent (nucleons and mesons) observables. The energy conservation law is restored by taking into account MEC
The three-nucleon bound state with isobaric and pionic degrees of freedom
Wave function components containing a single Δ-isobar are included in the calculation of the three-nucleon bound states. The two-nucleon interaction acts in all partial waves up to total angular momentum I=2. The presence of a Δ-isobar increases the three-nucleon binding energy by about 0.3 MeV, 0.6 MeV repulsion being a dispersive two-body effect, 0.9 MeV attraction arising from the three-nucleon force with intermediate Δ-isobar. The effect of the Δ on the three-nucleon charge and magnetic form factors is investigated. The possibility of treating the Δ-isobar as a dynamic pion-nucleon system in nuclear structure and nuclear-structure corrections beyond single Δ excitation in the coupled channel approach are also discussed
Chromatin Structure and Function
Wolffe, Alan P
1999-01-01
The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active
Spin and angular momentum in the nucleon
Franz Gross, Gilberto Ramalho, Teresa Pena
2012-05-01
Using the covariant spectator theory (CST), we present the results of a valence quark-diquark model calculation of the nucleon structure function f(x) measured in unpolarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS), and the structure functions g1(x) and g2(x) measured in DIS using polarized beams and targets. Parameters of the wave functions are adjusted to fit all the data. The fit fixes both the shape of the wave functions and the relative strength of each component. Two solutions are found that fit f(x) and g1(x), but only one of these gives a good description of g2(x). This fit requires the nucleon CST wave functions contain a large D-wave component (about 35%) and a small P-wave component (about 0.6%). The significance of these results is discussed.
Tensor-polarized structure functions: Tensor structure of deuteron in 2020's
Kumano, S
2014-01-01
We explain spin structure for a spin-one hadron, in which there are new structure functions, in addition to the ones ($F_1$, $F_2$, $g_1$, $g_2$) which exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon, associated with its tensor structure. The new structure functions are $b_1$, $b_2$, $b_3$, and $b_4$ in deep inelastic scattering of a charged-lepton from a spin-one hadron such as the deuteron. Among them, twist-two functions are related by the Callan-Gross type relation $b_2 = 2 x b_1$ in the Bjorken scaling l...
Charge structure of the hadronic final state in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering
Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Bedełek, J.; Beaufays, J.; Bee, C. P.; Benchouk, C.; Berghoff, G.; Bird, I.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S.; Brück, H.; Calen, H.; Chima, J. S.; Ciborowski, J.; Clifft, R.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Düren, M.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Ftáčnik, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gajewski, J.; Gamet, R.; Gayler, J.; Geddes, N.; Grafström, P.; Grard, F.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Jaffré, M.; Jachołkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jancsó, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Korbel, V.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Maselli, S.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Peschel, H.; Pessard, H.; Pettinghale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pietrzyk, U.; Pönsgen, B.; Pötsch, M.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Scheer, M.; Schlagböhmer, A.; Schiemann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Schneider, A.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thénard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de La Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Windmolders, R.; Wolf, G.
1988-09-01
The general charge properties of the hadronic final state produced in μ + p and μ + d interactions at 280 GeV are investigated. Quark charge retention and local charge compensation is observed. The ratio F {2/ n }/ F {2/ p } of the neutron to proton structure function is derived from the measurement of the average hadronic charge in μ d interactions.
Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations
J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian
2012-10-01
The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.
Alvioli, Massimiliano; Morita, Hiko
2016-01-01
The two-nucleon momentum distributions have been calculated for nuclei up to A=40 and various values of the relative and center-of-mass momenta and angle between them. For complex nuclei a parameter-free linked-cluster expansion, based upon a realistic local two-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family and variational wave function featuring central, tensor, spin and iso-spin correlations, has been used. The obtained results show that: 1) independently of the mass number A, at values of the relative momentum k_rel> 2 fm^{-1} the proton-neutron momentum distributions for back-to-back (BB) nucleons (K_cm=0) exhibit the factorization property n_A^{pn}(k_rel,K_cm=0)=C_A^{pn} n_D(k_rel) n_{cm}^{pn}(K_cm=0), where n_D is the deuteron momentum distribution, n_{cm}^{pn}(K_{cm}=0) the momentum distribution of the c.m. motion of the pair and C_A^{pn} the nuclear contact measuring the number of BB pn pairs with deuteron-like momenta; 2) the values of the proton-neutron nuclear contact C_A^{pn} are obtained in a model-i...
First moment of the flavour octet nucleon parton distribution function using lattice QCD
Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center (CaSToRC); Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Koutsou, Giannis [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dinter, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Drach, Vincent [Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark). CP3-Origins and the Danish Institute for Advanced Study DIAS; Jansen, Karl [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center (CaSToRC); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Vaquero, Alejandro [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration
2015-03-15
We perform a lattice computation of the flavour octet contribution to the average quark momentum in a nucleon, left angle x right angle {sup (8)}{sub μ{sup 2}=4} {sub GeV{sup 2}}. In particular, we fully take the disconnected contributions into account in our analysis for which we use a generalization of the technique developed by S. Dinter et. al. (2012). We investigate systematic effects with a particular emphasis on the excited states contamination. We find that in the renormalization free ratio (left angle x right angle {sup (3)})/(left angle x right angle {sup (8)}) (with left angle x right angle {sup (3)} the non-singlet moment) the excited state contributions cancel to a large extend making this ratio a promising candidate for a comparison to phenomenological analyses. Our final result for this ratio is in agreement with the phenomenological value and we find, including systematic errors, (left angle x right angle {sup (3)})/(left angle x right angle {sup (8)})=0.39(1)(4).
Rowe, D. J.; McCoy, A. E.; Caprio, M. A.
2016-03-01
The nuclear collective models introduced by Bohr, Mottelson and Rainwater, together with the Mayer-Jensen shell model, have provided the central framework for the development of nuclear physics. This paper reviews the microscopic evolution of the collective models and their underlying foundations. In particular, it is shown that the Bohr-Mottelson models have expressions as macroscopic limits of microscopic models that have precisely defined expressions in many-nucleon quantum mechanics. Understanding collective models in this way is especially useful because it enables the analysis of nuclear properties in terms of them to be revisited and reassessed in the light of their microscopic foundations.
A-dependence of weak nuclear structure functions
Effect of nuclear medium on the weak structure functions F2A(x, Q2) and F3A(x, Q2) have been studied using charged current (anti)neutrino deep inelastic scattering on various nuclear targets. Relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations are used for the calculations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. Using these structure functions, FiA/Fiproton and FiA/Fideuteron(i=2,3, A=12C, 16O, CH and H2O) are obtained
Meson exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction
Nucleon-nucleon interactions obtained from several models for the field theoretic scattering amplitude are studied. The interaction includes contributions from one-pion and one-omega exchange and from two-pion exchange as calculated in a dispersion theory framework. The resulting interaction is regularized by a cut-off factor obtained by the eikonal approximation to multiple vector meson exchange processes. The Blankenbecler-Sugar equation is solved with the interaction and nucleon-nucleon scattering phase parameters are computed. For the best model good agreement with phenomenological phase parameters is achieved for physically reasonable values of the meson-nucleon coupling constants and the spectral functions needed for the evaluation of the two-pion exchange effects. The deuteron wave function is computed as are the deuteron charge and quadrupole form factors. The interaction is shown to have significantly weaker short-range repulsion than commonly found in local phenomenological potentials and in one-boson exchange models. (Auth.)
pp Elastic Scattering in Near Forward Direction at LHC and Nucleon Structure
Islam, M M; Prokudin, A V
2005-01-01
We predict pp elastic differential cross section at LHC at the c.m. energy 14 TeV and momentum transfer range |t| = 0-10 GeV*2, which is planned to be measured by the TOTEM group. The field theory model underlying our phenomenological investigation describes the nucleon as a composite object with an outer cloud of quark-antiquark condensate, an inner core of topological baryonic charge, and a still smaller quark-bag of valence quarks. The model satisfactorily describes the asymptotic behavior of sigma-total(s) and rho(s) as well as the measured antiproton-proton elastic differential cross section at c.m. energies 546 GeV, 630 GeV, and 1.8 TeV. The large |t| elastic amplitude of the model incorporates the QCD hard pomeron (BFKL Pomeron plus next to leading order approximations), the perturbative dimensional counting behavior, and the confinement of valence quarks in a small region within the nucleon. Our predicted pp elastic differential cross section at LHC is compared with those of Bourrely et al. and Desgro...
Measurements of the deuteron elastic structure function
The deuteron elastic structure function A(Q2) has been extracted in the range of 0.7 (le) Q2 (le) 6.0 (GeV/c)2 from cross section measurements of elastic electron-deuteron in coincidence. Measurements of the elastic deuteron electromagnetic form factors offer unique opportunities to test models of short-range aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, meson-exchange currents, isobaric configurations and, quark degrees of freedom. The elastic electron-deuteron cross section is given by dσ/d(Omega) = σM[A(Q2) + B(Q2) tan2(θ/2)] where θ is the electron scattering angle, σM = α2E(prime) cos2 (θ/2)/[4E3 sin4(θ/2)] is the Mott cross section, α is the fine-structure constant, E and E(prime) are the incident and scattered electron energies and Q2 = 4EE(prime) sin2(θ/2) is the four momentum transfer squared. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q 2) and B(Q2) are given in terms of the charge, quadrupole and magnetic form factors Fc(Q2), F1(Q2) and Fm(Q2) by A(Q2) = Fc2(Q2) + (8/9)τ2 F12(Q2) + (2/3)τFm2(Q2) and B(Q2) = (4/3)τ(1+τ)Fm2(Q2) and to resolve inconsistencies in previous data sets by measuring elastic electron-deuteron (e-d) cross sections for 0.7 (le) Q2 (le) 6.0 (GeV/c)2
Charge structure of the hadronic final state in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering
The general charge properties of the hadronic final state produced in μ+p and μ+d interactions at 280 GeV are investigated. Quark charge retention and local charge compensation is observed. The ratio F2n/F2p of the neutron to proton structure function is derived from the measurement of the average hadronic charge in μd interactions. (orig.)
The topics presented at the 1989 Joliot-Curie Lectures are reported. Two main subjects were retained: a simplified description of the N-body motion of particles in the quasi-particle configuration; study of the dynamics of nuclear components which are not described by nucleons in their ground state. The following themes were presented: quasiparticles and the Green functions, relativistic aspects of the quasiparticle concept, the dimensions of nucleons in the nuclei and the EMC effect, quarks and gluons in the nuclei, the delta in the nuclei, the strangeness, quasiparticles far from the Fermi sea, diffusion of electrons, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis
The role of quark exchange in the structure function of lithium nucleus
The quark exchange formalism is formulated to calculate the quark momentum distribution in the iso-scalar lithium nucleus. Then by boosting the nucleus to an infinite momentum frame, the lithium structure function is evaluated at different nucleon “sizes”, i.e., b = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1 fm and the Bjorken scale (x) values. It is shown that the lithium structure function becomes narrower, and it is pushed to the smaller x values, as the nucleon size is increased. Similar to our previous works for three nucleon systems, the lithium nucleus European muon collaboration (EMC) ratio decreases, as we increase the x and b values and it shows larger effect, with respect to the free nucleon and three nucleons iso-scalar nucleus. On the other hand, present calculation of the EMC ratio for lithium nucleus shows a good agreement with the corresponding NMC data, which is available for 1.4 × 10-4 ≤ x ≤ 0.65. Since the atomic number is still small (A = 6), in this work as usual, we ignore the possibility of simultaneous exchange of quarks between more than two nucleons, which can be important as one moves to the heavy nuclei. Although, according to Hen et al., in the neutron rich nuclei the protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum, the three-body contribution may be suppressed. (author)
Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navrátil, Petr
2015-05-29
We provide a unified ab initio description of the ^{6}Li ground state and elastic scattering of deuterium (d) on ^{4}He (α) using two- and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the influence of the three-nucleon force and reveal the role of continuum degrees of freedom in shaping the low-lying spectrum of ^{6}Li. The calculation reproduces the empirical binding energy of ^{6}Li, yielding an asymptotic D- to S-state ratio of the ^{6}Li wave function in the d+α configuration of -0.027, in agreement with a determination from ^{6}Li-^{4}He elastic scattering, but overestimates the excitation energy of the 3^{+} state by 350 keV. The bulk of the computed differential cross section is in good agreement with data. These results endorse the application of the present approach to the evaluation of the ^{2}H(α,γ)^{6}Li radiative capture, responsible for the big-bang nucleosynthesis of ^{6}Li. PMID:26066431
Godbole, Rohini M.(Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, 560012, Bangalore, India)
1996-01-01
After briefly explaining the idea of photon structure functions (F gamma2, F gammaL),I review the current theoretical and experimental developements in the subject of extraction of q-gamma from a study of the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS). I then end by pointing out recent progress in getting information about the parton content of the photon from hard processes other than DIS.
Pion distribution in the nucleon
A model is presented for calculating the pion wave function inside the nucleon. By assuming that all pions around a core of the nucleon are in the lowest eigenstate of the system, it is shown that both the bound state and πN scattering amplitude can be consistently described by an exactly soluble model defined in the subspace spanned by the core state and the physical πN state. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the data of the nucleon mass, πNN coupling constant and low energy πN scattering phase shifts. The model predicts that the probability of finding the pion component inside the nucleon is about 20%. The calculated πNN form factor differs significantly from the conventional monopole form. The dynamical consequences of the differences are demonstrated in a calculation of electromagnetic production of pions from the nucleon and the deuteron. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Navratil, Petr
2012-01-01
We solve the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) in the complete Nmax = 8 basis for A = 7 and A = 8 nuclei with two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived within chiral effective field theory (EFT). We find that including the chiral EFT three-nucleon interaction in the Hamiltonian improves overall good agreement with experimental binding energies, excitation spectra, transitions and electromagnetic moments. We predict states that exhibit sensitivity to including the chiral EFT three-...
The soft-rotator model (SRM) and a coupled-channels method based on the coupling scheme built on the wave functions of the SRM were applied for a consistent analysis of the nuclear level structure, B(E2) and the nucleon interaction data of 56Fe. The model could describe the experimental collective levels of 56Fe up to the excitation energy of 5.5 MeV successfully. Relativistic kinematics and global optical potential form, consistent with nuclear matter theory and Dirac phenomenology, were used in coupled-channels optical model approach to overcome problems left in our previous work. The available nucleon interaction experimental data up to 160 MeV and B(E2) γ-transitions were described satisfactorily. (author)
Multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of each charge state of π± and K± mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of the kinematic quantities x, Q2, z and Phperpendicularto. The multiplicities were extracted from data collected by the HERMES experiment at the HERA storage ring using 27.6 GeV electron and positron beams on a hydrogen or deuterium gas target. These results for identified hadrons constitute the most precise measurement to date, and will significantly enhance our understanding of the proton structure, as well as the fragmentation process in deep-inelastic scattering. Furthermore, the 3D binning at an unprecedented level of precision provides a handle to help disentangle the transverse momentum structure of both. The high level of precision coupled with an intermediate energy regime requires a careful study of the complex interaction between the experimental systematics, theoretical uncertainties, and the applicability of the factorization theorem within the standard framework of leading-twist collinear QCD. This is illustrated by the extraction of the valence quark ratio dν/uν at leading-order in αs. These results show a strong z-dependence below z ∼ 0.30, which could be interpreted as evidence for factorization breaking. This evidence weakens somewhat when isospin invariance of the fragmentation functions is assumed to be broken. Additionally, the multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of π0 mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of z. These multiplicities were extracted from the same data sample as used for the charged meson results. The neutral pion multiplicity is the same as the average charged pion multiplicity, up to z ∼ 0.70. This is consistent with isospin invariance below z ∼ 0.70. The results at high values of z show strong signs of isospin symmetry breaking.
Isospin dependence of nucleon correlations in ground-state nuclei
Charity, R.J. [Washington University, Department of Chemistry, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Dickhoff, W.H. [Washington University, Department of Physics, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Sobotka, L.G. [Washington University, Department of Chemistry, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Washington University, Department of Physics, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Waldecker, S.J. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics, Chattanooga, Tennessee (United States)
2014-02-15
The dispersive optical model (DOM) as presently implemented can investigate the isospin (nucleon asymmetry) dependence of the Hartree-Fock-like potential relevant for nucleons near the Fermi energy. Data constraints indicate that a Lane-type potential adequately describes its asymmetry dependence. Correlations beyond the mean field can also be described in this framework, but this requires an extension that treats the non-locality of the Hartree-Fock-like potential properly. The DOM has therefore been extended to properly describe ground-state properties of nuclei as a function of nucleon asymmetry in addition to standard ingredients like elastic nucleon scattering data and level structure. Predictions of nucleon correlations at larger nucleon asymmetries can then be made after data at smaller asymmetries constrain the potentials that represent the nucleon self-energy. A simple extrapolation for Sn isotopes generates predictions for increasing correlations of minority protons with increasing neutron number. Such predictions can be investigated by performing experiments with exotic beams. The predicted neutron properties for the double closed-shell {sup 132}Sn nucleus exhibit similar correlations as those in {sup 208}Pb. Future relevance of these studies for understanding the properties of all nucleons, including those with high momentum, and the role of three-body forces in nuclei are briefly discussed. Such an implementation will require a proper treatment of the non-locality of the imaginary part of the potentials and a description of high-momentum nucleons as experimentally constrained by the (e, e' p) reactions performed at Jefferson Lab. (orig.)
Kilin, S. Ya.; Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G.
2015-06-01
An international conference in honour of the centennial of the birth of Ya.B. Zeldovich, "Subatomic Particles, Nucleons, Atoms, the Universe: Processes and Structure" was held in Minsk, Belarus on March 10-14, 2014. Scientific papers based on plenary presentations made at this conference are being published in Volumes 6 and 7, 2015 of "Astronomy Reports."
Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir;
1998-01-01
This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form for a...... long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...... individual antiparallel DNA strands. Hydrogen bonds provide specificity that allows pairing between the complementary bases (A.T and G.C) in opposite strands. Base stacking occurs near the center of the DNA helix and provides a great deal of stability to the helix (in addition to hydrogen bonding). The sugar...
High energy nucleon incident optical potential by relativistic impulse approximation
The optical potentials by relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) are utilized for the high energy nucleon incidence. The nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes are derived from the phase shift and parametrized as a function of the incident nucleon energy. The optical potential by RIA reproduces the experimental data. (author)
Jossten, Sylvester Johannes
2013-10-15
Multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of each charge state of {pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sup {+-}} mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of the kinematic quantities x, Q{sup 2}, z and P{sub h} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. The multiplicities were extracted from data collected by the HERMES experiment at the HERA storage ring using 27.6 GeV electron and positron beams on a hydrogen or deuterium gas target. These results for identified hadrons constitute the most precise measurement to date, and will significantly enhance our understanding of the proton structure, as well as the fragmentation process in deep-inelastic scattering. Furthermore, the 3D binning at an unprecedented level of precision provides a handle to help disentangle the transverse momentum structure of both. The high level of precision coupled with an intermediate energy regime requires a careful study of the complex interaction between the experimental systematics, theoretical uncertainties, and the applicability of the factorization theorem within the standard framework of leading-twist collinear QCD. This is illustrated by the extraction of the valence quark ratio d{sub {nu}}/u{sub {nu}} at leading-order in {alpha}{sub s}. These results show a strong z-dependence below z {approx} 0.30, which could be interpreted as evidence for factorization breaking. This evidence weakens somewhat when isospin invariance of the fragmentation functions is assumed to be broken. Additionally, the multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of {pi}{sup 0} mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of z. These multiplicities were extracted from the same data sample as used for the charged meson results. The neutral pion multiplicity is the same as the average charged pion multiplicity, up to z {approx} 0.70. This is consistent with isospin invariance below z {approx} 0.70. The results at high values of z show strong signs of isospin symmetry breaking.
Sum rule measurements of the spin-dependent compton amplitude (nucleon spin structure at Q2 = 0)
Energy weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photo-production cross sections (σ1/2 - σ3/2) provide information on the nucleon's Spin-dependent Polarizability (γ), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. (The latter forms the Q2=0 limit of recent spin-asymmetry experiments in deep-inelastic lepton-scattering.) There are no direct measurements of σ1/2 or σ3/2, for either the proton or the neutron. Estimates from current π-photo-production multipole analyses, particularly for the proton-neutron difference, are in good agreement with relativistic-l-loop Chiral calculations (χPT) for γ but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) both the 2-loop corrections to the Spin-Polarizability are large and the existing multipoles are wrong, or (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon. The helicity-dependent photo-reaction amplitudes, for both the proton and the neutron, will be measured at LEGS from pion-threshold to 470 MeV. In these double-polarization experiments, circularly polarized photons from LEGS will be used with SPHICE, a new frozen-spin target consisting of rvec H · rvec D in the solid phase. Reaction channels will be identified in SASY, a large detector array covering about 80% of 4π. A high degree of symmetry in both target and detector will be used to minimize systematic uncertainties
Nucleon-nucleon interactions and observables
A class of nucleon-nucleon interactions which are exactly phase equivalent to a given realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction is exhibited. These interactions have the property that the rms radius of the deuteron can be made arbitrarily large without changing the deuteron binding energy or any of the nucleon-nucleon scattering matrix elements. With this construction it is possible to find realistic interactions that do not obey the linear relation between the rms radius and the triplet scattering length observed by Klarsfeld et al.. The interpretation of this result is discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Structure functions of nuclei in the ''instant'' form of dynamics
Convolution formulas for the inelastic structure functions of a nucleus are derived using the ''instant'' form of relativistic particle dynamics, and are contrasted with other convolution approaches. Using only physical nucleon constituents and harmonic oscillator shell model wave functions, the magnitude of the dip in the European Muon Collaboration ratio in the intermediate range of x is reproduced. The calculations of this ratio fail to come back up towards unity as x decreases below 0.4, and possible reasons for this are discussed
Nuclear medium modification of the F2 structure function
Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente
2009-01-01
We study the nuclear effects in the electromagnetic structure function $F_{2}(x, Q^2)$ in nuclei in the deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering process by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. The ratios $R_{F2}^A(x,Q^2)=\\frac{2F_2^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2}^{Deut}(x,Q^2)}$ are obtained and compared with the recent JLAB results for light nuclei that show a non trivial A dependence.
F Zolfagharpour
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we calculate nuclear structure function and EMC effect of 40Ca and 56Fe nuclei. To achive the goals, we consider Fermi motion and binding energy contrbiution in the harmonic oscillator model. In this model, harmonic oscillator parameter ħω related to shells root mean square radius and for free nucleon structure functions, is obtained from GRV’s free nucleon structure functions. Then, we calculate differential cross section of lepton scattering from those nuclei at the E=4.8 GeV and E=4.032 GeV. The obtained results show good agreement with available experimental data.
Small-x Parton Densities from HERA and the Ultra-High Energy Neutrino-Nucleon Cross Sections
Gandhi, Raj; Quigg, Chris; Reno, M. H.; Sarcevic, Ina
1995-01-01
In light of recent measurements of the nucleon structure function in the small-$x$ deep-inelastic regime at HERA and the consequently improved theoretical understanding of the quark distributions in this range of parton fractional momentum, we present new results for the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultra high energies, up to $ E_{\
Comparison of moments from the valence structure function with QCD predictions
Moments (both ordinary and Nachtmann) of the nucleon valence structure function measured in high Q2 γFe scattering are presented, supplemented by data from deep inelastic eD scattering. These data seem to agree with QCD predictions for vector gluons. The QCD parameter Λ is found to be of the order 0.5 GeV. (Auth.)
Intrinsic charm content of the nucleon and charmness-nucleon sigma term
Duan, Shaorong; Saghai, B
2016-01-01
In the extended chiral constituent quark model, the intrinsic $c \\bar{c}$ content of the nucleon is investigated. The probabilities of the quark-antiquark components in the nucleon wave functions are calculated by taking the nucleon to be admixtures of three- and five-quark components, with the relevant transitions handled {\\it via} the $^{3}$P$_{0}$ mechanism. Predictions for the probability of the $c \\bar{c}$ in the nucleon wave function and the charmness-nucleon sigma term are presented. Our numerical results turn out to be consistent with the predictions from various other approaches reported in the literature.
Intrinsic charm content of the nucleon and charmness-nucleon sigma term
Duan, Shaorong; An, C. S.; Saghai, B.
2016-06-01
In the extended chiral constituent quark model, the intrinsic c c ¯ content of the nucleon is investigated. The probabilities of the quark-antiquark components in the nucleon wave functions are calculated by taking the nucleon to be admixtures of three- and five-quark components, with the relevant transitions handled via the 3P0 mechanism. Predictions for the probability of the c c ¯ in the nucleon wave function and the charmness-nucleon sigma term are presented. Our numerical results turn out to be consistent with the predictions from various other approaches reported in the literature.
Tensor-polarized structure functions: Tensor structure of deuteron in 2020's
Kumano, S
2014-01-01
We explain spin structure for a spin-one hadron, in which there are new structure functions, in addition to the ones ($F_1$, $F_2$, $g_1$, $g_2$) which exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon, associated with its tensor structure. The new structure functions are $b_1$, $b_2$, $b_3$, and $b_4$ in deep inelastic scattering of a charged-lepton from a spin-one hadron such as the deuteron. Among them, twist-two functions are related by the Callan-Gross type relation $b_2 = 2 x b_1$ in the Bjorken scaling limit. First, these new structure functions are introduced, and useful formulae are derived for projection operators of $b_{1-4}$ from a hadron tensor $W_{\\mu\
HERMES Results on the 3D Imaging of the Nucleon
Pappalardo, L. L.
2016-07-01
It the last decades, a formalism of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) and of generalised parton distributions (GPDs) has been developed in the context of non-perturbative QCD, opening the way for a tomographic imaging of the nucleon structure. TMDs and GPDs provide complementary three-dimensional descriptions of the nucleon structure in terms of parton densities. They thus contribute, with different approaches, to the understanding of the full phase-space distribution of partons. A selection of HERMES results sensitive to TMDs is presented.
Multi-functional composite structures
Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.
2010-04-27
Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.
Multi-functional composite structures
Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.
2004-10-19
Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.
The Dynamical Structure of the Delta-Resonance and its Effect on Two- and Three-Nucleon Systems
Kortemeyer, G.; Pena, M. T.; Sauer, P. U.; Stadler, A.
1996-01-01
The pion-nucleon interaction in the P33 partial wave is assumed to proceed simultaneously through the excitation of the Delta-isobar and through a phenomenologically introduced non-resonant background potential. The introduction of the background potential allows a more realistic parameterization of the pion-nucleon-Delta vertex compared with the previously used one without background. It also modifies the propagation of the Delta-isobar in the nuclear medium and gives rise to novel effective...
Cao, X. G.; X.Z. Cai; Ma, Y. G.; Fang, D Q; Zhang, G. Q.; Guo, W; Chen, J. G.; Wang, J S
2012-01-01
Proton-neutron, neutron-neutron and proton-proton momentum correlation functions ($C_{pn}$, $C_{nn}$, $C_{pp}$) are systematically investigated for $^{15}$C and other C isotopes induced collisions at different entrance channel conditions within the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IDQMD) model complemented by the CRAB (correlation after burner) computation code. $^{15}$C is a prime exotic nucleus candidate due to the weakly bound valence neutron coupling with clo...
Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology
This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers
Sensitivity to properties of the phi-meson in the nucleon structure in the chiral soliton model
Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Zhang, L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
1994-04-01
The influence of the {phi}-meson on the nucleon properties in the chiral soliton model is discussed. Properties of the {phi}-meson and its photo- and electroproduction are of fundamental interest to CEBAF and its possible future extension. The quark model assigns {phi} an s{bar s} structure, thus forbidding the radiative decay {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}. Experimentally it is also found to be suppressed, yielding a branching fraction of 1.3{times}10{sup {minus}3}. However, {phi}{yields}{rho}{pi} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0} are not suppressed at all. Thus, it is possible to incorporate the widths of these decays into the framework of the chiral soliton model, by making use of a specific model for the compliance with OZI rule. Such a model is for example, the {omega}-{phi} mixing model. Consequence of this in the context of a chiral soliton model, which builds on the {pi}{rho}{omega}a{sub 1}(f{sub 1}) meson effective Lagrangian, is the context of this report.
Symmetry Breaking and Quark-Hadron Duality in Structure Functions
We identify conditions under which a summation over nucleon resonances can yield, via quark-hadron duality, parton model results for electromagnetic and neutrino structure functions at large x. While a summation over the lowest even and odd parity multiplets is sufficient to achieve duality in the symmetric quark model, a suppression of transitions to specific final states is required for more realistic cases incorporating SU(6) breaking. We outline several scenarios consistent with duality, discuss their implications for the high Q2 behavior of transition form factors, and illustrate how they can expose the patterns in the flavor-spin dependence of short-distance forces in the strong-QCD limit
Deuteron A(Q2) structure function and the neutron electric form factor
We present new measurements of the deuteron A(Q2) structure function in the momentum transfer region between 1 and 18 fm-2. The accuracy of the data ranges from 2% to 6%. We investigate the sensitivity of A(Q2) to the nucleon-nucleon interaction and to the neutron electric form factor GEn. Our analysis shows that below 20 fm-2 GEn can be inferred from these data with a significantly improved accuracy. The model dependence of this analysis is discussed
Transversity of quarks in a nucleon
K Bora; D K Choudhury
2003-11-01
The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon’s properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (inﬁnite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd twist-two distribution function – gluons do not couple to it. Quarks in a nucleon/hadron are relativistically bound and transversity is a measure of the relativistic nature of bound quarks in a nucleon. In this work, we review some important aspects of this less familiar distribution function which has not been measured experimentally so far.
New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions
Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.
Granier, Thierry
Dans ce mémoire est présentée l'analyse, dans le but de l'extraction des fonctions de structure, d'une partie des données de diffusion profondément inélastique de muons sur cibles fixes d'hydrogène et de detérium obtenues dans l'expérience NMC (New Muon Collaboration) du CERN. Les fonctions de structure, à partir desquelles s'exprime la probabilité de diffusion à un certain angle et une certaine énergie, contiennent de l'information sur la structure interne du nucléon, plus précisément sur la distribution en énergie des quarks à l'intérieur de celui-ci. L'étude de la variation des fonctions de structure avec le degré d'inélasticité de la diffusion permet de tester la validité de la chromodynamique quantique, la théorie de jauge des interactions fortes
Comba, Peter
2010-01-01
Describes how the understanding of structure - property relationships may be used to interpret known compounds and how to design novel molecules and materials with the desired properties. This book covers the theoretical background, experimental techniques and applications of structure-property correlations
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons
Lorcé, Cédric
2014-01-01
In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular ...
Neutrino-production of a charmed meson and the transverse spin structure of the nucleon
Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.
2015-01-01
International audience We calculate the amplitude for exclusive neutrino production of a charmed meson on an unpolarized target, in the colinear QCD approach where generalized parton distributions (GPDs) factorize from perturbatively calculable coefficient functions. We demonstrate that the transversity chiral odd GPDs contribute to the transverse cross section if the hard amplitude is calculated up to order mc/Q. We show how to access these GPDs through the azimuthal dependence of the νN ...
Structure in K--nucleon total cross sections below 1.1 GeV/c
Total cross sections of K-p and K-d have been measured between 410 and 1070 MeV/c with high statistical precision. In addition to the well known Λ (1520), Λ (1820), and Σ (1769), we confirmed the presence of the Λ (1692) and the Σ (1670). We have also observed several structures which could be Y* resonances: Λ (1646), Λ (1735), Σ (1583), Σ (1608), Σ (1633), and Σ (1715)
Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum
We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale μ=2 GeV to be Juv=0.230+0.009-0.024 and Jdv=-0.004+0.010-0.016.
A-dependence of weak nuclear structure functions
Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli studi di Trento Via Sommarive 14, Povo (Trento) I-38123 (Italy)
2015-05-15
Effect of nuclear medium on the weak structure functions F{sub 2}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) have been studied using charged current (anti)neutrino deep inelastic scattering on various nuclear targets. Relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations are used for the calculations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. Using these structure functions, F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup proton} and F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup deuteron}(i=2,3, A={sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, CH and H{sub 2}O) are obtained.
A-dependence of weak nuclear structure functions
Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad
2013-01-01
Effect of nuclear medium on the weak structure functions $F_2^A(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3^A(x,Q^2)$ have been studied using charged current (anti)neutrino deep inelastic scattering on various nuclear targets. Relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations are used for the calculations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. Using these structure functions, $F_i^A/F_i^{proton}$ and $F_i^A/F_i^{deuteron}$(i=2,3, A=$^{12}C$, $^{16}O$, $CH$ and $H_{2}O$) are obtained.
Transverse nucleon structure and diagnostics of hard parton-parton processes at LHC
L. Frankfurt, M. Strikman, C. Weiss
2011-03-01
We propose a new method to determine at what transverse momenta particle production in high-energy pp collisions is governed by hard parton-parton processes. Using information on the transverse spatial distribution of partons obtained from hard exclusive processes in ep/\\gamma p scattering, we evaluate the impact parameter distribution of pp collisions with a hard parton-parton process as a function of p_T of the produced parton (jet). We find that the average pp impact parameters in such events depend very weakly on p_T in the range 2 < p_T < few 100 GeV, while they are much smaller than those in minimum-bias inelastic collisions. The impact parameters in turn govern the observable transverse multiplicity in such events (in the direction perpendicular to the trigger particle or jet). Measuring the transverse multiplicity as a function of p_T thus provides an effective tool for determining the minimum p_T for which a given trigger particle originates from a hard parton-parton process.
In the framework of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the nucleon is described as being composed of three valence quarks surrounded by a sea of virtual quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. If the role of this virtual sea in the nucleon properties is inferred to be important, this contribution is still poorly understood. In this context, we study the role of the strange quarks in the nucleon since this is the lightest quark flavor of the sea with no valence contribution. We are determining its contribution to the charge and magnetization distributions in the nucleon via parity violation experiments. The measurement is performed by elastically scattering polarized electrons from nucleon target. A world wide program in which the G0 experiment takes place has been performing for a decade. The G0 experiment and the analysis of the results from its forward angles phase are the topics of this thesis. This document presents the physics case of the strangeness content of the nucleon (mass, spin, impulsion). It describes also the formalism related to the electroweak probe and the form factors, and then the principle of parity violating asymmetry measurement. The G0 experimental setup, which was built and installed in the Hall C of the Jefferson Laboratory (Usa), is detailed. This set-up was designed for the measurement of asymmetries of the order of 10-6 with an overall relative uncertainty better than 10 %, over a momentum transfer range 0.1-1 (GeV/c)2. The various steps of the data analysis are exposed. They have allowed us to start from measured counting rates to reach parity violating physics asymmetries. This required a careful treatment of the various sources of systematical errors which is discussed extensively. Finally the results from the G0 forward angle measurement, its comparison with others experiments and with theoretical models, are presented. They support a non null strange quark contribution. (author)
First measurement of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon using D mesons at COMPASS
von Hodenberg, Martin
2005-01-01
The complicated structure of the nucleon has been studied with great success in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering (DIS) experiments at CERN, SLAC and DESY. As a result the unpolarised structure functions have been measured accurately over a wide kinematic range. From these measurements it is possible to determine the gluon density in the nucleon with good accuracy via a so-called QCD fit. In the case of the spin structure of the nucleon the situation is different. Even after decades of experimental and theoretical efforts it remains to be understood how the spin of the nucleon of 1/2 in units of h-bar is to be accounted for in terms of contributions from the quarks and gluons inside the nucleon. Of particular interest is the question whether the polarised gluon density can explain the unexpected smallness of the quark contribution to the nucleon spin. The QCD fit, which worked well in the unpolarised case, yields a polarised gluon density Delta G which is only badly constrained. This is due to the fact...
