In this talk I summarize ideas and plans which have been put forward by members of all collaborations running muon or neutrino experiments at CERN. During our discussions there was general agreement that: i) substantial improvements of structure function measurements in the SPS range are still possible and necessary and ii) it is the responsibility of the present groups and of CERN to provide a ''final'' set of structure functions in the present energy range. (orig.)
Nucleon Structure Functions from a Chiral Soliton
Weigel, H.(Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa); Gamberg, L.(Department of Physics, Penn State University-Berks, Reading, PA, 19610, U.S.A.); Reinhardt, H.
1996-01-01
Nucleon structure functions are studied within the chiral soliton approach to the bosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The valence quark approximation is employed which is justified for moderate constituent quark masses ($\\sim$ 400 MeV) as the contribution of the valence quark level dominates the predictions of nucleon properties. As examples the unpolarized structure functions for the ${\
Review on nucleon structure functions
The 1994 preliminary data of the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS on the proton structure function are presented, together with the final data of the muon fixed target experiments E665 at FNAL and NMC at CERN. Perturbative QCD interpretations and extraction of αs at low χ are discussed. (author)
Phenomenological study of the nucleon structure functions
This thesis is devoted to the study of the deep inelastic scattering. Its purpose is the development of phenomenological models describing experimental results on unpolarized (F2) and polarized (g1) nucleon structure functions in the wide range of the kinematical domain. Special attention is paid to the small-x behaviour of F2 and to the link between deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction process. The investigation of the Pomeron in deep inelastic scattering shows that one single Pomeron compatible with the Froissard-Martin limit can account for all the present HERA data. A phenomenological model of the proton structure function is developed, based on a two-component structure including various features expected from both perturbative quantum chromodynamics and non perturbative Regge theory. A link with the photoproduction process is provided. A detailed analysis of the perturbative components, based on the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations is presented. Taking into account the different parton distribution, this approach allows to describe data on proton and neutron structure functions, on deep inelastic neutrino scattering, and to reproduce the gluons distribution extracted by the ZEUS collaboration. The model is applied to the polarized deep inelastic scattering and the axial anomaly effect appearing both in the description of results on the spin dependent structure functions gp,n,d and in the interpretation of the nucleon spin structure is discussed. (J.S.). 260 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appends
Nucleon structure functions from constituent quark
Khorramian, Ali N.; Arash, Firooz
1999-10-01
We have used a constituent quarks model to describe the nucleon structure function, F2( χ, Q2), for a wide range of χ=[10 -6,1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2. We have found that although F2 rises as χ decreases, but there exists some χ0 ≤ 10 -4 - 10 -5, below which the rise of F2 subsides drastically and hence, exhibits an almost flat behavior, compatible with the latest results from HERA, at least for low Q2.
Nucleon Structure Functions within a Chiral Soliton Model
Gamberg, L.(Department of Physics, Penn State University-Berks, Reading, PA, 19610, U.S.A.); Reinhardt, H.; Weigel, H.(Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa)
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu--Jona--Lasinio model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron--nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low--scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions $g_{1}(x)$ and $g_{2}(x)$ in this model. We compare...
Nucleon Structure Functions within a Chiral Soliton Model
Gamberg, L P; Weigel, H
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu--Jona--Lasinio model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron--nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low--scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions $g_{1}(x)$ and $g_{2}(x)$ in this model. We compare the model predictions on these structure functions with data from the E143 experiment by GLAP evolving them appropriately.
A no extensive statistical model for the nucleon structure function
Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos
2013-03-01
We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon.
a Nonextensive Statistical Model for the Nucleon Structure Function
Trevisan, Luis Augusto; Mirez, Carlos
2013-07-01
We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalizations in the nucleon.
Photo-production of Nucleon Resonances and Nucleon Spin Structure Function in the Resonance Region
Qing, D; Qing, Di; Schmidt, Ivan
2002-01-01
The photo-production of nucleon resonances is calculated based on a chiral constituent quark model including both relativistic corrections H{rel} and two-body exchange currents, and it is shown that these effects play an important role. We also calculate the first moment of the nucleon spin structure function g1 (x,Q^2) in the resonance region, and obtain a sign-changing point around Q^2 ~ 0.27 {GeV}^2 for the proton.
Bertini, M.
1995-05-12
This thesis is devoted to the study of the deep inelastic scattering. Its purpose is the development of phenomenological models describing experimental results on unpolarized (F{sub 2}) and polarized (g{sub 1}) nucleon structure functions in the wide range of the kinematical domain. Special attention is paid to the small-x behaviour of F{sub 2} and to the link between deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction process. The investigation of the Pomeron in deep inelastic scattering shows that one single Pomeron compatible with the Froissard-Martin limit can account for all the present HERA data. A phenomenological model of the proton structure function is developed, based on a two-component structure including various features expected from both perturbative quantum chromodynamics and non perturbative Regge theory. A link with the photoproduction process is provided. A detailed analysis of the perturbative components, based on the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations is presented. Taking into account the different parton distribution, this approach allows to describe data on proton and neutron structure functions, on deep inelastic neutrino scattering, and to reproduce the gluons distribution extracted by the ZEUS collaboration. The model is applied to the polarized deep inelastic scattering and the axial anomaly effect appearing both in the description of results on the spin dependent structure functions g{sup p,n,d} and in the interpretation of the nucleon spin structure is discussed. (J.S.). 260 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appends.
A model for nucleon, pion and kaon structure functions
The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q20 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states leads to definite predictions on their structure functions. Predictions are made here using a non-relativistic approximation for the bound states. Good agreement with experiment is found for nucleon, pion and kaon structure functions
In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect
Hen, O; Gilad, S; Wood, S A
2014-01-01
A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.
Nuclear effects in F_3 structure function of nucleon
Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente
2007-01-01
We study nuclear effects in the $F^A_3(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio $R(x,Q^2)=\\frac{F^A_3(x,Q^2)}{AF^N_3(x, Q^2)}$ and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith(GLS) integral $G(x,Q^2)=\\int_x^1 dx F^A_3(x,Q^2)$ in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data.
Nuclear effects in F3 structure function of nucleon
We study nuclear effects in the F3A(x) structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio R(x,Q2)=(F3A(x,Q2))/(AF3N(x,Q2)) and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith (GLS) integral G(x,Q2)=∫x1dxF3A(x,Q2) in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data
A measurement of the ratio of the nucleon structure function in copper and deuterium
Results are presented on the ratios of the nucleon structure function in copper to deuterium from two separate experiments. The data confirm that the nucleon structure function, F2, is different for bound nucleons than for the quasi-free ones in the deuteron. The redistribution in the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by quarks is investigated and it is found that the data are compatible with no integral loss of quark momenta due to nuclear effects. (orig.)
Polarized Structure Function of Nucleon and Orbital Angular Momentum
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh
2007-06-01
We have utilized the concept of valon model to calculate the spin structure function of a constituent quark. This structure is universal and arises from perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD. With a convolution method the polarized structure functions of proton, neutron, and deuteron are obtained. Our results agree rather well with all available experimental data. It suggests that the sea quark contribution to the spin of nucleon is consistent with zero, in agreement with HERMES data. It also reveals that while the total quark contribution to the spin of a constituent quark, or valon, is almost constant and equal to one, the gluon contribution grows with the increase of Q2, and hence, requiring a sizable negative angular momentum contribution. This component, as well as singlet and non-singlet parts are calculated in the Next-to-Leading order in QCD. We speculate that the gluon contribution to the spin of proton is in the order of 50%. Furthermore, we have determined the polarized valon distribution in a nucleon.
Structure functions of the nucleon and nuclei in neutrino reactions
Determination of parton distribution functions in nuclei is important for calculating nuclear corrections in oscillation experiments, from which detailed information should be extracted on neutrino properties. First, nuclear parton distributions are discussed for explaining high-energy nuclear reaction data. Possible nuclear modification is explained for valence-quark and antiquark distributions. It is rather difficult to determine gluon distributions in nuclei. Next, reversing the topic, we discuss structure functions which could be investigated by neutrino reactions. Determination of polarized parton distributions in the nucleon is discussed in polarized neutrino reactions. In addition, neutrino reactions should be important for finding nuclear modification of valence-quark distributions at small x if structure function ratios F3A/F3D are measured for various nuclei
Nucleon Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Quark-Hadron Duality
DONG Yu-Bing; LI Ming-Fei
2003-01-01
Based on a simple nonrelativistic constituent quark model, the nucleon structure function F2 in theresonance region is estimated by taking the contributions from low-lying nucleon resonances into account. Calculatedresults are employed to study quark-hardon duality in the nucleon electron scattering process by comparing them to thescaling behavior from the data in deep inelastic scattering region.
Chiral Quark Soliton Model and Nucleon Spin Structure Functions
Wakamatsu, M
2009-01-01
The chiral quark soliton model (CQSM) is one of the most successful models of baryons at quark level, which maximally incorporates the most important feature of low energy QCD, i.e. the chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breakdown. Basically, it is a relativistic mean-field theory with full account of infinitely many Dirac-sea quarks in a rotational-symmetry-breaking mean field of hedgehog shape. The numerical technique established so far enables us to make a nonperturbative evaluation of Casimir effects (i.e. effects of vacuum-polarized Dirac sea) on a variety of baryon observables. This incompatible feature of the model manifests most clearly in its predictions for parton distribution functions of the nucleon. In this talk, after briefly reviewing several basic features of the CQSM, we plan to demonstrate in various ways that this unique model of baryons provides us with an ideal tool for disentangling nonperturbative aspect of the internal partonic structure of the nucleon, especially the underlying spin ...
Detailed Measurements of Structure Functions from Nucleons and Nuclei
2002-01-01
The experiment will study deep inelastic muon nucleon scattering in a wide range of Q|2~(1-200 (GeV/c)|2) and x~(0.005-0.75). The main aims of the experiment are: \\item a)~~~~Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of the structure function F^2|A, of R~=~@s^L/@s^T and of the cross-section for J/@y production. They will provide a basis for the understanding of the EMC effect: the modification of quark and gluon distributions due to the nuclear environment. \\item b)~~~~A simultaneous high luminosity measurement of the structure function F^2 on hydrogen and deuterium. This will provide substantially improved accuracy in the knowledge of the neutron structure function F^2|n, of F^2|p-F^2|n and F^2|n/F^2|p and their Q|2 dependence. Furthermore, the data will allow a determination of the strong coupling constant @a^s(Q|2) with reduced experimental and theoretical uncertainties as well as of the ratio of the down to up quark distributions in the valence region. Due to the large x range covered by the experim...
Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons
We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm2 of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4√nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F2(x,Q2) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 2 2/c2. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter Λ/sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references
Nucleon Spin Structure Functions in the Resonance Region and the Duality
DONG Yu-Bing; FENG Qing-Guo
2003-01-01
We discuss the nucleon spin structure function gl and the difference between the proton and neutrontargets gp1 - gn1 , based on quark model calculation. Quark-hadron duality for the nucleon spin structure function is alsoanalyzed. Effects of the △(1232) and Roper P11(1440) resonances on the spin structure function and on the differencegn1 - gn1 are mentioned. The results of different models for the Roper resonance are also addressed.
Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons
Meyers, P.D.
1983-12-01
We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.
Nuclear medium effects in structure functions of nucleon at moderate $Q^2$
Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz
2015-01-01
Recent experiments performed on inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets have measured the nucleon electromagnetic structure functions $F_1(x,Q^2)$, $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_L(x,Q^2)$ in $^{12}C$, $^{27}Al$, $^{56}Fe$ and $^{64}Cu$ nuclei. The measurements have been done in the energy region of $1 GeV^2 < W^2 < 4 GeV^2$ and $Q^2$ region of $0.5 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 4.5 GeV^2$. We have calculated nuclear medium effects in these structure functions arising due to the Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using relativistic nucleon spectral function which include nucleon correlations. The numerical results are compared with the recent experimental data from JLab and also with some earlier experiments.
The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model
Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos
2013-05-01
We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by Δu and Δd of the polarized functions.
Quarks and gluons in nucleon polarized structure functions
Bourrely, C; Pisanti, O; Santorelli, P; Soffer, J
1996-01-01
We study the quark and gluon contributions to the proton and neutron polarized structure functions by considering two different theoretical interpretations. Both approaches are consistent with the world available data from CERN and SLAC. We conclude that, in order to clarify the situation, one should improve the accuracy of the presently running experiments, but one also needs to seriously look into HERA with both electron and proton polarized beams
Structure functions of the nucleon in a statistical model
Cleymans, J; Joubert, J
1993-01-01
Deep inelastic scattering is considered in a statistical model of the nucleon. This incorporates certain features which are absent in the standard parton model such as quantum statistical correlations which play a role in the propagation of particles when considering Feynman diagrams containing internal lines. The inclusion of the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_{s})$ corrections in our numerical calculations allows a good fit to the data for $x\\geq 0.25$. The fit corresponds to values of temperature and chemical potential of approximately $T=0.067$ GeV and $\\mu=0.133$ GeV. The latter values of parameters, however, give rise, for all $x$, to a large value for $R=\\sigma_{L}/\\sigma_{T}$.
Within the framework of quenched lattice QCD and using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and nonperturbative renormalization, a high statistics computation of low moments of the unpolarized nucleon structure functions is given. Particular attention is paid to the chiral and continuum extrapolations
Within the framework of quenched lattice QCD and using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and non-perturbative renormalisation, a high statistics computation of low moments of the unpolarised nucleon structure functions is given. Particular attention is paid to the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)
Bloom-Gilman Duality of Nucleon Spin Structure Function and Elastic Peak Contribution
DONG Yu-Bing
2005-01-01
By employing the parametrization form of the nucleon spin structure function in the resonance region,which includes the contributions of the resonance peaks and of nonresonance background, we study Bloom-Gilman quark-hadron duality of g1 both in the inelastic resonance region and elastic one.
The ratio of the nucleon structure functions Fsup(N)2 for iron and deuterium
Using the data on deep inelastic muon scattering on iron and deuterium the ratio of the nucleon structure functions F2sup(N)(Fe)/F2sup(N)(D) is presented. The observed x-dependence of this ratio is in disagreement with existing theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Measurement of nucleon structure function in muon scattering at 147 GeV/c
Results on the nucleon structure function, νW2, are presented for 0.222 and 5< or =ν< or =130 GeV. They were obtained by scattering 147-GeV positive muons inelastically from a liquid deuterium target
Generalized parton distributions provide information on the longitudinal and transverse distribution of partons in the fast moving nucleon. Furthermore, they contain information on the spin structure of the nucleon. First results of a lattice study of generalized parton distributions are presented. (orig.)
Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons
Bodek, Arie [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
2015-09-01
We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (σ_{L}) and transverse (σ_{T}) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= σ_{L}/σ_{T} for nuclei (R_{A}) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, R_{A} < R_{D}.
Once more on the radiative corrections to the nucleon structure functions in QCD
A new representation of the next to leading QCD corrections to the nucleon structure functions is given in terms of parton distributions. All O(αs) corrections to the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) are included. In contrast to the similar representations in the literature terms of order O(α2s) do not attend in our expressions for the nucleon structure functions taken in the next to leading logarithmic approximation. This result is generalized for any order in αs beyond the LLA. Terms of order O(αns) which belong only tot he approximation in consideration are present in such a representation for the structure functions. (author). 11 refs
Measurement of nucleon structure function in muon scattering at high q2
The nucleon structure function, F2, has been measured up to q2 = 120 (GeV/c)2 and for 40 2 2. The data exhibit a significant pattern of scaling violation. Compared to lower-energy data, F2 shows an observable increase of approx. 15% at high q2 for x < 0.4. The pattern of the increase may accommodate a threshold in W or new theoretical parametrizations
Nucleon structure functions from νmu-Fe scattering at the Tevatron
We present preliminary results for nucleon structure functions measured in high energy neutrino interactions. Included are new results for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith Sum Rule, ∫x/1xF3dx = 2.66 ± .03(stat)±.08(syst), the ratio of cross-sections, σbarν/σν = .511 ± .002(stat) ± .005(syst), and an analysis of the Q2 evolution of xF3. 16 refs., 5 figs
Structure function measurements in the deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering
Measurements of deep inelastic scattering events on a combined copper and deuterium target were performed by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) using a muon beam at CERN's SPS with energies at 100 GeV and 280 GeV. The data are analysed and compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation and allow the determination of structure functions from both targets. In the light of the present discrepancy between EMC's and BCDMS's structure functions, stringend cuts were applied to the data. The results confirm the EMC structure function measurements on unbound nucleons. The comparison between the copper structure function from this experiment and the NA2 iron structure function shows a trend to lower values at low xBj. (orig.)