QCD and Symmetries related to nucleon structure and strongly interacting matter
We discuss the impact of the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on the observed properties of hadrons and strongly interacting matter. We first introduce the fundamental color gauge symmetry insisting on its non perturbative aspect at low energy. Particular emphasis is put on the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry and its numerous consequences. Operational approaches, such as chiral perturbation theory or QCD sum rules, allowing to implement this crucial symmetry at the hadronic level are presented. We then explore the consequences of chiral restoration at finite baryonic density and/or temperature on the properties of in-medium hadrons in connection with experimental programs. Finally we give a short discussion of the phase structure of QCD in connection with chiral symmetry and the center symmetry associated with the confinement/deconfinement transition. This document includes the slides of the presentation. (author)
The isospin structure of photoproduction of pi-eta pairs from the nucleon in the threshold region
Käser, A.; Ahrens, J; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H.J.(Institut für Kernphysik, University of Mainz, Mainz, D-55099, Germany); Bantawa, K.(Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA); Bartolome, P. A.; Beck, R.; Bekrenev, V.; H. Berghäuser; Braghieri, A.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brudvik, J.; Cherepnya, S.; Costanza, S.
2015-01-01
Photoproduction of $\\pi\\eta$-pairs from nucleons has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of $\\approx$~1.4~GeV. The quasi-free reactions $\\gamma p\\rightarrow p\\pi^0\\eta$, $\\gamma n\\rightarrow n\\pi^0\\eta$, $\\gamma p\\rightarrow n\\pi^+\\eta$, and $\\gamma n\\rightarrow p\\pi^-\\eta$ were for the first time measured from nucleons bound in the deuteron. The corresponding reactions from a free-proton target were also studied to investigate final-state interaction effects (for ...
Spin observables in nucleon-nucleus scattering
The curse of inelastic nucleon scattering and charge exchange has always been the enormous complexity of the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction. This complexity, however, can also be viewed as the ultimate promise of nucleons as probes of nuclear structure. Given an adequate theoretical basis, inelastic nucleon scattering is capable of providing information not obtainable with other probes. Recently a revolution of experimental technique has taken place that makes it desirable to re-examine the question of what physics is ultimately obtainable from inelastic nucleon scattering. It is now feasible to perform complete polarization transfer (PT) experiments for inelastic proton scattering with high efficiency and excellent energy resolution. Programs to measure PT obsevables are underway at several laboratories, and results are beginning to appear. Objectives of this presentation are to examine how such experiments are done, and what physics is presently obtained and may ultimately be learned from them
Nucleon Strangeness and Unitarity
Musolf, M. J.; Hammer, H. -W.; D. Drechsel(Institut f. Kernphysik, Mainz)
1996-01-01
The strange-quark vector current form factors of the nucleon are analyzed within the framework of dispersion relations. Particular attention is paid to contributions made by $K\\bar{K}$ intermediate states to the form factor spectral functions. It is shown that, when the $K\\bar{K}\\to N\\bar{N}$ amplitude is evaluated in the Born approximation, the $K\\bar{K}$ contributions are identical to those arising from a one-loop calculation and entail a serious violation of unitarity. The mean square stra...
This report outlines the progress made in the past 15 months toward completion of a long-term pion-nucleon partial wave analysis in collaboration with R.E. Cuthosky at Carnegie-Mellon University. The report details other theoretical work done during this time period, including work on the Table of Particle Properties, 1982
This report details progress toward completion of a long-term pion-nucleon partial wave analysis, summarizing results and conclusions to date. The report also discussed progress in using partial wave and resonance parameter results to test dynamical models of the baryon and in better understanding interquark forces within baryons
Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure
In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations
Hidden Color and the b1 Structure Function of the Deuteron
The b1 structure function is an observable feature of a spin-1 system sensitive to non-nucleonic components of the target nuclear wave function. A simple model for hidden-color, six-quark configurations is proposed and found to give substantial contributions for values of x > 0.2. Good agreement with Hermes data is obtained. Predictions are made for an upcoming JLab experiment. (author)
Nucleon momentum and density distributions of nuclei
In the framework of recently suggested density coherent fluctuations model the nucleon momentum and density distributions are examined. Nucleon momentum and density distributions are expressed in terms of the fluctuation's function, experimentally obtainable from the elastic electron-nuclei scattering. (author)
Cornelis de Jager
2004-09-01
The experimental and theoretical status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon is reviewed. As a consequence of new experimental facilities, data of unprecedented precision have recently become available for the electromagnetic and the strange form factors of the nucleon.
In this paper, the role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries toward calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian. They represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from genuine two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the description of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces. (author)
Spin–orbit correlations in the nucleon
We investigate the correlations between the quark spin and orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. Similarly to the Ji relation, we show that these correlations can be expressed in terms of specific moments of measurable parton distributions. This provides a whole new piece of information about the partonic structure of the nucleon
Measurement of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Functions G1 and G2
The SLAC experiment E155 was a deep-inelastic scattering experiment that scattered polarized electrons off polarized proton and deuteron targets in the effort to measure precisely the proton and deuteron spin structure functions. The nucleon structure functions g1 and g2 are important quantities that help test our present models of nucleon structure. Such information can help quantify the constituent contributions to the nucleon spin. The structure functions g1p and G1d have been measured over the kinematic range 0.01 (le) x (le) 0.9 and 1 (le) Q2 (le) 40 GeV2 by scattering 48.4 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons off longitudinally polarized protons and deuterons. In addition, the structure functions g2p and g2d have been measured over the kinematic range 0.01 (le) x (le) 0.7 and 1 (le) Q2 (le) 17 GeV2 by scattering 38.8 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons off transversely polarized protons and deuterons. The measurements of g1 confirm the Bjorken sum rule and find the net quark polarization to be ΔΣ = 0.23 ± 0.04 ± 0.6 while g2 is found to be consistent with the g2WW model
Tensor-polarized structure functions: Tensor structure of deuteron in 2020's
Kumano, S.
2014-10-01
We explain spin structure for a spin-one hadron, in which there are new structure functions, in addition to the ones (F1, F2, g1, g2) which exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon, associated with its tensor structure. The new structure functions are b1, b2, b3, and b4 in deep inelastic scattering of a charged-lepton from a spin-one hadron such as the deuteron. Among them, twist- two functions are related by the Callan-Gross type relation b2 = 2xb1 in the Bjorken scaling limit. First, these new structure functions are introduced, and useful formulae are derived for projection operators of b1-4 from a hadron tensor Wμν. Second, a sum rule is explained for b1, and possible tensor-polarized distributions are discussed by using HERMES data in order to propose future experimental measurements and to compare them with theoretical models. A proposal was approved to measure b1 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), so that much progress is expected for b1 in the near future. Third, formalisms of polarized proton-deuteron Drell-Yan processes are explained for probing especially tensor- polarized antiquark distributions, which were suggested by the HERMES data. The studies of the tensor-polarized structure functions will open a new era in 2020's for tensor-structure studies in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, which are very different from ordinary descriptions in terms of nucleons and mesons.
Tensor-polarized structure functions: Tensor structure of deuteron in 2020's
We explain spin structure for a spin-one hadron, in which there are new structure functions, in addition to the ones (F1, F2, g1, g2) which exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon, associated with its tensor structure. The new structure functions are b1, b2, b3, and b4 in deep inelastic scattering of a charged-lepton from a spin-one hadron such as the deuteron. Among them, twist- two functions are related by the Callan-Gross type relation b2 = 2xb1 in the Bjorken scaling limit. First, these new structure functions are introduced, and useful formulae are derived for projection operators of b1-4 from a hadron tensor Wμν. Second, a sum rule is explained for b1, and possible tensor-polarized distributions are discussed by using HERMES data in order to propose future experimental measurements and to compare them with theoretical models. A proposal was approved to measure b1 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), so that much progress is expected for b1 in the near future. Third, formalisms of polarized proton-deuteron Drell-Yan processes are explained for probing especially tensor- polarized antiquark distributions, which were suggested by the HERMES data. The studies of the tensor-polarized structure functions will open a new era in 2020's for tensor-structure studies in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, which are very different from ordinary descriptions in terms of nucleons and mesons
Tvaskis, V; Niculescu, I; Abbott, D; Adams, G S; Afanasev, A; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Brash, E; Breuer, H; Chang, G; Chant, N; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Khayari, N El; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gaskell, D; Garrow, K; Gilman, R; Gueye, P; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Jackson, H; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Joo, K; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, J; Kinney, E; Klein, A; Kubarovsky, V; Liang, M; Liang, Y; Lolos, G; Lung, A; Mack, D; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; Mbianda, G; McGrath, E; Mckee, D; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Nozar, M; Ostapenko, T; Papandreou, Z; Potterveld, D; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Telfeyan, J; Todor, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yan, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zihlmann, B; Zhu, H
2016-01-01
Structure functions, as measured in lepton-nucleon scattering, have proven to be very useful in studying the quark dynamics within the nucleon. However, it is experimentally difficult to separately determine the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and consequently there are substantially less data available for the longitudinal structure function in particular. Here we present separated structure functions for hydrogen and deuterium at low four--momentum transfer squared, Q^2< 1 GeV^2, and compare these with parton distribution parameterizations and a k_T factorization approach. While differences are found, the parameterizations generally agree with the data even at the very low Q^2 scale of the data. The deuterium data show a smaller longitudinal structure function, and smaller ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross section R, than the proton. This suggests either an unexpected difference in R for the proton and neutron or a suppression of the gluonic distribution in nuclei.
Structure functions at large x
Zhang, Z
2002-01-01
Structure function data together with other measurements from fixed-target deep inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collider experiments which contribute to our knowledge of the parton density functions are reviewed. The inclusive cross-section measurements of neutral and charged current interactions at HERA are presented and their impact on the parton density functions is discussed. Future prospects for an improved knowledge of the parton density functions at large x are briefly mentioned.
Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering in a Three Dimensional Approach
Fachruddin, I; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.
2000-01-01
The nucleon-nucleon (NN) t-matrix is calculated directly as function of two vector momenta for different realistic NN potentials. To facilitate this a formalism is developed for solving the two-nucleon Lippmann-Schwinger equation in momentum space without employing a partial wave decomposition. The total spin is treated in a helicity representation. Two different realistic NN interactions, one defined in momentum space and one in coordinate space, are presented in a form suited for this formulation. The angular and momentum dependence of the full amplitude is studied and displayed. A partial wave decomposition of the full amplitude it carried out to compare the presented results with the well known phase shifts provided by those interactions.
Avakian, H; Hasch, D; Schweitzer, P
2012-01-01
The three-dimensional nucleon structure is central to many theoretical and experimental activities, and research in this field has seen many advances in the last two decades, addressing fundamental questions such as the orbital motion of quarks and gluons inside the nucleons, their spatial distribution, and the correlation between spin and intrinsic motion. A real three-dimensional imaging of the nucleon as a composite object, both in momentum and coordinate space, is slowly emerging. This book presents lectures and seminars from the Enrico Fermi School: Three-Dimensional Partonic Structure of the Nucleon, held in Varenna, Italy, in June and July 2011. The topics covered include: partonic distributions, fragmentation functions and factorization in QCD; theory of transverse momentum dependent partonic distributions (TMDs) and generalized partonic distributions (GPDs); experimental methods in studies of hard scattering processes; extraction of TMDs and GPDs from data; analysis tools for azimuthal asymmetries; ...
Burkert, Volker D
2016-01-01
Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degre...
The isospin structure of photoproduction of πη pairs from the nucleon in the threshold region
Käser, A.; Ahrens, J; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H.J.(Institut für Kernphysik, University of Mainz, Mainz, D-55099, Germany); Bantawa, K.(Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA); Bartolome, P. A.; Beck, R.; Bekrenev, V.; H. Berghäuser; Braghieri, A.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brudvik, J.; Cherepnya, S.; Costanza, S.
2016-01-01
Photoproduction of πη -pairs from nucleons has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of ≈ 1.4 GeV. The quasi-free reactions γp→pπ0η , γn→nπ0η , γp→nπ+η , and γn→pπ−η were for the first time measured from nucleons bound in the deuteron. The corresponding reactions from a free-proton target were also studied to investigate final-state interaction effects (for neutral pions the free-proton results could be compared to previous measurements; the γp→nπ+η reaction was meas...
Structural Chemistry of Functional Materials
2011-01-01
@@ This innovative research group on structural chemistry of functional materials was approved by NSFC in 2005.Headed by Prof.HONG Maochun, the team consists of several young research scientists from the CAS Fujian Institute of Research on the Structures of Matter, including Profs CAO Rong, LU Canzhong, GUO Guocong, CHEN Zhongning, MAO Jianggao Mao and CHEN Ling.
Yokosawa, A.
1985-01-01
We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.
The Soudan nucleon decay program is being carried out in the Soudan iron mine in northeastern Minnesota, at a depth of 2000 m of water equivalent. A 30-ton prototype experiment, Soudan 1, has been built and is now being operated by a University of Minnesota - Argonne National Laboratory collaboration. The detector is a block of iron-loaded concrete instrumented with 3456 gas proportional tubes. It can detect nucleon decay at the 2 x 1030 year level, and will measure cosmic-ray induced backgrounds. Soudan 1 is also obtaining data on very high energy cosmic-ray interactions. Monte-Carlo predictions of performance have been checked by calibration of a detector module in a charged-particle test beam. A proposal to build a 1000-ton experiment, Soudan 2, has been submitted to funding agencies in the USA and the UK by a Minnesota - Argonne - Oxford University collaboration. The proposed detector utilizes drift chambers with 50-cm drifts to obtain very fine-grained ionization and tracking information at low cost. This tracking-calorimeter detector has a fiducial mass of 650 tons, and could be operating in 1985. A drifting scheme utilizing 50 cm x 5 m x 1 cm planar chambers has been shown feasible, and prototypes of alternate drifting structures are also being studied. A plan to provide expandability to an eventual 5000 tons has been developed
Non-singlet spin structure function in valon model
We present a Next-to-leading order QCD calculation of non-singlet spin structure function g1NS(x,Q2), of the nucleon in the so-called the valon representation. The structure of the valon itself develops through the perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD, which is independent of the hosting hadron. The results of this calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data from HERMES collaborations for the entire measured range of x. It also provides an acceptable agreement with the older data from SMC, E143 and E155 experiments. We have further compared our results with those from AA, BB, GRSV, and DNS global fits.
Non-singlet spin structure function in valon model
Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh [School of Particles and Accelerators,IPM, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran); Arash, Firooz [Department of Physics, Tafresh University, Tafresh (Iran)
2009-07-01
We present a Next-to-leading order QCD calculation of non-singlet spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup NS}(x,Q{sup 2}), of the nucleon in the so-called the valon representation. The structure of the valon itself develops through the perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD, which is independent of the hosting hadron. The results of this calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data from HERMES collaborations for the entire measured range of x. It also provides an acceptable agreement with the older data from SMC, E143 and E155 experiments. We have further compared our results with those from AA, BB, GRSV, and DNS global fits.
Proton and neutron polarized targets for nucleon-nucleon experiments at SATURNE II
A SATURNE polarized target has been used for nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering and transmission experiments for 15 years. The polarized proton target is a 70 cm3 cartridge loaded with Pentanol-2. For polarized neutron target, two cartridges loaded with 6LiD and 6LiH are set in the refrigerator and can be quickly inserted in the beam. First experiments using 6Li products in quasielastic pp or pn analyzing power measurements are compared with the same observables measured in a free nucleon-nucleon scattering using polarized proton targets. Angular distribution as a function of a kinematically conjugate angle and coplanarity in nucleon-nucleon scattering is shown for different targets. (author)
Pionic background for nucleon-nucleon observables
A method is presented that allows the unambiguous definition of the one pion exchange contribution to nucleon-nucleon scattering observables and then use it to determine those waves where values of phase shifts and mixing parameters may be understood as sums of pionic and non-pionic dynamical effects. This helps the assessment of the explicative power of the various existing phenomenological potentials and may eventually lead to ways of discriminating their effectiveness. (author) 16 refs.; 19 figs.; 2 tabs
Comparison of Relativistic Nucleon-Nucleon Interactions
Allen, T. W.; Payne, G. L.; Polyzou, Wayne N.
2000-01-01
We investigate the difference between those relativistic models based on interpreting a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction as a perturbation of the square of a relativistic mass operator and those models that use the method of Kamada and Gl\\"ockle to construct an equivalent interaction to add to the relativistic mass operator. Although both models reproduce the phase shifts and binding energy of the corresponding non-relativistic model, they are not scattering equivalent. The example of el...
Nuclear Dependence in Weak Structure Functions and the Determination of Weak Mixing Angle
Athar, M Sajjad; Simo, I Ruiz; Vacas, M J Vicente
2013-01-01
We have studied nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F^A_2(x)$ and $F^A_3(x)$ and in the extraction of weak mixing angle using Paschos Wolfenstein(PW) relation. We have modified the PW relation for nonisoscalar nuclear target. We have incorporated the medium effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, nuclear binding energy, nucleon correlations, pion $\\&$ rho cloud contributions, and shadowing and antishadowing effects.
On the resumed gluon anomalous dimension and structure functions at small x
The impact of the recently evaluated open-quotes irreducibleclose quotes contributions to the resummed next-to-leading logarithmic small-x anomalous dimension γgg is evaluated for the unpolarized parton densities and structure functions of the nucleon. These new terms diminish the gluon distribution and are found to overcompensate the enhancement caused by the resummed leading logarithmic small-x anomalous dimension and the quarkonic contributions beyond next-to-leading order. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Structure functions and parton distributions
Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom); Roberts, R.G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)
1995-07-01
The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed.
Muangma, I Korover N; Shneor, R; Sulkosky, V; Kelleher, A; Gilad, S; Higinbotham, D W; Watson, E Piasetzky J; Wood, S; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Aguilera, P; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Anez, D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Averett, T; Badman, T; Baghdasaryan, H; Bai, X; Beck, A; Beck, S; Bellini, V; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bittner, J; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M; Daniel, A; Day, D; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Defurne, M; Flay, D; Fomin, N; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Fuchey, E; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gu, C; Gueye, P; Hamilton, D; Hanretty, C; Hansen, O; Shabestari, M Hashemi; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Iqbal, S; Jin, G; Kalantarians, N; Kang, H; Khandaker, M; LeRose, J; Leckey, J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Jimenez-Arguello, A Marti; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Monaghan, P; Camacho, C Munoz; Norum, B; Nuruzzaman,; Pan, K; Phillips, S; Pomerantz, I; Posik, M; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Qiu, X; Reimer, P E; Riordan, S; Ron, G; Rondon-Aramayo, O; Saha, A; Schulte, E; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Sjoegren, J; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R; Tireman, W; Wang, D; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, W; Yaron, I; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P; Zielinski, R
2014-01-01
We measured simultaneously the 4He(eep), 4He(eepp), and 4He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q^2=2 [GeV/c]2 and x_B>1, for a (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum in a region where the nucleon-nucleon force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. Neutron-proton pairs dominate the high-momentum tail of the nucleon momentum distributions, but their abundance is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ~500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum in the range we studied. Our data are compared with ab-initio calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in 4He.
Non-empirical energy density functional for the nuclear structure
The energy density functional (EDF) formalism is the tool of choice for large-scale low-energy nuclear structure calculations both for stable experimentally known nuclei whose properties are accurately reproduced and systems that are only theoretically predicted. We highlight in the present dissertation the capability of EDF methods to tackle exotic phenomena appearing at the very limits of stability, that is the formation of nuclear halos. We devise a new quantitative and model-independent method that characterizes the existence and properties of halos in medium- to heavy-mass nuclei, and quantifies the impact of pairing correlations and the choice of the energy functional on the formation of such systems. These results are found to be limited by the predictive power of currently-used EDFs that rely on fitting to known experimental data. In the second part of this dissertation, we initiate the construction of non-empirical EDFs that make use of the new paradigm for vacuum nucleon-nucleon interactions set by so-called low-momentum interactions generated through the application of renormalization group techniques. These soft-core vacuum potentials are used as a step-stone of a long-term strategy which connects modern many-body techniques and EDF methods. We provide guidelines for designing several non-empirical models that include in-medium many-body effects at various levels of approximation, and can be handled in state-of-the art nuclear structure codes. In the present work, the first step is initiated through the adjustment of an operator representation of low-momentum vacuum interactions using a custom-designed parallel evolutionary algorithm. The first results highlight the possibility to grasp most of the relevant physics for low-energy nuclear structure using this numerically convenient Gaussian vertex. (author)
The structure of the neutron rich light nuclei 11Be and 10Li has been investigated by means of one nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL in inverse kinematics using 11Be secondary beams. The 11Be(p,d)10Be reaction bas been studied at 35.3 MeV/u. The 10Be ejectiles were analyzed by the spectrometer SPEG, and coincident deuterons were detected in the position sensitive silicon detector CHARISSA. Transfer cross sections to 0+1 and 2+1, states in 10Be were measured up to θCM = 16 deg. and compared to DWBA and CRC predictions. The effects of neutron-cure couplings on reaction form factors have been studied by solving coupled equations in the framework of a vibrational model. It is shown that the rate of core excitation 10Be2+ in the 11Begs wave function is overestimated by a standard analysis with form factors given by the usual Separation Energy prescription. The former model predicts a rate of core excitation of 16% and leads to theoretical cross sections which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The aim of the 11Be(d,3He)10Li experiment, realized at 37 MeV/u, was to measure the distribution of the 2s neutron strength in the unbound nucleus 10Li. The energy spectrum was deduced from the 3He energy and angle measured by the silicon strip detector array MUST. An asymmetric peak is clearly observed near the threshold, with a maximum at -Sn = 130 keV. This constitutes a direct proof of the inversion of 2s and 1p1/2 shells in 10Li, which was until now a controversial question in spite of many experimental efforts. On the other band the analysis of the 11Be(d,t)10Be reaction studied in the same experiment confirms the results obtained in the 11Be(p,d)10Be reaction concerning the 11Begs structure. This work shows the interest and feasibility of studies of the shell properties of exotic nuclei using transfer reactions induced by radioactive beams and constitutes the beginning of a program devoted to this kind of experiment
The isospin structure of photoproduction of pi-eta pairs from the nucleon in the threshold region
Käser, A; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Bartolome, P A; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Berghäuser, H; Braghieri, A; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Costanza, S; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil'kov, L V; Fix, A; Glazier, D I; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Huber, G M; Jahn, O; Jaegle, I; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kruglov, S P; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Maghrbi, Y; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Marinides, Z; McGeorge, J C; McNicoll, E; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Micanovic, S; Middleton, D G; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ostrick, M; Otte, P; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Pheron, F; Polonski, A; Prakhov, S N; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Sober, D I; Starostin, A; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmüller, D; Witthauer, L
2015-01-01
Photoproduction of $\\pi\\eta$-pairs from nucleons has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of $\\approx$~1.4~GeV. The quasi-free reactions $\\gamma p\\rightarrow p\\pi^0\\eta$, $\\gamma n\\rightarrow n\\pi^0\\eta$, $\\gamma p\\rightarrow n\\pi^+\\eta$, and $\\gamma n\\rightarrow p\\pi^-\\eta$ were for the first time measured from nucleons bound in the deuteron. The corresponding reactions from a free-proton target were also studied to investigate final-state interaction effects (for neutral pions the free-proton results could be compared to previous measurements; the $\\gamma p\\rightarrow n\\pi^+\\eta$ reaction was measured for the first time). For the $\\pi^0\\eta$ final state coherent production via the $\\gamma d\\rightarrow d\\pi^0\\eta$ reaction was also investigated. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam of the Mainz MAMI accelerator using an almost $4\\pi$ coverage electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The total cross sections for the four differ...
Studies on regge behaviour and spin-independent and spin-dependent structure functions
Jamil, Begum Umme
2010-01-01
Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided important information on the structure of hadrons and ultimately the structure of matter and on the nature of interactions between leptons and hadrons, since the discovery of partons. Various high energy deep inelastic interactions lead to different evolution equations from which we obtain various structure functions giving information about the partons i.e. quarks and gluons involved in different scattering processes. Actually structure function is a mathematical picture of the hadron structure in the high energy region. Understanding the behaviour of the structure functions of the nucleon at low-x, where x is the Bjorken variable, is interesting both theoretically and phenomenologically. Structure functions are important inputs in many high energy processes and also important for examination of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (PQCD), the underlying dynamics of quarks and gluons. In PQCD, for high-Q2, where Q2 is the four momentum transfer in a DI...
The dipole model structure functions
We present an approach to the evolution of the valence structure functions based on the Colour Dipole Cascade Model for deep inelastic lepto-production. We show that this approach leads to an evolution equation similar to the DGLAP equation. In our approach the dependence on Q2 is however much weaker and the evolution levels out at high Q2. (orig.)
Deep recent data and phenomenology on low-x structure functions are discussed inelastic scattering. We will be interested primordially in the regions Q2 → 0 i.e. the transition from γp to, and x → 10-4 - 10-6 i.e. the region of high parton densities
Measuring spin-dependent structure functions at CEBAF
Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)
1994-04-01
The author analyses whether CEBAF with a 10 GeV beam could contribute significantly to the understanding of spin-dependent deep-inelastic scattering as well as semi-inclusive reactions. The main advantage of CEBAF is the much better attainable statistics, its great disadvantage its comparably low energy, which limits the accessible x-range to about 0.15 to 0.7. Within these constraints CEBAF could provide (1) high precision data which would be very valuable to understand the Q{sup 2} dependence of the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}(x) and G{sub 2}(x) and (2) the by far most precise determination of the third moments of g{sub 1}(x) and g{sub 2}(x) the latter of which the author argues to be related to a fundamental property of the nucleon.
Nucleon Magnetic Moments and Electric Polarizabilities
W Detmold, B C Tiburzi, A Walker-Loud
2010-06-01
Electromagnetic properties of the nucleon are explored with lattice QCD using a novel technique. Focusing on background electric fields, we show how the electric polarizability can be extracted from nucleon correlation functions. A crucial step concerns addressing contributions from the magnetic moment, which affects the relativistic propagation of nucleons in electric fields. By properly handing these contributions, we can determine both magnetic moments and electric po larizabilities. Lattice results from anisotropic clover lattices are presented. Our method is not limited to the neutron; we show results for the proton as well.
Proton induced nuclear reactions at low proton energies are commonly used for production of radioactive isotopes which are important for many different applications. The production yield depends on excitation function features for the used nuclear reaction. In this work the excitation functions for more than 80 protons induced nuclear reactions were constructed using the ALICE-IPPE code which depends on the pre equilibrium model. Four groups of different isotopes were chosen to study the effect of the excess target neutrons on the threshold energy (Ethr), maximum reaction cross section (σmax) and the energy at maximum cross section (Emax). The selected groups were the natural isotopes of Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. For the study of the effect of excess target protons on the same previous parameters, the excitation functions for the reactions on the isotones group 54Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe and 58Ni were performed at the same proton energy range. In order to understand the effect of the neutron to proton ratio on the previously mentioned parameters, proton reactions on the group of isobars 50Ti, 50V and 50Cr had been studied. In each case three protons induced reactions were undertaken, manly (p,n), (p,2n) and (p,3n). Each of the three previously mentioned parameters for each reaction were tabulated as a function of the excess number of nucleons and curve fit were constructed in order to get some phenomenological formulae for the behavior of these parameters
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons
Lorcé, Cédric
2014-01-01
In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular momentum and its extraction from experimental data. We summarize the present situation and discuss recent developments in this field.
Time-reversal-invariance-violating nucleon-nucleon potential in the 1/N_c expansion
Samart, Daris; Schindler, Matthias R; Phillips, Daniel R
2016-01-01
We apply the large-$N_c$ expansion to the time-reversal-invariance-violating (TV) nucleon-nucleon potential. The operator structures contributing to next-to-next-to-leading order in the large-$N_c$ counting are constructed. For the TV and parity-violating case we find a single operator structure at leading order. The TV but parity-conserving potential contains two leading-order terms, which however are suppressed by 1/$N_c$ compared to the parity-violating potential. Comparison with phenomenological potentials, including the chiral EFT potential in the TV parity-violating case, leads to large-$N_c$ scaling relations for TV meson-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon couplings.
Factor XIII: Structure and Function.
Schroeder, Verena; Kohler, Hans P
2016-06-01
Over the last two decades, it became evident that factor XIII (FXIII) is not only a crucial determinant of clot characteristics but also has potentially important functions in many various fields such as bone biology, immunity, and adipogenesis. In this review, we aim to summarize the latest findings regarding structure and function of FXIII. In regard to FXIII structure, much progress has been made recently to understand how its subunits are held together. In the A subunit, the activation peptide has a crucial role in the formation of FXIII-A2 dimers. In the B subunit, Sushi domains that are involved in binding to the A subunit and in B2 dimer formation have been identified. In regard to FXIII function, interactions with immune cells and the complement system have been described. A novel function of FXIII-A in adipogenesis has been suggested. The role of FXIII-A in osteoblast differentiation has been further investigated; however, a novel double knockout mouse deficient in both FXIII-A and transglutaminase 2 showed normal bone formation. Thus, more research, in particular, into the cellular functions of FXIII-A is still required. PMID:27019464
Kees de Jager
2002-10-01
A review of data on the nucleon electro-weak form factors in the space-like region is presented. Recent results from experiments using polarized beams and either polarized targets or nucleon recoil polarimeters have yielded a significant improvement on the precision of the electromagnetic data obtained with the traditional Rosenbluth separation. An outlook is presented of planned experiments.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts
Here are presented 0 to 800 MeV nucleon-nucleon elastic and inelastic phase parameters derived by several groups: Arndt and Roper; Hoshizaki; Bugg; Bystricky, Lechanoine, and Lehar; and Bryan, Clark, and VerWest. Resonant-like behavior appears in the 1D2 and 3F3 states above the inelastic threshold in Hoshizaki's analysis but not in Arndt and Roper's. The np data are inadequate to permit determination of the I = O phase parameters above 600 MeV. 27 references
Two theoretical approaches to extract the neutron structure functions from combined experimental data on the proton and deuteron are considered. It is shown that the consideration only of the Fermi motion of nucleons in the deuteron in the light cone kinematics gives wrong results at large x (x > 0.7). The meson exchange corrections and binding effects in the deuteron must be taken into account. A new treatment of the experimental neutron structure function obtained from BCDMS-collaboration data is given. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
The isospin structure of photoproduction of πη pairs from the nucleon in the threshold region
A. Käser
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Photoproduction of πη-pairs from nucleons has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of ≈ 1.4 GeV. The quasi-free reactions γp→pπ0η, γn→nπ0η, γp→nπ+η, and γn→pπ−η were for the first time measured from nucleons bound in the deuteron. The corresponding reactions from a free-proton target were also studied to investigate final-state interaction effects (for neutral pions the free-proton results could be compared to previous measurements; the γp→nπ+η reaction was measured for the first time. For the π0η final state coherent production via the γd→dπ0η reaction was also investigated. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam of the Mainz MAMI accelerator using an almost 4π coverage electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The total cross sections for the four different final states obey the relation σ(pπ0η≈σ(nπ0η≈2σ(pπ−η≈2σ(nπ+η as expected for a dominant contribution from a Δ⋆→ηΔ(1232→πηN reaction chain, which is also supported by the shapes of the invariant-mass distributions of nucleon–meson and π–η pairs. The experimental results are compared to the predictions from an isobar reaction model.
Structure and Function of Glucansucrases
Dijkstra, B. W.; Vujičić-Žagar, A.
2008-03-01
Glucansucrases are relatively large (~160 kDa) extracellular enzymes produced by lactic acid bacteria. Using sucrose as a substrate they synthesize high molecular mass glucose polymers, called α-glucans, which allow the bacteria to adhere to surfaces and create a biofilm. The glucan polymers are of importance for the food and dairy industry as thickening and jellying agents. An overview is given of the current insights into the structure and functioning of these and related enzymes.
Next-to-leading-order constituent quark structure and hadronic structure functions
We utilize the existing next-to-leading-order (NLO) formalism to calculate the partonic structure of a constituent quark. The structure of any hadron can be obtained thereafter using a convolution method. Such a procedure is used to generate the structure functions of protons and pions in NLO, neglecting certain corrections to ΛQCD. It is shown that while the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contribution coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of the Gottfried sum rule. These effects are calculated. We obtained an excellent agreement with the experimental data in a wide range of x=[10-6,1] and Q2=[0.5,5000] GeV2 for the proton structure function. We have also calculated pion structure and compared it with the existing data. Again, the model calculations agree rather well with the data from experiment
Next-to-leading-order constituent quark structure and hadronic structure functions
Arash, Firooz; Khorramian, Ali N.
2003-04-01
We utilize the existing next-to-leading-order (NLO) formalism to calculate the partonic structure of a constituent quark. The structure of any hadron can be obtained thereafter using a convolution method. Such a procedure is used to generate the structure functions of protons and pions in NLO, neglecting certain corrections to ΛQCD. It is shown that while the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contribution coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of the Gottfried sum rule. These effects are calculated. We obtained an excellent agreement with the experimental data in a wide range of x=[10-6,1] and Q2=[0.5,5000] GeV2 for the proton structure function. We have also calculated pion structure and compared it with the existing data. Again, the model calculations agree rather well with the data from experiment.
High-x structure function of the virtually free neutron
Cosyn, Wim; Sargsian, Misak M.
2016-05-01
The pole extrapolation method is applied to the semi-inclusive inelastic electron scattering off the deuteron with tagged spectator protons to extract the high-x structure function of the neutron. This approach is based on the extrapolation of the measured cross sections at different momenta of the spectator proton to the nonphysical pole of the bound neutron in the deuteron. The advantage of the method is in the possibility of suppression of the nuclear effects in a maximally model-independent way. The neutron structure functions obtained in this way demonstrate a surprising x dependence at x ≥0.6 and 1.6 ≤Q2≤3.38 GeV2 , indicating a possible rise of the neutron-to-proton structure functions ratio. If the observed rise is valid in the true deep inelastic region then it may indicate new dynamics in the generation of high-x quarks in the nucleon. One such mechanism we discuss is the possible dominance of short-range isosinglet quark-quark correlations that can enhance the d -quark distribution in the proton.
A Determination of the Neutron Spin Structure Function
The authors report the results of the experiment E142 which measured the spin dependent structure function of the neutron, g1n(x, Q2). The experiment was carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center by measuring an asymmetry in the deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized 3He target, at electron energies from 19 to 26 GeV. The structure function was determined over the kinematic range 0.03 2 2. An evaluation of the integral ∫01 g1n(x,Q2)dx at fixed Q2 = 2 (GeV/c)2 yields the final result Λ1n = -0.032 ± 0.006 (stat.) ± 0.009 (syst.). This result, when combined with the integral of the proton spin structure function measured in other experiments, confirms the fundamental Bjorken sum rule with O(αs3) corrections to within one standard deviation. This is a major success for perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. Some ancillary results include the findings that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule for the neutron is violated at the 2 σ level, and that the total contribution of the quarks to the helicity of the nucleon is 0.36 ± 0.10. The strange sea polarization is estimated to be small and negative, Δs = -0.07 ± 0.04
Gauge-Invariant Decomposition of Nucleon Spin
I introduce a gauge-invariant decomposition of the nucleon spin into quark helicity, quark orbital, and gluon contributions. The total quark (and hence the quark orbital) contribution is shown to be measurable through virtual Compton scattering in a special kinematic region where single quark scattering dominates. This deeply virtual Compton scattering has much potential to unravel the quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Low x Behaviour of the Isovector Nucleon Polarized Structure Function and the Bjorken Sum Rule
Buccella, F; Santorelli, P
1997-01-01
The combination g_1^p(x) - g_1^n(x) is derived from SLAC data on polarized proton and deuteron targets, evaluated at Q^2 = 10 GeV^2, and compared with the results of SMC experiment. The agreement is satisfactory except for the points at the three lowest x, which have an important role in the SMC evaluation of the l.h.s. of the Bjorken sum rule.