Nucleon structure functions from nu(anti-nu) interactions in bubble chambers
The nucleon structure functions F2 and xF3 have been extracted as functions of the scaling variable x and Q2 - over a wide range of Q2(.1 to 100 GeV2/c2) - using nu(anti-nu) interactions in Ne-H2 filled bubble chambers from low energy wide band experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and high energy narrow band experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The extracted values of the structure functions were used to test specific predictions of quark-parton model and scaling violations predicted by QCD. Global fits to the structure functions using Buras-Gaemers parameterization yield a value for the scale parameter Λ of 245 +/- 840 MeV/c. A moment analysis of the non-singlet structure function yields Λ = 500 +/- 480 MeV/c and the slopes of Log-Log moments are consistent with QCD predictions
Progress towards a lattice determination of (moments of) nucleon structure functions
Using unimproved and non-perturbatively O(a) improved Wilson fermions, results are given for the three lowest moments of unpolarised nucleon structure functions. Renormalisation, chiral extrapolation and the continuum limit of the matrix elements are briefly discussed. The simulations are performed for both quenched and two flavours of unquenched fermions. No obvious sign of deviation from linearity in the chiral extrapolations are found. (This is most clearly seen in our quenched unimproved data, which extends to lighter quark mass). Possible quenching effects also seem to be small. The lowest moment thus remains too large, so it seems to be necessary to reach smaller quark masses in numerical simulations. (orig.)
Gold-plated moments of nucleon structure functions in baryon chiral perturbation theory
Lensky, Vadim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2014-01-01
We obtain leading- and next-to-leading order predictions of chiral perturbation theory for several prominent moments of nucleon structure functions. These free-parameter free results turn out to be in overall agreement with the available empirical information on all of the considered moments, in the region of low-momentum transfer ($Q^2 < 0.3$ GeV$^2$). Especially surprising is the situation for the $\\delta_{LT}$ moment, which thus far was not reproducible for proton and neutron simultaneously in chiral perturbation theory. This problem, known as the "$\\delta_{LT}$ puzzle," is not seen in the present calculation.
Determination of nucleon structure functions on the assumption of diquark presence
In this thesis, we asked for the presence in the nucleons of either scalar or axial vector diquarks. After the introduction of the basis notions on diquarks and their interest in the understanding of various physical problems, we present in the first chapter the theoretical frame in SU(6) symmetry. Chapter 2 and 3 are respectively devoted to the Stockholm and Torino models. We point out to get a very nice fit of the experimental data with models we had to put in a small Q2 dependence in the various quarks distribution functions previously determined. In chapter 4, we used our distribution functions and compared our predictions with experimental results: the ratio of the neutron electromagnetic structure function to that of the proton, the ratio of the longitudinal component to the transverse one for the lepton-nucleon scattering cross-section, so the dileptons production in Drell-Yan process. The conclusion of that study is that the presence of diquarks does not lead, at the moment, to any obvious contradiction with the experimental data; diquarks as constituents are a viable idea, which in certain kinematical regions could be of crucial importance
N Barik; R N Mishra
2001-04-01
Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks conﬁned independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions 1(,2) and 2(x,2) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions (,2) and (,2) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of 2=0.07 GeV2 to a higher $Q^{2}$ scale of $Q^{2}_{0} = 15$ GeV2 yields (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) and (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as (,$Q^{2}_{0}$) and (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input.
Nuclear effects in F{sub 3} structure function of nucleon
Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India)], E-mail: sajathar@rediffmail.com; Singh, S.K. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Vacas, M.J. Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2008-10-02
We study nuclear effects in the F{sub 3}{sup A}(x) structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio R(x,Q{sup 2})=(F{sub 3}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2}))/(AF{sub 3}{sup N}(x,Q{sup 2})) and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith (GLS) integral G(x,Q{sup 2})={integral}{sub x}{sup 1}dxF{sub 3}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2}) in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data.
A detailed study of nucleon structure function in nuclei in the valence quark region
Bianchi, N. [INFN-Laboratori, Nazionali di Frascati (Italy)
1994-04-01
The so called {open_quotes}EMC effect{close_quotes} discovered during the 1980`s, has caused a big controversy in the community of nuclear and high energy physicists; during the last ten years, five experiments have been performed in different laboratories and several hundreds of papers about the possible interpretation of the modification of the nucleon structure function inside nuclei have been published. However, from the experimental point of view, the main goal of four experiments (EMC, BCDMS, NMC, FNAL) has been to emphasize the region of low x{sub b}, where shadowing effects appear. In the region of valence quarks and nuclear effects (x{sub b} > 0.1 - 0.2) the most reliable data presently available are from the SLAC E139 experiment performed in 1983 with only 80 hours of beam time. New precise data in the valence quark region are necessary to measure separate structure functions F{sub 2}(x{sub b}, Q{sup 2}) and R{sup lt}(x{sub b},Q{sup 2}) = {sigma}{sub l}/{sigma}{sub t}, and to investigate the real A-dependence of the ratio between bound and free-nucleon structure functions which is not completely defined by the SLAC data. Moreover, from the nuclear physics point of view, a measurement on some unexplored nuclei, like {sup 3}He and {sup 48}Ca, would be of great interest. The intermediate scaling region (0.1 < x{sub b} < 0.7) would be accessible at CEBAF if the machine energy will reach 6-8 GeV, as suggested by all the tests performed on the RF cavities. This physics program has been already presented in two letter of intents.
Axial structure of the nucleon
Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner
2002-01-01
We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.
Nucleon structure using lattice QCD
Alexandrou, C.; Kallidonis, C. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computational-Based Science and technology Research Center; Constantinou, M.; Hatziyiannakou, K. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Drach, V. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, K. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Koutsou, G.; Vaquero, A. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computational-Based Science and technology Research Center; Leontiou, T. [Frederick Univ, Nicosia (Cyprus). General Dept.
2013-03-15
A review of recent nucleon structure calculations within lattice QCD is presented. The nucleon excited states, the axial charge, the isovector momentum fraction and helicity distribution are discussed, assessing the methods applied for their study, including approaches to evaluate the disconnected contributions. Results on the spin carried by the quarks in the nucleon are also presented.
The third moment d2 of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g2 is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q2 and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order Ο(p4) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d2 as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g1 and g2 to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f2 which appears in the 1/Q2 suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g1 for proton and neutron
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
Dinter, Simon
2012-11-13
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a2) discretization effects.
Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model
Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika
2016-06-01
We have analyzed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent (F1p ,n and F2p ,n) and the spin dependent (g1p ,n) structure functions of the nucleon on the Bjorken scaling variable x using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks q (x ) and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks Δ q (x ) respectively. The chiral constituent quark model, which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of p and n . In light of the improved precision of the world data, the p and n longitudinal spin asymmetries [A1p(x ) and A1n(x )] have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for the ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the p and n Δ/up(x ) up(x ) , Δ/dp(x ) dp(x ) , Δ/un(x ) un(x ) , and Δ/dn(x ) dn(x ) . The ratio of the n and p structure functions Rn p(x )=F/2n(x ) F2p(x ) has also been presented. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations. The results on the spin sum rule have also been included and compared with data and other recent approaches.
Low x Double ln2(1/x) Resummation Effects at the Sum Rules for Nucleon Structure Function g1
We have estimated the contributions to the moments of polarized nucleon structure function g1(x,Q2) coming from the region of the very low x (10-52(1/x) resummation. The Q2 evolution of g1 was described by the unified evolution equations incorporating both the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderate x, and the double ln2(1/x) resummation at small x. The moments were obtained by integrating out the extrapolated nucleon structure function in the region 10-5< x<1. (author)
Nucleon structure functions from the instanton vacuum: leading and non-leading twists
We review the description of nucleon structure functions in the instanton vacuum. This includes the calculation of the twist-2 parton distributions at a low normalization point as well as higher-twist matrix elements. The instanton vacuum with its inherent small parameter, the packing fraction of the instanton medium, ρ/R, provides a consistent picture of the nonperturbative gluon degrees of freedom at the scale ρ-1≅600 MeV. The twist-2 quark and antiquark distribution are of order unity, while the twist-2 gluon distribution is of order (ρ/R)4. Twist-4 matrix elements determining power corrections to the Bjoerken, Ellis-Jaffe and Gross-Llewellyn-Smith sum rules are found to be of order (ρ/R)0. We present numerical estimates for the parametrically large quantities. (author)
Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model
Dahiya, Harleen
2016-01-01
We have analysed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent ($F_1^{p,n}$ and $F_2^{p,n}$) and the spin dependent ($g_1^{p,n}$) structure functions of the nucleon on the the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks $q(x)$ and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks $\\Delta q(x)$ respectively. The chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM), which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of $p$ and $n$. In light of the improved precision of the world data, the $p$ and $n$ longitudinal spin asymmetries ($A_1^p(x)$ and $A_1^n(x)$) have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the $p$ and $n$ $\\frac{\\Delta u^p(x)}{u^p(x)}$, $\\frac{\\Delta d...
A high-statistics measurement of the differential cross-sections for neutrino-iron scattering in the wide-band neutrino beam at the CERN SPS is presented. Nucleon structure functions are extracted and their Q2 evolution is compared with the predictions of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)
Berge, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Dydak, F.; Hagelberg, R.; Krasny, M.W.; Meyer, H.J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, R.W.; Wotschack, J. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bluemer, H.; Brummel, H.D.; Buchholz, P.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Kampschulte, B.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Mueller, E.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik); Alvarez, T.; Belusevic, R.; Falkenburg, B.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Keilwerth, H.; Tittel, K. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik); Debu, P.; Guyot, C.; Merlo, J.P.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Peyaud, B.; Schuller, J.P.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires); Abramowicz, H.; Krolikowski, J.; Lipniacka, A. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Doswiadczalnej)
1991-02-01
A high-statistics measurement of the differential cross-sections for neutrino-iron scattering in the wide-band neutrino beam at the CERN SPS is presented. Nucleon structure functions are extracted and their Q{sup 2} evolution is compared with the predictions of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).
Study of the nucleon spin structure functions: the E154 experiment at SLAC
In experiment E154 at SLAC, the spin dependent structure function g1n was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 50 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized helium 3 target. We report the integral over the measured x range to be ∫0.0140.7g1n(x,5 GeV2)dx = -0.0348 ± 0.0033 ± 0.0043 ± 0.0014. We observe relatively large values of g1n at low x, calling into question the reliability of the data extrapolation down to x equal 0. Such a divergent behavior seems to disagree with the prediction of the Regge theory but can be quantitatively explained by perturbative QCD. Moreover, we have performed a NLO perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on g1, paying careful attention to both the theoretical hypothesis and the calculation of errors. Using a parametrization of the polarized parton distribution at a low scale, we can access the fraction of spin carried by quarks: ΔΣ = 29 ± 6 pc in the MS-bar scheme, and ΔΣ = 37 ± 7 pc in the AB scheme. The gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is not well enough constrained by the current data, but seems to lie between 0 and 2. This study allows us to extract the first moment of the g1 structure function and we find agreement with the Bjorken sum rule expectations. (author)
Nucleon Spin Structure: Experiment
Miller, Andy
2003-04-01
The experimental study of nucleon spin structure is at a transitional stage. Deeply inelastic scattering of leptons has revealed much about quark helicity distributions, and is approaching the limits of what is possible with present experimental facilities. The latest results from semi-inclusive measurements at HERMES will be presented. Precise new complementary data are expected soon from W production at RHIC-Spin. The gluon polarization will also be measured soon at COMPASS and RHIC. Meanwhile, single-spin asymmetries that promise to provide access to the unknown transversity distribution have been observed, and will be discussed. Based on these signals, the first measurements of transversity are underway. Finally, single spin asymmetries have also been recently observed in hard exclusive processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. These signals have the potential to provide a new window on both orbital angular momentum of partons, and on correlations between their longitudinal momentum and transverse position.
The Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Pretz, Jörg
2007-01-01
This article reviews recent results on the spin structure of the nucleon from polarized deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and polarized proton-proton scattering. For a description of the nucleon in terms of parton distribution functions (pdf) the knowledge of three basic distributions is needed: The relatively well known unpolarized pdfs, the helicity distributions and the transversity distributions. The latter two play an essential role in understanding the spin structure of the nucleon. New results on the gluon helicity distribution $\\Delta G(x)$ and the helicity distributions for strange and valence quarks are discussed. A first determination of the up to now unknown transversity distributions $\\Delta_{T}q(x)$ is presented. Finally results from deep virtual Compton scattering, giving access to the orbital angular momentum contribution of quarks to the nucleon spin, are discussed.
Kotlorz, Dorota
2008-01-01
Predictions for the spin dependent structure function $g_1$ of the nucleon are presented. We use an unified approach incorporating the LO DGLAP evolution and the resummation of double logarithmic terms $ln^2(x)$. We show, that the singular input parametrisation as $x\\to 0$ can be a substitute of the $ln^2(x)$ resummation. An impact of the `more running' coupling is discussed. We determine the contribution to the Bjorken sum rule solving the evolution equation for the truncated moment of $g_1^{NS}$. A comparison with the re-analysed HERMES and COMPASS data is given.
Constituent quark description of nucleon structure
Nucleon structure functions are calculated within the constituent quark in the leading order. The results compare well with the experimental data for entire range of kinematics in x and Q2and with the next - to - leading order calculation of GRV
The spin and flavor structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei is more complicated than expected in the original naive quark model. Recent results which show some of the key failures of the naive picture are summarized here with emphasis on recent results from the HERMES experiment. Some future options to study the quarks structure in exclusive processes in electroproduction, photoproduction and pp annihilation are presented. (orig.)
SU(6)-strong breaking: structure functions and small momentum transfer properties of the nucleon
Evidence for SU(6) breaking of the baryonic ground state, the connection between the quark model and the quark--parton model, the nucleon in a pure 56 at rest with relativistic quark motion, and SU(6) mixing (56, L = 0) + (70, L = 0) for the nucleon, without the small components effects, description of the F2/sup en//F2/sup ep/ behavior, and the neutron charge radius are treated. Gluons and the q anti q sea are introduced, and final results given combining the various effects. Finally the distinction between constituent and current quarks is discussed with regards to its relevance. 48 references
E.R. Nocera
2015-03-01
Full Text Available I investigate the behavior of spin-dependent parton distribution functions in the regions of small and large momentum fractions x. I present a systematic comparison between predictions for relevant observables obtained with various models of nucleon spin structure and a recent global analysis of spin-dependent distributions, NNPDFpol1.1. Together with its unpolarized counterpart, NNPDF2.3, they form a mutually consistent set of parton distributions. Because they include most of the available experimental information, and are determined with a minimally biased methodology, these are especially suited for such a study. I show how NNPDFpol1.1 can discriminate between different theoretical models, even though NNPDF uncertainties remain large near the endpoints x→0 and x→1, due to the lack of experimental information. I discuss how our knowledge of nucleon spin structure may be improved at small x by future measurements at an Electron–Ion Collider, and at large x by recent measurements at Jefferson Lab, also in view of its 12 GeV upgrade.