Low x Behavior of the Isovector Nucleon Polarized Structure Function and the Bjorken Sum Rule
Buccella, Franco; Pisanti, Ofelia; Santorelli, Pietro
The combination gp1(x)-gn_1(x) is derived from SLAC data on polarized proton and deuteron targets, evaluated at Q2=10 GeV2, and compared with the results of SMC experiment. The agreement is satisfactory except for the points at the three lowest x, which have an important role in the SMC evaluation on the L.H.S. of the Bjorken sum rule.
EN YO,H.; SAITO,N.; SHIBATA,T.A.; YAZAKI,K.; BUNCE,G.
2002-03-29
The RIKEN School on ''Quark-Gluon Structure of the Nucleon and QCD'' was held from March 29th through 31st at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). The school was the second of a new series with a broad perspective of hadron and nuclear physics. The purpose of the school was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn theoretical aspects of hadron physics based on QCD and related experimental programs being or to be carried out by Japanese groups. We had 3 theoretical courses, each consisting of 3 one-hour lectures, and 6 experimental courses, each consisting of a one-hour lecture.
Three-nucleon forces in the 1/Nc expansion
Phillips, Daniel R
2013-01-01
The operator structures that can contribute to three-nucleon forces are classified in the 1/Nc expansion. At leading order in 1/Nc a spin-flavor independent term is present, as are the spin-flavor structures associated with the Fujita-Miyazawa three-nucleon force. Modern phenomenological three-nucleon forces are thus consistent with this O(Nc) leading force, corrections to which are suppressed by a power series in 1/Nc^2. A complete basis of operators for the three-nucleon force, including all independent momentum structures, is given explicitly up to next-to-leading order in the 1/Nc expansion.
Li, Qingfeng; Li, Zhuxia; Soff, Sven; Bleicher, Marcus; Stöcker, Horst
2006-01-01
Several observables of unbound nucleons which are to some extent sensitive to the medium modifications of nucleon-nucleon elastic cross sections in neutron-rich intermediate energy heavy ion collisions are investigated. The splitting effect of neutron and proton effective masses on cross sections is discussed. It is found that the transverse flow as a function of rapidity, the $Q_{zz}$ as a function of momentum, and the ratio of halfwidths of the transverse to that of longitudinal rapidity di...
The problem of temperature dependence of nucleon mass is addressed by considering a retarded correlator of two currents with quantum numbers of a nucleon at finite temperature T π in the chiral limit. It is shown that at Euclidean momenta the leading one-loop corrections arise from direct interaction of thermal pions with the currents. A dispersive representation for the correlator shows that this interaction smears the nucleon pole over frequency interval with width ∼ T. This interaction does not change the exponential fall-off of the correlator in Euclidean space but gives an O(T2/Fπ2) contribution to the pre-exponential factor. 11 refs. (author)
Supramolecular Structure and Function 9
Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta
2007-01-01
The book is based on International Summer Schools on Biophysics held in Croatia which, contrary to other workshops centered mainly on one topic or technique, has very broad scope providing advanced training in areas related to biophysics. This volume is presenting papers in the field of biophysics for studying biological phenomena by using physical methods (NMR, EPR, FTIR, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) and/or concepts (predictions of protein-protein interactions, virtual ligand screening etc.). The interrelationship of supramolecular structures and there functions is enlightened by applications of principals of these physical methods in the biophysical and molecular biology context.
Cottingham formula and nucleon polarisabilities
The difference between the electromagnetic self-energies of proton and neutron can be calculated with the Cottingham formula, which expresses the self-energies as an integral over the electroproduction cross sections - provided the nucleon matrix elements of the current commutator do not contain a fixed pole. We show that, under the same proviso, the subtraction function occurring in the dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude is determined by the cross sections. The representation in particular leads to a parameter-free sum rule for the nucleon polarisabilities. We evaluate the sum rule for the difference between the electric polarisabilities of proton and neutron by means of the available parameterisations of the data and compare the result with experiment. (orig.)
Cottingham formula and nucleon polarisabilities
Gasser, J.; Leutwyler, H. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Hoferichter, M. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, WA (United States); Rusetsky, A. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)
2015-08-15
The difference between the electromagnetic self-energies of proton and neutron can be calculated with the Cottingham formula, which expresses the self-energies as an integral over the electroproduction cross sections - provided the nucleon matrix elements of the current commutator do not contain a fixed pole. We show that, under the same proviso, the subtraction function occurring in the dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude is determined by the cross sections. The representation in particular leads to a parameter-free sum rule for the nucleon polarisabilities. We evaluate the sum rule for the difference between the electric polarisabilities of proton and neutron by means of the available parameterisations of the data and compare the result with experiment. (orig.)
Neutral-current x-distributions in the neutrino-nucleon scattering
In this thesis the measurement of the x distribution of the structure functions for deep inelastic charged-current and neutral-current neutrino-nucleon interactions at the CERN 200 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam is described. (HSI)
What do we learn from polarization measurements in deep-inelastic electron-nucleon scattering
We examine what can be learned from deep-inelastic electron-nucleon scattering with polarized initial electrons and measurement of the polarization of the final electrons. A direct evaluation of the separate structure functions W1 and W2 is shown to be possible
Structure and function of aggrecan
无
2002-01-01
Aggrecan is the major proteoglycan in the articular cartilage. This molecule is important in the proper functioning of articular cartilage because it provides a hydrated gel structure (via its interaction with hyaluronan and link protein) that endows the cartilage with load-bearing properties. It is also crucial in chondroskeletal morphogenesis during development. Aggrecan is a multimodular molecule expressed by chondrocytes. Its core protein is composed of three globular domains (Gl, G2, and G3) and a large extended region (CS) between G2 and G3 for glycosaminoglycan chain attachment. G1 comprises the amino terminus of the core protein. This domain has the same structural motif as link protein. Functionally, the G1 domain interacts with hyaluronan acid and link protein, forming stable ternary complexes in the extracellular matrix.G2 is homologous to the tandem repeats of G1 and of link protein and is involved in product processing. G3makes up the carboxyl terminus of the core protein. It enhances glycosaminoglycan modification and product secretion. Aggrecan plays an important role in mediating chondrocyte-chondrocyte and chondrocyte-matrix interactions through its ability to bind hyaluronan.
Clustering effect of nucleonic matter in low-density region
Full text: We consider clustering effect of symmetric and asymmetric nucleonic matter in low-density situation. To describe such a system, we adopt a Bloch function (B.F.) as a single-particle state. When clusters form and the matter has a periodic structure, a nucleon feels a periodic mean field. In analogy with electrons in a crystal, such a single-particle state of a nucleon is described by linear combination of atomic orbitals, Ψ Α Π from i=1 until A φcki (ri) Xi (σi, τi), φck (r) = (a/L)3/2 (1/Nck)3/2 Σ eikma φc (r-ma), where φck and Xi are the spatial and spin-isospin part of a single-particle wave function, respectively, and φc is an atomic orbital. a is the periodic distance, L3 is the normalization volume, and Nck is the normalization factor. In the case of an alpha-particle-like density fluctuation in symmetric nucleonic matter, we adopt the s-wave function as φc, φs(r) = (b/ √ π)3/2 exp [-b2/2 r2], For the purpose of describing asymmetric nucleonic matter, we have to prepare a B.F. constructed by a p-wave function, φpx (r) = (b/√ π)3/2 √ 2 bx exp [-b2/2 r2], but such a p-wave B.F. is not orthogonal to a s-wave B.F. Here we define the orthogonal p-wave B.F. to the s-wave B.F. as follows: φopx,k (r) = (1/Nopk)1/2 [φpxk (r) - [φsk/φpxk] φsk (r)], φopyk and φopxk are also defined in the similar way. It should be noticed that these orthogonal p-wave B.F. are not only orthogonal to the s-wave B.F. but also orthogonal among them. By the use of such B.F s. we can describe both completely clusterized matter in one limit and uniform matter in another limit, and also in-medium states. In this report we discuss clustering phenomena of both symmetric and asymmetric nucleonic matter under low-density situation. (Author)
A study of nuclear effect in $F_3$ structure function in the deep inelastic $\
Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Vacas, M J Vicente
2009-01-01
We study nuclear effect in the $F^A_3(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, target mass correction, shadowing and anti-shadowing corrections. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. Results for $F^A_3(x)$ have been compared with the results reported at NuTeV and also with some of the older experiments reported in the literature.
Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz
2016-01-01
We have studied nuclear structure functions $F_{1A}(x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}(x,Q^2)$ for electromagnetic and weak processes in the region of $1 GeV^2 < Q^2 <8 GeV^2$. The nuclear medium effects arising due to Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions and shadowing effects are taken into account using a many body field theoretical approach. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using a relativistic nucleon spectral function. The results are compared with the available experimental data. Implications of nuclear medium effects on the validity of Callan-Gross relation are also discussed.
Measurement of the neutron spin structure function---Test of the Bjorken sum rule
As experiment to measure the neutron spin-dependent structure function g1n (x) over a range in x from 0.04 to 0.7 and with Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2 is presented. The experiment consists of scattering a longitudinally polarized electron beam from the Stanford Linear Accelerator off a polarized 3He target and detecting scattered electrons in two magnetic spectrometers. The experiment will provide a critical test of the Bjorken sum rule and valuable information in understanding the nucleon spin structure and the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. 3 figs., 1 tab
Measurement of the deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q2) and B(Q2) at large momentum transfers
The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering was measured in Jefferson Lab experiment 91-026. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q2) and B(Q2) have been extracted from the data. The final results for the electric structure function, A(Q2), in the range of 0.722, are presented. Preliminary results for the magnetic structure function, B(Q2), are presented in the range of 0.72< or=1.35 (GeV/c)2. These data are compared to the theoretical predictions of both meson-nucleon and quark-gluon based models
Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum
Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik
2013-02-15
We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.
Structures and Functions of Oligosaccharins
Albersheim, Peter
1995-12-01
We have made considerable progress during the 2.5 year funding period just ending in our studies of the structures and functions of oligosaccharide signal molecules (oligosaccharins). We have emphasized studies of the enzymes that solubilize, process, and degrade oligosaccharins and of the proteins that inhibit those enzymes. We have been especially interested in elucidating how oligosaccharins and their processing enzymes participate in determining the outcome of challenges to plants by pathogenic microbes. We have studied, to a lesser extent, the roles of oligosaccharins in plant growth and development. Abstracts of papers describing results acquired with support from this grant that have been published, submitted, or in preparation are presented to summarize the progress made during the last two and one half years. The report highlights the most important contributions made in our oiigosaccharin research during this time period, and the corresponding abstract is referenced. Results of work in progress are described primarily in conjunction with our application for continued support.
Recent results on nucleon sigma terms in lattice QCD
It has proven a significant challenge to experiment and phenomenology to extract a precise values of the nucleon sigma terms. This difficulty opens the window for lattice QCD simulations to lead the field in resolving this aspect of nucleon structure. Here we report on recent advances in the extraction of nucleon sigma terms in lattice QCD. In particular, the strangeness component is now being resolved to a precision that far surpasses best phenomenological estimates.
Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions
In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g1n (x, Q2) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized 3He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 with an average Q2 of 5 GeV2. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be ∫0.0140.7 dx g1n(x, 5 GeV2) = -0.036 ± 0.004(stat.) ± 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g1n at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x → 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g1p and g1n paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q2 = 5 GeV2, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule
Airway Gland Structure and Function.
Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Wine, Jeffrey J
2015-10-01
Submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL), a film that protects all airway surfaces. Glandular mucus comprises electrolytes, water, the gel-forming mucin MUC5B, and hundreds of different proteins with diverse protective functions. Gland volume per unit area of mucosal surface correlates positively with impaction rate of inhaled particles. In human main bronchi, the volume of the glands is ∼ 50 times that of surface goblet cells, but the glands diminish in size and frequency distally. ASL and its trapped particles are removed from the airways by mucociliary transport. Airway glands have a tubuloacinar structure, with a single terminal duct, a nonciliated collecting duct, then branching secretory tubules lined with mucous cells and ending in serous acini. They allow for a massive increase in numbers of mucus-producing cells without replacing surface ciliated cells. Active secretion of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) by serous cells produces most of the fluid of gland secretions. Glands are densely innervated by tonically active, mutually excitatory airway intrinsic neurons. Most gland mucus is secreted constitutively in vivo, with large, transient increases produced by emergency reflex drive from the vagus. Elevations of [cAMP]i and [Ca(2+)]i coordinate electrolyte and macromolecular secretion and probably occur together for baseline activity in vivo, with cholinergic elevation of [Ca(2+)]i being mainly responsive for transient increases in secretion. Altered submucosal gland function contributes to the pathology of all obstructive diseases, but is an early stage of pathogenesis only in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26336032
Pita, S
2000-09-01
The structure of the neutron rich light nuclei {sup 11}Be and {sup 10}Li has been investigated by means of one nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL in inverse kinematics using {sup 11}Be secondary beams. The {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be reaction bas been studied at 35.3 MeV/u. The {sup 10}Be ejectiles were analyzed by the spectrometer SPEG, and coincident deuterons were detected in the position sensitive silicon detector CHARISSA. Transfer cross sections to 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 1}, states in {sup 10}Be were measured up to {theta}{sub CM} = 16 deg. and compared to DWBA and CRC predictions. The effects of neutron-cure couplings on reaction form factors have been studied by solving coupled equations in the framework of a vibrational model. It is shown that the rate of core excitation {sup 10}Be{sub 2+} in the {sup 11}Be{sub gs} wave function is overestimated by a standard analysis with form factors given by the usual Separation Energy prescription. The former model predicts a rate of core excitation of 16% and leads to theoretical cross sections which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The aim of the {sup 11}Be(d,{sup 3}He){sup 10}Li experiment, realized at 37 MeV/u, was to measure the distribution of the 2s neutron strength in the unbound nucleus {sup 10}Li. The energy spectrum was deduced from the {sup 3}He energy and angle measured by the silicon strip detector array MUST. An asymmetric peak is clearly observed near the threshold, with a maximum at -S{sub n} = 130 keV. This constitutes a direct proof of the inversion of 2s and 1p{sub 1/2} shells in {sup 10}Li, which was until now a controversial question in spite of many experimental efforts. On the other band the analysis of the {sup 11}Be(d,t){sup 10}Be reaction studied in the same experiment confirms the results obtained in the {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be reaction concerning the {sup 11}Be{sub gs} structure. This work shows the interest and feasibility
Homing endonuclease structure and function.
Stoddard, Barry L
2005-02-01
Homing endonucleases are encoded by open reading frames that are embedded within group I, group II and archael introns, as well as inteins (intervening sequences that are spliced and excised post-translationally). These enzymes initiate transfer of those elements (and themselves) by generating strand breaks in cognate alleles that lack the intervening sequence, as well as in additional ectopic sites that broaden the range of intron and intein mobility. Homing endonucleases can be divided into several unique families that are remarkable in several respects: they display extremely high DNA-binding specificities which arise from long DNA target sites (14-40 bp), they are tolerant of a variety of sequence variations in these sites, and they display disparate DNA cleavage mechanisms. A significant number of homing endonucleases also act as maturases (highly specific cofactors for the RNA splicing reactions of their cognate introns). Of the known homing group I endonuclease families, two (HNH and His-Cys box enzymes) appear to be diverged from a common ancestral nuclease. While crystal structures of several representatives of the LAGLIDADG endonuclease family have been determined, only structures of single members of the HNH (I-HmuI), His-Cys box (I-PpoI) and GIY-YIG (I-TevI) families have been elucidated. These studies provide an important source of information for structure-function relationships in those families, and are the centerpiece of this review. Finally, homing endonucleases are significant targets for redesign and selection experiments, in hopes of generating novel DNA binding and cutting reagents for a variety of genomic applications. PMID:16336743
Excitation functions of one- and two-neutron transfer channels have been measured for the 96Zr+40Ca and 116Sn+60Ni systems at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to ∼25% below. Target-like recoils have been identified in A, Z and velocity with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental transfer probabilities have been compared, in absolute values and in slope, with semiclassical microscopic calculations which incorporate nucleon-nucleon pairing correlations. For the first time in a heavy ion collision, one was able to provide a consistent description of one and two neutron transfer reactions by incorporating, in the reaction mechanism, all known structure information of entrance and exit channels nuclei. In particular, there is no need to introduce any enhancement factor for the description of two neutron transfer, of course very important are the correlations induced by the pairing interaction
Corradi, Lorenzo, E-mail: corradi@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2 - 35020, Legnaro (Padova) - Italy (Italy)
2015-10-15
Excitation functions of one- and two-neutron transfer channels have been measured for the {sup 96}Zr+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 116}Sn+{sup 60}Ni systems at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to ∼25% below. Target-like recoils have been identified in A, Z and velocity with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental transfer probabilities have been compared, in absolute values and in slope, with semiclassical microscopic calculations which incorporate nucleon-nucleon pairing correlations. For the first time in a heavy ion collision, one was able to provide a consistent description of one and two neutron transfer reactions by incorporating, in the reaction mechanism, all known structure information of entrance and exit channels nuclei. In particular, there is no need to introduce any enhancement factor for the description of two neutron transfer, of course very important are the correlations induced by the pairing interaction.
Structure Functions in Semihadronic Tau Decays
Colangelo, Gilberto; Finkemeier, Markus; Mirkes, Erwin; Urech, Res
1996-01-01
We review a variety of topics related to hadronic structure functions in exclusive semihadronic tau decays. We introduce the concept of structure functions and summarize the most important concepts. We then calculate the decay $\\tau \\to 3 \\pi \
Deep Inelastic Scattering from A=3 Nuclei and the Neutron Structure Function
We present a comprehensive analysis of deep inelastic scattering from 3He and 3H, focusing in particular on the extraction of the free neutron structure function, Fn2. Nuclear corrections are shown to cancel to within 1-2% for the isospin-weighted ratio of 3He to 3H structure functions, which leads to more than an order of magnitude improvement in the current uncertainty on the neutron to proton ratio F2n2/Fp2 at large x. Theoretical uncertainties originating tom the nuclear wave function, including possible non-nucleonic components, are evaluated. Measurement of the 3He and 3H structure functions will, in addition, determine the magnitude of the EMC effect in all A [lte] 3 nuclei
Deep inelastic lepton scattering on nuclei: operator product expansion and meson-nucleon theory
A novel point of view on the x-rescaling model in lepton-nucleous deep inetic scattering is suggested. Using the operator product expansion method within the effective meson-nucleon theory, a rigorous consideration of the scattering on the deuteron is presented. It is demonstrated that with the contributions interpreter as the Fermi motion corrections, the x-rescaling idea is exactly reproduced. The diagrams of scattering of bound nucleons have also been computed numerically. An example of application of the method, viz. the problem of extraction of the neutron structure function from the combined proton-deuteron data, is considered. 26 refs.; 5 figs
Bound nucleon dynamics in relativistic mean field theory and quasi-elastic electron scattering
We compare results obtained with relativistic and non-relativistic bound nucleon wave functions on differential cross sections for electron induced one nucleon knock-out at quasi-elastic kinematics. We discuss the role of the negative-energy component of the relativistic bound nucleon wave functions and the issue of factorization of the differential cross section. (authors)
Exact symmetries and the role of the pion cloud in deep-inelastic electron-nucleon scattering
A careful analysis of exact symmetries, such as the charge conjugation symmetry and the electromagnetic and baryon current conservation, shows that exactly two nontrivial Feynman diagrams contribute to deep-inelastic inclusive pion electroproduction from the nucleon to O(gπNN2). The same analysis reveals certain relationships between the two graphs. The two graphs are expressed as convolutions of the pion [gπ(y)] and the nucleon [gN(y)] smearing functions and their respective deep-inelastic structure functions. The nucleon smearing functions are evaluated in three models of the nucleon off-shell dependence of the πNN vertex function and they turn out to have remarkably similar shapes. It is shown that this universality of gN(y) persists in a wide class of models. Such universal gN(y) peaks at y0=1-mπ/MN=0.85 and allows a simple parton model interpretation. Furthermore, the normalized smearing functions approximately satisfy the Berger-Coester-Wiringa-Thomas ansatz gπ(y)=gN(1-y) for two of the three models examined. Strong constraints on the nucleon off-shell dependence of the πNN vertex function [gπNN(pN2)] are obtained using the observed Gottfried sum rule violation as empirical input
The nucleon thermal width due to pion-baryon loops and its contribution in Shear viscosity
Ghosh, Sabyasachi
2015-01-01
In the real-time thermal field theory, the standard expression of shear viscosity for the nucleonic constituents is derived from the two point function of nucleonic viscous stress tensors at finite temperature and density. The finite thermal width or Landau damping is traditionally included in the nucleon propagators. This thermal width is calculated from the in-medium self-energy of nucleon for different possible pion-baryon loops. The dynamical part of nucleon-pion-baryon interactions are taken care by the effective Lagrangian densities of standard hadronic model. The shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of nucleonic component decreases with the temperature and increases with the nucleon chemical potential. However, adding the contribution of pionic component, total viscosity to entropy density ratio also reduces with the nucleon chemical potential when the mixing effect between pion and nucleon components in the mixed gas is considered. Within the hadronic domain, viscosity to entropy density ratio of ...
The nucleon-nucleon potential in the chromodielectric soliton model
Koepf, W.; Wilets, L.; Pepin, S.; Stancu, F.
The short and medium range parts of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are being studied in the framework of the chromodielectric soliton model. The model consists of current quarks, gluons in the abelian approximation, and a scalar sigma field which simulates the nonabelian interactions of the gluons and governs the medium through the dielectric function kappa(sigma). Absolute color confinement is effected by the vanishing of the dielectric in vacuum; this also removes the troublesome van der Waals problem. The authors distinguish between spatial confinement, which arises from the self energy of the quarks in medium (excluding MFA contributions), and color confinement which is effected through OGE in the MFA (including the corresponding self energy contributions). The static (adiabatic) energies are computed as a function of deformation (generalized bag separation) in a constrained MFA. Six quark molecular-type wave functions in all important space-spin-isospin-color configurations are included. The gluon propagator is solved in the deformed dielectric medium. The resultant Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized. Dynamics are handled in the generator coordinate method, which leads to the Hill-Wheeler integral equation. In the present case, this yields a set of coupled equations corresponding to the various configurations. Although this can be approximated by a set of differential equations, they propose to solve the integral equations with some regularization scheme.
Accardi, Alberto
2016-01-01
I review recent progress in the extraction of unpolarized parton distributions in the proton and in nuclei from a unified point of view that highlights how the interplay between high energy particle physics and lower energy nuclear physics can be of mutual benefit to either field. Areas of overlap range from the search for physics beyond the standard model at the LHC, to the study of the non perturbative structure of nucleons and the emergence of nuclei from quark and gluon degrees of freedom, to the interaction of colored probes in a cold nuclear medium.
Measurement of the deuteron elastic structure functions up to large momentum transfers
The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering was measured in JLab experiment 91-026. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q2) and B(Q2) have been extracted from this data. The final results for the ''electric'' structure function A(Q2), in the range of 0.7 less than or equal to Q2 less than or equal to 6.0 (GeV/c)2 are presented. Preliminary results for the ''magnetic'' structure function B(Q2) are presented in the range of 0.7 less than or equal to Q2 less than or equal to 1.35 (GeV/c)2. These data are compared with theoretical predictions of both meson-nucleon and quark-gluon based models
Nuclear longitudinal structure function in eA processes at the LHeC
Boroun, G R; Heidari, S
2016-01-01
The nucleon and nuclear longitudinal structure functions are determined by the Kharzeev-Levin-Nardin (KLN) model of the low $x$ gluon distribution. The behavior of the gluon distribution ratio $R_{g}=\\frac{G^{A}}{AG^{p}}$ and the ratio $R_{L}^{total}=\\frac{F_{L}^{A-total}}{AF_{L}^{p-total}}$ in this processes are found. The heavy longitudinal structure function ratios $R_{L}^{H}=\\frac{F_{L}^{H(A)}}{AF_{L}^{H(p)}}$ in eA processes at the LHeC region are discussed. Heavy contributions to the total longitudinal structure function ratio $R^{H}_{L}$ are considerable and should not be neglected especially at smaller $x$ of the LHeC project. In the KLN model the new geometrical scaling for transition from the linear to nonlinear regions in accordance with the LHeC processes is used, whose results intensively depended on the heavy quarks mass effect.
Shahveh, Abolfazl [Physics Department, Tafresh University, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental, Sciences (IPM) P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arash, Firooz, E-mail: farash@cic.aut.ac.i [Physics Department, Tafresh University, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-07-12
In the context of the so-called valon model, we calculate ({delta}g)/g and show that although it is small and compatible with the measured values, the gluon contribution to the spin of nucleon can be sizable. The smallness of ({delta}g)/g in the measured kinematical region should not be interpreted as {delta}g being small. In fact, {delta}g itself at small x, and the first moment of the polarized gluon distribution in the nucleon, {Delta}g(Q{sup 2}), are large.
In the context of the so-called valon model, we calculate (δg)/g and show that although it is small and compatible with the measured values, the gluon contribution to the spin of nucleon can be sizable. The smallness of (δg)/g in the measured kinematical region should not be interpreted as δg being small. In fact, δg itself at small x, and the first moment of the polarized gluon distribution in the nucleon, Δg(Q2), are large.
Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Arash, Firooz
2010-07-01
In the context of the so-called valon model, we calculate δg/g and show that although it is small and compatible with the measured values, the gluon contribution to the spin of nucleon can be sizable. The smallness of δg/g in the measured kinematical region should not be interpreted as δg being small. In fact, δg itself at small x, and the first moment of the polarized gluon distribution in the nucleon, Δg (Q2), are large.
Medium corrections to nucleon-nucleon interactions
The Bethe-Goldstone equations have been solved for both negative and positive energies to specify two nucleon G-matrices fully off of the energy shell. Medium correction effects of Pauli blocking and of the auxiliary potential are included in infinite matter systems characterized by fermi momenta in the range 0.5 fm-1 to 1.8 fm-1. The Paris interaction is used as the starting potential in most calculations. Medium corrections are shown to be very significant over a large range of energies and densities. On the energy shell values of G-matrices vary markedly from those of free two nucleon (NN) t-matrices which have been solved by way of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Off of the energy shell, however, the free and medium corrected Kowalski-Noyes f-ratios rate are quite similar suggesting that a useful model of medium corrected G-matrices are appropriately scaled free NN t-matrices. The choice of auxiliary potential form is also shown to play a decisive role in the negative energy regime, especially when the saturation of nuclear matter is considered. 30 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs
Deconstructing triplet nucleon-nucleon scattering
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in spin-triplet channels is analyzed within an effective field theory where one-pion exchange is treated nonperturbatively. Justifying this requires the identification of an additional low-energy scale in the strength of that potential. Short-range interactions are organized according to the resulting power counting, in which the leading term is promoted to significantly lower order than in the usual perturbative counting. In each channel there is a critical momentum above which the waves probe the singular core of the tensor potential and the new counting is necessary. When the effects of one- and two-pion exchange have been removed using a distorted-wave Born approximation, the residual scattering in waves with L≤2 is well described by the first three terms in the new counting. In contrast, the scattering in waves with L≥3 is consistent with the perturbative counting, at least for energies up to 300 MeV. This pattern is in agreement with estimates of the critical momenta in these channels
Cluster model of self-consistent nucleon states in nucleons
Self-consistent cluster model of nucleon states in a nuclear medium is built up. Numerical solution of the Schroedinger nonlinear equation for nucleon self-consistent field is found. The calculated energy is close to the binding energy of nucleons in a nucleus
Spin Structure Function Measurements from E143 at SLAC
Recent high statistics measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions by the E143 Collaboration are presented. The structure functions g1n and g1d have been measured over the range 0.029 2 2 using deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized ammonia and deuterated ammonia targets. Evaluation of the integral Γ1p = ∫01 g1p(x, Q2)dx at fixed Q2 = 3 (GeV/c)2 yields 0.127 ± 0.004 ± 0.010, in agreement with previous experiments, but well below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction of 0.160 ± 0.006. The integral Γ1d = ∫01 g1d(x,Q2)dx also evaluated at fixed Q2 = 3 (GeV/c)2 gives 0.041 ± 0.004 ± 0.004, again below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction of 0.068 ± 0.005. From g1p and g1d, the neutron structure function g1n can be computed with Γ1n measured as -0.037 ± 0.008 ± 0.010. Combined with the measurement of g1p, they find Γ1p - Γ1n = 0.163 ± 0.010 ± 0.016 which agrees with the prediction of the Bjorken sum rule with Ο(αs3) corrections, Γ1p- 1n = 0.171 ± 0.008. In the quark-parton model, this implies that the net helicity carried by the quarks is Δq = 0.34 ± 0.04
Within the framework of the optical model with phenomenological optical potentials describing elastic scattering we calculate the total cross section, the reaction cross section, and the real part of the forward scattering amplitude for nucleons and antinucleons in the energy range 50--200 MeV for a broad range of nuclei. It is shown that with a significantly different spatial dependence of the real part of the optical potential (the Woods-Saxon form and the ''wine-bottle bottom'' form) the real parts of the proton forward scattering amplitude differ from each other by several times, while the difference in the total cross sections and reaction cross sections is not larger than tens of per cent. The calculations are performed in first-order perturbation theory in deviation of the wave function of the incident particle from the eikonal approximation. Comparison of the results of the approximate and exact calculations shows that the error of the approximate approach in the energy range considered is not larger than 10%. We compare our results with the results of calculations of the reaction cross section for antiprotons in light nuclei in the Glauber theory
Total cross section, reaction cross section and the real of the forward scattering amplitude for nucleons and antinucleons in the energy range from 50 to 200 MeV are calculated for a wide set of nuclei by means of the optical model with phenomenological optical potentials which describe the elastic scattering. It is shown that for substantialy different radial dependences of the part of the optical potential (the Woods-Saxon potential and the ''wine-bottle'' potential) the real parts of the proton forward scattering amplitude are different by a factor of several times, while the differences in the total cross sections and in the reaction cross sections do not exceed a few dozen percent. The calculations have been performed in the first order of the perturbation theory in a deviation of the incident particle wave function from the eikonal approximation. A comparison between the results of the aproximate and exact calculations shows that in the considered energy region an error of the approximation does not exceed 10%. The results have been compared with the Glauber theory for the antiproton reaction cross sections on light nuclei
Measurements of the longitudinal structure function and |Vcs| in the CCFR experiment
Measurements of charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino nucleon interactions in the CCFR detector are used to extract the structure functions, F2, xF3ν , xF3antiν and R(longitudinal) in the kinematic region 0.01 2 2. The new measurements of R in the x 2 dependence of R is compared with a QCD based fit to previous data. The CKM matrix element |V|cs is extracted from a combined analysis of xF3 and dimuon data
Measurement of the charm structure function and its role in scale noninvariance
From a sample of 20072 dimuon final states, a first determination of the structure function F2(cc-bar) for diffractive charmed-quark pair production by 209-GeV muons is obtained. F2(cc-bar) has a ν dependence similar to that of the photon-gluon fusion model, but its Q2 dependence peaks at lower Q2. Diffractive charm production accounts for approx.1/3 of the scale noninvariance observed in muon-nucleon scattering at low values of the Bjorken x variable, x/sub B/
Two-nucleon transfer reactions uphold supersymmetry in atomic nuclei
Barea, J.; Bijker, R.; Frank, A.
2004-01-01
The spectroscopic strengths of two-nucleon transfer reactions constitute a stringent test for two-nucleon correlations in the nuclear wave functions. A comparison between the recently measured 198Hg(d,alpha)196Au reaction and the predictions from the nuclear quartet supersymmetry lends further support to the validity of supersymmetry in nuclear physics.
All the states of the nucleon. Nucleon spectroscopy through the production of mesons
The photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon gives a direct access to its spectroscopy and is a promising way for the study of the structure of the nucleon. The GRAAL experiment uses a tagged and polarized photon beam produced through the Compton diffusion of laser photons on the electrons circulating in the ESRF storage ring. The combination of this photon beam and an efficient detection system has allowed a series of measurements concerning the photoproduction of light mesons on the proton and on the neutron. The first 4 chapters are dedicated to the nucleon spectroscopy: the nucleon models and their consequences on the excited levels are recalled, the experimental technique used is described and the difficulties due to the extraction of relevant data are presented. Highly accurate measurements of cross-sections, Σ asymmetry beams and resonance parameters have been performed. The last part is dedicated to the principle of the measurement of the electric dipole momentum of the neutron. (A.C.)
A dependence of nuclear structure functions
We show that clustering of nucleons, with confinement-size changes, naturally explains and accurately describes recent data on the A dependence of deep-inelastic nuclear cross sections. Predictions for gluon distributions in nuclei are given
Flu BM2 structure and function
Cross, Timothy A
2009-01-01
Flu viruses package essential functions into a small integral membrane protein known as M2. Such small membrane proteins represent major challenges for structural biology. A new study presented in this issue details the structure and functions of the influenza B M2 protein through the use of functional domain–specific solution NMR spectroscopy.
Effective constraint algebras with structure functions
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa
2014-01-01
This article presents the result that fluctuations and higher moments of a state do not imply quantum corrections in structure functions of constrained systems. Consequences for canonical quantum gravity, whose structure functions encode space-time structure, are discussed. In particular, deformed algebras found in models of loop quantum gravity provide reliable information even in the Planck regime.
Polarized DIS Structure Functions from Neural Networks
We present a parametrization of polarized Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) structure functions based on Neural Networks. The parametrization provides a bias-free determination of the probability measure in the space of structure functions, which retains information on experimental errors and correlations. As an example we discuss the application of this method to the study of the structure function g1p(x,Q2)
Nuclear effects in the structure functions
E Marco; E Oset; S K Singh
2003-11-01
By using a relativistic framework and accurate nuclear spectral function the structure functions 2 and 3 of deep inelastic charged lepton and neutrino scattering are calculated in nuclei and results are presented.
The structure and function of cartilage proteoglycans
P J Roughley
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Cartilage contains a variety of proteoglycans that are essential for its normal function. These include aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican. Each proteoglycan serves several functions that are determined by both its core protein and its glycosaminoglycan chains. This review discusses the structure/function relationships of the cartilage proteoglycans, and the manner in which perturbations in proteoglycan structure or abundance can adversely affect tissue function.
Polarized light ions and spectator nucleon tagging at EIC
Guzey, Vadim [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300, Russia; Higinbotham, Dougas W. [JLAB; Hyde, Charles [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel A. [JLAB; Park, Kijun [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA; Sargsian, Misak M. [Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA; Strikman, Mark [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Weiss, Christian [JLAB
2014-10-01
The neutron's deep-inelastic structure functions provide essential information for the flavor separation of the nucleon parton densities, the nucleon spin decomposition, and precision studies of QCD phenomena in the flavor-singlet and nonsinglet sectors. Traditional inclusive measurements on nuclear targets are limited by dilution from scattering on protons, Fermi motion and binding effects, final-state interactions, and nuclear shadowing at x ll 0.1. An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of neutron structure with polarized deuteron beams and detection of forward-moving spectator protons over a wide range of recoil momenta (0 < p(R) < several 100MeV in the nucleus rest frame). The free neutron structure functions could be obtained by extrapolating the measured recoil momentum distributions to the on-shell point. The method eliminates nuclear modifications and can be applied to polarized scattering, as well as to semi-inclusive and exclusive final states. We review the prospects for neutron structure measurements with spectator tagging at EIC, the status of R&D efforts, and the accelerator and detector requirements.