Nucleon structure from stochastic estimators
Bali, Gunnar S; Gläßle, Benjamin; Göckeler, Meinulf; Najjar, Johannes; Rödl, Rudolf; Schäfer, Andreas; Sternbeck, André; Söldner, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Using stochastic estimators for connected meson and baryon three-point functions has successfully been tried in the past years. Compared to the standard sequential source method we trade the freedom to compute the current-to-sink propagator independently of the hadron sink for additional stochastic noise in our observables. In the case of the nucleon we can use this freedom to compute many different sink-momentum/polarization combinations, which grants access to more virtualities. We will present preliminary results on the scalar, electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD and contrast the performance of the stochastic method to the sequential source method. We find the stochastic method to be competitive in terms of errors at fixed cost.
Use of leptons to study the internal structure of nucleons
In the light of recent results in leptoproduction experiments, a review of the lepton deep inelastic scattering is given. The nucleon structure functions are introduced in the frame of the Quark Parton Model, their Q2 evolution is described with the formalism of Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) to the leading order. The last experimental results from high energy muon-nucleon and neutrino-nucleon scattering experiments are reported and compared with the QCD predictions. All the experiments are in fair agreement and show a small but clear scaling violation corresponding to the rise with Q2 of the quark-antiquark sea and gluon contributions to the nucleon structure functions
The quark structure of the nucleons
The suitableness of the non-relativistic potential model for the description of quarks in nucleons is proved and the model extensively presented. Practical applications are some contributions to the nucleon-nucleon interaction which result from the quark structure of the nucleons. These are especially the quark-gluon exchange and the quark-pion exchange between nucleons. The influences of these interactions on the s and p scattering of the nucleons are calculated in the framework of the resonating-group method. Furthermore we study the change of the quark structure if two nucleons approach very closely. The interaction of the nucleons by quark-gluon exchange causes an increase of the nucleon radius and a shift of the quark momenta to lower values. On this base the momentum distribution of quarks in nuclei is calculated and a natural explanation of the EMC effect is given. The distance distribution of nucleons and their Fermi motion are calculated for this in the shell model. Then we make further considerations in connection with the flavor symmetry, the collapse of the nucleons and the properties of six-quark bags. Altogether it is shown that in the potential model the most different effects of the quark structure of nucleons can be surprisingly well described in an illustrative way. (orig.)
Analysis of DIS structure functions of the nucleon within truncated Mellin moments approach
Kotlorz, D
2016-01-01
We present generalized evolution equations and factorization in terms of the truncated Mellin moments (TMM) of the parton distributions and structure functions. We illustrate the $x$ and $Q^2$ dependence of TMM in the polarized case. Using the TMM approach we compare the integrals of $g_1$ with HERMES and COMPASS data from the limited $x$-ranges.
Interference Fragmentation Functions and the Nucleon's Transversity
Jaffe, R. L.; Jin, Xuemin; Tang, Jian
1997-01-01
We introduce twist-two quark interference fragmentation functions in helicity density matrix formalism and study their physical implications. We show how the nucleon's transversity distribution can be probed through the final state interaction between two mesons ($\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K\\bar K$, or $\\pi K$) produced in the current fragmentation region in deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized nucleon.
We have studied the nuclear effects on high energy antineutrino charged current interactions by comparing the data which were taken in the Bubble Chamber BEBC filled with Neon and Deuterium. On the one hand, the study of nuclear reinteractions gave us the possibility to estimate the formation time of hadrons. On the other hand, the comparison of structure functions does not show any significant difference between Neon and Deuterium. Though this result does not contradict the effects observed with charged leptons by the EMC and SLAC experiments, it is strongly incompatible with certain theoretical interpretations which implied a stronger effect in antineutrino interactions
Experimental results on polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering
Stuart, L.
1994-08-01
A summary is given of experimental results on spin structure functions of the proton g{sub 1}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}), deuteron g{sub 1}{sup d}(x,Q{sup 2}), and neutron g{sub 1}{sup n}(x,Q{sup 2}) as measured in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from a polarized target. All results are consistent with the Bjorken sum rule predictions at the Q{sup 2} of each experiment. The data do not support the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction for the proton which implies that the hencity carried by the strange quark may be nonzero and that the net quark helicity is smaller than expected from simple quark models.
New relations in lepton-nucleon scattering independent of the nucleon structure
New relations in deep inelastic and (quasi-)elastic scattering of polarized electrons and positrons (μ±-mesons) on non-polarized nucleons have been obtained. They connect cross sections with standard model parameters and are independent of the structure functions and form factors of the nucleon. A well known example is the Paschos-Wolfenstein relation in (ν-bar)N-scattering. 6 refs
Nasseripour, R; Ambrozewicz, P; Carman, D S; Amaryan, M J; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Blaszczyk, L; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Casey, L; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Credé, V; Dale, D; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kalantarians, N; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Krahn, Z; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; MacCormick, M; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Müller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Anefalos Pereira, S; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rubin, P D; Sabati, F; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Sayre, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Sharov, D; Shvedunov, N V; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W
2008-01-01
The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.
In the deep inelastic neutrino scattering experiment of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay collaboration realized on the CERN SPS narrow band beam, we have measured 23000 charged current neutrino and 6200 antineutrino interactions. The structure functions of the nucleon have been extracted from the differential cross sections on iron and compared with parton model predictions. The total cross sections and the fraction of momentum carried by the antiquarks in the nucleon have been measured as function of the neutrino energy. The structure functions obtained for different Q2 bins show significant deviations from scale invariance. The data are in agreement with QCD predictions for a value of the scale parameter Λ between 300 and 700 MeV
The authors presented a nuclear density empirical formula of the nucleus, where authors have established the connection between the nuclear density and the mean binding energy in nucleus. By using the formula, authors can get the nuclear density for various nuclei with A≥12. By means of the nuclear density model, authors calculate the nuclear effect function RA1/A2 (x, Q2). The calculated results are in good agreement with EMC experimental data
Quark distributions in nuclei and nuclear effects on nucleon structure functions
WANG Yan-Zhao; ZHANG Hong-Fei; GAO Yong-Hua; HOU Zhao-Yu; DONG Jian-Min; DUAN Chun-Gui; ZUO Wei
2009-01-01
Extended quark distribution functions are presented obtained by fitting a large amount of experi-mental data of the ι-A DIS process on the basis of an improved nuclear density model. The experimental data of ι-A DIS processes with A≥ 3 in the region 0.0010 ≤ x ≤ 0.9500 are quite satisfactorily described by using the extended formulae. Our knowledge of the influence of nuclear matter on the quark distributions is deepened.
Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations
Coraggio L.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.
Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations
Coraggio, L; Holt, J W; Itaco, N; Machleidt, R; Marcucci, L E; Sammarruca, F
2016-01-01
Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.
Spin structure of the nucleon and triangle anomaly
It is shown that the gluon contribution to the sum rule for spin parton distribution functions which determines the spin of the nucleon is fixed by the axial Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly. The new sum rule is consistent with OCD evolution equations and predicts that quarks carry about 70% of the nucleon spin. The gluon contribution results in negative extra term to the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule for the structure function g1 which accounts for its disagreement with experiment
Various aspects of nuclear physics at intermediate energies, in connection with the description of the nucleon-nucleon potential in terms of mesons, are presented in this thesis. The meson exchange current contribution is studied in the case of the deuteron (np capture and electrodisintegration near threshold). A consistent description of these processes is discussed, with particular emphasis on the effective range of the current, for momentum transfers as large as q2∼1 (GeV/c)2. The structure of finite nuclei and nuclear matter is then analysed in the framework of a relativistic formalism, in which the negative energy component of the nucleon wave function is explicitly taken into account. The nuclear matter saturation mechanism is studied in details and compared with the non-relativistic limit. Properties of finite nuclei are also discussed. Finally, the structure of the nucleon itself in the nuclear medium is investigated. A connection between the polarisation of the nucleon (three valence quark component), the incompressibility parameter and the mass of the first monopole excitation of the nucleon is presented
Nucleon spin structure functions
This paper reviews the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future, and discuss the polarization dependence of inclusive hadron production
On the resonance structure in nucleon-nucleon scattering
Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.
1981-10-01
A possible explanation of resonance-like structure in 1D 2 and 3F 3 proton-proton phase parameters at medium energy is suggested by the analysis of an exactly soluble coupled channel model. Looping in the Argand plot is mainly due to the nucleon-delta branch cut. This effect is already present in the NΔ box diagram, but is modified by higher order multiple scattering. Poles occur close to the NΔ branch point and originate from left-hand singularities in the unphysical sheet.
Ziaja, Beata
2002-01-01
Theoretical predictions show that at low values of Bjorken $x$ the spin structure function, $g_1$ is influenced by large logarithmic corrections, $ln^2(1/x)$, which may be predominant in this region. These corrections are also partially contained in the NLO part of the standard DGLAP evolution. Here we calculate the non-singlet component of the nucleon structure function, $g_1^{NS}=g_1^p-g_1^n$, and its first moment, using a unified evolution equation. This equation incorporates the terms des...
Study of hadron structure in a deep-inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons
The problem is discussed of nucleon structure research in deep inelastic scattering processes of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons. Using a modified Kuti-Weisskopf model theoretical relations are derived for structure functions involved in the deep inelastic differential cross section of leptons on nucleons. (Z.J.)
Nucleon Resonances and Quark Structure
Londergan, J T
2009-01-01
A pedagogical review of the past 50 years of study of resonances, leading to our understanding of the quark content of baryons and mesons. The level of this review is intended for undergraduates or first-year graduate students. Topics covered include: the quark structure of the proton as revealed through deep inelastic scattering; structure functions and what they reveal about proton structure; and prospects for further studies with new and upgraded facilities, particularly a proposed electron-ion collider.
The nucleon wave function at the origin
Gruber, Michael
2010-01-01
We calculate the next-to-leading order perturbative corrections to the SVZ sum rules for the coupling f_N, the nucleon leading twist wave function at the origin. The results are compared to the established Ioffe sum rules and also to lattice QCD simulations.
Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure
Holstein, B.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astromony Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory)
1992-01-01
Recently it has been realized that significant tests of the validity of QCD are available in low energy experiments (E < 500 MeV) by exploiting the property of (broken) chiral symmetry. This technique has been highly developed in The Goldstone boson sector by the work of Gasser and Leutwyler. Application to the nucleon system is much more difficult and is now being carefully developed.
The spin structure of the nucleon
This document describes the recent experimental results on the spin structure of the nucleon obtained with the electron accelerator Thomas Jefferson National Facility (Jefferson Lab), Virginia. We first discuss the goal of studying the nucleon spin structure and give the basis and phenomenology of high energy lepton scattering. Then, we discuss with some details a few sum rules concerning the spin structure of the nucleon. Those are important tools for studying the nucleon spin structure at Jefferson Lab. We then describe the present experimental situation and analyze the results. We have been able to determine an effective coupling constant for the strong interaction for any regime of quantum chromodynamics which proves that QCD is an approximately conformal theory. We conclude on the perspectives for this field of research, in particular with the 12 GeV energy upgrade of Jefferson Lab. The top priority will be the measurement of generalised parton distributions. The only issue that will stay misunderstood is the role of the very low x domain on the spin structure of the nucleon
We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 2 2. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal/transverse separations. The precision R σL/σT data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F1 and FL in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q2 = 1 GeV2 in the separated structure functions independently
Yongguang Liang; Michael Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W. Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Daniel Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B. Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Ronald Gilman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; J.W. Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A. Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O' neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E. Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Vladas Tvaskis; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin
2004-10-01
We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 GeV{sup 2}. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal/transverse separations. The precision R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F{sub 1} and F{sub L} in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2} in the separated structure functions independently.
A covariant model for the nucleon spin structure
Ramalho, G
2015-01-01
We present the results of the covariant spectator quark model applied to the nucleon structure function $f(x)$ measured in unpolarized deep inelastic scattering, and the structure functions $g_1(x)$ and $g_2(x)$ measured in deep inelastic scattering using polarized beams and targets ($x$ is the Bjorken scaling variable). The nucleon is modeled by a valence quark-diquark structure with $S,P$ and $D$ components. The shape of the wave functions and the relative strength of each component are fixed by making fits to the deep inelastic scattering data for the structure functions $f(x)$ and $g_1(x)$. The model is then used to make predictions on the function $g_2(x)$ for the proton and neutron.
Spin Structure of the Nucleon - Proceedings of the Riken Symposium
Shibata, S.; Ohta, N.; Saito, T.-A.
1996-08-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Foreword * Theoretical Overview * The Context of High Energy QCD Spin Physics * Experimental Studies I * PHENIX and Spin Physics * RHIC Spin Project - Acceleration of Polarized Protons * CIAE Activities for the PHENIX Experiment * Spin Physics with PHENIX Detector System at RHIC * Experiments on Spin-dependent Structure Functions of the Nucleon * Measurements of the Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Nucleon at the Spin Muon Collaboration * Theoretical Studies * Higher-twist Effects in Spin Structure Functions * Light Hadrons from Lattice QCD in a (2.4 fm)3 Box at 4-GeV Cutoff * Tensor Charge of the Nucleon on the Lattice * Perturbative QCD Study on the Chiral-Odd Twist-3 Structure Function: hL(x,Q2) * Strange Matrix Elements of the Proton and Instantons in QCD * Experimental Studies II * Proton Structure Functions from ZEUS * Measurements of the Photon Structure Functions F_{2}^γ * Constraint on the Proton Structure from CDF: Lepton Charge Asymmetry in W Decays * A Search for Jet Handedness in Hadronic Z0 Decays * Concluding Remarks * High Energy Spin Physics - Past, Present and Future * Program
Transverse nucleon structure and multiparton interactions
Strikman, Mark
2011-01-01
The transverse structure of the nucleon as probed in hard exclusive processes plays critical role in the understanding of the structure of the underlying event in hard collisions at the LHC, and multiparton interactions. We summarize results of our recent studies of manifestation of transverse nucleon structure in the hard collisions at the LHC, new generalized parton distributions involved in multiparton interactions, presence of parton fluctuations. The kinematic range where interaction of fast partons of the projectile with the target reach black disk regime (BDR) strength is estimated. We demonstrate that in the BDR postselection effect leads to effective fractional energy losses. This effect explains regularities of the single and double forward pion production in $ dAu$ collisions at RHIC and impacts on the forward physics in $pp$ collisions at the LHC.
Nucleon Structure and Generalized Parton Distributions
Eric Voutier
2006-06-28
This paper discusses a selected part of the experimental program dedicated to the study of Generalized Parton Distributions, a recently introduced concept which provides a comprehensive framework for investigations of the partonic structure of the nucleon. Particular emphasis is put on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering program performed at the Jefferson Laboratory. The short and long term future of this program is also discussed in the context of the several experimental efforts aiming at a complete and exhaustive mapping of Generalized Parton Distributions.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions (TDM) and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements. (author)
Structure and Spin of the Nucleon
Avakian, Harut A. [JLAB
2014-03-01
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Avakian, H.
2014-03-01
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.
Preliminary results on the measurement of the structure functions F2p(xBj, Q2) and F2d(xBj, Q2) and of the ratio F2n/F2p from experiment E665 are presented. The data were obtained using 465 GeV/c muons scattering off liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. The dependence of the structure functions on xBj and Q2 is examined in the kinematic range xBj > 8 x 10-4 and Q2 > 0.2 GeV2/c2. The structure function ratio is presented as a function of xBj, for xBj > 10-6
Nucleon structure as a background for determination of fundamental parameters
We consider deep inelastic, (quasi-) elastic lepton-nucleon scattering and investigate the possibilities of eliminating or suppressing theoretical uncertainties induced by nucleon structure in measuring the Standard Model parameters or in searching for new physics. On the basis of rather general hypothesis about nucleon structure we have obtained new relations between cross sections and neutral current parameters which are independent of the nucleon structure. We also investigate a dependence of the QCD Λ-parameter extracted from the data on unknown large scale nucleon structure and propose a modification of the conventional QCD predictions which are weakly dependent of this uncertainty factor. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab
Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure
Pisano, Silvia
2015-01-01
The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest...
Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure
Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on 12C and 16O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter
We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n4/3, n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)
Structure of the nucleon and nuclei studied by HERMES
Recent results from studies of inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton scattering are presented. Data with polarization provide the first measurement of the b1(x, Q2) structure function in the deuteron, a five component flavor decomposition of quark helcity distributions in the nucleon, as well as results pertaining to transverse spin physics and deep virtual Compton scattering. Data from unpolarized targets constrain models of quark hadronization and give a measure of parton energy loss in cold nuclear matter
Exploring the nucleon structure from first principles of QCD
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is generally assumed to be the fundamental theory underlying nuclear physics. In recent years there is progress towards investigating the nucleon structure from first principles of QCD. Although this structure is best revealed in Deep Inelastic Scattering, a consistent analysis has to be performed in a fully non-perturbative scheme. The only known method for this purpose are lattice simulations. We first sketch the ideas of Monte Carlo simulations in lattice gauge theory. Then we comment in particular on the issues of chiral symmetry and operator mixing. Finally we present our results for the Bjorken variable of a single quark, and for the second Nachtmann moment of the nucleon structure functions. (orig.)
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the nonlinear spinor field
The author calculates the S matrix for the elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering in the lowest approximation using the quantum theory of nonlinear spinor fields with special emphasis to the ghost configuration of this theory. Introducing a general scalar product a new functional channel calculus is considered. From the results the R and T matrix elements and the differential and integral cross sections are derived. (HSI)
Some interesting features of the experimental data on deep inelastic scattering of muons from a liquid hydrogen target are discussed. The proton structure function F2(x,q2) (where x=q2/2m(E-Esup(')), E and Esup(') stand for initial and final muon energy, respectively) has proved to fall at large x and rise at small x with increasing q2. To make extrapolations into q2 regions not covered by the data available, the integral 1∫0F2(x,q2)dx has been calculated. The integral has occureed to be constant with q2. The set of data is hoped to be explained in terms of renormalizable field theories
Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD
Warkentin, Nikolaus
2008-04-15
In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)
Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD
In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)
Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Raue, Brian; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anciant, Eric; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asavapibhop, Burin; Asryan, Gegham; Audit, Gerard; Auger, Thierry; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Casey, Liam; Cetina, Catalina; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dragovitsch, Peter; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girard, Pascal; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gothe, Ralf; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hu, Jicun; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, Konstantin; MacCormick, Marion; Manak, Joseph; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Peterson, Gerald; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Sayre, Donald; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Shafi, Aziz; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Simionatto, Sebastio; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Taylor, Shawn; Tedeschi, David; Thoma, Ulrike; Thompson, Richard; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Wang,
2008-06-01
The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.
The pion-cloud contribution to the electromagnetic nucleon structure
Kupelwieser, D
2015-01-01
The present contribution continues and extends foregoing work on the calculation of electroweak form factors of hadrons using the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. Here we are particularly interested in studying pionic effects on the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. To this aim we employ a hybrid constituent-quark model that comprises, in addition to the $3q$ valence component, also a $3q$+$\\pi$ non-valence component. With a simple wave function for the $3q$ component we get reasonable results for the nucleon form factors. In accordance with other authors we find that the pionic effect is significant only below $Q^2\\lesssim 0.5$~GeV$^2$.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Avakian H.
2014-03-01
Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL. TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC, FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.
Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function
The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade process of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is accordingly taken into account. (author)
Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Distribution Functions of the Nucleon
Wakamatsu, M.; Watabe, T
1999-01-01
A theoretical prediction is given for the spin and orbital angular momentum distribution functions of the nucleon within the framework of an effective quark model of QCD, i.e. the chiral quark soliton model. An outstanding feature of the model is that it predicts fairly small quark spin fraction of the nucleon $\\Delta \\Sigma \\simeq 0.35$, which in turn dictates that the remaining 65% of the nucleon spin is carried by the orbital angular momentum of quarks and antiquarks at the model energy sc...
Boson-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential and nuclear structure
A fully momentum-dependent one-boson-exchange potential is derived which takes into account the mesons, π, eta, sigma, rho, ω and phi. Scattering bound states and nuclear matter properties are studied in momentum space. The use of such potential is shown to be as easy as the use of more simple phenomenological interactions. In nuclear matter the formalism of Bethe-Goldstone is chosen to compute the binding energy versus density in the approximation of two-body and three-body correlations. The three-body correlated wave function obtained is then used
Nucleon Structure and Hyperon Form Factors from Lattice QCD
In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point. to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(2G), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Σ and Ξ axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, gσσ = 0.441(14) and gΞΞ -0.277(11)
Nucleon Structure and hyperon form factors from lattice QCD
In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(26), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Sigma and Xi axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g#Sigma##Sigma# = 0.441(14) and g#Xi##Xi# = -0.277(11)
Relativistic spectral function of nucleon in hot nuclear matter
Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2010-01-01
We present a simple calculation of the nucleon self-energy in nuclear matter at finite temperature in a relativistic framework, using the real time thermal field theory. The imaginary parts of one-loop graphs are identified with discontinuities across the unitary and the Landau cuts. We find that in general both the cuts contribute significantly to the spectral function in the region of (virtual) nucleon mass usually considered, even though the unitary cut is ignored in the literature. Also o...
Short-range correlations of partons & 3D nucleon structure
Schweitzer P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is caused by non-perturbative interactions on a scale ρ ∼ 0.3 fm much smaller than the hadronic size R ∼ 1 fm. This has important consequences for the nucleon structure such as the prediction that the transverse momentum distribution of sea quarks is significantly broader than the pT -distribution of valence quarks due to short-range correlations between sea quarks in the nucleon’s light-cone wave function.
Probing nucleon structure on the lattice
The QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration has an ongoing program to calculate nucleon matrix elements with two flavours of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Here we present recent results on the electromagnetic form factors, the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle and the first three moments of the nucleon's spin-averaged and spin-dependent generalised parton distributions, including preliminary results with pion masses as low as 320 MeV. (orig.)
Probing nucleon structure on the lattice
The QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration has an ongoing program to calculate nucleon matrix elements with two flavours of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Here we present recent results on the electromagnetic form factors, the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle and the first three moments of the nucleon's spin-averaged and spin-dependent generalised parton distributions, including preliminary results with pion masses as low as 320 MeV. (orig.)
Probing nucleon structure on the lattice
Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department, Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik T39; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)
2006-08-15
The QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration has an ongoing program to calculate nucleon matrix elements with two flavours of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Here we present recent results on the electromagnetic form factors, the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle and the first three moments of the nucleon's spin-averaged and spin-dependent generalised parton distributions, including preliminary results with pion masses as low as 320 MeV. (orig.)
The Spin Structure of the nucleon
Deur, Alexandre
2015-10-01
This talk will review the status of the experiments studying the spin structure of the nucleon. After a brief overview of the topics, I will focus on the program measuring the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum, in the context of connecting the effective descriptions of the strong force at long distances to its fundamental partonic description at short distances. The generalized GDH sum rule is a theoretical relation valid at any distance. Consequently, it can be an Ariadne's thread to follow to understand how the transition between the partonic to hadronic descriptions happens. Measurements at intermediate and short distances have been made available in the 1990s and 2000s. Long distance results are being now finalized. With them, a large part of this experimental program will be completed. I will give the status of the measurements at long distances. I will then conclude the talk with a practical example on how the GDH data are used to connect the fundamental and effective descriptions of the strong force. Such example demonstrates how the generalized GDH program is bearing fruits.
Generalized Parton Distributions and the Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Ji, Xiangdong
2002-01-01
Generalized parton distributions are a new type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD pr...
Study of excited nucleons and their structure
Burkert, Volker D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
Recent advances in the study of excited nucleons are discussed. Much of the progress has been achieved due to the availability of high precision meson production data in the photoproduction and electroproduction sectors, the development of multi-channel partial wave analysis techniques, and advances in Lattice QCD with predictions of the full excitation spectrum.
Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure
Litmaath, M.F.
1996-05-07
After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).
Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure
After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)
The spin structure of the nucleon
The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*ΔΣ + Δg + Lq + Lg where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and Lq and Lg are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The ΔΣ contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization Δg/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)
Generalized Parton Distributions and the Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Ji, X
2002-01-01
Generalized parton distributions are a new type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD processes, such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and exclusive meson production, have been found to measure the distributions directly in experiments, lattice QCD offers a great promise to provide the first-principle calculations of these interesting observables.
Generalized parton distributions and the spin structure of the nucleon
Ji, Xiangdong
2003-05-01
Generalized parton distributions are a type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD processes, such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and exclusive meson production, have been found to measure the distributions directly in experiments, lattice QCD offers a great promise to provide the first-principle calculations of these interesting observables.
Generalized parton distributions and the spin structure of the nucleon
Generalized parton distributions are a type of hadronic observables which has recently stimulated great interest among theorists and experimentalists alike. Introduced to delineate the spin structure of the nucleon, the orbital angular momentum of quarks in particular, the new distributions contain vast information about the internal structure of the nucleon, with the usual electromagnetic form factors and Feynman parton distributions as their special limits. While new perturbative QCD processes, such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and exclusive meson production, have been found to measure the distributions directly in experiments, lattice QCD offers a great promise to provide the first-principle calculations of these interesting observables
Di-nucleon structures in homogeneous nuclear matter based on two- and three-nucleon interactions
Arellano, H F; Rios, Arnau
2016-01-01
We investigate homogeneous nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach in the limits of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) as well as pure neutron matter at zero temperature. The study is based on realistic representations of the internucleon interaction as given by Argonne v18, Paris, Nijmegen I and II potentials, in addition to chiral N$^{3}$LO interactions, including three-nucleon forces up to N$^{2}$LO. Particular attention is paid to the presence of di-nucleon bound states structures in $^1\\textrm{S}_0$ and $^3\\textrm{SD}_1$ channels, whose explicit account becomes crucial for the stability of self-consistent solutions at low densities. A characterization of these solutions and associated bound states is discussed. We confirm that coexisting BHF single-particle solutions in SNM, at Fermi momenta in the range $0.13-0.3$~fm$^{-1}$, is a robust feature under the choice of realistic internucleon potentials.
The spin structure of the nucleon
Le Goff, J.M
2005-02-15
The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*{delta}{sigma} + {delta}g + L{sub q} + L{sub g} where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and L{sub q} and L{sub g} are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The {delta}{sigma} contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization {delta}g/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)
Structure Functions from Chiral Soliton Models
Weigel, H.(Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa); Gamberg, L.(Department of Physics, Penn State University-Berks, Reading, PA, 19610, U.S.A.); Reinhardt, H.
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron-nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low-scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions $g_{1}(x)$ and $g_{2}(x)$ in this model. We compa...
Delineating the polarized and unpolarized partonic structure of the nucleon
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [JLAB
2015-03-01
Reports on our latest extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon are given. First an overview of the recent JR14 upgrade of our unpolarized PDFs, including NNLO determinations of the strong coupling constant and a discussion of the role of the input scale in parton distribution analysis. In the second part of the talk recent results on the determination of spin-dependent PDFs from the JAM collaboration are reported, including a careful treatment of hadronic and nuclear corrections, as well as reports on the impact of present and future data in our understanding of the spin of the nucleon.
Delineating the polarized and unpolarized partonic structure of the nucleon
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [JLAB
2015-03-01
Our latest results on the extraction of parton distribution functions of the nucleon are reported. First an overview of the recent JR14 upgrade of our unpolarized PDFs, including NNLO determinations of the strong coupling constant and a discussion of the role of the input scale in parton distribution analysis. In the second part of the talk recent results on the determination of spin-dependent PDFs from the JAM collaboration are given, including a careful treatment of hadronic and nuclear corrections, as well as results on the impact of present and future data in our understanding of the spin of the nucleon.
Interacting boson models of nuclear and nucleon structure
Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.
1998-01-01
Interacting boson models provide an elegant and powerful method to describe collective excitations of complex systems by introducing a set of effective degrees of freedom. We review the interacting boson model of nuclear structure and discuss a recent extension to the nucleon and its excited states.
Spin Structure of the Nucleon on the Light Front
We briefly review the spin structure of the nucleon and show that it is best thought in the light-front formulation. We discuss in particular the longitudinal and transverse spin sum rules, the proper definition of canonical orbital angular momentum and the spin–orbit correlation. (author)
Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of NN data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne v18 potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a Χ2 per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of NN interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of NN interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure
Studying nucleon structure using an Electron-Ion Collider
Burton, Thomas; EIC Team
2011-04-01
The detailed composition of the spin of the nucleon remains unknown. Numerous experiments over the past two decades have shown that the spin of quarks alone cannot account for more than a third of the nucleon's spin. Proton-proton collisions at RHIC suggest a small gluon polarisation, but uncertainties remain large. An Electron-Ion Collider is proposed as future machine for precision studies of nucleon and nuclear structure. It will allow the study of the spin contribution from gluons and quarks, including their flavour decomposition, in heretofore unprecedented precision, and will access a much wider kinematic space than ever before, in particular extending to the currently unmeasured low Bjorken-x sea. The formalism of generalised parton distributions (GPDs), accessible for example via deeply-virtual Compton scattering, promises to allow study of the role of orbital angular momentum in nucleon spin. Furthermore, GPDs will extend understanding of parton distributions beyond the well-known one-dimensional PDFs, accessing three-dimensional structure via the impact parameter distributions of partons.
Understanding the nucleon structure is currently one of the main challenges encountered in nuclear physics. The present work represents a contribution to the study of the nucleon structure and deals, in particular, with the study of the role of strange quarks in the nucleon. The latter can be investigated by determining the strange quark distribution in the nucleon as well as the contribution of the spins of strange quarks to the nucleon spin. This work first presents a measurement of the nucleon spin performed via Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of a muon beam off polarized proton and deuterium targets. The result is found to be strongly dependent on the quark fragmentation functions into hadrons (FFs), which define the probability that a quark of a given flavour fragments into a final state hadron. The FFs are poorly known, in particular, the FF of strange quark into kaons, which play an important role in the determination of the nucleon spin. In deep inelastic scattering process, the access to the FFs is provided by the hadron multiplicities which, in turn, define the average number of hadrons produced per DIS event. Pion and kaon multiplicities have been extracted versus different kinematic variables, using DIS data collected by deeply inelastic scattering of a 160 GeV/c muons off a deuterium target. A first Leading Order (LO) extraction of the fragmentation functions has then been performed using the measured pion and kaon multiplicities. (author)
In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties
Statistical effect in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon
Zhang, Yunhua; Ma, Bo-Qiang
2008-01-01
A new and simple statistical approach is performed to calculate the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the nucleon in terms of light-front kinematic variables. We do not put in any extra arbitrary parameter or corrected term by hand, which guarantees the stringency of our approach. Analytic expressions of the $x$-dependent PDFs are obtained in the whole $x$ region [0,1], and some features, especially the low-$x$ rise, are more agreeable with experimental data than those in some previous instant-form statistical models in the infinite-momentum frame (IMF). Discussions on heavy-flavored PDFs are also presented.
Structure and spin of the nucleon
Avakian H.
2014-01-01
Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asym...