From structure to function, via dynamics
Stetter, O.; Soriano, J.; Geisel, T.; Battaglia, D.
2013-01-01
Neurons in the brain are wired into a synaptic network that spans multiple scales, from local circuits within cortical columns to fiber tracts interconnecting distant areas. However, brain function require the dynamic control of inter-circuit interactions on time-scales faster than synaptic changes. In particular, strength and direction of causal influences between neural populations (described by the so-called directed functional connectivity) must be reconfigurable even when the underlying structural connectivity is fixed. Such directed functional influences can be quantified resorting to causal analysis of time-series based on tools like Granger Causality or Transfer Entropy. The ability to quickly reorganize inter-areal interactions is a chief requirement for performance in a changing natural environment. But how can manifold functional networks stem "on demand" from an essentially fixed structure? We explore the hypothesis that the self-organization of neuronal synchronous activity underlies the control of brain functional connectivity. Based on simulated and real recordings of critical neuronal cultures in vitro, as well as on mean-field and spiking network models of interacting brain areas, we have found that "function follows dynamics", rather than structure. Different dynamic states of a same structural network, characterized by different synchronization properties, are indeed associated to different functional digraphs (functional multiplicity). We also highlight the crucial role of dynamics in establishing a structure-to-function link, by showing that whenever different structural topologies lead to similar dynamical states, than the associated functional connectivities are also very similar (structural degeneracy).
Structure of energy spectra and backbending phenomena of the isotope string of Hf with mass number between 162 and 170 have been investigated. Extend of SU(3)-limits of interacting boson model to allow a boson to break to form a quasiparticle pair, which can occupy h11/2 and i13/2 orbitals. The calculated energy levels, intensity of the electromagnetic transitions, including the ground state, β and γ band are in satisfactory agreement with observed values for the whole string of Hf isotopes. Backbending of the moment inertia of the yrast and β bands can be reproduced reasonably. Recently, very high spin states up to J=40 and a double backbending have been observed in some nuclei in rare-earth region. This phenomena might hopefully be interpreted by considering two or more bosons to break to form more quasiparticle pairs and make more bands crossing to form the double backbending
Predicting protein structure classes from function predictions
Sommer, I.; Rahnenfuhrer, J.; de Lichtenberg, Ulrik;
2004-01-01
We introduce a new approach to using the information contained in sequence-to-function prediction data in order to recognize protein template classes, a critical step in predicting protein structure. The data on which our method is based comprise probabilities of functional categories; for given......-to-structure prediction methods....
Tkachenko, S; Kuhn, S E; Zhang, J; Arrington, J; Bosted, P; Bültmann, S; Christy, M E; Fenker, H; Griffioen, K A; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Melnitchouk, W; Tvaskis, V; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Pereira, S Anefalos; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fleming, J A; Garillon, B; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Jo, H S; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Lenisa, P; Lewis, S; Livingston, K; Lu, H; MacCormick, M; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moutarde, H; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Senderovich, I; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Strauch, S; Tang, W; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Wood, M H; Zana, L; Zonta, I
2014-01-01
Much less is known about neutron structure than that of the proton due to the absence of free neutron targets. Neutron information is usually extracted from data on nuclear targets such as deuterium, requiring corrections for nuclear binding and nucleon off-shell effects. These corrections are model dependent and have significant uncertainties, especially for large values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. The Barely Off-shell Nucleon Structure (BONuS) experiment at Jefferson Lab measured the inelastic electron deuteron scattering cross section, tagging spectator protons in coincidence with the scattered electrons. This method reduces nuclear binding uncertainties significantly and has allowed for the first time a (nearly) model independent extraction of the neutron structure function. A novel compact radial time projection chamber was built to detect protons with momentum between 70 and 150 MeV/c. For the extraction of the free neutron structure function $F_{2n}$, spectator protons at backward angle and with...
Structure and Function of Lipase
Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob
towards an open conformation enabling the substrate to gain access, thus initiating catalysis.Lipases have been studied for decades and their functional features have drawn much attention withinindustrial applications since their first discovery. However, given that their molecular action takes placeat...... a function of solvent polarity,which showed pronounced differences in open vs. closed states of the lid between TlL and the lidvariants.To elucidate whether the observed differences in activation could be ascribed to a lowering ofthe energy barrier of lid-opening, molecular dynamic simulations were...... carried out to calculate the energydifference between the open and closed lid conformation for TlL and a selection of lid-variants (PaperIII). Here, a correlation between experimental and theoretical data was discovered supporting the notionlid plays a key role in governing activation at the interface...
Correlation Functions and Glass Structure
Chergui, Y.; Nehaoua, N.; Telghemti, B.; Guemid, S.; Deraddji, N. E.; Belkhir, H.; Mekki, D. E.
2011-04-01
This work presents the use of molecular dynamics (MD) and the code of Dl Poly, in order to study the structure of fluoride glass after melting and quenching. We are realized the processing phase liquid-phase, simulating rapid quenching at different speeds to see the effect of quenching rate on the operation of the devitrification. This technique of simulation has become a powerful tool for investigating the microscopic behaviour of matter as well as for calculating macroscopic observable quantities. As basic results, we calculated the interatomic distance, angles and statistics, which help us to know the geometric form and the structure of PbF2. These results are in experimental agreement to those reported in literature.
Structure and function in biology
A summary is given of the history of the developments of structural chemistry in biology beginning with the work of the bacteriologist Ehrlich leading to a comprehensive examination of the influence of size and configuration on the interaction between specific antibodies and side-chain determinants. Recent developments include the recognition of a higher order of specificity in the interaction of proteins with one another
WAY TO DETERMINE STIFFNESS FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE
WANG De-ming; GAI Bing-zheng
2005-01-01
For calculating the stiffness function of a structure, the differential equation of the vibration of the structure was divided into the differential equation on the original stiffness function that was known, and Fredholm integral equation of the first kind on the undetermined stiffness function that was unknown. And the stable solutions of the integral equation, when the smooth factor was equal to zero, was solved by the extrapolation with p smooth factors. So the stiffness function of the structure is obtained. Applied examples show that the method is feasible and effective.
Spin dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron and the proton. Doctoral thesis
Klostermann, L.
1995-08-01
This thesis presents a study on the spin structure of the nucleon, via deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of polarized muons on polarized proton and deuterium targets. The work was done in the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) at CERN in Geneva. From the asymmetry in the scattering cross section for nucleon and lepton spins parallel and anti-parallel, one can determine the spin dependent structure function g(sub 1), which contains information on the quark and gluon spin distribution functions. The interpretation in the frame work of the quark parton model (QPM) of earlier results on g(sub 1, sup d) by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC), gave an indication that only a small fraction of the proton spin, compatible with zero, is carried by the spins of the constituent quarks. The SMC was set up to check this unexpected result with improved accuracy, and to combine measurements of g(sub 1, sup p) and g(sub 1, sup d) to test a fundamental sum rule in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the Bjorken sum rule. The SMC results presented in this thesis are based on data taken in 1992 using a polarized deuterium target and polarized muons with an incident energy of 100 GeV, and 1993 data with a proton target and an incident muon energy of 190 GeV. Using all available data, the fundamental Bjorken sum rule has now been verified at the one standard deviation level to within 16% of its theoretical value.
The spin dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron and the proton
This thesis presents a study on the spin structure of the nucleon, via deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of polarised nuons on polarised proton and deuterium targets. The work was done in the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) at CERN in Geneva. From the asymmetry in the scattering cross section for nucleon and lepton spins parallel and anti-parallel, one con determine the spin dependent structure function g1, which contains information on the quark and gluon spin distribution functions. The interpretation in the frame work of the quark parton model (QPM) of earlier results on g1p by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC), gave an indication that only a small fraction of the proton spin, compatible with zero, is carried by the spins of the constituent quarks. The SMC was set up to check this unexpected result with improved accuracy, and to combine measurements of g1p and g1d to test a fundamental sum rule in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the Bjorken sum rule. (orig./WL)
Neutrino-driven nucleon fission reactors: Supernovae, quasars, and the big bang
The purpose of this work is to establish the existence of naturally occurring celestial neutrino-driven nucleon fission chain reaction reactors as the first step in the development of controlled nucleon fission reactors on Earth. Celestial nucleon fission reactors provide functioning models that serve as starting points for reactor development. Recognizing supernovae, quasars, and the Big Bang as functioning neutrino-driven nucleon fission reactors presents the nuclear industry with a new and significant challenge. That challenge is our technological prowess to achieve a controlled nucleon fission chain reaction using the Earth's resources
Structural Induction Principles for Functional Programmers
Caldwell, James
2013-01-01
User defined recursive types are a fundamental feature of modern functional programming languages like Haskell, Clean, and the ML family of languages. Properties of programs defined by recursion on the structure of recursive types are generally proved by structural induction on the type. It is well known in the theorem proving community how to generate structural induction principles from data type declarations. These methods deserve to be better know in the functional programming community. ...
Pion structure function in nuclear medium
Suzuki, Katsuhiko
1995-01-01
We study the pion structure function in nuclear medium using the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model, and its implication for the nuclear pion enhancement of the sea quark distribution in nuclei. By using the operator product expansion, medium effect of the nuclear matter is incorporated in calculations of the twist-2 operators. We find density dependence of the pion structure function is rather weak around the nuclear matter density. We also discuss how the medium modification of the pion structure...
The LIGNUM functional-structural tree model
Perttunen, Jari
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to construct a single tree model that builds a bridge between traditional process based tree models and detailed, three-dimensional architectural tree models. The result of the thesis, the functional-structural tree model LIGNUM, integrates both the functional and the structural aspects of woody arborescent plants in a single generic modelling framework. The thesis consists of five articles and the summary part. The first article presents the model structure of...
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a nonrelativistic quark model
The aim of the present thesis is to understand the nucleon-nucleon interaction starting from a nonrelativistic quark model. In the framework of a quark model first a classification of 3q and 6q states is given which serve as basis for the calculations on the nucleon-nucleon scattering performed by means of the refined resonating-group method. For the comparison the results for the s-, p-, and d-phases are confronted to the results of conventional calculations in the meson-exchange picture (Bonn potential) on the ρ + ω exchange. Additionally to the one-gluon exchange potential phenomenological potentials are regarded in the calculations which make a comparison with experimentally determined nucleon-nucleon scattering phases possible. (orig.)
Nucleon-Nucleon Parity Violation Experiments
Van Oers, W T H
1999-01-01
Measurements of parity-violating longitudinal analyzing powers Az (normalized asymmetries) in polarized proton-proton scattering and in polarized neutron capture on the proton (n+p -> d+gamma) provide a unique window on the interplay between the weak and strong interactions between and within hadrons. Several new proton-proton parity violation experiments are presently either being performed or are being prepared for execution in the near future: at TRIUMF at 221 MeV and 450 MeV and at COSY (Forschungszentrum Jülich) in the multi-GeV range. A new measurement of the parity-violating gamma ray asymmetry with a ten-fold improvement in the accuracy over previous measurements is being developed at LANSCE. These experiments are intended to provide stringent constraints on the set of six effective weak meson-nucleon coupling constants, which characterize the weak interaction between hadrons in the energy domain where meson exchange models provide an appropriate description. The 221 MeV pp experiment is unique in th...
The nucleon-nucleon potential beyond the static approximation
Mondejar, Jorge; Soto, Joan
2006-01-01
We point out that, due to the use of static nucleon propagators in Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory, the current calculations of the nucleon-nucleon potential miss certain contributions starting at two loops. These contributions give rise to contact interactions, which are both parametrically and numerically more important than the so called NNLO potentials. They show a peculiar dependence on the light quark masses, which should be taken into account when performing chiral extrapolatio...
The nucleon-nucleon potential beyond the static approximation
Mondejar, J; Mondejar, Jorge; Soto, Joan
2006-01-01
We point out that, due to the use of static nucleon propagators in Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory, the current calculations of the nucleon-nucleon potential miss certain contributions starting at two loops. These contributions give rise to contact interactions, which are both parametrically and numerically more important than the so called NNLO potentials. They show a peculiar dependence on the light quark masses, which should be taken into account when performing chiral extrapolations of lattice data.
Quark bags, P-matrix and nucleon-nucleon scattering
This paper is an extended version of the talk given at IX European Conference on Few Body Problems in Physics, Tbilisi, 1984. It reviews recent developments of the quark compound bag (QCB) model including explicit examples of the QCB nucleon-nucleon potentials, description of the deuteron properties, calculation of the six quark admixture in the deuteron and applications to the three-nucleon system
Three-pion exchange nucleon-nucleon potentials with virtual $\\Delta$-isobar excitation
Kaiser, N
2015-01-01
The nucleon-nucleon interaction arising from the exchange of three pions and the excitation of $\\Delta(1232)$-isobars in intermediate states is studied. Approximating the $\\Delta$-propagator by the inverse $\\Delta$N mass-splitting, analytical expressions are derived for the spectral-functions of the isoscalar and isovector central, spin-spin and tensor NN-potentials in momentum-space. A trans- lation of the spectral-functions into coordinate-space potentials reveals that the main effect of these specific exchange and excitation mechanisms is a repulsive isoscalar central NN-potential.
Changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure in functional dyspepsia.
Vanheel, Hanne; Farré, Ricard
2013-03-01
Functional dyspepsia is an extremely common disorder of gastrointestinal function. The disorder is thought to be heterogeneous, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying varied symptom patterns. A diversity of changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure has been described in functional dyspepsia. These involve alterations in the stomach, such as impaired accommodation, delayed gastric emptying and hypersensitivity, and alterations in the duodenum, such as increased sensitivity to duodenal acid and/or lipids and low-grade inflammation. In this Review, we summarize all these abnormalities in an attempt to provide an integrated overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms in functional dyspepsia. PMID:23318268
Measurement of the neutron F2 structure function via spectator tagging with CLAS
Baillie, N; Zhang, J; Bosted, P; Bultmann, S; Christy, M E; Fenker, H; Griffioen, K A; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, S E; Melnitchouk, W; Tvaskis, V; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfini, M; Arrington, J; Avakian, H; Baghdasaryan, H; Battaglieri, M; Biselli, A S; Branford, 5 D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Domingo, J; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hungerford, E; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ispiryan, M; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Kalantarians, N; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; King, P M; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Markov, N; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Ni, A; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, I; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Pereira, S Anefalos; Pisano, S; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zana, L; Zhao, B
2011-01-01
We report on the first measurement of the F2 structure function of the neutron from semi-inclusive scattering of electrons from deuterium, with low-momentum protons detected in the backward hemisphere. Restricting the momentum of the spectator protons to < 100 MeV and their angles to < 100 degrees relative to the momentum transfer allows an interpretation of the process in terms of scattering from nearly on-shell neutrons. The F2n data collected cover the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions over a wide range of x for 0.65 < Q2 < 4.52 GeV2, with uncertainties from nuclear corrections estimated to be less than a few percent. These measurements provide the first determination of the neutron to proton structure function ratio F2n/F2p at 0.2 < x < 0.8, essentially free of nuclear corrections.
Theoretical Optical Potential Derived From Nucleon-Nucleon Chiral Potentials
Vorabbi, M; Giusti, C
2015-01-01
Background: Elastic scattering is probably the main event in the interactions of nucleons with nuclei. Even if this process has been extensively studied in the last years, a consistent description starting from microscopic two- and many-body forces is still missing. Purpose: In this work we study the domain of applicability of microscopic chiral potentials in the construction of an optical potential. Methods: We basically followed the KMT approach to build a microscopic complex optical potential and then we performed some test calculations on $^{16}$O at different energies. Results: Our conclusion is that a particular set of potentials (with spectral function regularization and a cut-off for the Lippmann-Schwinger equation at relatively high energies $\\sim 600$ MeV) has the best performances reproducing the scattering observables. Conclusions: Our work shows that building an optical potential within Chiral Perturbation Theory is a promising approach to the description of elastic proton scattering, in particul...
The structure and function of catalytic RNAs
无
2009-01-01
Before the discovery of ribozymes,RNA had been proposed to function as a catalyst,based on the discovery that RNA folded into high-ordered structures as protein did.This hypothesis was confirmed in the 1980s,after the discovery of Tetrahymena group I intron and RNase P ribozyme.There have been about ten ribozymes identified during the past thirty years,as well as the fact that ribosomes function as ribozymes.Advances have been made in understanding the structures and functions of ribozymes,with numerous crystal structures resolved in the past years.Here we review the structure-function relationship of both small and large ribozymes,especially the structural basis of their catalysis.
The structure and function of catalytic RNAs
WU QiJia; HUANG Lin; ZHANG Yi
2009-01-01
Before the discovery of ribozymes, RNA had been proposed to function as a catalyst, based on the discovery that RNA folded into high-ordered structures as protein did. This hypothesis was confirmed in the 1980s, after the discovery of Tetrahymena group I intron and RNase P ribozyme. There have been about ten ribozymes identified during the past thirty years, as well as the fact that ribosomes function as ribozymes. Advances have been made in understanding the structures and functions of ribozymes, with numerous crystal structures resolved in the past years. Here we review the structure-function re-lationship of both small and large ribozymes, especially the structural basis of their catalysis.
Spectral asymmetries in nucleon sum rules at finite density
Furnstahl, R. J.
1993-01-01
Apparent inconsistencies between different formulations of nucleon sum rules at finite density are resolved through a proper accounting of asymmetries in the spectral functions between positive- and negative-energy states.
Technical data on nucleonic gauges
This nucleonic gauge manual and directory provides a reference database of nucleonic control systems available to potential users in the fields of exploration, exploitation and processing of natural resources and in the manufacturing industries. It starts with background information an the general principals of nucleonic gauges, followed by portable nuclear analysis systems (PNAS), computer tomography, cost-benefit on NCS (Nucleonic Control Systems) applications and trends and transfer of NCS technology. It continues with radiation protection and safety, discusses nucleonic gauges with low radioactivity sources and ends with typical models of nucleonic gauges. The basic principles of the most popular techniques are reviewed and reference data links to suppliers are provided. Information sheets on many typical commercial devices are also included. It will help end-users to select the most suitable alternative to solve a particular problem or to measure a certain parameter in a specific process
Determination of the neutron spin structure function
New measurements of the neutron spin structure function, g1(x), made at SLAC are reported, using longitudinally polarized electrons on a polarized 3He target. The spin structure function of the neutron has been determined from x=0.03 to x=0.6 at an average Q2 of 2 (GeV/c)2, by measuring the asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized 3He at energies from 19 to 26 GeV. The integral over the spin structure function has been calculated. (author) 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Wang, D; Subedi, R; Deng, X; Ahmed, Z; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Armstrong, D S; Arrington, J; Bellini, V; Beminiwattha, R; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Flay, D; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, A; Golge, S; Grimm, K; Hafidi, K; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Holmstrom, T; Holt, R J; Huang, J; Hyde, C E; Jen, C M; Jones, D; Kang, H; King, P; Kowalski, S; Kumar, K S; Lee, J H; LeRose, J J; Liyanage, N; Long, E; McNulty, D; Margaziotis, D J; Meddi, F; Meekins, D G; Mercado, L; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Myers, K E; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; Oh, Y; Parno, D; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Rider, K; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Rubin, J; Russo, G; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Silwal, R; Sirca, S; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C M; Tobias, W A; Waidyawansa, B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ye, L; Zhao, B; Zheng, X
2013-01-01
We report on parity-violating asymmetries in the nucleon resonance region measured using $5 - 6$ GeV longitudinally polarized electrons scattering off an unpolarized deuterium target. These results are the first parity-violating asymmetry data in the resonance region beyond the $\\Delta(1232)$, and provide a verification of quark-hadron duality in the nucleon electroweak $\\gamma Z$ interference structure functions at the 10-15% level. The results are of particular interest to models relevant for calculating the $\\gamma Z$ box-diagram corrections to elastic parity-violating electron scattering measurements.
Four RNA families with functional transient structures.
Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M
2015-01-01
Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All
Structure and Function of Your Skin
... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Structure & Function of Your Skin Share | What It Looks Like . . . Skin is a waterproof, flexible, but tough protective covering for your body. Normally the ...
Structural and functional properties of designed globins
Yasuhiro Isogai; Anna Ishii; Manabu Ishida; Masahiro Mukai; Motonori Ota; Ken Nishikawa; Tetsutaro Iizuka
2000-06-01
De novo design of artificial proteins is an essential approach to elucidate the principles of protein architecture and to understand specific functions of natural proteins and also to yield novel molecules for medical and industrial aims. We have designed artificial sequences of 153 amino acids to fit the main-chain framework of the sperm whale myoglobin structure based on the knowledge-based energy functions to evaluate the compatibility between protein tertiary structures and amino acid sequences. The synthesized artificial globins bind a single heme per protein molecule as designed, which show well-defined electrochemical and spectroscopic features characteristic of proteins with a low-spin heme. Redox and ligand binding reactions of the artificial heme proteins were investigated and these heme-related functions were found to vary with their structural uniqueness. Relationships between the structural and functional properties are discussed.
New Parametrizations for the Photon Structure Function
In the last year four new parametrizations of the Hadronic Photon Structure Function at Next to Leading Order have appeared. In this talk, I briefly review the main features of the three of them: the FFNSCJK, CJK and AFG. (author)
Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions
Kumano, S
2016-01-01
We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...
Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, NNγ, is a fundamental process, which involves the strong and electromagnetic fields acting simultaneously. Since the electromagnetic interaction is well known, NNγ provides a calculable tool for comparing off-energy-shell effects from different two-nucleon potentials compared to experiment and also provides a simple testing ground, which is sensitive to meson-exchange-current contributions that are so important in electronuclear physics. Historically, experimental studies have focused on ppγ, with only a few measurements of npγ. The present workshop was organized primarily to investigate the interest in, the value of, and the feasibility of doing an npγ experiment using the neutron white source at LANL. An increasing amount of US nuclear physics dollars are being spent on electronuclear physics. npγ is a fundamental process with large meson-exchange currents. In the npγ calculations of Brown and Franklin, the meson-exchange contributions increase the cross section by a factor of roughly two and later the angular distribution of the emitted photon dramatically. The details of these calculated effects have never been verified experimentally, but the proper quantum-mechanical inclusion of meson-exchange contributions, using the methods of brown and Franklin, has proved to be essential in understanding the heavy-ion results. The understanding of the importance of such terms is extremely important inelectronuclear processes, such as are presently under investigation or being planned at Bates, SLAC, and CEBAF. Just one example is in the electrodisintegration of the deuteron, where meson-exchange contributions must be included properly before any conclusions about nuclear models, such as QCD versus meson-exchange potentials can be made
Few-nucleon systems with state-of-the-art chiral nucleon-nucleon forces
Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Epelbaum, E.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Golak, J.; Hebeler, K.; Kamada, H.; Krebs, H.; Langhammer, J.; Liebig, S.; Maris, P.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Minossi, D.; Nogga, A.; Potter, H.; Roth, R.; Skibiński, R.; Topolnicki, K.; Vary, J. P.; Witała, H.; Lenpic Collaboration
2016-04-01
We apply improved nucleon-nucleon potentials up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory, along with a new analysis of the theoretical truncation errors to study nucleon-deuteron (N d ) scattering and selected low-energy observables in 3H,4He , and 6Li. Calculations beyond second order differ from experiment well outside the range of quantified uncertainties, providing truly unambiguous evidence for missing three-nucleon forces within the employed framework. The sizes of the required three-nucleon-force contributions agree well with expectations based on Weinberg's power counting. We identify the energy range in elastic N d scattering best suited to study three-nucleon-force effects and estimate the achievable accuracy of theoretical predictions for various observables.
A Cook Book of Structure Functions
Kellerer, Aglae
2015-01-01
The structure function is a useful quantity to characterize wavefront distortions. We derive expressions for the structure functions of the averaged wavefront phase and slopes. The expressions are valid within the inertial range of atmospheric turbulence, and are meant to serve as engineering formulae when reconstructing profiles of the atmospheric turbulence, specifically in the context of atmospheric profiling instruments (e.g. SLODAR and S-DIMM+) and multi-conjugate adaptive optical systems.
Scattering of vector mesons off nucleons
We construct a relativistic and unitary approach to 'high' energy pion- and photon-nucleon reactions taking the πN, πΔ, ρN, ωN, ηN, K Λ, KΣ final states into account. Our scheme dynamically generates the s- and d-wave nucleon resonances N(1535), N(1650) and N(1520) and isobar resonances Δ(1620) and δ(1700) in terms of quasi-local interaction vertices. The description of photon-induced processes is based on a generalized vector-meson dominance assumption which directly relates the electromagnetic quasi-local 4-point interaction vertices to the corresponding vertices involving the ρ and ω fields. We obtain a satisfactory description of the elastic and inelastic pion- and photon-nucleon scattering data in the channels considered. The resulting s-wave ρ- and ω-nucleon scattering amplitudes are presented. Using these amplitudes we compute the leading density modification of the ρ and ω mass distributions in nuclear matter. We find a repulsive mass shift for the ω meson at small nuclear density but predict considerable strength in resonance-hole like ω-meson modes. Compared to previous calculations our result for the ρ-meson spectral function shows a significantly smaller in-medium effect. This reflects a not too large coupling strength of the N(1520) resonance to the ρN channel. (orig.)
Zinc finger structure-function in Ikaros
Marvin; A; Payne
2011-01-01
The zinc finger motif was used as a vehicle for the initial discovery of Ikaros in the context of T-cell differentiation and has been central to all subsequent analyses of Ikaros function.The Ikaros gene is alternately spliced to produce several isoforms that confer diversity of function and consequently have complicated analysis of the function of Ikaros in vivo.Key features of Ikaros in vivo function are associated with six C2H2 zinc fingers;four of which are alternately incorporated in the production of the various Ikaros isoforms.Although no complete structures are available for the Ikaros protein or any of its family members,considerable evidence has accumulated about the structure of zinc fingers and the role that this structure plays in the functions of the Ikaros family of proteins.This review summarizes the structural aspects of Ikaros zinc fingers,individually,and in tandem to provide a structural context for Ikaros function and to provide a structural basis to inform the design of future experiments with Ikaros and its family members.
Estimates of the Nucleon Tensor Charge
Gamberg, L P; Gamberg, Leonard; Goldstein, Gary R.
2001-01-01
Like the axial vector charges, defined from the forward nucleon matrix element of the axial vector current on the light cone, the nucleon tensor charge, defined from the corresponding matrix element of the tensor current, is essential for characterizing the momentum and spin structure of the nucleon. Because there must be a helicity flip of the struck quark in order to probe the transverse spin polarization of the nucleon, the transversity distribution (and thus the tensor charge) decouples at leading twist in deep inelastic scattering, although no such suppression appears in Drell-Yan processes. This makes the tensor charge difficult to measure and its non-conservation makes its prediction model dependent. We present a different approach. Exploiting an approximate SU(6)xO(3) symmetric mass degeneracy of the light axial vector mesons (a1(1260), b1(1235) and h1(1170)) and using pole dominance, we calculate the tensor charge. The result is simple in form and depends on the decay constants of the axial vector me...
Renormalization of EFT for nucleon-nucleon scattering
Yang, J. -F.
2004-01-01
The renormalization of EFT for nucleon-nucleon scattering in nonperturbative regimes is investigated in a compact parametrization of the $T$-matrix. The key difference between perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization is clarified. The underlying theory perspective and the 'fixing' of the prescriptions for the $T$-matrix from physical boundary conditions are stressed.
Evidence for dibaryon resonances in nucleon-nucleon scattering
There has been a revival of interest in the subject of nucleon-nucleon resonances in the past 3 to 4 years, largely generated by experimental results from the polarized beam program at the Argonne ZGS. Evidence from experimental results and phase shift and phenomenological analyses incorporating these results regarding the existence of these resonances is summarized. 20 figures
The extraction of the spin structure function, g2 (and g1) at low Bjorken x
The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) used the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA to investigate the spin structure of the proton. The experiment measured inclusive double polarization electron asymmetries using a polarized electron beam, scattered off a solid polarized ammonia target with target polarization aligned longitudinal and near transverse to the electron beam, allowing the extraction of the spin asymmetries A1 and A2, and spin structure functions g1 and g2. Polarized electrons of energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV were used. The scattered electrons were detected by a novel, non-magnetic array of detectors observing a four-momentum transfer range of 2.5 to 6.5 GeV*V. This document addresses the extraction of the spin asymmetries and spin structure functions, with a focus on spin structure function, g2 (and g1) at low Bjorken x. The spin structure functions were measured as a function of x and W in four Q square bins. A full understanding of the low x region is necessary to get clean results for SANE and extend our understanding of the kinematic region at low x.
Density functional theory and electronic structure
The paper presents an overview of the density functional theory and provides a brief appraisal of the latest developments of the theory. Particular emphasis is placed on the understanding of the electronic structure of materials via the density functional theory. 37 refs, 1 tab
2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics
Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray
2005-03-23
This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.
Few-Nucleon Research at TUNL: Probing Two- and Three-Nucleon Interactions with Neutrons
Howell, C. R.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.
2016-03-01
The central goal of few-nucleon research at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is to perform measurements that contribute to advancing ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. The program aims include evaluating theoretical treatments of few-nucleon reaction dynamics through strategically comparing theory predictions to data, determining properties of the neutron-neutron interaction that are not accessible in two-nucleon reactions, and searching for evidence of longrange features of three-nucleon interactions, e.g., spin and isospin dependence. This paper will review studies of three- and four-nucleon systems at TUNL conducted using unpolarized and polarized neutron beams. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions performed by groups at TUNL over the last six years are described in comparison with theory predictions. The results are discussed in the context of the program goals stated above. Measurements of vector analyzing powers for elastic scattering in A=3 and A=4 systems, differential cross sections for neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and neutrondeuteron breakup in several final-state configurations are described. The findings from these studies and plans for the coming three years are presented in the context of worldwide activities in this front, in particular, research presented in this session.
Structure and Structure-activity Relationship of Functional Organic Molecules
2011-01-01
@@ Research theme The group is made up of junior scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Elemento-organic Chemistry, Nankai University.The scientists focus their studis on the structure and structure-activity relationship of functional organic molecules not only because it has been the basis of their research, but also because the functional study of organic compounds is now a major scientific issue for organic chemists around the world.
Three dimensional imaging of the nucleon --- TMD (theory and phenomenology)
Liang, Zuo-tang
2015-01-01
This is intend to provide an overview of the theoretical and phenomenological parts of the TMD (Transverse Momentum Dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions) studies. By comparing with the theoretical framework that we have for the inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and the one-dimensional imaging of the nucleon, I try to outline what we need to do in order to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for semi-inclusive reactions and the three dimensional imaging of the nucleon. After that, I try to give an overview of what we have already achieved and make an outlook for the future.
Small-x parton densities from HERA and the ultra-high energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections
In light of recent measurements of the nucleon structure function in the small-x deep-inelastic regime at HERA and the consequently improved theoretical understanding of the quark distributions in this range of parton fractional momentum, new results for the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultra high energies are presented up to Eν ∼ 1021 eV. The results are relevant to deep underground muon detectors looking for such neutrinos. For ∼ 1020 eV neutrinos, our cross sections are about a factor of 4 to 10 times larger than the previously reported results by Reno, Quigg and Walker. Implications of this new neutrino-nucleon cross section for a variety of current and future neutrino detectors are also discussed. (author)
Nucleon-antinucleon interaction
The current status of our understanding of the low energy nucleon-antinucleon (N anti N) interaction is reviewed. We compare several phenomenological models which fit the available N anti N cross section data. The more realistic of these models employ an annihilation potential W(r) which is spin, isospin and energy dependent. The microscopic origins for these dependences are discussed in terms of quark rearrangement and annihilation processes. It is argued that the study of N anti N annihilation offers a powerful means of studying quark dynamics at short distances. We also discuss how one may try to isolate coherent meson exchange contributions to the medium and long range part of the N anti N potential. These pieces of the N anti N interaction are calculable via the G-parity transformation from a model for the NN potential; their effects are predicted to be seen in N anti N spin observables, to be measured at LEAR. The possible existence of quasi-stable bound states or resonances of the anti N plus one or more nucleons is discussed, with emphasis on few-body systems. 42 references
Non-locality of the nucleon-nucleon potential from Lattice QCD
Murano, Keiko; Aoki, Sinya; Hatsuda, Tetsuo
2010-01-01
The Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave function for two nucleons on the lattice has been shown to yield a non-local and energy-independent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential, U(r,r'). In practice, the derivative expansion of U(r,r') is currently employed to determine the potential at low energies. In this report, we study the magnitude of non-locality to check the convergence of such a derivative expansion. With quenched lattice QCD at m_\\pi = 530MeV, we compare the NN potentials at the center of mass energy E ~ 0 MeV and at E ~ 45 MeV. We also investigate the angular momentum dependence of the spin singlet potential, by comparing the potentials in 1S0 and 1D2 channels. We find that the non-locality and the angular momentum dependence in the above energy range are negligible within statistical errors.
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.
1989-07-13
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).
Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions
Hirai, M; Saito, K; Watanabe, T
2010-01-01
For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to the AMD, the Be-9 nucleus consists of two alpha-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F_2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in Be-9. It indicates that the anomalous Be-9 result should be explain...
Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials
Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh
2005-01-01
Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials addresses three distinct but related topics: (i) magnetoelastic materials such as magnetic martensites and magnetic shape memory alloys, (ii) the magnetocaloric effect related to magnetostructural transitions, and (iii) colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and related magnanites. The goal is to identify common underlying principles in these classes of materials that are relevant for optimizing various functionalities. The emergence of apparently different magnetic/structural phenomena in disparate classes of materials clearly points to a need for common concepts in order to achieve a broader understanding of the interplay between magnetism and structure in this general class of new functional materials exhibiting ever more complex microstructure and function. The topic is interdisciplinary in nature and the contributors correspondingly include physicists, materials scientists and engineers. Likewise the book will appeal to scientists from all these areas.
Effective constraint algebras with structure functions
This article presents the result that fluctuations and higher moments of a state, by themselves, do not imply quantum corrections in structure functions of constrained systems. Moment corrections are isolated from other types of quantum effects, such as factor-ordering choices and regularization, by introducing a new condition with two parts: (i) having a direct (or faithful) quantization of the classical structure functions, (ii) free of factor-ordering ambiguities. In particular, it is assumed that the classical constraints can be quantized in an anomaly free way, so that properties of the resulting constraint algebras can be derived. If the two-part condition is not satisfied, effective constraints can still be evaluated, but quantum effects may be stronger. Consequences for canonical quantum gravity, whose structure functions encode space–time structure, are discussed. In particular, deformed algebras found in models of loop quantum gravity provide reliable information even in the Planck regime. (paper)
Flavor Decomposition of the Nucleon
Melnitchouk, W.
1999-01-01
I review some recent developments in the study of quark flavor distributions in the nucleon, including (i) valence quark distributions and the quark-hadron duality prediction for the x -> 1 d/u ratio (ii) sea quark asymmetries and electromagnetic form factors (iii) strange quarks in the nucleon.