Feasibility studies for nucleon structure measurements with PANDA
Atomssa Ermias
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study of nucleon structure is one of the main physics goals of PANDA to be built at the FAIR accelerator complex. The excellent particle identification performance of the PANDA detector will enable measurements of exclusive channels p̄ p → e+e− and p̄ p → π0 J/ψ → π0e+e− to extract the electromagnetic form factors of protons and π-nucleon Transition Distribution Amplitudes (π-N TDAs. After a brief description of the PANDA apparatus and a method to handle momentum resolution degradation due to Bremsstrahlung, the physics of π-N TDAs is discussed. An estimate for the expected signal to background ratio for p̄ p → π0 J/ψ → π0e+e− that takes into account the main background source is given.
pp Elastic Scattering at LHC and Nucleon Structure
High energy elastic pp differential cross section at LHC at the c.m. energy 14 TeV is predicted using the asymptotic behavior of σtot(s) and ρ(s), and the measured p-barp differential cross section at √(s) =546 GeV. The phenomenological investigation has progressively led to an effective field theory model that describes the nucleon as a chiral bag embedded in a quark-antiquark condensed ground state. The measurement of pp elastic scattering at LHC up to large vertical bar t vertical bar > or approx. 10 GeV2 by the TOTEM group will be crucial to test this structure of the nucleon
In this report a nucleon structure function analysis will be discussed. In CHORUS experiment, lead-scintillator calorimeter was used as active target and in 1998 run a high statistics sample of CC interactions of muon (anti-) neutrinos were collected. This sample was used to extract the structure functions of the nucleons in neutrino interactions. A Monte-Carlo program has been developed to study the efficiencies of the detector and for the proper corrections to be applied to the data. The structure functions, F1, F2, xF3, were extracted using three different kinds of fits. The effects of different systematic dependencies have also been studied. Results have been compared to the earlier experiments, CCFR and CDHSW
Electromagnetic response functions of few-nucleon systems
Inclusive electromagnetic reactions in few-nucleon systems are studied basing on accurate three- and four-body calculations. The longitudinal 4He(e, e') response function obtained at q ≤ 600 MeV/c completely agrees with experiment. The exact 4He spectral function obtained in a semirealistic potential model is presented, and the accuracy of the quasielastic response calculated with its help is assessed, as well as the accuracy of some simpler approximations for the response. The photodisintegration cross section of 3He obtained with the realistic AV14 NN force plus UrbanaVIII NNN force agrees with experiment. It is shown that this cross section is very sensitive to underlying nuclear dynamics in the Eγ ≅ 100 MeV region. In particular, the NNN nuclear force clearly manifests itself in this region. (author)
European Muon Collaboration; Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Badelek, B.; Beaufays, J.; Bee, C. P.; Benchouk, C.; Berghoff, G.; Bird, I. G.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S. C.; Brück, H.; Calén, H.; Chima, J. S.; Ciborowski, J.; Clifft, R.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; d'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Derado, I.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Düren, M.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gajewski, J.; Gamet, R.; Geddes, N.; Grafström, P.; Gustafsson, L.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jancso, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Krüger, A.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Maselli, S.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Peschel, H.; Pessard, H.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Poensgen, B.; Pötsch, M.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Scheer, M.; Schlagböhmer, A.; Schiemann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, M.; Schouten, M.; Schröder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thenard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de la Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Urban, L.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Windmolders, R.; Wolf, G.
1990-03-01
Small angle scattering of 280 GeV positive muons by deuterium, carbon and calcium has been measured at scattering angles down to 2 mrad. The nucleon structure function F2 extracted from deuterium does not show a significant x dependence in the measured range of Q2 and its Q2 dependence is linear in logQ2. For calcium, a depletion of F2 is observed at low x by 30% as compared with the values at x = 0.1 where F2(Ca) and F2 (D) are not significantly different. This depletion is attributed to shadowing. The carbon structure function exhibits a similar, but less pronounced, x dependence. Such behaviour is observed to be independent of Q2. The data are consistent with those obtained from other charged lepton experiments both at similar and higher values of x and Q2 and considerably extend the range of the measurements down to the low values of x to be measured in forthcoming experiments at HERA.
Using the structure functions F2 measured in E.M.C., we have extracted the following values for the QCD scale parameter Λ, at next to leading order: hydrogen target: Λsub(MS) = 139(+170-100)MeV; iron target: Λsub(MS) = 170(+160-100)MeV we have performed a study of the 1/Q2 effects on the Q2 domain covered by SLAC and E.M.C. We have extracted the ratio R = sigma sub(L)/sigma sub(T) for various chi bins and compared it with other experimental values and theoretical predictions. The mean value = 0+-.15 was found and is compatible with zero
Cao, X. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Ma, Y. G.; Fang, D. Q.; Zhang, G. Q.; Guo, W.; Chen, J. G.; Wang, J. S.
2012-10-01
Proton-neutron, neutron-neutron, and proton-proton momentum-correlation functions (Cpn,Cnn, and Cpp) are systematically investigated for 15C and other C-isotope-induced collisions at different entrance channel conditions within the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum-molecular-dynamics model complemented by the correlation after burner (crab) computation code. 15C is a prime exotic nucleus candidate due to the weakly bound valence neutron coupling with closed-neutron-shell nucleus 14C. To study density dependence of the correlation function by removing the isospin effect, the initialized 15C projectiles are sampled from two kinds of density distribution from the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model in which the valence neutron of 15C is populated in both 1d5/2 and 2s1/2 states, respectively. The results show that the density distributions of the valence neutron significantly influence the nucleon-nucleon momentum-correlation function at large impact parameters and high incident energies. The extended density distribution of the valence neutron largely weakens the strength of the correlation function. The size of the emission source is extracted by fitting the correlation function by using the Gaussian source method. The emission source size as well as the size of the final-state phase space are larger for projectile samplings from more extended density distributions of the valence neutron, which corresponds to the 2s1/2 state in the RMF model. Therefore, the nucleon-nucleon momentum-correlation function can be considered as a potentially valuable tool to diagnose exotic nuclear structures, such as the skin and halo.
Maxwell, C J
2002-01-01
We use recently calculated next-next-to-leading order (NNLO) anomalous dimension coefficients for the n=1,3,5,...,13 moments of the xF3 structure function in nuN scattering, together with the corresponding three-loop Wilson coefficients, to obtain improved QCD predictions for the moments. The Complete Renormalization Group Improvement (CORGI) approach is used, in which all dependence on renormalization or factorization scales is avoided by a complete resummation of ultraviolet logarithms. The Bernstein Polynomial method is used to compare these QCD predictions to the xF3 data of the CCFR collaboration. Direct fits for LambdaMSbar(5), with Nf=5 effective quark flavours, over the range 20
Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering
Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions
Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering
Hughes, E.
1994-02-01
Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.
Low temperature polarized target for spin structure studies of nucleons at COMPASS
Pesek, Michael
In presented thesis we describe concept of Deep Inelastic Scattering of leptons on nucleons in context of nucleon spin structure studies. Both polarized and unpolarized cases are discussed and concept of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMD PDF) is introduced. The possibility of TMDs measurement using Semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) is described along with related results from COMPASS experiment. The future Drell-Yan programme at COMPASS is briefly mentioned and its importance is presented on the universality test i.e. change of sign of T-odd TMDs when measured in Drell-Yan and SIDIS. The importance of Polarized Target (PT) for spin structure studies is highlighted and principles of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) are given using both Solid effect and spin temperature concept. COMPASS experiment is described in many details with accent given to PT. Finally the thermal equilibrium (TE) calibration procedure is described and carried out for 2010 and 2011 physics runs at COMPASS. The av...
Tagged nuclear structure functions with $HERMES$
Silvano SimulaINFN - Sezione Sanita'
2014-01-01
The production of slow nucleons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off nuclei, $A(e, e'N)X$, is analyzed for kinematical conditions accessible at $HERA$ with the $HERMES$ detector. The sensitivity of the semi-inclusive cross section to possible medium-dependent modifications of the nucleon structure function is illustrated.
Nucleon electromagnetic structure studies in the spacelike and timelike regions
Guttmann, Julia
2013-07-23
The thesis investigates the nucleon structure probed by the electromagnetic interaction. One of the most basic observables, reflecting the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon, are the form factors, which have been studied by means of elastic electron-proton scattering with ever increasing precision for several decades. In the timelike region, corresponding with the proton-antiproton annihilation into a electron-positron pair, the present experimental information is much less accurate. However, in the near future high-precision form factor measurements are planned. About 50 years after the first pioneering measurements of the electromagnetic form factors, polarization experiments stirred up the field since the results were found to be in striking contradiction to the findings of previous form factor investigations from unpolarized measurements. Triggered by the conflicting results, a whole new field studying the influence of two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering emerged, which appeared as the most likely explanation of the discrepancy. The main part of this thesis deals with theoretical studies of two-photon exchange, which is investigated particularly with regard to form factor measurements in the spacelike as well as in the timelike region. An extraction of the two-photon amplitudes in the spacelike region through a combined analysis using the results of unpolarized cross section measurements and polarization experiments is presented. Furthermore, predictions of the two-photon exchange effects on the e{sup +}p/e{sup -}p cross section ratio are given for several new experiments, which are currently ongoing. The two-photon exchange corrections are also investigated in the timelike region in the process p anti p → e{sup +}e{sup -} by means of two factorization approaches. These corrections are found to be smaller than those obtained for the spacelike scattering process. The influence of the two-photon exchange corrections on
Shell-structure influence on the multinucleon transfer in nucleon transfer matrix elements
An analysis of the experimental data on the charge (mass) distributions of products in nuclear reactions with heavy ions [1], dependence of yield of fragments on their isotope numbers and ones of projectile- and target nuclei [2], and cross sections of the formation of evaporation residues at synthesis of new superheavy elements [3] shows that the individual peculiarities (shell structure, N/Z-ratio) of interacting nuclei play decisive role at formation and evolution of dinuclear system. Therefore, the appropriate microscopic model should be used for the theoretical analysis of the above mentioned effects. The main quantities which must be included into model are the realistic scheme of single-particle states, nucleon separation energy, single-particle matrix elements of nucleon transitions in nuclei and nucleon exchange between them caused by influence of the mean-field of partner-nucleus. In this work the nucleon transfer matrix elements were calculated for the Wood-Saxon potential for spherical nucleus. The eigenvalues and wave functions of single-particle states were obtained by numerical solving Schroedinger's equation. The integral estimation of the matrix elements is found by comparing the calculated width of the charge distributions of the reaction products with the experimental data. In the early paper [4], the same matrix elements were calculated analytically using an approximation for wave functions: authors have used wave functions of the spherical potential well. The numerical values of squares of proton transfer matrix elements found in this work are nearly in coincidence with that presented in [4]. There is a difference between curves of dependencies of the matrix elements under discussion on the relative distance between centres of nuclei when this distance is smaller than sum of nuclei radii. (author)
Studies of Nucleon Resonance Structure in Exclusive Meson Electroproduction
Aznauryan, I G; Braun, V; Brodsky, S J; Burkert, V D; Chang, L; Chen, Ch; El-Bennich, B; Cloët, I C; Cole, P L; Edwards, R G; Fedotov, G V; Giannini, M M; Gothe, R W; Lin, Huey-Wen; Kroll, P; Lee, T -S H; Melnitchouk, W; Mokeev, V I; Peña, M T; Ramalho, G; Roberts, C D; Santopinto, E; de Teramond, G F; Tsushima, K; Wilson, D J
2013-01-01
Studies of the structure of excited baryons are key to the N* program at Jefferson Lab. Within the first year of data taking with the Hall B CLAS12 detector following the 12 GeV upgrade, a dedicated experiment will aim to extract the N* electrocouplings at high photon virtualities Q2. This experiment will allow exploration of the structure of N* resonances at the highest photon virtualities ever yet achieved, with a kinematic reach up to Q2 = 12 GeV2. This high-Q2 reach will make it possible to probe the excited nucleon structures at distance scales ranging from where effective degrees of freedom, such as constituent quarks, are dominant through the transition to where nearly massless bare-quark degrees of freedom are relevant. In this document, we present a detailed description of the physics that can be addressed through N* structure studies in exclusive meson electroproduction. The discussion includes recent advances in reaction theory for extracting N* electrocouplings from meson electroproduction off pro...
Calculation of moments of structure functions
The progress on the lattice computation of low moments of both the unpolarised and polarised nucleon structure functions is reviewed with particular emphasis on continuum and chiral extrapolations and comparison between quenched and unquenched fermions. (orig.)
Structure functions near the chiral limit
We compute hadron masses and the lowest moments of unpolarized and polarized nucleon structure functions down to pion masses of 300 MeV, in an effort to make unambiguous predictions at the physical light quark mass. (orig.)
The physical importance of nucleon-nucleon diffraction and the main differences with well understood nucleon nucleus diffraction is discused. In the theoretical description of nucleon-nucleon diffraction in terms of the eikonal model, the hypothesis of factorization is shown to be in contradiction with the energy dependence of the impact parameter profile in proton-proton scattering at CERN - ISR. This dependence is highly non-uniform in impact parameter, giving rise to a pronounced peripheral increase with energy of the inelastic overlap function. Two experimental findings in inelastic diffraction indicate the existence of a deep relation of this process with the peripheral increase of the profile function. The first refers to the clear-cut proof that inelastic diffraction is peripheral in impact parameter space, in coherent production on deuteron. The second is the analysis of the integrated cross sections for inelastic diffraction, which leads to the conclusion that most of the total cross section increase in the ISR energy range comes from this process. It is then clear that the eikonal model should be modified in order to include inelastic diffraction. A recent trial in this direction by Miettinen and Thomas shows the existence of a substantial difference between the matter and the charge distribution inside the proton. Their results favours a description of the proton in terms of the string model. (Author)
Nucleon structure function at small χ
This is a status report on the behaviour of deeply inelastic scattering in the low x region, where a new physics to be expected. It is bound to be theoretical review, since there is no data available at truely small values of x, say x -3. New data from HERA are anticipated and I am viewing on this talk as summary of the theoretical situation in the region of small x, as is just before this new area of physics will be studied experimentally. This is an extended version of the talk which was presented at EP-HEP 91 Conference. (orig.)
Shape of hadron structure functions
The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q02 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states gives good results for nucleon, pion, and kaon structure functions. 2 figures
Studies of the 3D Structure of the Nucleon at Jlab
Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-07-01
Studies of the 3D structure of the nucleon encoded in Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions of partons and Generalized Parton Distributions are among the key objectives of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade and the Electron Ion Collider. Main challenges in extracting 3D partonic distributions from precision measurements of hard scattering processes include clear understanding of leading twist QCD fundamentals, higher twist effects, and also correlations of hadron production in target and current fragmentation regions. In this contribution we discuss some ongoing studies and future measurements of spin-orbit correlations at Jefferson Lab.
The general properties of the nucleon-nucleon potentials are reviewed. The comparison between experimental nucleon-nucleon phase shifts and deuteron properties and the theoretical ones derived with Hamada-Johnston, Reid, Paris and Bonn potentials is discussed. Also, Hartree-Fock calculations for several spherical nuclei using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction are presented systematically.(author)
Nucleon Resonance Structure Studies Via Exclusive KY Electroproduction
Carman, Daniel S
2016-01-01
Studying the structure of excited nucleon states employing the electroproduction of exclusive reactions is an important avenue for exploring the nature of the non-perturbative strong interaction. The electrocouplings of $N^*$ states in the mass range below 1.8~GeV have been determined from analyses of CLAS $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$, and $\\pi \\pi N$ data. This work has made it clear that consistent results from independent analyses of several exclusive channels with different couplings and non-resonant backgrounds but the same $N^*$ electro-excitation amplitudes, is essential to have confidence in the extracted results. In terms of hadronic coupling, many high-lying $N^*$ states preferentially decay through the $\\pi \\pi N$ channel instead of $\\pi N$. Data from the $KY$ channels will therefore be critical to provide an independent analysis to compare the extracted electrocouplings for the high-lying $N^*$ states against those determined from the $\\pi N$ and $\\pi \\pi N$ channels. A program to study excited $N^*$ state s...
Correlations and the Dirac structure of the nucleon self-energy
The Dirac structure of the nucleon self-energy in symmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter is derived from a realistic meson exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. It is demonstrated that the effects of correlations on the effective NN interaction in the nuclear medium can be parameterized by means of an effective meson exchange. This analysis leads to a very intuitive interpretation of correlation effects and also provides an efficient parametrization of an effective interaction to be used in relativistic structure calculations for finite nuclei. (orig.)
Probing Nucleon Structure with Meson Electro-production in Hall C
Wood, Stephen
2011-02-01
Meson electro-production is used in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to probe nucleon, baryon and nuclear structure. The experimental program in Hall C includes studies of semi-inclusive pion production, p, d(e, e'π±)X, where low energy factorization has been observed, suggesting that these reactions can be used to probe nucleon structure, including transverse momentum distributions of quarks, at energies available at JLab after the upcoming 12 GeV upgrade.
Structure and Flow of the Nucleon Eigenstates in Lattice QCD
Mahbub, M. Selim; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Moran, Peter J.; Williams, Anthony G.
2013-01-01
A determination of the excited energy eigenstates of the nucleon, $s=c{1}{2}$, $I={1}{2}$, $N^{\\pm}$, is presented in full QCD using 2+1 flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations. The correlation-matrix method is used and is built using standard nucleon interpolators employing smearings at the fermion sources and sinks. We develop and demonstrate a new technique that allows the eigenvectors obtained to be utilized to track the propagation of the intrinsic nature of energy-states from one quark mass...
Multi-Nucleon Short-Range Correlation Model for Nuclear Spectral Functions: I. Theoretical Framework
Artiles, Oswaldo
2016-01-01
We develop a theoretical approach for nuclear spectral functions at high missing momenta and removal energy based on the multi-nucleon short-range correlation~(SRC) model. The approach is based on the effective Feynman diagrammatic method which allows to account for the relativistic effects important in the SRC domain. In addition to two-nucleon SRC with center of mass motion we derived also the contribution of three-nucleon SRCs to the nuclear spectral functions. The latter is modeled based on the assumption that 3N SRCs are a product of two sequential short range NN interactions. This approach allowed us to express the 3N SRC part of the nuclear spectral function as a convolution of two NN SRCs. Thus the knowledge of 2N SRCs allows us to model both two- and three-nucleon SRC contribution to the spectral function. The derivations of the spectral functions are based on the two theoretical frameworks in evaluating covariant Feynman diagrams: In the first, referred as virtual nucleon approximation, we reduce Fe...
Relationship between Feshbach's and Green's function theories of the nucleon-nucleus mean field
We clarify the relationship and difference between theories of the optical-model potential which had previously been developed in the framework of Feshbach's projection operator approach to nuclear reactions and of Green's function theory, respectively. For definiteness, we consider the nucleon-nucleus system but all results can readily be adapted to the atomic case. The effects of antisymmetrization are properly taken into account. It is shown that one can develop along closely parallel lines the theories of 'hole' and 'particle' mean fields. The hole one-body Hamiltonians describe the single-particle properties of the system formed when one nucleon is taken away from the target ground state, for instance in knockout or pickup processes. The particle one-body Hamiltonians are associated with the system formed when one nucleon is elastically scattered from the ground state, or is added to it by means of stripping reactions. An infinite number of particle, as well as of hole, Hamiltonians are constructed which all yield exactly the same single-particle wave functions. Many 'equivalent' one-body Hamiltonians can coexist because these operators have a complicated structure: they are nonlocal, complex, and energy-dependent. They do not have the same analytic properties in the complex energy plane. Their real and imaginary parts fulfill dispersion relations which may be different. It is shown that hole and particle Hamiltonians can also be constructed by decomposing any vector of the Hilbert space into two parts which are not orthogonal to one another, in contrast to Feshbach's original theory; one interest of this procedure is that the construction and properties of the corresponding hole Hamiltonian can be justified in a mathematically rigorous way. We exhibit the relationship between the hole and particle Hamiltonians and the 'mass operator'. The latter is associated to the time-ordered Green's function, rather than to its advanced and retarded parts separately as
The role of strangeness in the nucleon structure
It is shown that by reformulating an SU(3) Skyrmion model as a random phase approximation (RPA) to an underlying fermion (quark) theory, one can calculate microscopic (quark) properties of the nucleon without explicit account of the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. In particular, the strangeness content of the proton can be estimated with a Skyrmion model that describes well the hyperon spectroscopy
The Jefferson Lab Contribution to the QCD Spin Structure of the Nucleon
Michel Garcon
2004-10-10
From inclusive to semi-inclusive and exclusive (polarized) deep inelastic scattering, the quark structure of the nucleon is being studied with increasingly precise experiments at Jefferson Lab. We will review here the ongoing programs to determine polarized parton distributions--helicity and transversity--as well as generalized parton distributions, addressing the question of intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon.
Structure and Flow of the Nucleon Eigenstates in Lattice QCD
Mahbub, M Selim; Leinweber, Derek B; Moran, Peter J; Williams, Anthony G
2013-01-01
A determination of the excited energy eigenstates of the nucleon, $s=\\frac{1}{2}$, $I=\\frac{1}{2}$, $N^{\\pm}$, is presented in full QCD using 2+1 flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations. The correlation-matrix method is used and is built using standard nucleon interpolators employing smearings at the fermion sources and sinks. We develop and demonstrate a new technique that allows the eigenvectors obtained to be utilized to track the propagation of the intrinsic nature of energy-states from one quark mass to the next. This approach is particularly useful for larger dimension correlation matrices where more near-degenerate energy-states can appear in the spectrum.
Nucleon structure in terms of OPE with non-perturbative Wilson coefficients
Lattice calculations could boost our understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering by evaluating moments of the Nucleon Structure Functions. To this end we study the product of electromagnetic currents between quark states. The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) decomposes it into matrix elements of local operators (depending on the quark momenta) and Wilson coefficients (as functions of the larger photon momenta). For consistency with the matrix elements, we evaluate a set of Wilson coefficients non-perturbatively, based on propagators for numerous momentum sources, on a 243 x 48 lattice. The use of overlap quarks suppresses unwanted operator mixing and lattice artifacts. Results for the leading Wilson coefficients are extracted by means of Singular Value Decomposition. (orig.)
Nucleon localization in light and heavy nuclei
Zhang, C L; Nazarewicz, W
2016-01-01
An electron localization measure was originally introduced to characterize chemical bond structures in molecules. Recently, a nucleon localization based on Hartree-Fock densities has been introduced to investigate $\\alpha$-cluster structures in light nuclei. Compared to the local nucleonic densities, the nucleon localization function has been shown to be an excellent indicator of shell effects and cluster correlations. Using the spatial nucleon localization measure, we investigate the cluster structures in deformed light nuclei and study the emergence of fragments in fissioning heavy nuclei. To illustrate basic concepts of nucleon localization, we employ the deformed harmonic oscillator model. Realistic calculations are carried out using self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with quantified energy density functionals optimized for fission studies. We study particle densities and spatial nucleon localization distributions for deformed cluster configurations of $^{8}$Be and $^{20}$Ne, and also along...
Excitation function measurement of 16O + 175Lu system below 6 MeV/nucleon
In the present work, we have measured and analyzed the excitation functions of evaporation residues produced in 16O + 175Lu reactions at energies ranging from 4.3-6.2 MeV/nucleon to study both the CF and ICF processes involved. To the best of our knowledge no earlier measurements are reported in the literature for this system
Last Experimental Results Obtained at SLAC on the Nucleon Spin Structure
Rock, S E
2003-01-01
Recent precise measurements of the spin structure function g sub 1 for proton and for deuteron using deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized ammonia targets are presented. The integrals GAMMA sub 1 integral sub 0 sup 1 g sub 1 (x)dx evaluated at the average experimental Q = 3(GeV/c) sup 2 are in agreement with previous results and well below the Ellis-Jaffe sumrule prediction, while the Bjoerken sumrule prediction on GAMMA sub 1 sup p - GAMMA sub 1 sup n is satisfied. The analysis of the results in term of Quark Parton Model implies that the quark carry about a third of the nucleon helicity.
Recent results on the nucleon resonance spectrum and structure from the CLAS detector
Mokeev V. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has provided the dominant part of all available worldwide data on exclusive meson electroproduction off protons in the resonance region. New results on the γυpN* transition amplitudes (electrocouplings are available from analyses of the CLAS data and will be presented. Their impact on understanding of hadron structure will be discussed emphasizing the credible access to the dressed quark mass function that has been achieved for the first time by a combined analysis of the experimental results on the electromagnetic nucleon elastic and N → N* transition form factors. We will also discuss further convincing evidences for a new baryon state N′ (17203/2+ found in a combined analysis of charged double pion photo- and electroproduction cross sections off the protons.
Recent results on the nucleon resonance spectrum and structure from the CLAS detector
Mokeev, Viktor I. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Aznauryan, Inna G. [Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute and Physics Department at Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; Burkert, Volker D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gothe, Ralf W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)
2016-03-01
The CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has provided the dominant part of all available worldwide data on exclusive meson electroproduction off protons in the resonance region. New results on the $\\gamma_{v}pN^*$ transition amplitudes (electrocouplings) are available from analyses of the CLAS data and will be presented. Their impact on understanding of hadron structure will be discussed emphasizing the credible access to the dressed quark mass function that has been achieved for the first time by a combined analysis of the experimental results on the electromagnetic nucleon elastic and $N \\rightarrow N^*$ transition form factors. We will also discuss further convincing evidences for a new baryon state $N^{\\, '}(1720)3/2^+$ found in a combined analysis of charged double pion photo- and electroproduction cross sections off the protons.
This book is an introduction to the interactions of nucleons with special regards to their contribution to nuclear forces. After a general description of the nuclear structure as a configuration of many nucleons the properties and interactions of nucleons are described with an excursion to the fundamental processes governing them. Then nuclear energy levels are considered. Thereafter nuclear energy-level transitions are described in the framework of the governing elementary processes. Finally nuclear reactions are considered in this framework. This book is suited as a supplement to a textbook in nuclear physics for students, who want to get a deeper insight in the fundamental processes in nuclei. (HSI)
Nucleon and hadron structure changes in the nuclear medium and the impact on observables
Saito, K.; Tsushima, K.; Thomas, A. W.
2007-01-01
hypernuclei and meson-nucleus deeply bound states. It is also of great interest that the QMC model predicts a variation of the nucleon form factors in nuclear matter, which will certainly affect the analysis of electron scattering off nuclei, including polarization transfer experiments. Recent experimental analysis of data taken at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) and MAMI does indeed seem to support such a variation of nucleon form factors in nuclei. The change of nucleon structure in a nuclear medium is also expected to modify nuclear structure functions (the nuclear EMC effect), which are measured by scattering with high energy charged leptons and/or neutrinos. We study such possibilities, including consideration of the empirically observed, Bloom-Gilman (quark-hadron) duality. We also study hadronic reactions in a nuclear medium, namely, subthreshold kaon production in heavy ion collisions, D and Dbar meson production in antiproton-nucleus collisions, and J/Ψ suppression. In particular, the modification of the D and Dbar meson properties in a nuclear medium derived from the QMC model can lead to a large J/Ψ absorption cross section, which is required to explain the observed J/Ψ suppression in the microscopic hadronic comover dissociation scenario, without assuming the formation of a QGP phase. The present investigation indicates that the traditional nuclear/hadronic physics approach may have its limitations. It further suggests the need for the study of alternative approaches which include subhadronic degrees of freedom, even at normal nuclear matter density.
Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS
Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.
Statistical description of the flavor structure of the nucleon sea
Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco
2014-01-01
The theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions are reviewed together with the phenomenological motivations from a few specific features of Deep Inelastic Scattering data. The chiral properties of QCD lead to strong relations between quarks and antiquarks distributions and automatically account for the flavor and helicity symmetry breaking of the sea. We are able to describe both unpolarized and polarized structure functions in terms of a small number o...
The spin structure of nucleons and deep inelastic scatterings
Based on a simple model which is compatible with the idea of the static quark model and the parton model, the polarized structure functions of proton and deuteron, two-spin asymmetries of π0 in polarized pp reactions and inelastic J/ψ productions in polarized lepton-proton collisions are analyzed. In the particular, an important role of polarized gluon distributions is pointed out
An overview of recent nucleon spin structure measurements at Jefferson Lab
Allada, Kalyan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-02-01
Jefferson Lab have made significant contributions to improve our knowledge of the longitudinal spin structure by measuring polarized structure functions, g1 and g2, down to Q2 = 0.02 GeV2. The low Q2 data is especially useful in testing the Chiral Perturbation theory (cPT) calculations. The spin-dependent sum rules and the spin polarizabilities, constructed from the moments of g1 and g2, provide an important tool to study the longitudinal spin structure. We will present an overview of the experimental program to measure these structure functions at Jefferson Lab, and present some recent results on the neutron polarizabilities, proton g1 at low Q2, and proton and neutron d2 measurement. In addition to this, we will discuss the transverse spin structure of the nucleon which can be accessed using chiral-odd transversity distribution (h1), and show some results from measurements done on polarized 3He target in Hall A.
Nucleon Structure from 2+1 Flavor Domain Wall QCD at Nearly Physical Pion Mass
Ohta, Shigemi
2011-05-01
The RBC and UKQCD collaborations have been investigating hadron physics in numerical lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with (2+1) flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions (DWF) quarks that preserves continuum-like chiral and flavor symmetries. The strange quark mass is adjusted to physical value via reweighting and degenerate up and down quark masses are set as light as possible. In a recent study of nucleon structure we found a strong dependence on pion mass and lattice spatial extent in isovector axialvector-current form factors. This is likely the first credible evidence for the pion cloud surrounding nucleon. Here we report the status of nucleon structure calculations with a new (2+1)-flavor dynamical DWF ensembles with much lighter pion mass of 180 and 250 MeV and a much larger lattice spatial exent of 4.6 fm. A combination of the Iwasaki and dislocation-suppressing-determinant-ratio (I+DSDR) gauge action and DWF fermion action allows us to generate these ensembles at cutoff of about 1.4 GeV while keeping the residual breaking of chiral symmetry sufficiently small. Nucleon source Gaussian smearing has been optimized. Preliminary nucleon mass estimates are 0.98 and 1.05 GeV.
Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics revisited
Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.
2009-01-01
We use a recently improved density-matrix expansion to calculate the nuclear energy density functional in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation treats systematically the effects from $1\\pi$-exchange, iterated $1\\pi$-exchange, and irreducible $2\\pi$-exchange with intermediate $\\Delta$-isobar excitations, including Pauli-blocking corrections up to three-loop order. We find that the effective nucleon mass $M^*(\\rho)$ entering the energy density functional is iden...
Evolution of the nucleon structure in light nuclei
The evolution of the EMC effect as a function of atomic mass A is considered for the first time for the lightest nuclei, D, 3He and , 4He, with an approach based on the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. We show that the pattern of the oscillation of the ratio rA(x)=F2A/F2N(D) with respect to the line rA(x)=1 varies with A, unlike the pattern for nuclei with masses A>4, where only the amplitude of the oscillation changes. It is found that the shape of the structure function distortions, which is typical for metals, is being reached in 3He
Statistical description of the flavor structure of the nucleon sea
Soffer, Jacques; Buccella, Franco
2014-01-01
The theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions are reviewed together with the phenomenological motivations from a few specific features of Deep Inelastic Scattering data. The chiral properties of QCD lead to strong relations between quarks and antiquarks distributions and automatically account for the flavor and helicity symmetry breaking of the sea. We are able to describe both unpolarized and polarized structure functions in terms of a small number of parameters. The extension to include their transverse momentum dependence will be also briefly considered.
Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations
Arrington, J; Rosner, G; Sargsian, M
2011-01-01
The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information ...
Functional renormalisation group for few-nucleon systems: SU(4) symmetry and its breaking
Birse, Michael C; Walet, Niels R
2012-01-01
We apply the functional renormalisation group to few-nucleon systems. Our starting point is a local effective action that includes three- and four-nucleon interactions, expressed in terms of nucleon and two-nucleon boson fields. The evolution of the coupling constants in this action is described by a renormalisation group flow. We derive these flow equations both in the limit of exact Wigner SU(4) symmetry and in the realistic case of broken symmetry. In the symmetric limit we find that the renormalisation flow equations decouple, and can be combined into two sets, one of which matches the known results for bosons, and the other result matches the one for fermions with spin degrees only. The equations show universal features in the unitary limit, which is obtained when the two-body scattering length tends to infinity. We calculate the spin-quartet neutron-deuteron scattering length and the deuteron-deuteron scattering lengths in the spin-singlet and quintet channels.
Exploring the nucleon structure through GPDs and TDAs in hard exclusive processes
Pire, B; Szymanowski, L; Wagner, J
2011-01-01
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) offer a new way to access the quark and gluon nucleon structure. We review recent progress in this domain, emphasizing the need to supplement the experimental study of deeply virtual Compton scattering by its crossed version, timelike Compton scattering. We also describe the extension of the GPD concept to three quark operators and the relevance of their nucleon to meson matrix elements, namely the transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs) which factorize in backward meson electroproduction and related processes. We discuss the main properties of the TDAs. \\
Nucleon structure in the chiral regime with domain wall fermions on an improved staggered sea
Moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon are presented from a preliminary analysis of lattice results using pion masses down to 359 MeV. The twist two matrix elements are calculated using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks and are renormalized perturbatively. Several observables are extrapolated to the physical limit using chiral perturbation theory. Results are compared with experimental moments of quark distributions and electromagnetic form factors and phenomenologically determined generalized form factors, and the implications on the transverse structure and spin content of the nucleon are discussed. (orig.)
Effect of nucleon and hadron structure changes in-medium and its impact on observables
K. Saito; K. Tsushima; A.W. Thomas
2005-07-05
We study the effect of hadron structure changes in a nuclear medium using the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. The QMC model is based on a mean field description of non-overlapping nucleon (or baryon) bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons in the isoscalar and isovector channels. The model is extended to investigate the properties of finite nuclei, in which, using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to describe the interacting quark-meson system, one can derive the effective equation of motion for the nucleon (or baryon), as well as the self-consistent equations for the meson mean fields.
Initial nucleon structure results with chiral quarks at the physical point
Syritsyn, S; Engelhardt, M; Green, J; Izubuchi, T; Jung, C; Krieg, S; Lin, M; Meinel, S; Negele, J; Ohta, S; Pochinsky, A; Shintani, E
2014-01-01
We report initial nucleon structure results computed on lattices with 2+1 dynamical M\\"obius domain wall fermions at the physical point generated by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations. At this stage, we evaluate only connected quark contributions. In particular, we discuss the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors, nucleon axial charge and the isovector quark momentum fraction. From currently available statistics, we estimate the stochastic accuracy of the determination of $g_A$ and $_{u-d}$ to be around 10%, and we expect to reduce that to 5% within the next year. To reduce the computational cost of our calculations, we extensively use acceleration techniques such as low-eigenmode deflation and all-mode-averaging (AMA). We present a method for choosing optimal AMA parameters.
Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics
Kaiser, N.; Fritsch, S.; Weise, W.
2002-01-01
We calculate the nuclear energy density functional relevant for N=Z even-even nuclei in the systematic framework of chiral perturbation theory. The calculation includes the one-pion exchange Fock diagram and the iterated one-pion exchange Hartree and Fock diagrams. From these few leading order contributions in the small momentum expansion one obtains already a very good equation of state of isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We find that in the region below nuclear matter saturation density th...
Polarized structure of nucleon in the valon representation
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh
2007-07-01
We have utilized the concept of valon model to calculate the spin structure functions of proton, neutron, and deuteron. The valon structure itself is universal and arises from the perturbative dressing of the valence quark in QCD. Our results agree rather well with all of the relevant experimental data on g1p,n,d and gA/gV, and suggests that the sea quark contribution to the spin of proton is consistent with zero. It also reveals that while the total quark contribution to the spin of a valon, ΔΣvalon, is almost constant at Q2 >= 1 the gluon contribution grows with the increase of Q2 and hence requiring a sizable negative orbital angular momentum component Lz. This component along with the singlet and non-singlet parts are calculated in the Next-to-Leading order in QCD . We speculate that gluon contribution to the spin content of the proton is about 60% for all Q2 values. Finally, we show that the size of gluon polarization and hence, Lz, is sensitive to the initial scale Q02.
Polarized structure of nucleon in the valon representation
We have utilized the concept of valon model to calculate the spin structure functions of proton, neutron, and deuteron. The valon structure itself is universal and arises from the perturbative dressing of the valence quark in QCD. Our results agree rather well with all of the relevant experimental data on g1p,n,d and gA/gV, and suggests that the sea quark contribution to the spin of proton is consistent with zero. It also reveals that while the total quark contribution to the spin of a valon, ΔΣvalon, is almost constant at Q2 ≥ 1 the gluon contribution grows with the increase of Q2 and hence requiring a sizable negative orbital angular momentum component Lz. This component along with the singlet and non-singlet parts are calculated in the Next-to-Leading order in QCD . We speculate that gluon contribution to the spin content of the proton is about 60% for all Q2 values. Finally, we show that the size of gluon polarization and hence, Lz, is sensitive to the initial scale Q02
Can a many-nucleon structure be visible in bremsstrahlung emission during $\\alpha$ decay?
Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Zou, Li-Ping
2015-01-01
We analyze if the nucleon structure of the $\\alpha$ decaying nucleus can be visible in the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra of the emitted photons which accompany such a decay. We develop a new formalism of the bremsstrahlung model taking into account distribution of nucleons in the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclear system. We conclude the following: (1) After inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model the calculated bremsstrahlung spectrum is changed very slowly for a majority of the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclei. However, we have observed that visible changes really exist for the $^{106}{\\rm Te}$ nucleus ($Q_{\\alpha}=4.29$ MeV, $T_{1/2}$=70 mks) even for the energy of the emitted photons up to 1 MeV. This nucleus is a good candidate for future experimental study of this task. (2) Inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model increases the bremsstrahlung probability of the emitted photons. (3) We find the following tendencies for obtaining the nuclei, which have bremsstrahlung spectra more sensitive to the ...
Probing effective nucleon-nucleon interaction at band termination
Satula, Wojciech
2006-01-01
Low-energy nuclear structure is not sensitive enough to resolve fine details of nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Insensitivity of infrared physics to the details of short-range strong interaction allows for consistent, free of ultraviolet divergences, formulation of local theory at the level of local energy density functional (LEDF) including, on the same footing, both particle-hole as well as particle-particle channels. Major difficulty is related to parameterization of the nuclear LEDF and...
Recent COMPASS results on the nucleon longitudinal spin structure and QCD fits
Andrieux Vincent
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The latest measurements of the proton longitudinal spin structure function, ɡ1p, in the deep inelastic (DIS regime are presented. They improve the statistical accuracy of the existing data and extend the kinematic domain to a lower value of x and higher values of Q2. A global NLO QCD fit of all ɡ1 world data on the proton, deuteron and neutron has been achieved. The results give a quantification of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, 0.26 < ΔΣ < 0.34 at 3 (GeV/c2 in M̅S̅ scheme. The errors are dominated by the uncertainty on the shape of the functional forms assumed in the fit. A new verification of the fundamental Bjorken sum rule is obtained at a 9% level, using only COMPASS ɡ1 proton and deuteron measurements. Preliminary results of a reevaluation of the gluon polarization Δɡ/ɡ are presented. The analysis is based on double spin asymmetry of high-pT hadron production cross-sections in the DIS regime. A positive value of 〈Δɡ/ɡ〉 = 0.113 ± 0.038 ± 0.035 is obtained at leading order at x ~ 0.1. In parallel, the double spin asymmetry in the photoproduction regime is also studied. Finally, preliminary results on quark fragmentation functions into pions extracted from a LO fit of pion multiplicities in semi-inclusive DIS are presented.
The Structure of the Nucleon and its Excited States
The past year has been an exciting and productive one for particle physics research at Abilene Christian University. The thrust of our experimental investigations is the study of the nucleon and its excited states. Laboratories where these investigations are presently being conducted are the AGS at Brookhaven, Fermilab and LAMPF. Some analysis of the data for experiments at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina, Russia) is still in progress. Scheduling of activities at different laboratories inevitably leads to occasional conflicts. This likelihood is increased by the present budget uncertainties at the laboratories that make long-term scheduling difficult. For the most part, the investigators have been able to avoid such conflicts. Only one experiment received beam time in 1994 (E890 at the AGS). The situation for 1995-1996 also appears manageable at this point. E890 and another AGS experiment (E909) will run through May, 1995. El 178 at LAMPF is presently scheduled for August/September 1995. E866 at Fermilab is scheduled to start in Spring/Summer 1996. Undergraduate student involvement has been a key element in this research contract since its inception. Summer students participated at all of the above laboratories in 1994 and the same is planned in 1995. A transition to greater involvement by graduate students will provide cohesiveness to ACU involvement at a given laboratory and full-time on-site involvement in the longer running experiments at FNAL and BNL. Funds to support a full-time graduate student are requested this year. Finally, collaboration by Russian, Croatian and Bosnian scientists has proven to be mutually beneficial to these experimental programs and to the overall programs at the institutions involved. Past support has been augmented by other grants from government agencies and from the Research Council at Abilene Christian University. Additional funds are requested in this renewal to enable more programmatic support for these
Higher Twists in the Pion Structure Function
We calculate QCD moments of the pion structure function using Drell-Yan data on the quark distributions in the pion and a phenomenological model for the resonance region. The extracted higher twist corrections are found to be larger than those for the nucleon, contributing around 50% of the lowest moment at Q2 = 1 GeV2
Lynn, J E
2015-01-01
I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^2$LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N$^2$LO and present some results for light nuclei.
Lynn, J. E.
2016-03-01
I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.
Lynn J. E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss our recent work on Green’s function Monte Carlo (GFMC calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO. I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.
This book contains the lectures given at the International Summer School on Structure and Stability of Nucleon and Nuclear Systems held in Predeal, Romania, in the period August 24 - September 5, 1998. The program of the school covered the following six topics: Nuclear structure (11 lectures); Dynamics of nuclear systems explored by collisions with various projectiles at different energies (8 lectures); Light and heavy cluster emission, cold and ternary fission (4 lectures); β+-, 2νββ, 0νββ and other neutrino processes; Structure and stability of nucleons (3 lectures); Nuclear matter under exotic conditions (2 lectures). Related to these topics were 17 short communications whose full text can be obtained on request from the authors or from a special issue of Romanian Journal of Physics. The aim of the school was concentrated on the behaviour of nuclear systems under extreme conditions, to understand newly discovered properties of complex nuclei and nucleons, to approach subjects bordering nuclear and particle physics, to identify specific phenomena taking place under conditions met presumably in stars, to investigate the newly explored systems of very short half-life. Exotic phenomena like halo structure of some light nuclei, superdeformation, structure of nuclei lying far from the stability line, specific properties of hot nuclei were also considered in many lectures
Measurements of the neutron polarized structure function at SLAC
Detailed measurements of unpolarized or spin-averaged nucleon structure functions over the past two decades have led to detailed knowledge of the nucleon's internal momentum distribution. Polarized nucleon structure function measurements, which probe the nucleon's internal spin distribution, started at SLAC in 1976. E-142 has recently measured the neutron polarized structure function g1n(x) over the range 0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 at an average Q2 of 2 GeV2 and found the integral In = ∫01g1n(x)dx=-0.022±0.011. E-143, which took data recently, has measured g1p and g14. Two more experiments (E-154 and E-155) will extend these measurements to lower x and higher Q2
Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS
Avakian H.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS, with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.
Progress in resolving charge symmetry violation in nucleon structure
Young, R.D.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia); Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.
2013-01-01
Recent work unambiguously resolves the level of charge symmetry violation in moments of parton distributions using 2+1-flavor lattice QCD. We introduce the methods used for that analysis by applying them to determine the strong contribution to the proton-neutron mass difference. We also summarize related work which reveals that the fraction of baryon spin which is carried by the quarks is in fact structure-dependent rather than universal across the baryon octet.
Distribution Functions of the Nucleon and Pion in the Valence Region
Holt, Roy J.; Roberts, Craig D.
2010-01-01
We provide an experimental and theoretical perspective on the behavior of unpolarized distribution functions for the nucleon and pion on the valence-quark domain; namely, Bjorken-x \\gtrsim 0.4. This domain is key to much of hadron physics; e.g., a hadron is defined by its flavor content and that is a valence-quark property. Furthermore, its accurate parametrization is crucial to the provision of reliable input for large collider experiments. We focus on experimental extractions of distributio...
Navratil, P; Caurier, E
2003-10-14
The authors calculate properties of A = 6 system using the accurate charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential at fourth order of chiral perturbation theory. By application of the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) and a variational calculation in the harmonic oscillator basis with basis size up to 16 {h_bar}{Omega} they obtain the {sup 6}Li binding energy of 28.5(5) MeV and a converged excitation spectrum. Also, they calculate properties of {sup 10}B using the same NN potential in a basis space of up to 8 {h_bar}{Omega}. The results are consistent with results obtained by standard accurate NN potentials and demonstrate a deficiency of Hamiltonians consisting of only two-body terms. At this order of chiral perturbation theory three-body terms appear. It is expected that inclusion of such terms in the Hamiltonian will improve agreement with experiment.
Nucleon structure in lattice QCD with dynamical domain-wall fermions quarks
Huey-Wen Lin; Shigemi Ohta
2006-07-23
We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with about 200 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is about 1.7 GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9 fm){sup 3}. Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g{sub A}/g{sub V} and that of structure function moments
NUCLEON STRUCTURE IN LATTICE QCD WITH DYNAMICAL DOMAIN--WALL FERMIONS QUARKS.
LIN H.-W.; OHTA, S.
2006-10-02
We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with 220 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is a{sup -1} {approx} 1.7GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9fm){sup 3}. Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g{sub A}/g{sub V} and that of structure function moments
Transverse Spin Structure of the Nucleon from Lattice-QCD Simulations
We present the first calculation in lattice QCD of the lowest two moments of transverse spin densities of quarks in the nucleon. They encode correlations between quark spin and orbital angular momentum. Our dynamical simulations are based on two flavors of clover-improved Wilson fermions and Wilson gluons. We find significant contributions from certain quark helicity flip generalized parton distributions, leading to strongly distorted densities of transversely polarized quarks in the nucleon. In particular, based on our results and recent arguments by Burkardt [Phys. Rev. D 72, 094020 (2005)], we predict that the Boer-Mulders function h1perpendicular, describing correlations of transverse quark spin and intrinsic transverse momentum of quarks, is large and negative for both up and down quarks
What we can learn about nucleon spin structure from recent data
We have used recent data from the CERN and SLAC to extract information about nucleon spin structure. We find that the SMC proton data on ∫01g1pdx, the E142 neutron data on ∫01g1ndx, and the deuteron data from the SMC and E143 give different results for fractions of the spin carried by each of the constituents. These appear to lead to two different and incompatible models for the polarized strange sea. The polarized gluon distribution occurring in the gluon anomaly does not have to be large in order to be consistent with either set of experimental data. However, it appears that the discrepancies in the implications of these data cannot be resolved with any simple theoretical arguments. We conclude that more experiments must be performed in order to adequately determine the fraction of spin carried by each of the nucleon constituents. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Nucleon structure from 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD at nearly physical pion mass
Ohta, Shigemi
2011-01-01
The RBC and UKQCD collaborations have been investigating hadron physics in numerical lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with (2+1) flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions (DWF) quarks that preserves continuum-like chiral and flavor symmetries. The strange quark mass is adjusted to physical value via reweighting and degenerate up and down quark masses are set as light as possible. In a recent study of nucleon structure we found a strong dependence on pion mass and lattice spatial extent in isovector axialvector-current form factors. This is likely the first credible evidence for the pion cloud surrounding nucleon. Here we report the status of nucleon structure calculations with a new (2+1)-flavor dynamical DWF ensembles with much lighter pion mass of 180 and 250 MeV and a much larger lattice spatial exent of 4.6 fm. A combination of the Iwasaki and dislocation-suppressing-determinant-ratio (I+DSDR) gauge action and DWF fermion action allows us to generate these ensembles at cutoff of about 1.4 GeV while ke...
We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain-wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.
Towards AN Understanding of Nucleon Spin Structure:. from Hard to Soft Scales
Bass, Steven D.; Aidala, Christine A.
The workshop The Helicity Structure of the Nucleon (BNL June 5, 2006) was organized as part of the 2006 RHIC & AGS Users' Meeting to review the status of the spin problem and future directions. The presentations can be found at the workshop's website:1 www.phenix.bnl.gov/WWW/publish/caidala/UsersHelicityWorkshop2006/. Recent data suggest small polarized glue and strangeness in the proton. Here we present a personal summary of the main results and presentations. What is new and exciting in the data, and what might this tell us about the structure of the proton?
Contribution of Quark Structure Term in Nucleon Electric and Magnetic Form Factors
WANG Hong-Min; ZHANG Ben-Ai
2004-01-01
The constituent quarks in the nucleon have always been considered as a point-like particle in the relativistic constituent quark model. However its calculation results of GnE agree poorly with the new experimental data. The electromagnetic structure of light front constituent quarks is considered in this paper. We find that the calculation results have good agreement with the new experimental data of GnE after considering the contribution of the quark structure term. This treatment seems to be able to improve the fit to experimental data of Gep/GMp, /Q2F2p/kpF1p,and Gen/GMn as well.
Advances on statistical/thermodynamical models for unpolarized structure functions
During the eights and nineties many statistical/thermodynamical models were proposed to describe the nucleons’ structure functions and distribution of the quarks in the hadrons. Most of these models describe the compound quarks and gluons inside the nucleon as a Fermi / Bose gas respectively, confined in a MIT bag with continuous energy levels. Another models considers discrete spectrum. Some interesting features of the nucleons are obtained by these models, like the sea asymmetries -d/-u and -d–-u.
Nucleon form factors for the elastic electron-deuteron scattering at high momentum transfer
Bekzhanov, A V; Burov, V V
2014-01-01
The reaction of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering at high momentum transfer is investigated within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The relativistic covariant Graz II separable kernel of nucleon-nucleon interactions is used to analyze the deuteron structure functions, form factors and tensor of polarization components. The modern data for the electromagmetic nucleons structure from the double polarization experiments as well as some other models of the nucleon form factors are considered.
Study of the Nucleon Spin Structure by the Drell–Yan Process in the COMPASS-II Experiment
Quaresma, M
2012-01-01
The Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the spin structure of the nucleon are important topics studied by the COMPASS experiment. The Drell–Yan (DY) process will be used in the future COMPASS-II measurements to access the Transverse Momentum Dependent PDFs (TMD PDFs). Studying the angular distributions of dimuons from the DY reactions with a negative pion beam with 190 GeV/c momentum and a transversely polarised proton target, we will be able to extract the azimuthal spin asymmetries and to access the various TMD PDFs, such as Sivers and Boer–Mulders functions. The start of the COMPASS DY experiment is scheduled for 2014. Three beam tests have been already performed, one of them in 2009 using a prototype hadron absorber downstream of the target, to understand the background reduction factors and the spectrometer response, and also to verify our results from Monte Carlo simulations. COMPASS aims at performing the first DY experiment with a transversely polarised target.
Contribution of Quark Structure Term in Nucleon Electric and Magnetic Form Factors
WANGHong-Min; ZHANGBen-Ai
2004-01-01
The constituent quarks in the nucleon have always been considered as a point-like particle in the relativisticconstituent quark model. However its calculation results of GEn agree poorly with the new experimental data. Theelectromagnetic structure of light front constituent quarks is considered in this paper. We find that the calculationresults have good agreement with the new experimental data of GEn after considering the contribution of the quarkstructure term. This treatment seems to be able to improve the fit to experimental data of GEp/GMp,√Q2F2p/kpF1p,and GEn/GMn as well.
Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS
Avakian H.
2016-01-01
The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more co...
Status of nucleon structure calculations with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions
Lin, Meifeng
2013-01-01
We report the status of our nucleon structure calculations with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions on the RBC-UKQCD $32^3\\times64$ gauge ensembles with the Iwasaki+DSDR action. These ensembles have a fixed lattice scale of 1/a = 1.37 GeV, and two pion masses of about 170 and 250 MeV. Preliminary results for the isovector electromagnectic form factors and their corresponding root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) radii will be presented.
Gebremariam, B.; Bogner, S. K.; Duguet, T.
2010-01-01
The density matrix expansion (DME) of Negele and Vautherin is a convenient tool to map finite-range physics associated with vacuum two- and three-nucleon interactions into the form of a Skyme-like energy density functional (EDF) with density-dependent couplings. In this work, we apply the improved formulation of the DME proposed recently in arXiv:0910.4979 by Gebremariam {\\it et al.} to the non-local Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (EFT) two-nucleon (NN) interactions a...
Sub-structures in hadrons and proton structure functions
Arash, Firooz; Khorramian, Ali N.
2001-04-01
We calculate the partonic structure of constituent quark in the Next-to-Leading Order. Using a convolution method, Structure function of proton is presented. While the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contributions coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of Gottfried sum rule. Excellent agreement with data in a wide range of x = [10 -6, 1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2 for Fp2 is reached.
Chang, Wen-Chen
2016-02-01
The observation of the violation of Lam-Tung relation in the πN Drell-Yan process triggered many theoretical speculations. The TMD Boer-Mulders functions characterizing the correlation of transverse momentum and transverse spin for partons in unpolarized hadrons could nicely account for the violation. The COMPASS experiment at CERN will measure the angular distributions of dimuons from the unpolarized Drell-Yan process over a wide kinematic region and study the beam particle dependence. Significant statistics is expected from a successful run in 2015 which will bring further understanding of the origin of the violation of Lam-Tung relation and of the partonic transverse spin structure of the nucleon.
Chang, Wen-Chen
2016-01-01
The observation of the violation of Lam-Tung relation in the $\\pi N$ Drell-Yan process triggered many theoretical speculations. The TMD Boer-Mulders functions characterizing the correlation of transverse momentum and transverse spin for partons in unpolarized hadrons could nicely account for the violation. The COMPASS experiment at CERN will measure the angular distributions of dimuons from the unpolarized Drell-Yan process over a wide kinematic region and study the beam particle dependence. Significant statistics is expected from a successful run in 2015 which will bring further understanding of the origin of the violation of Lam-Tung relation and of the partonic transverse spin structure of the nucleon.
Hadronic Structure Functions from the Universal and the Basic Structures
Arash, F.
2005-04-01
It is shown that there is a basic structure common to all hadrons, which is generated perturbatively in QCD. Basically, it is a valence quark with its own cloud of quarks and gluons, a quasi-particle that we will call it a valon. In the valon representation, structure functions of nucleon and pion are calculated and is shown that there is an excellent agreement between the data and the model results in a wide range of kinematics. Calculation of the polarized structure functions also shows that there is a sizeable orbital angular momentum contribution to the spin of a valon coming from the partonic cloud.
Litvinova, Elena
2016-04-01
The relativistic particle-vibration coupling (RPVC) model is extended by the inclusion of isospin-flip excitation modes into the phonon space, introducing a new mechanism of dynamical interaction between nucleons with different isospin in the nuclear medium. Protons and neutrons exchange by collective modes which are formed by isovector π and ρ-mesons, in turn, softened considerably because of coupling to nucleons of the medium. These modes are investigated within the proton-neutron relativistic random phase approximation (pn-RRPA) and relativistic proton-neutron time blocking approximation (pn-RTBA). The appearance of isospin-flip states with sizable transition probabilities at low energies points out that they are likely to couple to the single-particle degrees of freedom and, in addition to isoscalar low-lying phonons, to modify their spectroscopic characteristics. Such a coupling is quantified for the shell structure of 100,132Sn and found significant for the location of the dominant single-particle states.
The soft-rotator model is used for the analysis of the nuclear level structure and the nucleon interaction data for 52Cr. In this work, the optical model calculations of scattering cross sections are self-consistent, since the parameters of the nuclear Hamiltonian are determined by adjusting the energies of the collective levels to the evaluated nuclear structure data prior to the optical model calculation. The model succeeds in describing the low-lying experimental collective levels up to 3.5 MeV and the nucleon interaction experimental data up to 150 MeV for 52Cr. (author)
Structure functions in the bag model
In this paper we present calculations of nucleon structure functions in the three-dimensional MIT bag model. The nucleon wave functions are modified by the Peierls Yoccoz projection in order to give eigenstates of the total momentum operator. Pair creation by the probe is taken into account. Without this the quark distributions would not obey normalization requirements. The quark distributions have vanishing support for x>1. The effect of one-gluon exchange, yielding the N-Δ mass splitting, is incorporated. This has significant effects on the d/u ratio as well as the spin-dependent g1(x) of the neutron. Finally, the results are compared to data after allowing for perturbative QCD evolution
Moments of Spin Structure Functions: Sum Rules and Polarizabilities
Jian-Ping Chen
2010-10-01
Nucleon structure study is one of the most important research areas in modern physics and has challenged us for decades. Spin has played an essential role and often brought surprises and puzzles to the investigation of the nucleon structure and the strong interaction. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture in the strong region of the interaction and of the transition region from the strong to the asymptotic-free region. Insight for some aspects of the theory for the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Bjorken, Burkhardt-Cottingham, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH), and the generalized GDH). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator-product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers.
Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors
Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor
Studying the Phase-Space Structure of Nucleons Using Generalized Parton Distributions
Ahmad, Saeed; Liuti, Simonetta; Honkanen, Heli; Taneja, Swadhin K.
2006-11-01
We study the correlation of momentum and coordinate space distributions of partons which are measured in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. Being able to understand the phase-space distributions of quarks, we hope to look into the question of `how much quark orbital angular momentum contributes towards the nucleon spin?' It was in fact suggested recently [1] that using the information provided by DVCS experiments, one can develop a complete three dimensional spatial picture of nucleons, along with the momentum distributions (the so-called Wigner distributions). However, in order pin down the spatial distribution in the longitudinal direction one has to take into account the constraint imposed by the uncertainty principle. In addition, similarly to inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, the lectromagnetic probe has an extended length in the longitudinal direction, known in the literature as ``Ioffe time'' [2]. Using the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) obtained in [3] we define and evaluate ``Generalized Ioffe time'' distributions as a function of the additional degrees of freedom--both transverse, t = -2̂ and longitudinal, ξ--extracted from DVCS experiments. [1] A. V. Belitsky, X. d. Ji and F. Yuan, Phys. Rev. D 69, 074014 (2004) [2] B. L. Ioffe, Phys. Lett. B 30, 123 (1969); V. Del Duca, S. J. Brodsky and P. Hoyer, Phys. Rev. D 46, 931 (1992); V. Braun, P. Gornicki and L. Mankiewicz, Phys. Rev. D 51, 6036 (1995). [3] S. Liuti and S. K. Taneja, Phys. Rev. D 70, 074019 (2004); H. Honkanen, S. K. Taneja, S. Ahmad and S. Liuti, in preparation.
Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.
1998-01-01
We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so called spin crisis: one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule and another one, where the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the ...
Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions
Bourrely, C; Pisanti, O; Santorelli, P; Soffer, J
1998-01-01
We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so called spin crisis: one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule and another one, where the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the CERN SMC data.
Quarks and Gluons in Nucleon Polarized Structure Functions
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.
1996-01-01
We study the available data in polarized e-p deep inelastic scattering to test two different solutions to the so called spin crisis: one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule and another one, where the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. Experimental data, especially the very recent SLAC E154, favour the first solution and demand a gluon polarizatio...
Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.
1998-06-01
We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so-called spin crisis, one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule, and another in which the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the CERN SMC data.
The longitudinal charge function in the quasi-elastic peak region is calculated, including effects of two-nucleon collisions. The coupled RPA equation for 2p2h states is solved, using a Thomas-Fermi type theory. To calculate the response function for RPA orders, the Gogny force (a density dependent finite range force) is used, both for the mean field and the residual ph interaction. To include the 2p2h states it was necessary to study the dynamic nuclear mass operator M in the 2p1h (2h1p) approximation. The Gogny force was used as interaction at the vertex of the mass operator. The density dependence of the Gogny force gives a pronounced surface peak in the imaginary part of M. The inclusion of the mass operator in the ph motion gives 2p2h states. Their influence considerably reduces the RPA order response and generally produces a better agreement between theory and experiment, although inexplicable exceptions remain. The investigation suggests that it is not necessary to modify the nuclear form factor
Ab initio Nuclear structure Theory with chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions
Low-energy nuclear theory has entered an era of ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD. One of the most promising paths from QCD to nuclear observables employs Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory as consistent starting point for precise ab initio nuclear structure and reaction studies. However, the full inclusion of chiral two- plus three-nucleon (NN+3N) interactions in exact and approximate many-body calculations still poses a formidable challenge. We discuss recent developments towards this goal, ranging from consistent Similarity Renormalization Group evolutions of NN+3N Hamiltonians to large-scale ab initio calculations for ground states and spectra in the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model with full 3N interactions. We highlight recent achievements and discuss open issues and future perspectives for nuclear structure theory with QCD-based interactions. Moreover, we discuss successful steps towards merging ab initio structure and reaction theory and show applications to low-energy reactions in the p-shell relevant for astrophysics.
Nuclear Effects on the Spin-Dependent Structure Functions
We address the question how the spin-dependent nucleon structure function g1(x,Q2) gets modified when the nucleon is bound inside a nucleus. We analyze the influence of nuclear interactions using the Δ - π model, known to describe well the unpolarized effect, and the free polarized parton distributions. The results for the neutron in 3He and proton in 3H,7Li and 19F are presented, showing significant changes in the parton spin distributions and in their moments. Scattering processes off polarized 7Li are suggested which could justify these theoretical calculations and shed more light on both nuclear spin structure and short distance QCD. (author)
Polarized Structure Functions and the GDH Integral from Lattice QCD
Schierholz, G
2004-01-01
The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral $I_{GDH}(Q^2)$, and its relation to polarized nucleon structure functions, is discussed from the lattice perspective. Of particular interest is the variation of $I_{GDH}(Q^2)$ with $Q^2$, and what it may teach us about the origin and magnitude of higher-twist contributions.
In-medium nucleon-nucleon potentials in configuration space
Based on the thermodynamic Green function approach two-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter at finite temperatures are revisited. To this end, we derive phase-equivalent effective r-space potentials that include the effect of Pauli blocking at a given temperature and density. These potentials enter into a Schroedinger equation that is the r-space representation of the Galitskii-Feynman equation for two nucleons. We explore the analytical structure of the equation in the complex k-plane by means of Jost functions. We find that despite the Mott effect the correlation with deuteron quantum numbers are manifested as antibound states, i.e. as zeros of the Jost function on the negative imaginary axis of the complex momentum space. The analysis presented here is also suited for Coulombic systems. (author)
Nucleon-nucleon correlations in dense nuclear matter
In this thesis new results on the problematics of the formation of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter could be presented. Starting from a general study of the two-particle problem in matter we studied the occurrence of a suprafluid phase (pair condensate of nucleons). The Gorkov decoupling by means of anomalous Green functions was generalized, so that also Cooper pairs with spin 1 (triplet pairing) can be described. A generalized gap equation resulted, which permits to determine the order parameters of the suprafluied phase in arbitrary channels of the nucleon-nucleon scattering states. This equation was solvd in the 1S0-, in the 3P2-3F2, and in the 3S1-3D1 channel under application of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The behaviour of the resulting gap parameters in the single channels was studied as function of density and temperature. (orig.)